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Nicotiana tabacum  Stone Nicotiana tabacum

compiled and copyright by MJP Grundy, 2002
Nicotiana tabacum, from Chambers's Encyclopædia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People
(Phila.: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1885), 9:462.

This page tells the story of two generations of Maryland Stones: William Stone and his daughter Mary Burrows (Stone) Holliday and their immediate families, as well as William's Bermuda ancestors. I am hopeful that readers may be able to provide more information about any of them. If you have documentation, I would be very grateful if you would e mail me at .

You may skip down to the Notes and Sources, or click on the footnote numbers in brackets.

Our William Stone is apparently no relation to Governor William Stone who figured so prominently in the history of Maryland in the 1650s. Franklin D. Edmunds assumed that the parents of William were John Stone and his wife Martha Burrows, because of the middle names chosen for William's daughters, and that John was the son of Freeman Stone.[1]

Early Generations in Bermuda

According to a will written by our William on 12 June 1775 while at sea, he was born in Bermuda about 1739. As he was not married his will listed a number of relatives which ought to help us find his parents. According to the will, these are the children of William's parents (may be incomplete, order uncertain):[2]

  1. William Stone1, b. in Bermuda 1639;
  2. Edwin Stone.
  3. Ann Stone, m. ___ NEWBOULD.
  4. Elizabeth Stone

With this as a starting place, I searched the web and found (undocumented) the following three Stone brothers in Bermuda: First, William, who married Mary Smith. She was born ca. 1655, the daughter of Thomas and Fridesweed (Harvey) Smith, and they were the parents of Elizabeth Stone (ca. 1675-d. by ca. 1710). Second, came JohnC Stone, born ca. 1644, and whose will was proved in 1691/2. He married Margaret __. They were the parents of five children: Freeman, Richard, Parnell, Hannah, and Edwin Stone. The third brother was unnamed but had a son Samuel who married Susanna Jones and had two children including Samuel Stone, Jr.[2a] I was unable to learn the parents of the three brothers, or when they came to Bermuda and under what circumstances.

When the Glorious Revolution brought William and Mary to the throne, it took a while for things to shake out in the colonies. Militias, known as Associations, had been formed early on in Bermuda. On Seventh Month [September] 29, 1696, the Associations in Bermuda took an oath that seems to me amazingly broad in its promises of obedience.

Whereas itt is required of Us that Wee shall be true to King William; now King of England and of the English nation: Us say to all his just and Lawfull Commands Wee Can willingly bee subject unto, not for wrath but ever for contienc saeck: And all Commands which are otherwise wheather from him or any other Wee Shall willingly and patiently suffer under them what man Shall be permitted to imposs upon us.[2b]

Men signed it according to one of eight "Tribes" plus the "Toune of St. Georges". So we have a list of European men and their locations in Bermuda in the late seventeenth century. All nine of Bermuda's parishes were named after the great gentlemen "adventurers"—the English aristocrats at the courts of Elizabeth and James I—who underwrote and expected to profit from colonizing Bermuda. Initially named as "tribes" belonging to their respective patrons, they later became Bermuda's Parishes. WilliamC Stone, Ensign, was in Hamilton Tribe, as were his nephews FreemanB Stone and Edwin Stone. The boys' father JohnC Stone, WilliamC's brother, had died some four years earlier.[2c]

JohnC Stone lived in Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. He witnessed the will of Thomas HALL of Devon Parish July 3, 1761. He dated his own will February 22, 1692, and it was proved March 24, 1692 [I think this may be an Old Style date but am not sure. See an explanation of Old Style Dating.] He mentioned his wife Margaret, his children FreemanB, Edwin, Richard, Parnel, and Hannah (Stone) HILTON, his brother William, and his nephew Samuel Stone. I infer from this that Samuel's father was deceased, and therefore his son, John's nephew, was included instead. John's brother William was named executor. It was witnessed by Thomas BRIDGE and Stephen NEWBOLD.[2d]

