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The Golden Falcon

Chapter XI/7 - Cavalier

Three of William Monson's sons, Robert, John and William, were in favour with James I but two of them were sent to the Tower because of their connection with Henry Howard.

 

By 1613-15 James I became aware of the truth regarding the Spanish pensions ("History of England from the Accession of James I to the Disgrace of Chief Justice Coke" - Dr. Gardiner London 1863] as the English ambassador to Spain Sir John Digby (nephew of the Gunpowder Plotter, Everard Digby) secured a list of the Spanish pensioners in September 1613.

 

One of them was Thomas Howard (Lord Howard de Walden in 1597 and earl of Suffolk in 1603) who was the earl of Northampton's nephew and Frances Howard's father.  His wife Lady Suffolk (Katherine nee Knevett who was his cousin) was described as one of the "greediest for Spanish gold" [Weldon - "Court of King James" 18 - London p.338).  Her daughter (Northampton's niece) Frances Howard, Lady Somerset (formerly Countess of Essex) was named as a person with whom he was supposed have negotiated.

 

Frances left her husband, Robert Devereaux, 3rd earl of Essex, to marry James I's favourite Robert Carr, both of whom were implicated in the plot to murder Sir Thomas Overbury.  Robert Carr, duke of Somerset (Lord Rochester) wished to legitimise his adulterous affair with Frances.  She was an enemy of Sir Thomas Overbury who seemed to have known of circumstances that would have prevented her obtaining the divorce which she and her lover wanted.

 

The divorce was obtained on the grounds of the earl of Essex's physical incapacity to consummate the marriage.  The historian Weldon said that a daughter of Sir Thomas Monson, heavily veiled, impersonated the Countess of Essex before the jury of matrons empanelled to examine her to prove or disprove she was still "virgo intacto".

 

In 1613 Overbury died of poisoning whilst imprisoned in the Tower for refusing an embassy (the earl of Northampton having thought up this trick to get him out of the way).  Thomas and William Monson junior were imprisoned; Thomas being accused of having actually been one of the people who poisoned Overbury.

 

Northampton died in June 1614.

 

William Monson senior became Admiral of the Narrow Seas and was in charge of guarding the Channel from 21.7.1604-5 until 13.1.1615-16.  In 1617 he was called upon to advise the best way of attacking Algiers because of Algerine pirate raids, some led by Christian renegades.

 

Pirate raids started as early as 1575 when John Winter of Bristol, son of Amy Winter, widow and husband of Marion, was captured by Turks and 40 pounds ransom was sought in 1578 in Allorchia, Turkey [Calendar of Patent Rolls Elizabeth I Vol. 7 No. 2892] and these continued well in to the 1600s.

 

Pepys reported in his Dairy on 14.6.1660 - "And then to a new alehouse in Brewers Yard Winter that had a fray with Stoakes" and again on 27.6.1662 - "After dinner comes Sir J. Minnes and some captains with him, who have been at a Council of War today, who tells us they have acquitted Captain Hall who was accused of cowardice in letting of old Winter, the Algiers pirate, go away from him with a prize or two."  The first referred to was William Winter of Portsmouth, a merchant, who had been in dispute with Captain Stoakes over a prize taken about 1657 in the Mediterranean [CPSD 1659-60 p. 289-90] and perhaps the second but John Winter of Dyrham was also accused of piracy.  The Algiers pirate may have been William “Mustapha” Winter.

 

William Monson senior arrested the unfortunate Arabella Stuart (who was at the coronation of Queen Anne of Denmark on 25.7.1603) after the plot of 1603 to place her on the throne.  Henry Brounker was sent to investigate+ Arabella's proposed runaway marriage to Edward Seymour.

 

When she later married his brother William Seymour without the king's permission, they were both arrested.  Seymour was sent to the Tower and she was put into the custody of the Bishop of London.  Seymour escaped but Arabella was captured outside Calais harbour, sent to the Tower and after 4 years imprisonment, died a lunatic on 27.9.1615.

 

In 1618 William Monson's 19-year-old second son, also named William, was set up by the Howard faction to be James I's next favourite but they did not succeeded whereupon he attached himself to another favourite George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.

 

James I (brought up without a father or mother) had the reputation of being a notorious homosexual, it was said that his Queen, Anne of Denmark, played children's games at court where ladies lay drunk at the king's feet while he fondled his males favourites in public.

