Zacharias AHLBACH [aka] Zacharias AHLBACH [aka] Zachariah ALBAUGH
born circa 1698
probably at Flammersfeld, Grafschaft Sayn-Hachenburg
married 09 November 1718 at Flammersfeld
Anna Demuth (Dimeda) SCHUMANN
died before 27 March 1765
Frederick County, British Colonial Maryland
Hail to thee, web-weary traveler! You'll find here a narrative biography, woven around a collection of historical records. Its subject is Zachariah AHLBACH, scion of an old German family whose descendants today number in the tens of thousands. The author counts him twice as 8th-great grandfather, being doubly descended from him through the marriage of two cousins (wed circa 1786).
Why trouble to write this webpage? Chiefly, to set right what has long been wrong. Few families have a more confused published lineage than the AHLBACHs. Unnecessarily so! We all recognize that research has many pitfalls. Traditions are valuable starting points. Over time, unfortunately, they tend to lose the kernel of truth they contain. Inevitably, they fall victim to simple misunderstanding. We have here a German family in an English-speaking land. Their cultural traditions (among them rufnahmen - the pattern of conferring upon all offspring of a given gender the same first name -- then differentiating them by their second Christian name) innocently conspired to cause confusion. Certain errors were propounded and compounded in various published lineages of the AHLBACHs. Today, we've inherited quite a tangled skein. Not only did cousins share identical names, but their comings and goings also engendered a good deal of confusion. Researcher beware! The briefest internet search reveals that the vast majority of AHLBACH family trees available online are wildly incorrect. Some are laughable. Even preposterous.
Documentary evidence is the sine qua non of good research. Having carefullly examined all resources at my disposal, I have attempted to weave together many threads. Will flaws remain in my tapestry? Most assuredly, YES!!! I will endeavor to clearly delineate fact from hypothesis. And I will attempt to clearly set forth the reasons and evidences for my theories. You are welcome to accept or reject them.
I would like to thank the many cousins who preceded me and who graciously shared with me the first-hand research they themselves did. I have merely interpreted those facts they painstakingly unearthed. Literally dozens of cousins have contributed (knowingly or unknowingly) to my effort. At the top tier, most crucially, are Henry Z. 'Hank' JONES, the late Carla MITTELSTAADT-KUBASCH, Marjorie KERN, Sharon PAUL, Margaret MYERS, Erma DAY, Gale HONEYMAN, Roberta MILLER-HERBERT, Carol BOWEN, Nadine DUGUID HOLDER, Linda SHIELD TAYLOR, Judy FRANK, Sue BILLINGS, Lari NAISMITH, Robert R. WEILACHER, Neva ALBAUGH, Janet GOFF JENKINS, MARGE KING, and Joan COATES. There are others too. My thanks to them all.
This monograph is respectfully dedicated to the memory of the late Maurice 'Red' NEVERMAN, former Editor-in-chief of the [now defunct] ALBAUGH PROJECT NEWSLETTER.
Setting The Stage
In 1734, Zachariah AHLBACH and his family emigrated to America. As noted in foregoing webpages, research has conclusively established that Zachariah was the son of Anthonius AHLBACH and the grandson of Hans Theis AHLBACH. There are claims of even earlier history of the AHLBACH family, but ... they seem to rest on hearsay -- not verifiable documentation. If such documents exist, let them be shown!
By the third quarter of the 1600's, the AHLBACH clan were living in the twin villages of Flammersfeld and Ahlbach in the obscure German county of Sayn-Hachenburg. Flammersfeld was then and now the larger settlement, probably since the local Evangelical Reformed [Protestant] Church was and is still located there. Ahlbach today is a quaint hamlet of half-timbered houses, where dairy cattle graze amidst wild buttercups. Likely that image has changed little in 300 years. It's unclear whether the family took its name from the village, or vice-versa. This is our ancestral home.
And this is the Westerwald - where urban Germans traditionally come to escape city life and be refreshed by the tranquil countryside. Even before Caesar's time, Barbarian tribes had begun the process of clearing the primeval forest to exploit its rich soils. Great stands of timber remain even today. The area is drained by various creeks and larger tributaries of the Rhine River (hence the designation, Rhenish Westerwald). Today, Ahlbach (latitude 50.6500 60N; longitude 7.5167 0E; elevation 826 feet) is located in the Regierungsbezirk Koblenz, Landkreis Neuwied, Verbandsgemeinde Flammersfeld Westerwaldkreis, Rheinland-Pfalz.
Rheinland-Pfalz is a modern German state. But Ahlbach and Flammersfeld have been attached to several other geopolitical entities in the past. This part of the Rhineland was once known historically as the Palatinate. Simply put, the Palatinate was a zone of buffer states along greater Germany's western frontier. The region was administered by the kingdom of Bavaria (and later, Prussia). Associated with the Palatinate were numerous lesser feudal states: quasi-independent holdovers from medieval times - relics of the Holy Roman Empire. Among these bishoprics, duchies, and principalities were the twin counties of Sayn-Altenkirchen and Sayn-Hachenburg. In the German language, county is 'Grafschaft' and count is 'Graf.' Interestingly, the Grafschaft of Sayn-Hachenburg and the Grafschaft of Sayn-Altenkirchen were ruled by Grafin (countesses) who happened to be sisters.
For two centuries (1500-1700), the Rhineland had been stained red by incessant warfare - the struggles of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. The twin counties of Sayn-Hachenburg and Sayn-Altenkirchen were created in 1648 by the Peace of Westphalia -- the treaty which ended the Thirty Years War. But the bloodbath continued. In 1674 the Dutch War broke out. Next came the War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697), during which many towns along the Rhine were sacked. The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) followed. But political strife was a minor problem compared to starvation. In 1709, northern Europe had one of its worst winters on record. The Rhine River froze solid. Severe cold persisted into the spring, causing crop failures. Higher taxes, levied to finance war efforts, made a bad situation worse. Citizens of the Rheinland-Pfalz found themselves increasingly destitute -- unable to support themselves agriculturally. At the same time, William Penn circulated glowing accounts of land and opportunity in the English colonies, where hardworking men could build prosperous futures. In defiance of the Elector, who forbade them to leave, the predominantly Lutheran Palatines quietly arranged passage down the Rhine to the great Dutch port of Rotterdam, where waiting ships would take them to the New World. Between 1727-1775, some 69,000 Germans are said to have emigrated to Pennsylvania alone.