The website offers children for the siblings FreemanB, Richard (married Elizabeth __), Hannah (married John HILTON), and Edwin (a first wife the initialled S.S. and a second wife Mary __). Freeman's son JohnA matches Edmunds's line, but frustratingly goes no further. Second sibling Richard had Edwin, Richard, Susanna, Margaret, and Ann and says no more. Hannah had Jonathan, William, and Hannah HILTON, and offers no additional information. Edwin and Mary, however, are followed for three generations. Edwin himself perhaps ran an ordinary, or inn. A Council meeting was "holden at the House of Edwin Stone in the Town of St Georges on October 7th, 1715 at two of the Clock in the afternoon."[2e] Many years later, the Bermuda "Court of Assize Oyer and Terminer, General Gaol Delivery & Comon pleas held for these Islands at the house of Mrs Mary Stone widow in the town of St Georges on Monday the fourth day of June 1733."[2f]

JohnA Stone was a shipwright in Hamilton Parish. He witnessed two wills: Perient TROTT in 1746 in Hamilton Parish, and Luke TEGOW in 1748. There was another John Stone, in Devon Parish, who died intestate in 1770, leaving his widow Keturah and daughter Jane. Fortunately, our JohnA Stone had a will, dated December 9, 1755. It was proved September 23, 1762. He mentioned his wife Martha, his mother who was still alive in 1755, and his children Edwin1, William, James, Elizabeth, and Ann (Stone) NEWBOLD, the wife of Stephen. He also mentioned a granddaughter Ann Stone, but not whose child she was. As executors he named his wife Martha, his sons Edwin and James, and his "kin Jonathan Burch" (a first cousin once removed, as near as I can tell). I am guessing that son William, as a mariner, was out of town for fairly long periods of time so was not named as an executor. It was witnessed by Edward PEARMAN, Ann SOMERSALL, and John PEARMAN. The inventory was made March 17, 1763.[2g]

John and Martha (__) Stone's children, as listed in John's will of 1755, were (order uncertain):

  1. Edwin Stone1
  2. William Stone, b. in Bermuda 1639;
  3. James Stone, d. intestate ca. April 1771; m. Mary __.
  4. Elizabeth Stone
  5. Ann Stone, m. Stephen Newbould, or NEWBOLD.

Immigrant Generation

William Stone1, was born in Bermuda in 1739. He died in September 1821 in Baltimore County, Maryland. In April 1778 William married the widow Hannah (OWINGS) Cockey.

In the will he wrote at sea in 1775, William listed his siblings, as mentioned above. He also named a niece Ann HUBBARD and her children; a cousin or nephew Jonathan BURCH and his wife Catherine and (presumably their children): Edwin Stone Burch, David Burch, and Catherine Burch; cousin Susannah TODD and her children; niece Ann HARRIOTT; cousins Mary RICHARDSON, Ann OUTERBRIDGE, and Jane PERRY; cousin Sarah PENISTON and her children; his cousin Stafford SOMERSTALL's children; an aunt Powell HARRIS; cousin Elizabeth DOE's children; and nephew Samuel STONE.[3] I have not yet had an opportunity to research these individuals to see if they can offer clues as to our William's birth family.

Sometime in 1774 or 1775 Captain William Stone had his portrait painted by Charles Willson PEALE. There was a tenuous family connection between the young painter and his subject. In 1762 Peale married Rachel BREWER, the daughter of Eleanor (MACCUBIN) Brewer, who was born in 1708. Rachel's father John was the grandson of John Brewer whose mother was Elizabeth, widow of a WARFIELD.[4] Anyway, the painting shows William Stone standing beside a classical urn on a pedestal (on his right) under a leafy tree, pointing with his right hand to the sea (on his left) with a sloop. In his left hand he carries what appears to be a spyglass. At his feet is a sextant on his upturned tricorn with his gloves. The painting is now in the collection of the Maryland Historical Society.[5] In the tradition of portraiture, the items grouped around the main figure have symbolic significance. The urn alludes to classical ideals, most notably republicanism (as opposed to monarchy). The sextant, spyglass, and distant ship indicate his occupation as sea captain, shipowner, and merchant.