 

William Monson junior was knighted, became MP for Reigate in 1626 and married his old mistress Margaret, daughter of James Stuart, earl of Murray (Nottingham's second wife and widow) whose page he had been in October 1625.  William Monson junior was created Baron Monson of Bellingard, Limerick, Viscount Castlemaine and left a son who died childless.

 

John Monson, William Monson senior's eldest son , was described by his father as "a dangerous Papist" although there are some doubts to whether the Monsons were Catholics or Protestants - perhaps like most families of the time, they hunted with the hounds and ran with the hare merely to survive.

 

William Monson senior died in 1642-3 and was buried in St. Martins-in-the-Fields on 13.12.1642-3.  His wife outlived him and the administration of estates was granted to William Monson junior, Viscount Castlemaine, second son, although the eldest John "the Papist", did not die until 20.8.1645.  John married Anne Mayne in 1641 and the deed of marriage settlement stated that his father held Kinnersley, Surrey, 120 acres in Minster and Eastchurch, Kent and the manors of Croftes and Skegness in Lincolnshire at the time.  John Monson left an infant daughter Anne who married Sir Francis Throckmorton of Coughton, Warwickshire who sold Kinnersley in 1666 which then comprised about 160 acres.

 

William senior's youngest son Francis Monson died young.  His other son, Thomas Monson, was created a baronet and his son, another William Monson, was created Viscount Castlemaine by Charles I although one of the regicides.  In 1661 he was degraded of his honours by Charles II and was sentenced with Sir Henry Mildmay and Robert Wallop to be drawn on sledges with ropes around their necks to Tyburn and back to the Tower there to remain prisoners for life.  Sir Henry Mildmay had been Master of the Jewels to Charles I and died in exile in Antwerp.

 

Pepys reported on 25.1.1661-2: "Going to take water upon Tower Hill we met with three sleddes standing there to carry my Lord Monson and Sir H. Mildmay and another, to the gallows and back, with ropes about their necks; which is to be repeated every year, this being the day of their sentencing the king."

Fig: 113 - Howard of Effingham

 

Elizabeth Tilney = (1) Humphrey Bourchier, 2nd Lord Berners (d. 1471) > John Bourchier, Lord Berners = Katherine Howard (d. of Margaret Chedworth & John Howard, 1st duke).

 

Muriel Howard = Thomas Knyvett > Edward Knevett = Joan Bourchier (d. of Catherine Howard & John Bourchier) > Katherine Knyvett (1606) = Thomas Howard (1561-1626) earl of Suffolk.

 

William Howard, Chief Justice of Common Pleas (1297-1307) > Sir John Howard, knight > Sir John Howard, knight > Sir John Howard, knight > Sir Robert Howard of Tendring (1384-1436) = Margaret de Mowbray (daughter of earl of Norfolk) > John Howard (1435-83), grandson of Elizabeth fitzAlan (sister of last earl of Surrey), created duke of Norfolk by Richard III (28.6.1484), attainted 7.11.1485 = (1) Catherine, d. of William, Lord Moleyns = (2) Margaret, d. of John Chedworth > Katherine Howard = John Bourchier, Lord Berners > Joan Bourchier = Edward Knevett.  By (1) >:

A. Anne Howard = Edward Gorges.

B. Thomas Howard, 2nd duke (1443-1525) created earl of Surrey by Richard III

     (28.6.1483), restored as 2nd duke = (1) Elizabeth Tilney (d. 1497), widow of

     Humphrey Bourchier, 2nd Lord Berners (d. 1474) = (2) her first cousins Agnes

     Tilney (d. 1544) sister of Philip Tilney.  By (1) >:

     a. Elizabeth Howard = Thomas Boleyn, Lord Rochfort > Anne Boleyn = Henry VIII.

     b. Edmund or Edward Howard, Comptroller of Calais (1478-80-1539) = (1)

         Joyce Culpepper = (2) Dorothy Troyes

         By (1) >:

         (1) Katherine Howard = Henry VIII.