Among them were two AHLBACH brothers -- Zachariah and Johann Wilhelm. In spring or early summer 1734, they journeyed with their families to Rotterdam and sailed west aboard the galley HOPE. After a stop at Cowes (an English village on the Isle of Wight) to obtain the necessary permits, they crossed the blue Atlantic. Finally, on September 23rd, the nine AHLBACHs debarked at Philadelphia with 141 other Palatines to begin their new lives.
Initially, the brothers settled near one another in Hunterdon County, in what was then the province of West Jersey. Shortly afterward, Zachariah's family removed to Frederick County, Maryland. Some of William's line followed. In the early years of the 1800's, the greater clan spread across Pennsylvania and Ohio. Two specific lines of descent (the author's) from the immigrant Zachariah AHLBACH will be traced forward in subsequent pages.
From the stem of the original immigrant Zachariah I AHLBACH came at least six other Zachariahs. Each of these men has received (as per arbitrary but generally-held family convention) a Roman numeral to differentiate them. The immigrant Zachariah I sired four sons who survived to adulthood: (in order) Johann Wilhelm; Johann Gerhardt [aka Johannes aka John Sr., whom we shall revisit later]; Johann Peter, and Zachariah II. Three grandsons also bore the immigrant's name: Zachariah III (son of Zachariah II); Zachariah IV (son of Peter); and Zachariah V (son of Wilhelm). Another Zachariah (VI) was the great-grandson of the immigrant via Zachariah II's son Rev. David ALBAUGH. There may have been other Zachariahs, but these six individuals seem to be those most often confused in family histories. They are mentioned here for the sake of clarity. Attempted clarity, at any rate! :-)
That Zacharias (aka Zachariah) AHLBACH was the son of Anthonius (aka Thonges, Thunes) AHLBACH is demonstrated conclusively by the following record, cited by JONES and extracted from the archives of the German Reformed Church at Flammersfeld: 'Zacharias AHLBACH, son of Thonges AHLBACH - Sendschoffen at Ahlbach - married 09 November 1718 Anna Demuth, daughter of the late Nolgen SCHUMANN at Eychen.' A 'Sendschoffen' was a church councilman elected by the congregration and approved by the rector or priest. His duties included care of needy persons and identification of the fathers of illegitimate children. No baptismal record for Zacharias has been found. Because each of his brothers bore the saint's name of Johann in addition to their 'proper' Christian name, it is possible that Zacharias was actually christened 'Johann Zacharias.' Be that as it may, he was certainly old enough to take a wife in 1718. The nagging question is ... in what year was he born?
The answer may be found on the ship's passenger list for the HOPE [aka HOPE GALLEY], which brought the families of brothers Zacharias and Wilhelm AHLBACH to the New World in 1734. Several alternate transcriptions of the original passenger list exist, each of which varies slightly from the others (primarily in the number of passengers it records). STRASSBURGER's list [37a] is the most complete, identifying as it does 150 passengers by name, age and gender. For this reason, it is the 'preferred' transcription. Found there are entries for 'Zacharias OHLBACH, aged 36' and 'Johan Wilhelm OHLBACH, aged 28.' This would indicate that Zacharias had been born in either 1697 or 1698, depending upon his actual birth month.
Interestingly, the baptismal record of Zacharias' bride has been retrieved from the Flammersfeld church archives. The document shows that Anna Demuth, daughter of Nolgen SCHUCHMAN [sic] and Agnes, of Eichen, was baptized on 14 September 1698. Her sponsors were Thonges KLEIN at Hoben; and Gerhard, son of Johan ZILLES at Nieter Ehren (Niederahren) in Schöneberg parish. A comprehensive transcript for the majority of Old World (pre-immigration) AHLBACH records is planned at a future time.
The Children of Zachariah AHLBACH + Anna Demuth (Dimeda) SCHUMANN
In 1720, Zacharias and Anna were living at Eichen -- her family's village -- just south of Flammersfeld. Church records attest to that fact. On February 4th of that year, the couple brought their first child, son Johann Christophel, to be baptized at the Reformed Church in Flammersfeld. A second child of this couple -- an unnamed daughter -- was baptized 20 April 1721 at the Flammersfeld church. Another son was baptized 07 March 1723. Later evidence enables us to pinpoint this son (the third child) as Johann Wilhelm AHLBACH. His sponsors were Zacharias SCHMIDT; Johann Wil'm at AHLBACH (the infant's uncle); and Anna Margaretha at Eichen (presumably, the infant's paternal grandmother). From this point forward in time, gaps in the church records create some slight uncertainties. On 22 August 1727, an unnamed child of Zacharias and Anna was buried at Flammersfeld. Clearly, this was not William. Was it Christophel, the daughter, or possibly a fourth child???
Our next scrap of evidence is the 1734 passenger list for the galley HOPE. Listed together there are the families of both Zacharias and his younger brother Johann Wilhelm AHLBACH. The wives are easily identified, but generations of investigators have puzzled and argued over which children belonged to whom.