In 1775 William Stone owned a merchant sloop, the Hornet, armed with ten 9-pound guns. As passions arose between the colonists and the English government, delegates were elected and sent to a Continental Congress in Philadelphia. About the first of November 1775 John ADAMS wrote to Samuel CHASE in Baltimore about the possibility of buying some vessels there. Apparently in 1775 the merchants of Baltimore acquired the Hornet. The participation of Capt. William Stone of the sloop Hornet in the Revolutionary War is somewhat ambiguous. It appears that at first he captained the Hornet while she was under commission, but then on 27 August 1776 the Marine Committee of the Continental Congress wrote to William Stone offering to purchase the sloop, which he obviously was not captaining at the time. At least by December 1776 John NICHOLSON was Captain of the Hornet.[6]

To backtrack a bit, in December 1775 the Naval Committee of the Continental Congress was preparing a fleet. The Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety contributed arms, ammunition, and sailors. Commodore Esek HOPKINS enlisted over a hundred seamen in Rhode Island. On 3 December 1775 John Paul JONES hoisted the Continental flag on the Alfred, Hopkins's flagship, for the first time. By the end of January 1776 the fleet was enlarged to include sloops Providence and Hornet, and schooners Wasp and Fly.[7]

Baltimore had requested that the Hornet and Wasp be assigned to convoy duty for Maryland vessels ready to sail for the West Indies. But instead William Stone received the following letter from the naval Committee of Congress:[8]

Philadelphia 10th January 1776

We are orderd by Congress to signify to you, that you are with the Hornet & Wasp under your Command to take under your Convoy such Vessels as are ready for the Sea as shall be committed to your Care by the Comee. of Safety at Maryland, & see them safe through the Capes of Virginia & without a Moments Loss of Time after this Service is done you are to go to the Capes of Delaware & proceed upwards till you join the Fleet, or in Case of its having Sailed receive such Orders as may be left for you by Esek Hopkins Esqr. Commander in Chief of the Fleet of the United Colonies-wch. Orders you are to Obey(1).

Stephen Hopkins, Silas Deane, Christr. Gadsden, Joseph Hewes

Note: Tr (RHi). Addressed: "To Willm. Stone Esqr., Commander of the Sloop Hornet In the Service of The United Colonies." Enclosed in Christopher Gadsden to Esek Hopkins, this date.

The Hornet fitted out at Baltimore. However, on 5 January 1776 the Maryland Council sent recent intelligence to Congress on the strength of British naval forces in the Chesapeake and expressed concern for the safety of several vessels. So although the original plan had been to have Stone drop down from Baltimore to harass Dunmore's forces in Chesapeake Bay and to join Esek Hopkins's fleet when it arrived off Virginia, it is clear that by 10 January Dunmore was no longer the primary objective of the Continental Navy and that the Hornet and Wasp were now expected to participate in operations elsewhere. On 15 February the Hornet and Wasp rendezvoused in the Delaware. Two days later the little fleet cleared the Capes. They then sailed with Hopkins's fleet 18 February 1776. But instead of heading for the Chesapeake, their well-publicized original destination, where a large and well-armed British naval force was waiting them, they headed instead for the West Indies. Outside the Virginia Capes, c ran afoul of the Fly and was unable to accompany the fleet for the amphibious assault on New Providence.[9]

Obviously one could expect some wear and tear on the sloop while it was being thus used. Toward the end of the summer William received the following letter from the Marine Committee of the Congress:[10]

August 27th 1776

The Marine Committee have directed me to inform you that the Hornet Sloop is now returned from her Cruize, during which she has been extreamly leaky as Captain Hallock the Bearer hereof will inform you. The Committee have come to a resolution either to purchase the Sloop or deliver her up to you as they will not any longer hire her, but as the greatest part of the materials she now has on board belong to the Public they wou'd prefer buying her at the valuation to stripping her and when you consider that she will be a mere wreck when so stripped, and that the Hull is old and Schattered I should immagine you wou'd readily see that it is more your Interest to sell than to receive her back in such bad condition, as you will have the hire to this Time in addition to the price. You will upon the whole receive a great sum for her. I am Sir, Your hble servant,

Robert Morris

P.S. If you will not sell pray appoint some person to receive her.

