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Common VetchEngland Common Vetch

compiled and copyright by MJP Grundy, 2011
Common Vetch, by Anne E. G. Nydam, copyright 1996, used by permission



The England line shown here includes one generation in England and two in the Delaware Valley. I am only interested in tracing the line down to JOANNA ENGLAND who married JOHN TOWNSEND in 1741. I would be delighted if a reader could help me push the line back farther in England. Please contact me via e mail at .


English Generation

         The story begins rather abruptly with JohnA and his wife Love (__) England, who were living in Staffordshire when the birth of their son Joseph was recorded in Burton-upon-Trent on 2 Seventh Month [September], 1680.[1] For an explanation of the superscript A following his name, see the description of the National Genealogical Society's numbering system used on this web page.

         Burton-upon-Trent, in the parish of St. Mary and St. Modwena, is the head of a union, partly in the northern division of the hundred of Offlow in Staffordshire and partly in the hundred of Repton and Gresley, in the southern division of Derbyshire. These somewhat esoteric old political and ecclesiastical boundaries are helpful for locating older records about the family—a project not yet undertaken by me. More useful for our understanding of the setting of this family, Burton-upon-Trent was a market town twenty-four miles east of Stafford. There were fairs on February 5, April 5, "Holy Thursday", July 16, and October 29 for cattle, cheese, and horses. The town is on the west bank of the River Trent, with one main street paralleling the River. A 512- yard-long bridge was built before 1066, and repaired under Henry II. Interesting ancient history includes its origin as a Saxon burgh. St. Modwena in the 9th century was expelled from her monastery in Ireland and came here, under asylum from King Ethelwulph. In gratitude for the miraculous cure of his son Alfred he erected a chapel dedicated to St. Andrew. In 1004 Wulfric, Earl of Mercia, founded a Benedictine Abbey here that in time became quite wealthy. By the mid 19th century, the only remains of the abbey were some "fine Norman arches". In 1225 a fire destroyed most of the town. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, tried to defend himself here against Edward II in ca. 1321, but failed and was executed in 1322. A free grammar school was established in 1520 by Abbott William BEANE. In 1591 almshouses for five unmarried women were founded by Dame Elizabeth PAWLETT, and in 1634 almshouses for six women, either widowed or single, were established by Mrs. Ellen PARKER. That was the extent of the social safety net for those with no families to care for them. The church, originally with an abbey, was made collegiate by Henry VIII. The town saw plenty of action in the 1640s Civil War, and the church was heavily dam-aged. It was totally rebuilt in 1720 and now does not look anything like what the Englands would have known. I don't know if the parents of John and Love also lived in Burton-upon-Trent, but if they did, they would have been present during the Civil War and experienced first hand its terrors and damage. Nor do I know if John or his son Joseph attended the free grammar school.[2]

         Although their son's birth was recorded in Burton-upon-Trent, the Englands may have lived in Tamworth, or moved there after the birth of Joseph. In any event, their son John was identified as from Tamworth. Tamworth was once an important town, being the capital of Mercia under King Offa, because of its strategic location where the rivers Tame and Anker joined. The town suffered the vicissitudes of English history: sacked by the Danes in 874; rebuilt in 913 by Ethelfleda, daughter of King Alfred; site of a Norman castle; medieval market town that burned in 1345 and was rebuilt; hit by recurring bouts of plague from 1563 to 1626; besieged by Parliamentarian forces in 1643; by 1670 had 320 households. Tamworth also had a rich store of local legends probably with varying amounts of historical credibility. In any event, in the early eighteenth century Tamworth was a thriving small midlands market town.