HOPE GALLEY [Passenger List 37A; excerpt] |
Daniel RIEDT, Comandr... 23 Sep 1734 [STRASSBURGER]
Zacharias OHLBACH ||
Johan Wilhelm OHLBACH ||
Anna Dumat OHLBACH ||
Anna Eliza OHLBACH ||
Joanis Wilhelm OHLBACH ||
Joanis Gerard OHLBACH ||
Anna Margaret OHLBACH ||
Gerderuth Margreta OHLBACH ||
Joanis Peter OHLBACH ||
2 ||It is not remotely possible to allocate all the children here to their proper parents on the evidence of the ship's passenger list alone. However, careful comparisons of this list of children with subsequent documents strongly suggest (if they do not prove conclusively) that the first three children (the older three) are the children of Zacharias and Anna; while the latter two (probably twins) belong to Johann Wilhelm and Anna Eliza[beth]. To this author's knowledge, this passenger list is the only documentation which (purportedly) provides six year old Johann [aka Johannes, aka Joanis] AHLBACH's middle name. As he grew to manhood, might young Johann Gerhart/Gerhardt AHLBACH have decided his middle name was entirely too German (old-fashioned)?.|
On April 5th, 1788, in Maryland, two men were ordered by the court of Frederick County to take a deposition from John ALBAUGH, Sr. John told these men that he was about 60 years of age.This means that he would have been born about 1728 -- the same year that 'Joanis Gerard OHLBACH' was born (according to the HOPE's passenger list). When the immigrant Zachariah AHLBACH died, John ALBAUGH, Sr. was listed as the deceased's second-eldest son, after William. Other evidence inevitably supports the hypothesis that Johann Gerhart ALBAUGH and John ALBAUGH, Sr. were one and the same individual. The highly-respected AHLBACH researcher Marjorie KERN opines, 'I have searched Maryland records since 1964 and have never seen a reference to John Gerhard Albaugh.'.The family of Zachariah AHLBACH and Anna Dimeda/Demuth SCHUMANN can be fully reconstructed by comparing baptisms, immigration lists, and land transactions with estate papers listing the couple's heirs. When the entire corpus of evidence is sifted, we are left with the following nine offspring - the fruit of 46 years of marriage:
Johann Christophel ... died young |
unnamed daughter ... died young |
Johann Wilhelm ... 1723-94 ... married Magdalena [-?-] |
Anna Margaretha ... 1726-? ... married John ARNOLD |
Johannes Sr ... 1728-1811 ... married Maria Catherine [-?-] |
Charity ... c1735-87 ... married Reinhard Martin WALTZ |
Johann Peter ... c1736-1811) ... married Gertraud (Charity) SCHMIDT |
Zachariah II c1738-1782) ... married Susannah [-?-] |
Eve ... c1742-c1794) ... married Philip DANNER |
Separate discussions of Johann Gerhart [aka John Sr.] and Zachariah II AHLBACH will follow in subsequent pages.
Coming To America
The last Old-World mention we have of the brothers AHLBACH is from the SAYN-HACHENBURG RECHNUNGEN [pg. 343]: 'Zacharias ALBACH of Flammersfeldt [sic] moved to America in 1734, sold his estate to various persons for 40 + 260 + ... fl' and 'Johann Wilhelm ALBACH moved to America in 1734, and sold his estate to several persons, taking with him after paying his debts, 707 fl. 7alb." It is interesting to note that in SAYN-HACHENBURG, the following relationships existed at that date between the various pieces of coin in circulation: 1 Taler = 1.5 Gulden = 90 Kreuzer = 45 Albus = 60 Stüber.
Why did the AHLBACH brothers decide to emigrate? Is there any significance to the time? Readers may recall that Anthonius AHLBACH was laid to rest at Flammersfeld 26 March 1731. It would seem that, of respect, his surviving sons (perhaps only Zacharias and Wilhelm by this time) had dutifully remained with their father through his last years. Or perhaps they first hatched the idea of emigrating after his death. We do not know.
In the late spring or early summer of 1734, a party of nine AHLBACHs (the aforementioned brothers Zacharias and Wilhelm, together with their families) traveled down the Rhine to the bustling Dutch port at its mouth -- Rotterdam. Arriving there, they took passage aboard a ship variously recorded as the HOPE or HOPE GALLEY . The HOPE had made a trans-Atlantic crossing in 1733 - arriving at the English colonial port of Philadelphia on 28th August. The 1733 voyage required 3 months and 26 days to sail from Rotterdam in the Netherlands to Cowes, England [on the Isle of Wight] and from thence to Philadelphia. Why Cowes? Likely to take on final cargo/supplies for the ocean crossing and to obtain permission from the English crown to travel to the English colonies. Was this the same ship (a galley?) which duplicated its voyage in 1734, or a different vessel entirely? It is interesting to note that Daniel Riedt [Reid] was the ship's commander in both years. Note also that 'Zacharias SLUMNERFELD' aka 'Zacharias FLAMERFELD' and his wife Gerderuth were passengers aboard the HOPE. It would seem that this couple came from the village of Flammersfeld. If so, they would doubtless have been known to the AHLBACHs.
The West Jersey Years (1734-1747)
Shortly after their arrival in the New World, the brothers AHLBACH -- Zachariah and Wilhelm -- jointly decided to settle their families north of Philadelphia across the Delaware River, on lands belonging to a group of investors called the West Jersey Society. Chartered in 1691-92, the Society was made up of land speculators, mostly London residents, who were represented in America by an agent. The agent's responsibility was to administer the Society's landholdings. He coordinated land surveys; arranged contracts [to buy, sell or lease farms]; and collected rent. In the remote wilderness, however, immigrant families sometimes arrived and built cabins on the Society's land before they had obtained explicit permission to do so.
One of the West Jersey Society's properties was its 100,000-acre 'Great Tract.' It was sited in the northern portion of what is today Hunterdon County -- in present-day Alexandria and Holland townships. SNELL's 1881 History of Hunterdon and Somerset Counties [New Jersey] confidently places the early ALPAUGHs a mile south of Cokesburg; and later as settlers in Tewksbury Township. Still other authorities feel the earliest ALBACKs dwelt somewhere between High Bridge and Cokesburg; or at Little York in Alexandria Township. An in-depth discussion of early Hunterdon County history is found HERE. In 1735, Lewis MORRIS, Jr. -- son of Society agent Colonel Lewis MORRIS and acting at his father's request -- met with homesteaders occupying the Great Tract. His purpose was to formalize leases with settlers living on Society lands who were not yet under contract. Had the brothers AHLBACH already executed lease agreements? We do not know. The names Zachariah and William ALBACK [sic] do appear, however, on a list of 97 heads of households successfully enrolled as lessees by Lewis MORRIS, Jr. in 1735. Each of the brothers leased 100 acres of the Great Tract. A neighboring lessee (150 acres) was 'Zacharias SOMMENSFELT.' He may well have been the 'Zacharias FLAMERFELD' who had sailed to America with the AHLBACHs aboard the galley HOPE the year before.
Little significance should be attached to the variant spellings of the family surname at these early dates. Phonetic rendering was commonplace, reflecting the creative whim of local English-speaking scribes or county clerks.
New Jersey Counties
Hunterdon County Townships
Zachariah AHLBACH remained twelve years upon his West Jersey leasehold. During that interval, he somehow became acquainted with Lord BALTIMORE's land agents. Perhaps their attractive 'premiums for immigration' had piqued his interest. In 1732, Charles CALVERT, 5th Lord BALTIMORE and Proprietary Governor
of the British colony of Maryland
, offered 100 acres to single men and 200 acres to families if they would settle on his lands between the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers [click HERE
for further information]. Similar inducements were made in subsequent years. Was the prospect of doubling his leasehold land what prompted Zachariah to move south? We do not know. We do know that by the latter part of February 1748, he and his family were living on lot #60 of the Proprietor's Monocacy Manor, in colonial Frederick County, Maryland [see below]. Sources conflict as to the precise date of the original lease: either 20/28 February, 1748.