She patrolled in the Delaware Bay for nearly a year, then ran the British blockade to convoy merchantmen to Charleston. Documents of service are incomplete after this time but it appears that the Hornet fell into British hands off the coast of South Carolina in the summer of 1777.[11]

Meanwhile Capt. Stone also owned the brig Friendship, registered in Bermuda, and manned entirely with slaves except for the captain and mate. Stone intended to use her to bring some property from the West Indies and in February 1776 his agent urged Maryland to hire this ship, too. But in January the Friendship had been seized in St. Eustatis by Richard JENINGS for payment of a debt owed him by Stone. Stone complained at length to the Maryland Council of Safety that the seizure was unnecessary as he had plenty of other assets to pay the debt. But the vessel was sold for less than its worth. The situation begs for further information: what was going on: personal animosity? greed? politics? The case dragged on until 1783, when it disappeared from the records after yet another postponement.[12]

There is an intriguing document regarding Stone's participation in the American Revolution. On 2 November 1780 the Board of Admiralty reported to the Continental Congress on the engagement of pilots. "By virtue of resolution of Aug. 25, Board engaged William Stone and find no money available for payment of wages due. Report read Nov. 3 and ordered that warrant for 4,000 dollars issued to Board for payment of Stone and that he be then discharged." I do not know whether this was our William Stone. Clearly the intent was to pay him with highly inflated paper continental currency.[13]

In 1776 William purchased land in Maryland: 63 acre "Streight", 102 acres of "New Tavern", and a tract named "Wilmott's Chance".[14] He apparently already owned considerable property in St. Eustasia and St. Kitts, as well, perhaps, as Bermuda. He must also have already had some sort of property, either real or personal, in Baltimore because his 1775 will named Hercules COURTENAY and John SMITH as executors for said property.[14a]

William was nearly forty years old when he married in Baltimore County sometime between 17 and 21 April 1778 Hannah (OWINGS) Cockey.[15] She was twenty seven, born 27 January 1750, the daughter of Samuel and Urath (Randall) OWINGS. Hannah was the widow of William COCKEY, Jr., who had died in 1775.

Occasionally we can get small glimpses of our ancestors through newspapers. One such little snapshot dates from 1779 when William happened to find a sorrel mare. In his advertisement for her owner, he listed his residence as near the Garrison Church.[16] See the map below, and click on it to enlare it.

More information can be found in tax lists for Middle River and Back River Upper Hundreds, Baltimore County. The 1783 list showed William had a household of six taxable people, and he owned 340 acres of "Hellmore".[17]

William was a merchant, whose vessels traded between the Chesapeake and Caribbean. He also traded with South Carolina, as evidenced by accounts for William Stone (I am assuming it is our man) from 1788 to 1794 in an account book of the Georgetown district. He probably traded for indigo and rice.[18]

William Stone was enumerated as head of his household in Baltimore town in the first United States census of 1790. There were five free white men over the age of sixteen, three under sixteen (presumably his sons Samuel, William, and John), four free white women (his wife Hannah, and daughters Martha and Mary, plus someone else), and six slaves. The extra woman would not have been his mother-in-law who, as a widow, was enumerated as the head of her own household.[19] Map of Baltimore County and Environs

In March 1796 William bought part of "Urath's Fancy" and "Severn" in Back River Upper Hundred from Bale OWINGS, son of Christopher (Hannah's brother). William Stone was listed in the 1798 tax assessment for Back River Upper Hundred as the owner of 117 acre "Friendship", and 170 acre "Remtha [sic] Fancy" and "Severa" [sic]. They had no buildings on them. Presumably Stone and his family resided on 198 acres which was part of "Hellermore". It had an old one-story frame dwelling house measuring 16 by 45 feet, a log house that was 16 by 28 feet, and four old houses that were so derelict they were not given any further description. Stone did not own any slaves in 1798, at least not in this county. He also owned 286 acres of "Jones' Prevention" (or "Presentation") and 126 acres of "New Tavern" in Soldiers' Delight Hundred.[20]