         Children of John and Love (__) England (order uncertain, probably incomplete):

  1. John England, d. ca. 1734, m. Elizabeth HOLLAND, who d. ca. 1723 in Maryland. John was living in Tamworth, Staffordshire, when he was hired by the Principio Iron Works Company to go to Maryland and run their iron works on the Principio Creek in what became Cecil County. He was told that it had been constructed and was about ready to begin operations. He arrived to discover this was not the case, work had barely begun, the workers were drunk and unruly, and their supervisor sabotaged efforts by John. He wrote back to the Company in England describing the situation and awaiting further instructions. Meanwhile he and his wife got sick and she died. Instructions, dated 25 Sept. 1723, arrived expressing full confidence in John and empowering him to do what was needed to get the thing working. With much labor he did so, and by 1724 it was producing pig iron. John is credited with building the first forge and furnace in Maryland. John acquired land for ore on Gorsuch Point on the east shore of the Patapsco in 1724. He made an arrangement with Augustus Washington to build Accokeeh Furnace in Virginia (Augustus was the father of George). John's children remained in England and he visited them in 1729-1730, returning with a glowing testimonial from the Principio Company. He had purchased a large tract onWhite Clay Creek and Muddy Run in Delaware in 1727 and built a grist mill there. In his will John left this land to his sons in England. The inventory of his "Goods Aparrel Linens & Chattels and Negros" kept at Richard Snowden's Iron Works "Upon ye Eastern Branch of Powxon" included 1 piece of linen for Negros shirts & shifts, 1 bit of Ruset Cloth for Negros, 1 hamper full of Negros Truck, 1 bundle of Negros beding, 1 box Negros Truck, 1 Negro Man Named Charls, 1 Negro Woman Named Calabah Dead, a Negro Girl named Jeney. I do not know if these three were a family; presumably Calabah had just died. As a man owned his wife's clothing and things, so, too, did he own whatever his enslaved people had. John and Elizabeth had children who remained in England:[3]
    a. John England of Bridgenorth, mar. 1719 Sarah LLOYD, daughter of Charles Lloyd of Dolobran; had at least 2 sons, John and Charles England.

  2. Joseph England, b. 2 Sept. 1680; d. 23 Dec. 1748; m. ca. 1710 Margaret ORBELL; immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1723.

  3. Lewis England, apparently also went to the new world, married, and had descendants.

  4. William England, remained in England.

Immigrant Generation

         Joseph England1, son of John and Love (__) England, was born Seventh Month [September] 2, 1680 at Burton-upon-Trent in Staffordshire. He died Tenth Month [December] 23, 1748 and was buried at the "Brick Meeting" in East Nottingham, Pennsylvania on the 25th. See an explanation of Friends' dates. In about 1710 Joseph married Margaret ORBELL, daughter of Samuel and Joanna (__) Orbell. Margaret was born at Deal in Kent on Sixth Month [August] 3, 1685. She died Second Month [April] 7, 1741. After they were married, they remained in Deal for several years, then moved to Staffordshire. There were no Orbells or Englands on the list of Deal freemen, 1699-1834.[4]

         Joseph was a millwright, and in 1705 he was in charge of the water-works at London Bridge. In 1705 "Prince George of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne, provided him with a document to protect him from being impressed for service in the British navy. It described him as a 'tall, slender man, with dark brown hair, and fresh coloured.'"[5]

         Apparently three England brothers immigrated about the same time. Joseph and Margaret were Friends, and travelled with their first three children. On Fifth Month 13, 1723 they handed in their certificate from Rudly Monthly Meeting in Great Britain to New Garden Monthly Meeting. Unfortunately, it was minuted as being received for John rather than Joseph which has caused considerable confusion, but I strongly suspect it was a simple error on the part of the clerk.[6] I would think that brother John England would have taken his certificate to Newark Meeting. I don't know where their brother Lewis went.

         In 1723 Joseph and Margaret purchased 500 acres of partially cleared wooded land from Benjamin VINING of Philadelphia. They apparently settled on the tract they named "Springfield" in West Nottingham about two miles southwest of the village called Brick Meeting House. Joseph, however, spent most of the next four years apart from his family, presumably working at the Principio Iron Works under his brother John.[7] It was on Principio Creek that runs into Furnace Bay at the northern end of the Chesapeake roughly between Perry Point and Carpenter Point, in Cecil County.