         (2) Margaret Howard = Thomas Arundell (ex. 1552 after Western Rebellion

              > Mary Arundell = Thomas Howard, 4th Duke.

     c. Muriel Howard = (q1) John Grey, Viscount Lisle (1492-1504) = (2) Thomas

         Knyvett

     d. Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke (1473-1544 bur. St. Saviours, Southwark), earl of

         Surrey (1.2.1514), Lord High Admiral (1542) = (1) Anne Plantagenet (d. 1512),

         d. of Edward IV = (2) Elizabeth Stafford (d. 1558), d. of Edward, duke of

         Buckingham > Henry, earl of Surrey (ex. 1546) = Frances de Vere, d. of John

         de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford (1517-47) >:

          1. Henry Howard, earl of Northampton (1540-1614), Warden of Cinque

              Ports, Lord Privy Seal, supported Mary, Queen of Scots, was implicated in

              the Overbury murder)

         2. Thomas Howard, 4th duke (ex. 1572) = (1) Mary, d. of Thomas Arundell

             (ex. 1552).  Thomas Howard = (2) Margaret, d. of Thomas, Lord Audley,

             widow of Henry, Lord  Dudley.  Thomas Howard = (3) Elizabeth, d. of

             James Leybourn, widow of Thomas, Lord Dacre.  By (3) >:

             (A) Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk (1561-1626), Lord High Admiral =

                   Katherine, d. of Henry Knevett of Chartley > Frances Howard = (1)

                   Robert Devereaux, 3rd earl of Essex = (2) Robert Carr, earl of

                   Somerset.

             (B) William Howard "Belted Will", 3rd son, earl of Carlisle = Elizabeth

                   Dacres (1577) heiress of Naworth & Greystoke >. Anne or Mary

                   Howard = Sir John Winter of Lydney.

 

Elizabeth Howard = Thomas Boleyn > Mary Boleyn = William Carey >:

(a) Catherine Carey = Francis Knollys >:

     1. William Knollys = Elizabeth Howard.

     2. Lettice Knollys = (1) Walter Devereaux, 1st earl of Essex = (2) Robert Dudley,

         earl of Leicester as 2nd wife = (3) Christopher Blount (exec. after Essex plot).  By

         (1) > Robert Devereax, 2nd earl of Essex = Frances, d. of Francis Walsingham >

         Robert Devereaux, 3rd earl of Essex = Frances Howard (implicated in

         Overbury murder).

(b) Henry Carey, 1st Lord Hunsdon > Catherine Carey = Charles Howard of Effingham,

     earl of Nottingham

 

Thomas, 2nd duke by (2) Agnes Tilney >:

a. Anne Howard = John de Vere, earl of Oxford > Frances de Vere = Henry Howard,

    earl of Surrey.

b. William Howard, earl of Carlisle, Lord High Chamberlain, Lord High Admiral, Lord

    Privy Seal, created Lord Howard of Effingham by Mary Tudor = (1) Margaret

    Gamage = (2) Katherine (d. 1535, bur. St. Mary Lambeth), d. of John Broughton (of

    John Murray of Broughton) >:

    1. Mary Howard (d. 21.87.1699) = (1) Edward Sutton, Lord Dudley = (2) Richard

        Mompesson who erected her monument at St. Margaret's, Westminster > Edward

        Sutton's; grand daughter & heiress Frances = Humble Ward, Baron of Birmingham

        (1644), son of William Ward, goldsmith of London and Elizabeth (d. 1616, buried

        St. Saviours, Southwark on the same day as her father), d. of Richard Humble,

        alderman of London (d. 1616 , bur. St. Saviours, Southwark) > earls of Dudley.

    2. William Howard of Lingfield >:

       (A) Edward Howard (d. 11.8.1620).

       (B) Francis Howard (d. 1620) = Jane, d. of William Monson.

       (C) Charles Howard (d. 14.3.1652-3)

    3. Charles Howard (d. 14.12.1624, aged 88 at Haling House, bur. Reigate, Surrey)

        Lord Effingham, earl of Nottingham, MP for Surrey, Privy Councillor, Knight of the

        Garter, Lord Lieutenant for Surrey & Sussex, Lord High Admiral = (1) Katherine, d.

        of Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon = (2) Margaret, d. of James Stuart, earl of Murray.

        She = (2) William Monson, Baron Monson of Bellingard, Co. Limerick, Lord

        Castlemaine.

       By (1) Katherine Carey >:

       (1) Lady Kildare.