There was a William Stone who was a vestryman from 1800 to 1803 in St. Thomas Parish. Then he was reported dead in 1804.[21] Since our William's will of 1819, probated in 1821, seems clearly identified to our man, presumably the vestryman was someone else, or there is an error somewhere. Our Stone family were at least nominal members of St. Thomas, in that their eldest daughter, Martha Burrows Stone was married there in 1804 by the Rev. Mr. Coleman.[22]

The census for 1800 for Baltimore County outside of the city was destroyed in a fire. A man named William Stone appears in the 1810 census for the City and County of Baltimore as the one free white male in his household between the ages of 26 and 45. The problem is our man should have been in the "45 and over" category. There was one boy and two girls under the age of 10, and one woman aged 26 to 45.[23] This doesn't sound like our family.

William appeared in the newspaper in 1815, advertising the sale of his dwelling plantation with its improvements, eighteen miles from Baltimore and one and a half miles from Reisterstown. It contained seven and a half acres, with a stone dwelling house, a grist mill 32' by 40', three storeys high, with a saw mill attached to it, and "a fine apple orchard".[24] I have not researched the land records to see if the property found a buyer.

Hannah died 15 June 1817 in Baltimore County.

To underscore the frustration and questions around the pre-1850 USA censuses, in the 1820 census there were three households headed by a man named William Stone. Choosing the only household with a man over 45, leaves us puzzling over two free white men over the age of 45 (William's unmarried son Samuel was only 39), one girl under 10 and a woman over 45 (Hannah had died three years earlier). The rest of the household consisted of six male and 19 female slaves. Ten people were employed in commerce (perhaps in the grist and saw mills).[25] This does not compute very well, either, since William had offered the place for sale five years earlier. Clearly, more research is needed.

William wrote his will 3 December 1819. He died 11 or 15 September 1821, and the will was probated 27 October. In it he stated that he was formerly of the Island of Bermuda. He mentioned his children Martha Burrows STUMP, Samuel and John Stone; his grandchildren John Robert HOLLIDAY, Jr., William Stone Holliday, William Henry Stump, Samuel Stump, Jr., Mary Stump, Eleanor A. S. Holliday, Hannah Stump, and Martha Stump. His son Samuel was named executor. The will was witnessed by Richard OWINGS, Henry RITTER and Cornelius HOWARD.[26]

Children of William and Hannah (Owings) Cockey Stone:[27]

  1. Martha Burrows Stone2, b. 7 Sept. 1779; d. 9 Jan. 1853; m. 10 June 1804 in St. Thomas Parish, Balt. Co., Samuel STUMP. He was the 9th child of Henry and Rachel (PERKINS) Stump, b. 31 Jan. 1779, d. 11 Mar. 1844.[28]

  2. Samuel Stone, b. 1781; d. 15 Oct. 1860, aged seventy-six years in the St. Thomas Parish rec., but on his tombstone it says he was in his 79th year; unmarried. Inherited from his father lands purchased from Beale OWINGS and John GORSUCH. Samuel's will was signed 11 Oct., 1860, and filed 18 Oct. He named his nephew, Alexander Hamilton STUMP as executor, and gave him a 170 ac. farm in Harford Co. where Samuel's nephew Dr. William H. Stump was residing. Bequeathed his farm in Harford Co. where she was already residing to his neice Hannah SMITH and her son John Stone Smith. Manumitted his slave Fanny immediately upon his death, and David, Lindy, Margaret, Louisa, and Harriet 4 years after his death, and Stephen, Andrew, Ben, Hannah, Betsey, Jane, Ned, Joe, and Ellen as each attained the age of 35 (except Abraham Lincoln pre-empted him on this). Also bequeathed money to various relatives: Martha B. LEVERING (wife of Thomas W.), Thomas Wilson Levering, Mary Stump (cash and slave Harriet for 4 years), Samuel STUMP Jr., John Robert HOLLIDAY (brother of our Eleanor Addison Smith Holliday Price) and wife Amelia M. (cash and slaves Jane and Ned), Margaret Stump (wife of nephew Capt. Reuben Stump)—cash and slaves Stephen, Andrew, Ben, and Betsey until they turned 35), William Stone Holliday, Samuel Stone PRICE, James P. TOWNSEND (son of Mary T.), and Lucius Price.[29]