Zachariah's younger brother and co-immigrant, Johann Wilhelm AHLBACH, chose to remain behind in northern New Jersey. In 1755, Will'm ALBAK was appointed overseer of roads in Tewksbury Township, according to Tewksbury Town Records. Wilhelm's signature appears on a rent receipt of West Jersey Society lands dated 02 Aug 1758. Unverified sources suggest that Johann Wilhelm AHLBACH died in Tewksbury Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey sometime around 1788. Sometime after 1772, however, William's son George joined his cousins in Maryland -- thereby complicating future generations' understanding of whose son he actually was. Readers seeking additional information about George AHLBACH and his line [which eventually settled in eastern Ohio] are invited to click HERE.
The Reformed Perspective
In 1747, German Reformed ministers in Philadelphia established an assembly (a coetus), to manage the affairs of the various German Reformed congregations in America. The following year (1748), the Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania was established to help guide Lutheran church life in that colony and in Maryland. At exactly the same time, Zachariah AHLBACH made plans to translate his family from colonial New Jersey to western Maryland. Coincidence?
Dr. Emmert F. BITTINGER names Zachariah AHLBACH as a member of the Amwell German Baptist Church [which later became the Amwell Church of the Brethren] in Hunterdon County [see references below, and an interesting further bibliography HERE]. This may have been so, but there were few local alternatives for worship in West Jersey at that date.
Worthy of consideration is the fact that the AHLBACHs had been German Reformed Calvinist back in the Old Country. They brought with them the Heidelberg Catechism, large German Bibles, prayer books and strong faith. Reformed conservatism was certainly at odds with the doctrine expounded by the Schwarzenau Brethren, who subscribed to more radical Anabaptist views. A fundamental controversy which irreconcilably divided these denominations centered upon baptism. Readers may recall that the AHLBACHs were baptized in the Old World as infants, according to historic Reformed belief. Dunkards and Brethren hold that infant baptism is meaningless -- advancing in its stead an adult 'believer's baptism.' Researchers are doubtless aware of the large number of surviving baptismal records of AHLBACH children from New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland. This would be completely at odds with the beliefs of the Dunkards and Brethren, had Zachariah AHLBACH actually joined with this sect. This author suggests that he did not.
In October 1979, Mrs. Teresa HARTMAN of Brookville, Ohio visited her grandmother's cousin, Edna BEAMER, in Ft. Wayne, Indiana. Edna had in her possession at that time a leather-bound book -- a 1792 Heidelberg catechism and hymnal -- which had once belonged to her great-great-grandmother, Elizabeth ALBAUGH BEAMER. Fastened with a metal clasp, this delicate heirloom measured approximately 4 X 8 inches and bore the inscription, 'Elizabeth ALBAUGH, daughter of George and Mary ALBAUGH.' At Edna's death, this book vanished into oblivion. Its very existence, however, testifies to the fact that the ALBAUGH family's Reformed faith was very much alive in Maryland -- and accompanied the clan west as they journeyed into Pennsylvania and Ohio].
Monocacy and Conococheague (1747-1765)
The rolling hills of Maryland's Piedmont plateau give way in western Frederick County to the higher elevations of Catoctin Mountain - part of the Blue Ridge geologic formation. Between Catoctin Mountain and Parr's Ridge on the east lies the valley of the Monocacy River. The name 'Monnockkesy' is supposedly Shawnee for 'river of many bends' [which seems also to be the meaning of the Delaware word, 'Conococheague']. The Monocacy is the largest of the Potomac's Maryland tributaries. Because it flows predominantly north to south over its 58-mile course, it was never extensively navigated -- being inefficient for commercial east-west traffic between Washington and Baltimore. The Monocacy empties into the Potomac at Dickerson, Maryland. The Piedmont's sylvan countryside probably reminded the AHLBACHS of the Rhenish Westerwald back home in Germany. An 17th-century visitor to the area -- standing amidst chestnut, hickory, sycamore and oak trees -- wrote that it was 'without question the most healthful and pleasant place ... and [as for] for deer, buffaloes, bears, turkey ... the woods do swarm with them and the soil is exceedingly fertile.' A large proportion of the region's earliest pioneers were of German blood.
And the largest part of these German settlers were either Lutheran or Calvinist [German Evangelical or Dutch Reformed] in their beliefs. The congregation at Monocacy (founded circa 1738) spawned many others that followed in western Maryland. Exactly where the first log cabin church stood is a matter of enduring debate - in fact, the Monocacy Archeological Society is presently seeking its original site. NEAD quoted SCHULTZ's statement that the Old Monocacy Church was located south of present-day Creagerstown. RICE, on the other hand, suggested its true location was just south of modern Thurmont. Both sites lie within a ten mile radius of Monocacy Manor.
Frederick County Geography
At first, Bible readings were held in private homes (or occasionally, barn haylofts). When at last formal worship services began, they were conducted by itinerant ministers from Pennsylvania, like the Reverends Johann Caspar STOEVER [father and son], Micheal SCHLATTER [of the Holland Synod] and MUHLENBERG. In 1742, the Monocacy parishioners secured the services of resident Pastor David CANDLER. Both Lutherans and German Reformed Calvinists were apparently represented in the unified (Union) congregation. Though differing slightly in doctrinal belief, these two denominations peaceably co-existed for the most part, and tended to share common resources (such as pastors, churches and schools). If necessary, they worshiped on alternating Sundays. When CANDLER died in 1744, a period of uncertainty and turmoil began. Evidently, the congregation made various appeals to other denominations (e.g. the Moravian/Brethren church at Graceham) and far-removed Lutheran congregations (like that of Laurentius NYBER at Lancaster) for help in finding a new preacher. A schism of ill-will developed. Moravian missionaries dispatched to Monocacy attempted to convert the parishioners to their own sectarian beliefs. Rev. Georg NINKE, a Moravian, had the church door closed to him after only one service by the more orthodox congregants. NINKE's followers thereafter met at the home of Jacob WELLER for worship and instruction. At the same time, the more orthodox parishioners fell in behind a dissolute impostor -- 'Reverend' Carl RUDOLPH. Claiming to be a Lutheran from Georgia, he soon disgraced himself and fled. In 1752, a competent pastor, Bernard Michael HAUSIHL, finally arrived on the scene, restoring stability to Monocacy's fractured church life.