         Joseph was active in Nottingham Preparative Meeting, that was part of New Garden Monthly Meeting until it was set off in 1730. John PIGGOTT and Joseph England served as Nottingham's first treasurers after it had become a monthly meeting that year. In 1732/3 Joseph England was recorded as a minister among Friends.[8]

England's Mill in White Clay Creek

         When Joseph's brother John England died in 1724 John bequeathed his land and grist mill in White Clay Fireplace in Joseph England's 1747 Manor House in White Clay Creek Creek to his sons back in England. They engaged Joseph to manage the farm and mill. On 24 February 1741/2 they sold Joseph the whole thing. Joseph enlarged the mill, that was still standing in 1969 when C. Walter England took this photograph of it. The photo on the left shows the original parchment deed with its seals. Sometime after that Joseph and Margaret moved to White Clay Creek, New Castle County in what is now Delaware. He requested a certificate for the two of them to transfer to Newark Monthly Meeting 15 Eighth Month 1743. Although it was eighteen miles from meeting, Joseph generally attended twice a week.[9]

         Margaret died 7 Second Month [April], 1744 and was buried at the "Brick Meeting" in East Nottingham on the 9th.

Fireplace in Joseph England's 1747 Manor House in White Clay Creek

         In 1747 Joseph built a brick "manor house" as an addition to the smaller house his brother had built. In March 1972 it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is known for its huge fireplace extending across almost the entire kitchen; it is preserved more-or-less as it originally looked, with added touches of 1960s decor.[10]

         Joseph died of a fever 23 Tenth Month [December], 1748, and was buried next to Margaret.[11]

         Joseph's will, dated 16 Tenth Month, 1748, was probated 4 March 1748/9. He left son Joseph the plantation called "England's Mill" provided he care for his recently deceased brother John's three surviving children, bind the boys to a trade when old enough, and pay them their legacies when they came of age; Joseph was also to give his sister Joanna £10. Son Samuel was given the plantation called "Chalkley's Land" in East Nottingham, and also "Springfield" in West Nottingham that was "now in dispute" because of the boundary dispute between Pennsylvania and Maryland. If the dispute was settled so that Samuel got "Springfield", he was to pay his sister Joanna £10. Executors were sons Samuel England and John England. Samuel was given his father's watch, Joanna was given the enslaved "Negro Girl Named Ann", and Joseph was given the bed and its "furniture" at White Clay Creek. The residue was to be divided between the two sons.[12]

         Children of Joseph and Margaret (Orbell) England:[13]

  1. John England2, b. 5 Ninth Mo., 1711 at Deal in Kent; d. 8 Eighth Mo., 1748 and was buried at East Nottingham the next day; mar(1) 10 Third Mo. [May] 1727 Margaret BIRKHEAD at West River Meeting in Anne Arundel Co. He was only 15½ years old. She was the daughter of Nehemiah and Sarah (__); Margaret d. ca. 1734. John m(2) ca. 1736 Elizabeth HOLLAND. She was called Eliza and signed documents with her mark, an "E". At Hockessin Meting Apr. 1751 widowed Elizabeth married (2) widower Joshua JOHNSON of New Garden. She died 27 Eleventh Mo., 1774 and was buried at London Grove two days later. John and Elizabeth had the following children:[14]
    a. David England, b. 7 mo. 19, 1737, was bequeathed £200 Penna. money by his grandfather when he came of age.

    b. Margaret England, b. 1 mo. 28, 1739, d. 9 mo. 1740, bur. East Nottingham.

    c. Joseph England, b. 7 mo. 6, 1741, d. 6 mo. 19, 1748, bur. 6 mo. 20 at East Nottingham.