  3. Mary Burrows Stone, b. 1783; d. ca. 1817; m. 17 Feb. 1802 John Robert Holliday.

  4. William Stone, b. 1785; d. 6 Sept. 1797, aged fourteen years. His tombstone is at St. Thomas Church.

  5. John Stone, b. 1786; d. 4 Aug. 1845 in his 59th year. His will was signed 26 Sept. 1842 and filed 19 Aug. 1845. He did not mention any wife or child, but it is suggested that he may have been the father of William Stone, named as a nephew in the will of John's brother Samuel Stone. John mentioned his brother Samuel, his sister Martha B. STUMP, and nieces and nephews: Hannah SMITH and her son John Stone Smith, Martha B. LEVERING, Mary Stump, John R. HOLLIDAY, and William Holliday.[30]

Second Generation

Mary Burrows Stone2, the daughter of William and Hannah, was born in 1783 and died in about 1817. When she was nineteen she married John Robert Holliday. They got a marriage license in Baltimore County on 17 February 1802.[31]

John Robert and Mary removed to Louisiana, although it is not clear just when. Mary died 23 September 1818, perhaps in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. John married for a second time 21 April 1821 Maria (JONES) Davis, widow of William DAVIS, Esq., late of Felicianna Parish. They had one child. By the 1820s John was residing at his plantation, named "Belle Grove", on the Mississippi River. An 1837 sketch shows the house in French colonial style with a hip roof with dormers, the whole building surrounded with colonnaded porches on two floors. The parlor and bedrooms were on the upper floor where floor-length French windows admitted River breezes. The dining room was on the ground floor. The house was swept away by a Mississippi River flood many years ago.[32]

John died 21 August 1826 at "Belle Grove".

Children of Mary Burrows (Stone) and her husband John Robert Holliday:[33]

  1. Eleanor Addison Smith Holliday3, b. 19 Feb. 1803; m. 27 June 1822 James Bonsall PRICE; d. 22 Jan. 1835 in Baltimore Co., Md.

  2. William Henry Holliday, b. 7 Mar. 1805; d. 22 July 1813.

  3. John Robert Holliday, b. 10 July 1807; m. Amelia M.; he may be the John Holliday, aged 16-26, living alone in East Baton Rouge Parish in the 1820 census.[34] Inherited in Oct. 1860 from his uncle Samuel Stone $6,000, slaves Jane aged 15 and Ned aged 7 to be held until they were 35 years old. President Abraham Lincoln freed them sooner.

  4. Daniel Chamier Holliday, b. 11 May 1810; d. 7 Apr. 1811.

  5. William Stone Holliday, b. 27 Oct. 1817; inherited $2,000 from his uncle Samuel Stone, Oct. 1860.

To continue the story of this family, go to the Holliday page.

Nicotiana tabacum

If you have additions or corrections to this web page, I would be delighted to hear from you. Contact me via e mail at .

See some other colonial Maryland families that link one way or another with these Stones:
AddisonBaleBrookeBrowneDentDorseyEly,   HallHattonHollidayHowardIsaacMoltonNorwoodOwingsRandallRidgelySimSmithTaskerWarfield,  and Wilkinson

Go to the index of other lines that are included in this website (not all of them have been posted yet).

Go to the Paxson home page.

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This page was posted 4/6/2004, and updated most recently on 9m/20/2013.

Notes and Sources

The full bibliographical citation is given the first time a source is mentioned, but is not repeated each time that source is cited. Scroll up until you find the first mention and there you will find the complete citation.

  1. Correspondence with Henry R. EdmundsII, Nov. 5, 1997.

  2. Robert Barnes, The Green Spring Valley: Its History and Heritage Vol. 2: Genealogies. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1978, 2:100.

        2a., accessed 7/29/2013.