It seems that from the original root church at Monocacy, two similarly named churches evolved: the Evangelical Lutheran and the Evangelical Reformed Churches. Both were based at Frederick. Intimately associated with the Evangelical Reformed Church was the Glade Reformed Church, first organized in 1750. Its services were held exclusively in German until 1823. In 1833, Glade joined with three other small Reformed congregations -- St. John's Woodsboro, St. John's Creagerstown, and Rocky Hill [aka Grace Reformed] -- to form a larger, stronger body. Finally, in 1957, the Glade-associated churches were amalgamated into the Walkerville, Maryland United Church of Christ.
The ALBAUGHS were intimately involved with at least two of these churches. On 22 May 1775 [according to microfilmed records at the Maryland Historical Society], William ALLBACH [sic], Magdalena ALLBACH, William ALLBACH, Jr., Christian ALLBACH, George ALLBACH and Maria ALLBACH all declared themselves members of the Glade Reformed congregation. George was first mentioned in Glade church records in 1773, when he stood as witness to a baptism and received communion with his wife, Maria. George and Maria witnessed another baptism together at Glade in 1782. On 18 December 1785, Julianna ALBAUGH [daughter of John Sr. and Maria Catherine] was confirmed at the age of 17 at the Rocky Hill Reformed Church.
Union Chapel (today's Chapel Lutheran Church) was organized by both Lutheran and Reformed congregations in 1864/1865 at the modern intersection of Daysville Road and Chestnut Grove Road, between Libertytown and Walkersville, Maryland. Among its principal organizers were Joshua ALBAUGH [deacon and secretary], Lewis A. ALBAUGH, Jacob PITTINGER, Sophia ALBAUGH and Susannah ALBAUGH. Later church elders included John H. ALBAUGH, Valentine ALBAUGH and Daniel ETZLER.
Recall that Zachariah AHLBACH had settled at Monocacy Manor with his family by February 1748. Monocacy Manor was a 10,000-acre tract orginally surveyed for the 5th Lord BALTIMORE on 29 May 1724. MARYE  wrote, 'Apparently the manor begins at or near the mouth of Glade Creek and extends north to about the latitude of Woodsboro, and east far enough to include Laurel Hill.' He also explained that the tract's east-west dimension varied from a minimum of 3 1/2 miles to a maximum of 5 1/3 miles. The Monocacy itself formed the meandering western border. The eastern boundary was a straight line running north and south. TRACEY and DERN  added that, 'Monocacy Manor was located east of the Monocacy River ... beginning at the mouth of Glade Creek. From there the manor extended north and east to a point one mile beyond present-day Woodsboro.'
Prior to 1760, Lord BALTIMORE's lease terms for Monocacy Manor were contingent upon the lives of two or three individuals. When the last of the parties named expired, the lease term ended. After 1760, the formula was simplified - the lease term being fixed at 21 years. Zachariah ALBOUGH leased three tracts - Monocacy Manor lot #60 [224 acres, leased 28 Feb 1748 on the lives of his sons John and Peter, annual rent £1, 2s, 6d, alienation fine £2, 5s, 0d]; lot #61 [22 acres, leased 04 Jun 1763 for 21 years, annual rent £0, 4s, 5 1/2d, alienation fine £0, 8s, 11d]; and lot #62 [77.5 acres, leased 16 Jun 1763 for 21 years, annual rent £0, 13s, 6d, alienation fine £1, 7s, 0d]. WEILACHER explains that an 'alienation fine [was] a taxing structure established in feudal England to raise additional capital for a landlord above the traditional quit-rent for use of the land. Zachariah ALBOUGH leased 323 1/2 acres for an annual rent of one pound, nineteen shillings, and seventeen and one-half pence, plus an alienation fine [tax] of three pounds, twenty shillings, and eleven pence. The total rents due the Proprietary (landlord) were nearly $20.00 a year in today's estimated money equivalent.'
The earliest surviving tax list for the inhabitants of Monocacy Manor was drawn up in 1757. The next available taxpayers list is dated 1767. Between these dates, Samuel BEAL's 'ACCOUNT OF MANOCACYE'  seems to suggest that Zachariah ALBOUGH was paying rent at that time to Major Joseph WOOD. This clearly implies that Zachariah had sublet at least part of the Major's leasehold farm.
On 10 October 1781, the 8983 acres then comprising Monocacy Manor were sold. The title held by Lord BALTIMORE [and subsequently transferred to Daniel DULANY], which had been granted years before by the British Crown, was revoked by the State of Maryland in the aftermath of the American Revolution. Surviving records indicate that the tenants living on the 333-acre parcel of lots 60-62 were John BARRICK and J. WOOD. The three-lot parcel was sold to William WHITCRAFT for £ 3,040. John BARRICK also tenanted the 103-acre lot #27, with various members of his family holding several additional lots. J. WOOD is presumably the Maj. J. WOOD who is listed as tenant on conjoint lots # 56-57 (198 acres). A 'Colonel J. WOOD' is identified as the purchaser of the 47-acre lot #84, and the 68-acre lot #52 (which he previously tenanted, along with the 63-acre conjoint parcel lot # 53-54]. It is believed that Maj. J. Wood and Col. Joseph WOOD are one and the same person -- the individual for whom the nearby community of Woodsboro was named. The State of Maryland netted £60,555 in total for the Monocacy Manor property, partly paid by the redemption of bounty land certificates issued various military officers of the Maryland line for their wartime service.
Location of Conococheague Manor
Monocacy Manor Lots [Plat Map]
Tracing Lands Through Time
The plat map above of the final disposition of Monocacy Manor's lots was published in TRACEY and DERN's 1987 work, 'PIONEERS OF OLD MONOCACY: THE EARLY SETTLEMENT OF FREDERICK COUNTY, MARYLAND 1721-1743.' Superimposing that plat map on recent high-definition satellite photos permits us to see where the AHLBACH leasehold was sited. Granted, the possibility exists that this overlay may be inexact, or even incorrect. But there seems to be a reasonable concordance between the plat map and modern topography [reference anchor point is the mouth of Glade Creek]. Lots 60, 61, and 62 correspond to a swath of farmland at the extreme northeast tip of Walkersville, Maryland. The general site is just north of the intersection of Daysville Road and the Woodsboro Pike, where Daysville Road becomes Devilbiss Bridge Road. Cleared 260 years ago, the land is still under cultivation today. An unnamed creek lies just east of this area -- probably the family's source of potable water.