    d. Mary England, b. 7 mo. 1, 1743; mar. at London Grove Meeting under care of New Garden MM 11 mo. 24, 1762 Isaac HAINES, son of Joseph and his second wife Elizabeth (THOMAS) Haines. Mary inherited £100 Penna. money from her grandfather when she became of age.

    e. John England, b. 9 mo. 23, 1745; inherited £200 Penna. money from his grandfather when of age.

    f. Cassandra England, b. 11 mo. 1747/8; must have d. y. because not included in grandfather's will.
  2. Samuel England, b. 18 Fourth Month, 1717 at Burton-on-Trent and recorded in Pudgby of Wolverhamton, Staffordshire Monthly Meeting Friends records: parents Joseph and Margaret; d. 7 mo. 27, 1791; married Sarah SLATER 9 mo. [Nov.] 11, 1740, daughter of George and Sarah of West Nottingham, at East Nottingham; the marriage certificate was signed by these Englands: Joseph, John, Elizabeth, Joanna, Joseph, and a third Joseph. Emigrated to Pennsylvania with his parents as a child. Samuel England was clerk and very active in the meeting. Samuel and Sarah had children recorded in Nottingham MM records:
    a. Margaret England, b. 7 mo. 12, 17__ [probably 1741].

    b. Joseph England, b. 1 mo. 10, 1742/3, d. 4 mo. 3, 1828 in his 86th year, bur. E. Nottingham; m(1) Jan. 15, 1767 Deborah HAINES, d. July 2, 1784, daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth (THOMAS) Haines. Joseph was the son of Richard & Margaret Haines. Elizabeth was the daughter of James THOMAS and Ann (WARNER) of Whiteland. They had no children. Joseph m(2) Sept. 1, 1785 Hannah PASSMORE. Joseph was a prominent member of Friends, residing in West Nottingham, Cecil Co., Md.

    c. Lydia England, b. 9 mo. [Nov.] 18, 17__ [1745?]; d. 9 mo. [Sept.] 27, 1767, age 21 years, 9 mo, 7 days, bur. 9 mo. 28 in E. Nottingham.

    d. George England, b. 7 mo. [Sept] 1, 1746.

    e. Hannah England, b. 3 mo. 3, 1748; d. Sept. 25, 1801; mar. Nov. 15, 1770 Jeremiah BROWN, son of Joshua and Hannah (GATCHELL) Brown; had children.

    f. Sarah England, b. 12 mo. [Feb.] 9, 1749/50, d. 9 mo. [Sept.] 3, 1770 at 5:25 a.m., age 20 years, 7 mo., 14 days, bur. the next day at E. Nottingham.

    g. Rachel England, b. 2 mo. 27, 1752 NS; mar. Richard REYNOLDS.

    h. Isaac England, b. 1 mo. 15, 1754, d. 1 mo. 19, 1789.

    i. Samuel England, b. 6 mo. 12, 1756, d. 3 mo. 11, 1775 at 8:50 p.m., age 18 years, 8 mo., 29 days, bur. 3 mo. 13 in E. Nottingham.

    j. Elisha England, b. 10 mo. 17, 1758.

    k. John England, b. 7 mo. 10, 1762; d. Dec. 28, 1799; mar. Aug. 7, 1783 Elizabeth GATCHELL; 2 daughters.
  3. Joseph England's clock now owned by Jim Buttrick
  4. Joanna England, b. 7 mo. 29, 1721; d. May 30, 1786; mar. Dec. 31, 1741 John TOWNSEND.