       (2) d. = Francis Southwell (d. 1620) of Gimingham, Norfolk (kinsman of Sir Robert

            Southwell of Wood Rising.

       (3) d. = Richard Leveson

       (4) d. = Sir Robert Southwell (who fought against the Spanish Armada).

 

William Monson's eldest daughter Jane married Nottingham's nephew Sir Francis Howard of Lingfield.

 

Thomas, son of John Arundell, was in the households of Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey and St. Thomas More.  He became Chancellor of Augmentations and was executed as a follower of Thomas Seymour, earl of Somerset.  Thomas Arundell's brother was John Arundell of Lanherne.

 

Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-1525) was created earl of Surrey by Richard III on 28.6.1483, restored as 2nd duke and made Treasurer (1501-22).  He was victor at Flodden Field in 1513 against the Scots and married firstly Elizabeth Tilney (d. 1497), widow of Humphrey Bourchier, 2nd Lord Berners (d. 1471) and then her first cousin Agnes Tilney (d. 1544).  Amongst the children he had by his first wife were Thomas 3rd duke, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Boleyn (Queen Anne's parents) and Edmund or Edward who married Joyce Culpepper (parents of Queen Katherine Howard).  Queen Katherine's sister Margaret, was wife of Thomas Arundell, executed in 1552 after the Western Rebellion.  Thomas, 2nd duke died in 1524 aged 88 before the reign of Henry VIII.

 

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473-1554) was sent to the Tower of London by Henry VIII and only saved from execution because the king died before him.  He was attainted in 1546 and was again in the Tower during the reign of Edward IV but was released and restored in 1553 by Mary I, who created him Lord Howard of Effingham.  He was on her Council and commanded the forces against Sir Thomas Wyatt.  Thomas Howard married first Anne Plantagenet (.d. 1512), daughter of Edward IV and secondly Elizabeth Stafford (d. 1558) daughter of the Duke of Buckingham.

 

The 3rd Duke's son and heir, Henry, earl of Surrey was executed in 1546 but left a son Thomas (later 4th duke) by his wife Frances de Vere, relative of the John de Vere, 15th earl of Oxford (1517-47).

 

Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk was executed in 1572 after the plot to marry him to Mary, Queen of Scots.  He married first Mary, daughter of Thomas Arundell (executed in 1552 after the Western Rebellion.

 

His second wife was Margaret (daughter of Thomas, Lord Audley and widow of Henry, Lord Dudley) by whom he had Thomas, earl of Suffolk (1561-1626), Lord High Admiral who married his cousin Katherine, daughter of Henry Knyvett of Chadley (they were parents of Frances, Countess of Essex) and William Howard, earl of Carlisle "Belted Will", 3rd son swho married Elizabeth Dacres (1577), heiress of Naworth and Greystoke (parents of Mary or Anne, wife of Sir John Winter of Lydney.

 

The 4th Duke married for a third time Elizabeth, daughter of James Leybourne, widow of Thomas, Lord Dacre.

 

Henry, earl of Northampron (1540-1614), Warden of the Cinque Ports and Lord Privy Seal (implicated in the plot to murder Sir Thomas Overbury) was the 4th Duke's brother.

 

Anne Boleyn's uncle William Howard, Lord Effingham, earl of Carlisle was the 2nd duke's son by his second wife Agnes Tilney.  William Howard married first Margaret Gamage and secondly Katherine, daughter of John Broughton (d. 1535, bur. St. Mary Lambeth).  William received a grant of Reigate Priory at the Dissolution and other lands in Surrey.

 

He had a daughter Mary (d. 21.8.1600) who married Edward Sutton, lord Dudley, then Richard Mompessom who erected her monument at St. Margaret's, Westminster.  Edward Sutton's grand daughter and heiress, Frances married Humble Ward, baron of Birmingham (1544), son of William Ward, goldsmith of London and Elizabeth Humble daughter of Richard Humble, Alderman of London (d. 1616 bur. St. Saviours, Southwark).  Their descendants became earls of Dudley.

 

William Howard of Effingham had 2 sons Charles and William of Lingfield.  The latter had 3 sons Edward (d. 11.8.1629), Francis and Charles (d. 14.3.1652-3).