Satellite Image Composite
Frederick County, Maryland
Warning - Large File [1.5 MB]
Satellite Image Composite
w/ Monocacy Plat Map Overlay
Warning - Large File [1.4 MB]
Monocacy Lots 60-62 Today
NE Corner Walkersville, MD
Monocacy Lots 60-62
Same View; Close-Up
Now, a question arises. The graveyard at Chapel Lutheran church [formerly Union Chapel] is approximately three miles east of Zachariah's Monocacy Manor leasehold -- assuming the overlay of the plat map on the satellite photos is accurate. It is marked by a red arrow on the images above. The church property, at the modern intersection of Daysville Road and Chestnut Grove Road, is generally thought by ALBAUGH family investigators to have once belonged (at least in part) to Zachariah AHLBACH. In fact, the old chiseled fieldstones which are the AHLBACH gravemarkers supposedly sit on what was once Zachariah's farm. Zachariah's fieldstone, if ever it was truly there, long ago sank beneath the sod. But the stone memorializing his wife -- Anna Dimeda (Demuth) SCHUMANN -- was still above ground and identifiable in the latter 1990's. Its delicate German tracery inscription identifies her as 'Anna Dimeda ALBACHIN' -- the suffix 'in' being an antique German feminine form.
Was a portion of the present Chapel Lutheran graveyard [aka Liberty Chapel] once owned by Zachariah AHLBACH? We cannot definitively answer that question. The proof is missing. Certainly it would make sense. Note that the location of today's Israel Creek Cemetery in Frederick County corresponds almost exactly to our best guess of where Monocacy Manor lots #60-62 were sited. But that does not really help us. Might the present Chapel Lutheran cemetery have been struck off from property owned by Zachariah or one of his descendants? Or could Zachariah have been laid to rest in property owned by his church?
Chapel Lutheran Church/Cemetery
Frederick County, Maryland
Chapel Lutheran Church/Cemetery
Chapel Lutheran Church/Cemetery
On 10 August 1753, Zachariah ALBOUGH was awarded a 125-acre land patent by Maryland's colonial government. The land was christened 'ALBOUGH's DELIGHT.' The next day, 11 August 1753, a second patent was issued for another 125-acre tract. It was christened, 'ALBOUGH's CHOICE.' Another 40-acre parcel was added 01 October 1753 and called 'MARRIED MAN's DELIGHT.' Could any of these parcels be potential candidates for the Chapel Lutheran graveyard property?
It is possible. Their status as leaseholds versus land with free-and-clear title is rather gray. Witness the following document [source: Maryland Hall of Records, Indexed Land Office Documents, Frederick County: Certificate 277 -- Liber BC&GS #25, Folio 117; and Liber BC&GS #27, Folio 230]:
By virtue of a special warrant of resurvey granted out of His Lordship's land office in this province to William ALBAUGH, son and heir-at-law of Zachariah ALBAUGH, deceased, of the county aforesaid [Frederick] and bearing the date 27 March 1765, to resurvey the following tracts of land lying in the county aforesaid, viz: 'ALBAUGH's CHOICE,' originally on the 11th day of August, anno domini 1753, granted the petitioner's father for 125 acres; 'THE MARRIED MAN's DELIGHT,' originally on the 1st day of October, anno domini 1753, granted the petitioner's father for 40 acres; doth under [?] new rent to resurvey the aforesaid tract on the parcels of land, to amend all and to add the contiguous vacancy, I therefore certify as deputy surveyor under His Excellency Horatio SHARP, Governor of Maryland, that I have carefully resurveyed for and in the name of the said William ALBAUGH the said tracts of land and find that 'ALBAUGH's CHOICE' contains 130 acres, being five acres more than formerly granted; I also find that 'THE MARRIED MAN's DELIGHT' runs into 'ALBAUGH's CHOICE' and contains clear only 38 acres, being two acres less than was formerly granted; and I have added two pieces of contiguous vacancy containing 109 acres and have reduced the whole into one entire tract, lastly beginning for the ..... [description of metes and bounds] ..... containing and now laid out for 227 acres of land to be held on Conococheague Manor. |
October 9, 1765
I have received two shillings for the within two acres of surplus; five pounds, nine shillings for the 109 acre vacancy; and one pound, ten shillings for the improvements. Patent may therefore issue with the Excellency's approbation.
From this resurvey warrant, we learn several things. First, sometime prior to 27 Mar 1765, the immigrant Zachariah ALBAUGH had died. Second, that William ALBAUGH was his heir-at-law. Third, that the combined 227-acre tract above-described was to be 'held' on Conococheague Manor. That terminology is in itself problematical, for several reasons.
Conococheague Manor lay in that part of old Frederick County which later became Washington County -- and was located several miles west of Monocacy Manor [see image above]. On 5 April 1788, John ALBAUGH, Sr.; Samuel WALTZ, and Zachariah ALBAUGH jointly entered court depositions that a certain landmark representing a surveyed corner of ALBAUGH's CHOICE was located 'NEAR THE MAIN ROAD LEADING FROM LIBERTY TOWN TO FREDERICK TOWN.' That unambiguous wording corresponds to an area which in 1765 was located in Frederick County and was still located in Frederick County in 1788. It was never in Washington County. Yet the historic Conococheague Manor was in Washington County. Explanation? It seems the resurvey warrant dated 09 October 1765 mistakenly references Conococheague Manor as the site of Zachariah's 227 acres when, in fact, it should reference Monocacy Manor as their true location.
Further ... does this document actually grant free and clear title to William ALBAUGH, heir-at-law of Zachariah ALBAUGH, deceased? Or does it merely reconfirm a leasehold, given the '227 acres is to be held on Conococheague Manor.' ??? Strange that a conveyance purporting to grant free title should nowhere record any receipt of payment - barring the miscellaneous fee adjustments mentioned at the end.
And finally ... we have no mention here of Zachariah's first land grant -- the parcel he christened 'ALBOUGH's DELIGHT.' Because the surveyor did not amalgamate it with the other two tracts, was it not a contiguous parcel of land?