  5. Joseph England's secretary now owned by Jim Buttrick
  6. Joseph England, b. 9 mo. 2, 1723, recorded in Springfield, Nottingham MM, Chester Co., Penna.; d. Feb. 5, 1791 at "England's Mill"; mar. 31 May 1750 Abigail ROTHERHAM, daughter of Joseph. Abigail d. 13 May 1800 He was named from Nottingham Meeting to the committee to collect and assist suffering Friends during the Revolution. During the Revolutionary War while upholding the Friends' peace testimony Joseph had a horse confiscated, worth £25 in Second Mo. 1778. In his will dated 12 June 1789, Joseph left the plantation and mills at White Clay Creek, his tall case clock and secretary to his son Joseph. They have come down in the family ever since and are now owned by Jim BUTTRICK. The clock works were made ca. 1730 by John WOOD. The case was made by John HEAD (1718-1744); the two Johns rarely collaborated, and there is no mention of John Wood in Head's account book, but Head did debit two clockcases to Joseph OLMAN for £4 each on 4/18/1729 and 6/10/1730, both for delivery to John Wood. The clock case has been shortened both at the top and bottom, and original finials were removed. The secretary is thought to be "married", meaning that the current top was a later addition and was not part of the original piece. Joseph and Abigail had children:[15]
    a. Elizabeth England, b. 30/1m/1751; d. 1799; mar. William WOLLASTON; had children.

    b. Samuel England, b. 3/7m/1752; d. 6/7m/1752.

    c. Margaret England, b. 10/11m/1753; d. 7/10m/1788.

    d) Alice England, b. 2/7m/1755; d. 4/1m/1776.

    e) Joanna England, b. 5/7m/1757; d. 9/11m/1789.

    f) Abigail England, b. 20/5m/1759; d. 4/10m/1760.

    g) Sarah England, b. 7/4m/1761; d. "last of April" 1788; mar. 6m/1783 Robert KIRKWOOD; had 3 children: Joseph C., Mary K., and Robert C. KIRKWOOD.

    h) Joseph England, b. 2/1m/1763; d. 27/4m/1828; mar. (1) Nancy Ann BOULDIN, daughter of Elijah (b. 1771; d. Oct. 4, 1800) and had 3 children; mar. (2) July 2, or 1/8m/1802 Eliza BOULDEN, sister of his first wife; she d. 25 July 1868. They had 11 children.

    i) Abigail England, b. 5/2m/1765; d. 25/12m/1796.
  7. Lydia England, b. 12 mo. 24, 1730/1 in Springfield, Nottingham MM, Chester Co.; d. 1 mo. 24, 1733/4 and bur. at East Nottingham on the 25th.

Second Generation

         Joanna England2 was born September 29, 1721 in Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, the daughter of Joseph and Margaret. Her birth was recorded by Friends of Ridgly and Wolverhamton Monthly Meeting. She emigrated to Pennsylvania as a young child with her parents and two older brothers in 1723. She died May 30, 1786 in East Bradford Township, Chester County.

         Joanna married John TOWNSEND at East Nottingham on Tenth Month [December] 31, 1741. John was the son of Joseph and Martha (WOODERSON) Townsend of East Bradford Township.[16]

         Joanna and John had, for their marriage, an elegant chest-over-drawers now part of the Winterthur collection, exhibited in the April 2011-January 2012 exhibit, "Paint, Pattern & People". It is thought that her father may have commissioned it for a wedding present.[17]

         Joanna Townsend was remembered as "an intelligent, old fashioned English woman, with much energy of character and a very determined will of her own."[18]

         When her daughter Martha (Townsend) Lamborn's small child was very ill, Joanna and John went to help out at the Lamborn home in September 1777. They were therefore very close to the action when the massive forces of General Howe defeated Washington's smaller army at what has become known as the Battle of the Brandywine.[19]

         Joanna died Fifth Month 30, 1786, before her husband, who signed his will March 20, 1798. It was probated September 15, 1803.

         Children of John and Joanna (England) Townsend:[20]

  1. Margaret Townsend3, b. 9 mo. 27, 1742 in East Bradford; d. 1832; married 11 mo. 24, 1759 under the care of Birmingham MM Samuel JEFFERIS, (he was b. Oct. 6, 1738, d. Feb. 28, 1823, son of William and Elizabeth of East Bradford). Two children.[21]

  2. Sarah Townsend, b. 12 mo. 10, 1743; d. 1st mo. 17, 1777, bur. 1st mo. 19 at Birmingham; m. ca. 1762 Amos HOUSE. Her parents did not approve, and Sarah and Amos eloped. They had 5 children. Amos m(2) Martha EDWARDS and had 3 more children. He m(3) Mary SWAYNE and had one additional child.