 

His son Charles, Lord Effingham, earl of Nottingham changed his religion under Henry VIII, Edward IV, Mary I and Elizabeth I (he was her mother's first cousin)  He was MP for Surrey, Privy Councillor, Knight of the Garter, Lord Lieutenant of Surrey and Sussex and Lord High Admiral.  As such he had to take the Oath of Supremacy.  He sat on Commissions for the trials of the Babbington Plot conspirators, Mary, Queen of Scots, the Gunpowder Plotters, Father Garnett SJ and on a Commission for discovering and expelling Catholic priests under James I.  He accepted grants of confiscated property of Catholic recusants and conspirators such as the Gages of Haling.

 

He had 3 daughters, one married Lord Kildare, another was wife of Francis Southwell of Gimingham, Norfolk and the third married Sir Richard Leveson.

 

Effingham died aged 87 in 1624 at Haling House, Surrey and was buried at Reigate.  The inscription on his tomb reads:

 

"Here lieth the body of Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham, Lord High Admiral of England, General of Queen Elizabeth's Navy Royal at sea against the Spaniard's Invincible Navy in the year of our Lord 1588 who departed this life at Haling House, the 14th day of December in the year of our Lord 1624  - Aetatis sue 87."

 

The Southwells were another naval family who held lands in Norfolk, Kent and Gloucestershire.  The Howards, Southwells and Monsons were intermarried.  Sir Robert Southwell (who fought against the Spanish Armada) was married to a daughter of Admiral Charles Howard of Effingham, earl of Nottingham, Howard's other daughter married Francis Southwell (d. 1620) of Gimingham, Norfolk (kinsman of Sir Robert Southwell of Wood Rising) and William Monson's eldest daughter Jane married Nottingham's nephew Sir Francis Howard of Lingfield.  William Monson, Baron Monson of Bellingard, Limerick, Viscount Castlemaine (b. 2.2.1599-1600 in London) married Margaret, second wife and widow of the earl of Nottingham whose page he had been.  She was daughter of James Stuart, earl of Murray.

 

Sir Robert Southwell was given command of the "Elizabeth Jonas" (22.12.1587-15.2.1588, 21.4.1588-15.9.1588) and took part in the battle of the Spanish Armada in 1588.  In 1547 Sir Robert Southwell and his wife conveyed to Henry Lechford, the manors of Charlwood, Shellwood and Wykelond, Surrey with the bondmen and their families.  In 1755 Shellwood, in the Reigate Hundred of Surrey, was sold to an unidentified John Winter.

 

A descendant Sir Robert Southwell (d. 17-- aged 60) was knighted and sent as Envoy Extraordinary to Portugal in 1665, to Brussels in 1671 and to Brandenburg in April 1680.  He became Clerk to the Privy Council, was elected President of the Royal Society 5 times where he read a paper on "Water" and was Secretary of State to William III in Ireland in 1690.

 

In 1678 Sir Robert Southwell wrote to the duke of Ormonde about Edward Coleman:

 

"By your advice I broke off my acquaintance with him as soon as ever it begun and upon the first receiving of his newsletter, which, when I showed your Grace some daring particulars in it, you advised me (considering the station I was in) to knock off, for that he was a man who would certainly run himself into the briars."

He also wrote about the Titus Oates Plot:

 

"A thing (which) could never arise out of the industry or evidence of one single man, and especially a man under the disadvantage of many known failures in his life and conversation, if it were not for other considerations; the first of which I take to be the manifest indulgence which for many years has been extended to the(se) people and wherein some of them have so imprudently triumphed that it became the grief and scandal of many and turned itself into so much combustible matter against the day of wrath".

 

He wrote of Oates's testimony at Coleman's trial where he was Clerk-in-Waiting:

 

"It went on for 2 or 3 hours very doubtful to his credit, though the Board, in a question of the King's safety, and to see his prodigious memory, confidence and unexpected answers at several turns, were in great pain and surprise.  At last thinking to confuse him by the said five letters, which contained such palpable matters of forgery as well from the treason so grossly disguised in them as from the handwriting all appearing to be counterfeit, I was commanded here in their Lordships' view to show him those letters one by one, to see if he knew the hands.  Which I did as much to his disadvantage as I could by folding and exposing only a line or two of each; but he at a glance could name all the hands."