        2b. Wallace Gandy, ed., The Association Oath Rolls of the British Plantations [New York, Virginia, Etc.] A.D. 1696.: Being a Contribution to Political History (London, 1922), 60, on line at, accessed 7/29/2013.

        2c. Gandy, The Association Oath Rolls of the British Plantations, 48, 50, 52, 59.

        2d. C. F. E. Hollis Hallett, comp., Early Bermuda Wills, 1629-1835, Summarized and indexed: A genealogical reference book (Pembroke, Bermuda: Juniperhill Press, 1993), 556, referencing W2,2:57 for John's will. My thanks to Patrice A. Carvell, Collection Management Librarian of the Bermuda National Library for sending me a copy of the page of the index, 7/30/2013.

        2e. "Minutes of Her Majesty's Council",, accessed 7/29/2013.

        2f. Bermuda Court of Assize Records, as transcribed on, accessed 7/29/2013.

        2g. Hallett, comp., Early Bermuda Wills, 556, referencing W12b:214 and W8:286 for the inventory.

  3. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:100. Francis Keenan, a Burch family researcher, generously did some searching of the Burch connection mentioned in this 1775 will. He concluded, "... there was no Jonathan Burch with a Catherine as his wife in early Maryland before the Revolution or shortly thereafter . . . . The Burch family of Maryland came early to Charles County and were tobacconists. Their issue removed to Prince George's County, Maryland, and then the grandchildren spread to Virginia and further south and to Kentucky and west. I have not found any connection between the Burch family of early Maryland that was the subject of my research and any of the names mentioned in William Stone's 1775 'will at sea.'" He went on to suggest that further research will have to be carried out in the Caribbean. E mails, January, 2013.

  4. Rachel5 Brewer was the daughter of John4 (1709-1754) and Eleanor Maccubin (b. 1708); John was the son of John3 (1686-1730) who was the son of John2 Jr. and Sarah Ridgely. Sarah was the daughter of Col. Henry Ridgely and his first wife. John Jr. was the son of John1 and Elizabeth (Pierpont), widow of Alexander Warfield (1678-1740), son of our Richard Warfield. Sharon J. Doliante, Maryland and Virginia Colonials: Genealogies of Some Colonial Families: Families of Bacon, Beall, Beasley, Cheney, Duckett, Dunbar, Ellyson, Elmore, Graves, Heydon, Howard, Jacob, Morris, Nuthall, Odell, Peerce, Reeder, Ridgley, Prather, Sprigg, Wesson, Williams, and Collateral Kin (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1991), 852-54. Peale was the son of an Englishman who had fled to Maryland to escape punishment for embezelling funds. After his death, Charles had to apprentice himself to a saddler. When his service was completed he took a turn at anything he could find: upholstering, watchmaking, chairmaking, silversmithing, and then painting. The Governor and ten members of the Council subscribed 83 to send him to London where he was received kindly by Benjamin WEST. After two years he returned to Maryland. Thomas J. Wertenbaker, The Golden Age of Colonial Culture (Ithaca, N.Y.: Great Seal Books, a Division of Cornell University Press, 1959., orig. 1949), 96-98.

  5. The painting was a bequest from J. Middendorf, Jr., in 1972. There is reproduction of the painting in Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:101.

  6. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:100. A sloop has one mast, and is rigged fore and aft. Celia M. Holland, Old Homes and Families of Howard County, Maryland, with Consideration of Various Additional Points of Interest (privately printed, 1987) 426. Naval Records of the Revolution, 16. See letters of instruction to him, Naval Records of the Revolution, 30, 31, and 38.

  7. Charles Oscar Paullin, The Navy of the American Revolution: Its Administration, its Policy and its Achievements (Chicago: The Burrowes Brothers Company, 1906), 51, 55-57.

  8. Delegates to Congress, Letters of delegates to Congress, 1774-1789, Volume 3, January 1 1776-May 15 1776, Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.

  9. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, on; Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.

  10. DNA: PCC Miscellaneous Papers, Marine Committee Letter Book. Addressed: "To Captain William Stone owner of the Sloop Hornet." from Delegates to Congress, Letters of delegates to Congress, 1774-1789, Volume 5, August 16 1776-December 31 1776, Electronic Text Center, Univ. of Virginia Library.