  3. Lydia Townsend, b. 2nd mo. 11, 1746; d. 1st mo. 31, 1798, bur. 2nd mo. 2 at Birmingham; married Reuben JOHN. Their 6 daughters (Martha, Joanna, Pamelia, Ann, Sarah and Phebe) and two sons (Townsend and Israel ) were remembered in Lydia's father's will.

  4. William Townsend, b. 7 mo. 19, 1748; d. 11 mo. 6, 1819, bur. 11m/8 at West Chester; m. Grace LOLLER; received land from his father while John was still living; listed in 2nd Company, 1st battalion, and was fined for non-attendance; listed in Capt. Peter Strode's Company from East Brad-ford, 4th Class, 3rd battalion, and was fined £2.12.0; listed in 7th Company, 5th Class, 8th Battalion and was fined. Resided on a part of his father's land, at what is thought to have been his grand-father's residence.[22] They had 4 children.

  5. Martha "Polly" Townsend, b. 12 mo. 6, 1751; d. 12 mo. 31, 1834; married 6th mo. 10, 1773 under the care of Birmingham MM Robert LAMBORN, b. Apr. 8, 1751, son of Robert and Ann of Kennett; he d. Dec. 7, 1817 in Kennett Twp. They had ten children.

  6. Mary Townsend, b. 9 mo. 6, 1753 New Style; d. Oct. 19, 1829; married 10th mo. 16, 1777 under the care of Birmingham MM Jesse JONES, d. May 31, 1816, son of Cadwallader Jr. and Mary (GATLIVE) Jones of Uwchlan. No children.

  7. Joseph Townsend, b. 2 mo. 26, 1756; d. Sept. 30, 1841, age 85; married (1) 6th mo. 6, 1782 under the care of Birmingham MM Hannah PAINTER, daughter of Samuel and Esther of East Bradford; married (2) Mary MATTHEWS of Baltimore; married (3), 6 mo. 5, 1741, Esther (Gilpin) HALLETT of New York, daughter of Joseph and Hannah GILPIN, of Birmingham. During the Revolution Joseph was listed in 2nd Co., 6th Cl, 1st Batt., and fined for non-attendance in 1779; listed in Capt. Strode's Co. from East Bradford, 6th Class, 3rd battalion, and was fined £2.12.0. Wrote an account of the Battle of the Brandywine. In 1783 he moved to Baltimore. Had 23 children, of whom nine lived to maturity.[23]

  8. John Townsend, b. 7 Mo. 14, 1758; d. 1 Mo. 10, 1767, bur. 1 Mo. 12 at Birmingham.

  9. Hannah Townsend, b. 12 mo. 17, 1760; d. 8 mo. 9, 1826 of dysentery in about ten days; bur. 8m/10 at Birmingham; married 3 mo. 8, 1781 under the care of Birmingham MM Edward DARLINGTON, b. June 13, 1755, d. Apr. 1, 1825, son of Thomas and Hannah (BRINTON) of East Bradford. They had seven children.

  10. Joanna Townsend, b. 3 Mo. 15, 1763; m. Nov. 9, 1784 Jesse SHARPLES in Old Swede's Church in Philadelphia; "settled in Philadelphia". Jesse was b. Nov. 6, 1759, son of Jacob and Ann (BLAKEY); d. Jan. 6, 1832 in Phila. They had eight surviving children in 1816 when brother-in-law Jesse JONES wrote his will leaving $1,200 to the 8 Sharpless children, to be divided at ages 18 (for girls) and 21 (for boys).

Common Vetch


To continue the story of this family, one should go to the Townsend page.