 

He remarked "What should herein be omitted at the Council Board, will infallibly be taken up at the House of Commons."  He had to buy an iron chest weighing 356 lbs. to hold all the documents in the trial.

 

Following the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, many MPs were doubtful of protecting Protestantism in future if the succession to the throne could not be altered.  The Commons wanted to mobilise and a Test Bill passed which required Catholics in public service to take the Oath of Allegiance.  The Speaker Edward Seymour proposed that each MP make a list of recusants or suspected recusants in their constituencies who would be declared Catholics by Act of Parliament and if they refused to take the oath, four fifths of their property would be forfeit.  The proposals were accepted and it was ordered that bills be drafted.

 

Southwell commented:

 

"There was at first some despair thrown out of ever being able to patch up things, without all were sound at the bottom: but what Mr Seymour said seemed to surprise many with the hopes of obtaining things of considerable magnitude."

 

During Coleman's trial Oates appealed to Sir Robert Southwell who was forced to support his testimony.  Oates even tried to implicate the Catholic queen Catherine of Bragança.  Sir Robert commented:

 

"How to prevent these reflections (on the Queen) without taking a course which might blast their evidence and consequently save the Lords in the Tower is the great point under consideration and his Majesty seems extremely concerned herein."

 

The Southwells had a house at St. Martins-in-the-Fields and another at King's Weston, Gloucestershire (which had belonged to the Winters), 7 miles from Dyrham owned by the heirs of George Winter, Clerk of the Queen's Ships (Sir William Winter's brother).  When William Blathwayt was staying at King's Weston at Christmas, he met the Dyrham heiress Mary Winter, whom he married.

 

The Southwells were connected to the Throckmortons by marriages with the Nevilles:

 

Fig 113 - Southwell, Neville, Throckmorton

 

George Neville (dc. 1452), 4th Baron Bergavenny = (1) Margaret (d. 1485), d. & heiress of Sir Hugh Fenne, Treasurer of the Household to Henry VII = (2) Elizabeth, widow of Sir Robert Bassett, Richard Naylor & John Stokker >:

A. Thomas Neville (d. 1542 bur. Mereworth, Kent), Privy Councillor to Henry

    VIII & Secretary of State > Margaret Neville = Sir Robert Southwell, Master of

    the Rolls of Jote Place, Mereworth & West Peckham.

B. Edward Neville (executed 1538 for supporting Reginald Pole, dean of

    Exeter) = Eleanor, d. of Andrew Windsor, baron Windsor, widow of Ralph

    Scrope, baron Scrope of Upsall >:

    a. Catherine Neville = Clement Throckmorton of Hasley, Warks.

    b. Frances Neville = (1) Sir Edward Waldegrave = (2) Lord Chedioc Paulet,

        3rd son of the Marquess of Winchester

    c. Elizabeth  Neville = Thomas Hayes.

    d. Mary Neville = Edward Dynely.

 

Clement Throckmorton and Henry Dingley are mentioned in the Will of Thomas Winter, barber of Evesham.

 

William Blathwayt (who married Mary Winter, sole heiress of Dyrham) met Sir Robert Southwell through Blathwayt's uncle, Justinian Povey and Williamson in 1686 when Blathwayt was ill and resting at King's Weston.  Sir Robert Southwell was cousin of Blathwayt's friend Sir William Petty.

 

Sir Robert Southwell had a house at Spring Gardens near Charing Cross and St. Martin's-in-the-Field (where Blathwayt lived).

 

Between 1710 and 1713 some unidentified Winters held land at St. Martins-in-the-Fields:

 

Winter and Scisson near Spring Gardens, St. Martins-in-the-Fields [Middlesex Land Registry, Middlesex Memorial Book 1, No. 10]

 

(Thomas) Winter and (Mary) Sandys, Newport Street, St. Martins Lane, St. Martins-in-the-Fields [No. 76 Book I in 1712].

 

Fitzgerald and Winter, Blew Mews St. Martins Street, St. Martins-in-the-Fields [Book 5, No., 35 in 1712].

 

Winter and Pepys, St. Martins Street, St. Martins-in-the-Fields [Book 5 No. 55- 1713].

 

The church of St. Martins-in-the-Field was the admiralty church which flew the White ensign, flag of the White Squadron of which Sir William Winter was Admiral of the White.

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