The record is silent on this point. The author has not found any land record or conveyance which mentions both ALBOUGH's DELIGHT and ALBOUGH's CHOICE. The implication is that these parcels lie at some distance from one another (admittedly, an uncertain conclusion). A certain DEED dated 20 August 1768 from William ALBOUGH to Zachariah ALBOUGH fills in some of the gaps in our knowledge [source: Frederick County Land Records Liber L; Folio 454 (microfilm #13941); courtesy Sharon PAUL]. Evidently, William ALBAUGH as eldest son and heir of Zachariah inherited ALBOUGH's DELIGHT. We know from later documents that the Zachariah who took title was William's little brother Zachariah II -- since it was Zachariah II's wife and heirs who eventually resold the property. In 1768, the 133 acres of ALBOUGH's DELIGHT changed hands between brothers for £100; with an alienation fee of 5s, 3d. But where precisely this tract was located is unknown. Its modern-day site cannot be determined from the evidence at hand.
As we have seen above, Zachariah ALBAUGH was definitely deceased by 27 March 1765 -- the date his son and heir William was granted permission to resurvey ALBAUGH's CHOICE and MARRIED MAN's DELIGHT. We know also, by specific references made in a lease assigment dated 19 Sep 1774, that Zachariah had died intestate (leaving no will). We know also that at the time of his death he held 22 acres of leased land at Monocacy Manor known as the, 'ADDITION TO STORY's CHANCE.' Was this the final homestead? It may well have been so. From the later 1750's, it is clear that Zachariah's eldest son, William, was the family's de facto leader - inasmuch as he (William) was the one who masterminded the various redistributions of land originally held by his father. In the assignment of lease made 19 September 1774, all the older male ALBAUGHs signed off their rights to the 22-acre leasehold in favor of their brother, Peter. There is no mention in that document of Anna Dimeda ALBAUGH's dower rights as Zachariah's widow. Presumably, then, she was already deceased. In fact, Anna's stone at the Union Chapel Cemetery bears witness to her death in 1773. Does Zachariah lie at her side -- his stone sunken below the turf? It is comforting, somehow, to think that is indeed the case.
A Fond Farewell
There is an elegance in simplicity. I will conclude this monograph with the words of Sue BILLINGS, who in 1998 shared this touching piece with a group of ALBAUGH cousins ...
I just wanted to tell you all that this past weekend I kneeled on my great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandmother's grave in Libertytown, Maryland. My husband and I went to the Union Chapel Cemetery on Daysville Road in Frederick County. I wanted to find the grave of Anna Dimeda AHLBACH. I found what was left of her stone. It
is flaking apart. I thought it was beautiful. It's difficult to explain what I felt. Did she ever think that her great-great-great-great-great-great-great-granddaughter would be visiting her grave? I am not very good with words. My husband and sons write so wonderfully but it's not something I do as well. I'll do my best for all of you. I asked my husband, Alan, if he would go by the Union Chapel Cemetery on Daysville Road, just outside of Libertytown, Frederick County, Maryland, on his bike ride. He takes one every Sunday, not always to the same place. He did and later in the afternoon he took me there. I think the church is called Chapel Lutheran Church. We drove into the cemetery and parked the car near the end of the grounds. There were a few old stones spaced in an open area. No newer stones are in that area. There is a fence around the cemetery. At the back of the grounds is a house trailer. Beyond that are woods. The whole area is surrounded by cornfields which were being harvested while we were there. Across from
the church was a pasture of cows that were heading in to be milked. A very beautiful and peaceful place. I found Anna's stone rather quickly. It was one of a few very old and different looking stones. I knew it was her stone because it had part of her name 'Anna' on it. It is getting in very bad shape. It's flaking apart. I found out that she was buried there from the NAMES IN STONE book by HOLDCRAFT. It states in the book that the stone is not in
the best shape then. The stone is half of an ellipse, more oblong than circular, and low to the ground. About a foot and a half high. The words are in German on the front and back of the stone. I didn't write down what it said. I
took pictures, though. If I can't read it from the pictures, I'll go back and copy what is on the stone. I felt so sad in a way. Here lies this woman who started a line of descendants down to me, and I don't know what she looked like or what she thought about coming to America or much else about her. I felt sad that I'll never know those things. But I also felt very special to be a part of her. I really just can't explain all that I felt, but I'm sure all of you can understand it. Zachariah's stone was not there. There was no stone beside Anna. There were a few unreadable stones. No words were left, flaked apart I would presume. Another old stone like Anna's had part of the name 'gdlena.' Alan thinks it could be Magdalena's, wife of Johann Wilhelm ALBAUGH. Anyway, I also found the stones of Cap. Daniel ALBAUGH, Sr. and his two wives (I am descended from Daniel and Senah). They were
called 'consorts' on the tombstones. I thought that was interesting. I also found a very old stone of Dorodea ALBACHIN. All in German. I'm not sure who she is. We didn't have much time because we needed to get back home. I plan on going back again and look around more thoroughly. I hope you all enjoy this picture in words. I enjoyed sharing it with all of you. |
Readers are invited now to click on either of the links below to follow the story into the next generation - through the immigrant Zachariah's sons - John ALBAUGH Sr. [aka Johann Gerhart] and his younger brother, Zachariah II ALBAUGH.
- JONES, HZ: More Palatine Families: Some Immigrants To The Middle Colonies
1717-1776 and Their European Origins, Plus New Discoveries On
German Families Who Arrived In Colonial New York in 1710;
Picton Press [Reprint]; Rockland, Maine (1991).
- MITTELSTAADT-KUBASCH, Carla (deceased)
Professional Genealogist/Researcher for JONES, above.
- SAYN-HACHENBURG RECHNUNGEN
VOLUME I: Page 343
Mosbacher Strasse 55
D-65187 Wiesbaden, Deutschland/Germany
- LANDESVERMESSUNGSAMT RHEINLAND-PFALZ
Ferdinand-Sauerbruch Strasse 15
D-56014 Koblenz, Deutschland/Germany
- HACHENBURG: STADTARCHIV
D-57622 Hachenburg, Deutschland/Germany
- MINUTES OF THE PROVINCIAL COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA, Volume III
Jo. Severns & Co., Philadelphia, 1852.
See especially pgs. 28-29; 570.