To continue the story of this family, go to the Ellis Davies family and the Haines family. This Ashbridge line is part of a larger Price family that, with most of its collateral lines, has been expanded as a hard copy book with considerable historical context. It is available through lulu.com. Click on the title, then on "preview" to see the table of contents and a few sample pages.

This Price line contains the collateral lines of Ashbridge, Bonsall, Borton, Cadwallader, Cox, Davies/Davis, and a second (Ellis) Davies, this England line, Fisher, Haines, Harry/Harris, Hayes, Holliday, John, Jones, Kirk, one Lewis (Henry), another Lewis (Thomas), Malin, Massey, Morgan, Orbell, Paxton, the main Price, another Price (Richard), a third Price (David) branch, Roessen, Sharpley, Schumacher/Shoemaker, Taylor, Thomas, Townsend, Warner, White, Williams, Wood, and Wooderson families. In time I hope that more of them will be posted. Some of them are very short, as I do not follow them after "my" ancestor married into another surname family.


If you have additions or corrections to this web page, I would be delighted to hear from you. Contact me via e mail at .


Go to the index of other lines that are included in this website (not all of them have been posted yet).

Go to the Paxson home page.

Return to the top of this page.



This page was originally posted 8m/1/2011, and updated most recently on 4m/4/2013.


Common Vetch

Notes and Sources

The full bibliographical citation is given the first time a source is mentioned, but is not repeated each time that source is cited. Scroll up until you find the first mention and there you will find the complete citation.


  1. J. Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope, The History of Chester County, with genealogical and biographical sketches (Philadelphia: L. H. Everts, 1881), p. 538.


  2. Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England, 5th ed. (London: 1842),

  3. There is extensive material on John England and the Principio Iron Works, in C. Walter England, comp., Joseph England and his Descendants: An Historical Genealogy of the England Family as Descending from Joseph England 1680-1748 A Quaker Family of Cecil County, Maryland (prior to 1767 Chester County, Pennsylvania) Since 1723 . . . (Boyce, Va.: Carr Publishing Company, Inc., 1975), and in James M. Swank, History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages, and Particularly in the United States for Three Hundred Years, from 1585 to 1885. Many of the papers of the early days of Principio Iron Works are deposited with the Maryland Historical Society. See also James Barclay England, A Genealogical Record of the England Family in America Descended from John England and Love, his Wife of Staffordshire, England . . ., (Charlotte Barnard England Magruder had the original typed and bound in April 1962), now in the possession of Jim Buttrick. My thanks to Jim for sharing information from both these books with me, August, 2011.


  4. Alice L. Beard, comp., Births, Deaths and Marriages of the Nottingham Quakers, 1680-1889, (Westminster, MD: Family Line Publications, 1989), 35, 36 (Rash's Surname List gives a birth date of Sept. 20.); Futhey and Cope, History of Chester Co., 538; "Index of Freemen of Deal", http://www.kfhs-deal.freeuk.com/freemen/freemen_o.htm, seen 11m/7/2009.


  5. Futhey and Cope, History of Chester County, 538. They evidently got the quotation from Jas. B. England, A Genealogical Record of the England Family in America Descended from John England and Love, his Wife of Staffordshire, England . . .. My thanks to Jim Buttrick for bringing this to my attention. Both sources quote the improbable "London Water-works at Deale in Kent". I believe this is an error as I have found no shred of evidence there ever was such a thing as "London Water Works" at Deal in Kent.


  6. New Garden Monthly Meeting Men's minutes 1718-1746, 13/5m/1723, MR-Ph339, Friends Historical Library (FHL).


  7. C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants, 39; and Jas. B. England, A Genealogical Record of the England Family in America. I'm grateful to Jim Buttrick for the opportunity to see these volumes and many of the documents on which they are based.


  8. The first monthly meeting was held Eighth Month [October] 17, 1730. Bi-Centennial of Brick Meeting-House, Calvert, Cecil County, Maryland, 1701-1901, 46. Nottingham Monthly Meeting men's minutes, Book 1, 1730-1756, 16/10m/1732, and 20/11m/1732. MR-B179, FHL.