  11. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, on

  12. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 100, citing Md. Arch., 11:168, 256; 12:169; 48:421, 428.

  13. Naval Records of the Revolution, 163-64.

  14. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 100, citing Balt. Co. Land Records, Lib. A.L., no. O, fol. 133; Lib. W.G., no. V.V., fol. 72.

    14a. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:100.

  15. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 100, says 17 April. One entry in IGI says they were mar. 18 April 1778, the other says on 21 April. The marriage license was granted on 18 April. Rowene T. Obert, Baltimore City & County Marriage Licenses, 1777-1799 (Salt Lake City: The Genealogy Shoppe, Inc., 1975), 85.

  16. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 100, citing the Md. Journal and Baltimore Advertiser, 26 Oct. 1779.

  17. Webber, Mabel L., "Abstracts from an Old Account Book", lists the names from a mutilated ledger now in the library of the Winyah Indigo Society, Georgetown, S. C. It notes that "The covers and the first pages as well as the last, are missing, so that it is impossible to determine the names of the merchants or factors who kept the accounts. Various accounts were kept for a tan-yard, naval stores, and indico [sic] as well as for the general store, and accounts were settled in rice[,] indico [sic], grain and other such commodities. The list is taken for the interest it has in placing the various people by localities, for the loss of all of the early records for Georgetown district makes any early list of the people of that region of interest, however incomplete. The full accounts are too long to reproduce, the ledger begins in 1788." usgenweb/sc/georgetown/

  18. U.S. census, Maryland, 1790, 23.

  19. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 100; George J. Horvath, Jr., The Particular Assessment Lists for Baltimore and Carroll Counties, 1798 (Westminster, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1986), 38.

  20. Bill Reamy, St. Thomas Parish Registers, 1732-1850 (Westminster, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1987), 51.

  21. St. Thomas Parish Marriages, Owings Mills, Maryland, 1738-1995 (Westminster, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1996), 7.

  22. U.S. census for Maryland, microfilm roll 13, p. 125, WRHS.

  23. Baltimore American and Daily Advertiser, 1 Dec. 1815, as quoted in Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 100.

  24. U.S. census for Maryland, microfilm roll 41, p. 12, WRHS.

  25. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 100, 102, says 11 Sept. The date of 15 Sept. is given in Harry Wright Newman, To Maryland From Overseas: A Complete Digest of Jacobite Loyalists Sold into White Slavery in Maryland, and the British and Continental Background of Approximately 1400 Maryland Settlers from 1634 to the Early Federal Period with Source Documentation (Balt.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1985), 165, citing Balt. Co. Wills, Liber 11, folio 318.

  26. Information from Charlotte Price Curlin, Dec. 1994; and, Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:102.

  27. E mail 3m/12/2012 from Samuel Smith, citing a recent publication of Society of the War of 1812 in Maryland, applications Lineal Number 462; John Wilson Stump, A History of the Stump Family of Harford County (Street, Md.: Harford County Historical Society, Bel Air, Md., 1994); and Albert P. Silver and Henry w. Archer, Stump of Maryland-Substantial Copy of Genealogical Record of the Stump Family of Maryland (Harfold County Historical Society, Bel Air, Mdd., 1891). See also St. Thomas Parish Marriages, Owings Mills, Maryland, 1738-1995, 7. For information on the Stump family, see Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:103-7.

  28. Photoduplicated copy of will, dated 11 Oct. 1860, pr. 18 Oct. (from Charlotte Price Curlin, Sept. 1997). See also Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:102.

  29. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:102.

  30. Barnes, The Green Spring Valley, 2:102.

  31. Transit Riders' Digest, vol. XXVII, no. 18 (Apr. 23, 1979) published by New Orleans Public Service, Inc.

  32. "The Family Bible of James Bonsall Price and Eleanor Addison Smith Holliday", 43. Xerox copy from Charlotte Price Curlin.

  33. US Census

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Nicotiana tabacum