- STRASSBURGER, RB; HINKE, WJ: Pennsylvania German Pioneers:
A Publication Of The Original Lists Of Arrivals In The Port Of Philadelphia
From 1727 To 1808; published (in 2 vols.) by the Pennsylvania German Society,
Norristown, PA, 1934. See especially Vol. I; pg. 142-144.
- RUPP, ID: A Collection Of Upwards Of Thirty Thousand Names Of German,
Swiss, Dutch, French And Other Immigrants In Pennsylvania From 1727 to 1776
[originally published 1876 by I.G. KOHLER; Philadelphia; reprinted 1931];
Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, 2006. See especially pgs. 97; 272.
- SNELL, JP: History of Hunterdon & Somerset Counties, New Jersey;
published by Everts and Peck, Philadelphia, 1881.
- CHAMBERS, HTF: The Early Germans Of New Jersey - Their History, Churches
And Genealogy [originally published 1895]; Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, 2008.
See especially pg. 634-635.
- Liber M:361 West Jersey Society Surveyor General's Records [Burlington]
[originals at Rutgers University until Dec 2005; then transferred to NJ State Archives]
Surveyor General's Office [for West Jersey Proprietary Records]
c/o Mr. Robert HAINES, Clerk
230 High Street [P.O. Box 158]
Burlington, NJ 08016
- SCHNEIDER, Konrad - Numismatics Expert at Stadtarchiv, Frankfurt
personal email correspondance re: his oral abstract:
'Pennies and Hellers along Rhine and Moselle
from the late Mediaeval Period till well into the 19th Century'
presented May 2002 at the Amsterdam/Leiden [Netherlands] Symposium
'Wages And Currency: Global And Historical Comparisons.'
- GARDNER, CC: Genealogical Magazine of New Jersey, Vol. XIX (Oct 1944): 74,
published by the Genealogical Society of New Jersey,
Box 1291, New Brunswick, NJ 08903.
- EMLEY Papers #0026, 2:66 - Hunterton County [NJ] Historical Society.
- RACE, Henry: 'The West Jersey Society’s Great Tract In Hunterdon County;'
originally published in 'The Jerseyman,' Vol. 3, No. 1 (Apr 1895)
- COLDHAM, PW: Settlers of Maryland 1751-1765; pg. 3,
Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore,1996.
- CALVERT Papers [MS 174; film #10] - Maryland Historical Society
201 West Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-4674
- Frederick County, Maryland Rent Rolls 1760-1761
in 'Western Maryland Genealogy,' Vol. 2 [Jul 1986]: pg. 111
edited by Donna Valley RUSSELL, CG, FASG
Catoctin Press, P.O. Box 505, New Market, MD 21774-0505
- WYAND, JA: 'The Hundreds of Washington County'
in Maryland Historical Magazine; Vol. 67 (1972): 302;
Maryland Historical Society,
201 West Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-4674
- WILLIAMS, TJC: A History Of Washington County, Maryland,
published by RUNK & TITSWORTH; Hagerstown, 1906.
- WILLIAMS, TJC; MCKINSEY F: A History Of Frederick County, Maryland
originally published by TITSWORTH & Company, Hagerstown, 1910;
reprint Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, 2008.
See especially pg. 327-329.
- SCHARF, JT: History Of Western Maryland: Being A History Of Frederick,
Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegheny And Garrett Counties
published by Louis H. EVERTS, Philadelphia, 1882.
See especially pg. 635.
- SCHARF, JT: A History of Maryland From The Earliest Period To The Present Day
published by John B. PIET, Baltimore, 1879.
- NEAD, DW: The Pennsylvania-German In The Settlement Of Maryland,
originally published by Press Of The New Era Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA, 1914,
reprint Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1975.
See especially pgs. 29-31, 40.
- MCDERMOTT, PD: 'Conococheague Manor: A View Of Early Settlement
And Vernacular Architecture in the Backcountry' which appeared in Catoctin History,
Spring/Summer 2006; published by the Catoctin Center for Regional Studies, Frederick, MD.
- TRACEY, GL; DERN, JP: Pioneers of Old Monocacy -
The Early Settlement of Frederick County, Maryland 1721-1743
Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, 1987.
- BRUMBAUGH, GM: Maryland Records: Colonial, Revolutionary, County and Church
[Vol. II: pg. 55-56] Lancaster [PA] Press, 1915.
- WEILACHER, RR: ALBAUGH Family Essays - American Origins
privately published at Dallas, TX, 1979.
- ALBAUGH, Noah H. (1834-1907); AULABAUGH, Josiah A.: Genealogy Of The ALBAUGH Families
Privately printed, 1899. Copy on file at Indiana State Library, Indianapolis.
- LEATHERWOOD, Nancy ALBAUGH (1873-1961): The ALBAUGH Families
Privately printed, date unknown. Copy in Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
- BITTINGER, EF: Allegheny Passage, Churches and Families,
West Marva District Church of the Brethren, 1752-1990,
Penobscot Press, Camden, Maine, 1990.
- BUTLER, J; WACKER, G; BALMER, R; et al: Religion In American Life - A Short History
Oxford University Press, US, 2008.
- Webpage Notes
cited by Jeri Helms FULTZ, online.
- MARYE, WB: 'The Old Indian Road' which appeared in
Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. XV, No. 2: 368-369 (Jun 1920)
- PASSANO, EP [Mrs. Edward Boteler PASSANO]:
An Index of the Source Records of Maryland: Genealogical, Biographical, Historical
originally published by Waverly Press, Baltimore, 1940;
reprint Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore,1967.
See especially pg. 468-469.
- KERN, Marjorie: citing 'Julian' ALBAUGH's confirmation:
Reformed Church Records I and II of Frederick, Maryland; pg. 357
Reformed Church Archives, Franklin Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
- PERDUE, Coleen ... email 'firstname.lastname@example.org'
- NEVERMAN, Maurice 'Red' (deceased) - ALBAUGH PROJECT NEWSLETTER - various issues
[including Albaugh Project Bulletin Vol 2; No. 3; August 1996].
While the information set forth herein is, to the best of the author's knowledge,
correct, no guarantee either express or implied is made by the author with respect
to its factual accuracy. Furthermore, the author is not responsible for any
consequences arising from its use. While the information presented within this website
is drawn primarily from verifiable historical sources, some material may
reflect the author's personal opinion.
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LAST UPDATE - 14 Feb 2009