  9. C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants, 40. The photograph of the mill is from Ibid., 43. The original deed is in the possession of Jim Buttrick.

  10. C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants, 41. The photograph of the fireplace, taken in 1969 by C. Walter England, is from Ibid., 43.

  11. Beard, Nottingham Quakers, 36; Futhey and Cope, History of Chester Co., 538; Dictionary of Quaker Biography, citing John Smith's mms, 1:648; The Historical Research Committee of the Colonial Dames of Delaware, comp., A Calendar of Delaware Wills: New Castle County 1682-1800 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969 reprint of NY: 1911), 23; C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants, 39.


  12. C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants, 43-44. Jim Buttrick has an official copy of the will, as well as the revoked one with the signature carefully torn out.


  13. Nottingham Monthly Mtg. records (Baltimore YM) Painter Collection, FHL; Beard, Nottingham Quakers, 33-36; C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants.


  14. John's birth date is given as 19 Seventh Month 1737 in Futhey and Cope, The History of Chester County, 538; this is clearly an error. Elizabeth's surname has been added in ink to C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants, 44; Calendar of Delaware Wills, 23.


  15. Ezra Michener, A Retrospect of Early Quakerism, (Philadelphia: T. Ellwood Zell, 1860, reprinted by Washington, DC: Cool Spring Publishing Company, 1991), 380; Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, Meeting for Sufferings, misc. papers, 1771-1780, MR-Ph507, FHL. For more on John Head and his clock cases, see Jay Robert Stiefel, "Philadelphia Cabinetmaking and Commerce, 1718-1753: The Account Book of John Head, Joiner," American Philosophical Society, Library Bulletin, new series, vol. 1, no. 1 (2001), X.E.10. and Jay Robert Stiefel, Alan Andersen, Christopher Storb, "The John Head Project: Documenting His Work", Antiques & Fine Art (Autumn/Winter 2008) 190-193. A curator at Hampton, where the secretary resided for a while, made the diagnosis about its hybrid-ness. My thanks to Jim Buttrick for this information. Joseph's children are from C. Walter England, Joseph England and his Descendants, with three additional children who d. y. (Samuel, Alice, and the first Abigail) from Jas. B. England, A Genealogical Record of the England Family in America, 28-30.


  16. Beard, Nottingham Quakers, 35.


  17. The Winterthur special exhibit, "Paint, Pattern & People"....


  18. The Village Record, Feb. 12, 1861, as transcribed on http://listsearches.rootsweb.com/th/read/PACHESTE/. Seen 5m/28/2009.


  19. Account of the Battle of the Brandywine by Joseph Townsend, which is reprinted in a number of places, in whole or in part.


  20. Dates of births and deaths before 1826 from "John Townsend's Family: Taken 10th Mo. 1st. 1826", Winterthur. My thanks to Lisa Minardi for sending me a facsimile page. Others from Concord Monthly Meeting Births and Deaths, 1679-1808; Three Hundred Years at Birmingham, Appendix D: Marriages at Birmingham, 1690-1940.


  21. 250 Years of Quakerism at Birmingham 1690-1940, (West Chester, Penna.: Birmingham Friends, 1940), as seen 10m/11/2007 on http://www.midatlanticarchives.com/db_pa_delaware_co/birmingham_mm_marriages/pg001.htm. This web site may no longer be functioning.


  22. Eli Kirk Price, Discourse on the Family as an Element of Government. Read before the American Philosophical Society, January, 1864 (Phila.: Caxton Press of C. Sherman, Son & Co., 1864), 56.


  23. 250 Years of Quakerism at Birmingham 1690-1940; Revolutionary War Military Abstract Card File at http://www.digitalarchives.state.pa.us/archive, seen 12m/8/2009.



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Common Vetch







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