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RICHEY "Sarilda Sorilda Sarilda" Sarelda
    Trees of Ancestry     Descendancy tree     Timeline
    Father : RICHEY Zachariah Runi (1797 - 1887) (Age in the birth of the child : 26 years old)
    Mother : MCDANIEL Elizabeth Betsey (1800 - 1877) (Age in the birth of the child : 23 years old)
    Siblings :
       RICHEY William (1815 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1892 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Martha Harrison (1817 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1898 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Sarah (1819 - 1855)
       RICHEY Hickman Powers (1821 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1911 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Zachariah A (1827 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1905 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Joshua (1829 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1844 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Eliza (1831)
       RICHEY Elizabeth (1833 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Susan Ann (1835 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY John David (1838 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1921 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Leonidas M. (1840 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1899 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Isaac E. (1843 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Fisk (1879 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
       RICHEY Benjamine (?)
    Birth :
          Date : 1 DEC 1823
          Place : Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA
    Death :
          Date : 8 JUN 1890 (66 years old)
          Place : Galena, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA
    Burial :
          Place : Galena, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA
          Address : Stevenson Cemetery
          Note :
Sarilda Ritchie Stephenson, b. Dec 1,1823. Daughter to Zachariah Runi Ritchie and Elizabeth McDaniel or McDonnald. Married to John A. Stephenson (the two people in the picture) John died and is buried in Barterville Cem, Barterville, KY.
- Sally Davis 
 Added: Nov. 24, 2009
Stone Inscription reads"Mother" A precious one from us has gone, A voice we loved is stilled, A place is vacant in our home which never can be filled
-Anonymous
 Added: Oct. 30, 2007
 
    Given name : Sarelda
          Surname : Richey
          Nickname : Sarilda Sorilda Sarilda
    Family Information :
          with STEPHENSON John Alexander (1824 - 1887) :
                Note :
Excerpts from William Perrin's
"History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison & Nicholas Counties"
Chapters II-VIII
Excerpts from Chapter II
pp. 33-35
When first visited by the whites, Kentucky was the favorite hunting ground of many different tribes, of Indians, but it is not known that any of them ever resided permanently within its borders. Annually, during the hunting season, the Delawares, Wyandots, Shawnees, and other tribes from beyond the Ohio, and the Catawbas, Cherokees and Creeks, from the south country came here to hunt the deer, elk and buffalo, which, in great numbers, roamed the forests, grazed upon the natural pastures, and frequented the salt-impregnated springs so common in this section.
However, their visits were periodical, and, when the hunt ended, they returned with the trophies of the chase, to their own towns. But in the coming of the pale-faces they foresaw the destruction of these beautiful hunting grounds, and determined to drive the white invaders hence. The fierce contests which occurred between them and the first white settlers were numerous, of long continuance, and often disastrous to the latter, ere the final expulsion of the savages from the territory, that, in these sanguinary struggles was re-baptized the "Dark and Bloody Ground." The heroic deeds of the pioneer fathers are inscribed upon hundreds or battlefields. Assuredly, if a community of people ever lived who were literally cradled in war, it was the early inhabitants of Central Kentucky. From the first exploration of the country by Daniel Boone up to the year 1794, they were engaged in one incessant battle with the savages. Trace the path of an Indian incursion anywhere through the great valley of the West, and it is found dyed with Kentucky's blood, and its battlefields white with the bones of her children.
The counties of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison and Nicholas have been the scene of some of the stirring events alluded to above. The following thrilling incident occurred in Bourbon on Cooper's Run in April, 1787. A widow, of the name of Skaggs, lived in a lonely spot with her family, consisting of two grown sons, three grown daughters (one of them married and the mother of an infant), and a daughter about half-grown. One night their cabin, which was a double one, was attacked by a band or Indians, four of the inmates killed, one of the girls carried off a captive, while one of the sons and the married daughter with her infant made their escape. The neighborhood was aroused, and at daylight the next morning thirty men well armed and well-mounted, under Col. Edwards, started in pursuit of the savages. A light snow had fallen, and they were enabled to follow the trail at a gallop. When the Indians found they were pursued, and likely to be overtaken, they tomahawked their captive and left her lying by their trail where she was found by the pursuers before life became extinct, but she died in a few minutes after they came up. They soon overtook the savages, when a fight commenced, but by a strategy on their part in leaving two of their number to hold the whites in check, the main body succeeded in making their escape; the two left behind were killed.
Another incident, and which is said to have been the last of its kind enacted in Bourbon County, was somewhat as follows: A party of Indians, about twenty in number, made all incursion into the neighborhood to steal horses. A squad of hunters followed them, and came up with them encamped upon the Stoner a few miles from Paris. They fired into their camp, killing one and wounding several others, when the Indians fled, but soon returned and a fight took place, which lasted until the ammunition of the whites gave out, and they were forced to retreat leaving their foes in possession of the field. But one of the whites were killed, a man named Frank Hickman, whose skeleton was afterward recognized by the initials on his kneebuckles.
McClelland's Station, which stood upon the present site of Georgetown, was the scene of several skirmishes with Indians, which is more fully given in the history of Georgetown. In the year 1778, a party of Indians stole a number of horses in Scott (rather what is now Scott) and were pursued by Capt. Herndon with a few companions, but they succeeded in escaping with their booty. Many such incidents as the above occurred not only in Scott, but in all the surrounding country. In 1788, three horses were stolen from Jacob Stucker by Indians, in which two of the savages were killed by the whites, who pursued them, and another wounded, and the horses recovered.
Ruddel's Station, which some authorities locate in Bourbon County, and others just over the line in what is now Harrison County, was captured in 1780 by a large force of Canadians and Indians, under the notorious Col. Byrd, a British officer. His force amounted to some six hundred men-white and red-with six pieces of artillery, said to be the first cannons that ever awoke the echoes of the Kentucky hills. On the 22d of June (1780), this formidable force appeared before Ruddel's, and Col. Byrd demanded its surrender to His Britanic Majesty's forces, at discretion. Capt. Ruddel comphed on the condition that the prisoners be placed under charge of the English instead of the savages. But when the gates were thrown open, the Indians rushed in, seized the first white person they met, claiming them as individual prisoners. When Col. Byrd was remonstrated with by Capt. Ruddel for this disregard of the conditions of surrender, he acknowledged his inability to control his savage alhes. The scenes which ensued after the capture are almost indescribable and are unsurpassed except, in savage warfare. Wives were separated from their husbands. and mothers from their young children without hope of ever being re-united. After the prisoners were secured and the booty divided, the savages proposed to move against Martin's Station in Bourbon County, but Col. Byrd refused, unless the prisoners should be given into his charge--the Indians to take for their share the property, which was agreed to. Martin's Station was then captured without opposition. The savages were so elated with these successes, that they were anxious to proceed at once against Bryant's Station and Lexington, but for some inexplicable reason Col. Byrd refused, and the expedition returned north of the Ohio River. Higgin's block-house, near where Cynthiana now stands, had its incidents of thrilling interest and border warfare. On the 12th of June, 1786, it was attacked by a large party of Indians, in which several of the were severely wounded. But upon the arrival of help from Hinkston and Harrison's Stations, the Indians fled, without being able to capture the station.
The most thrilling event that occurred within the four counties, however, transpired in Nicholas. It was on the sacred soil of Little Nicholas, that the famous battle of Blue Licks was fought, one or the most disastrous battles to the whites that ever took place in Kentucky. It was fought on the 19th of August, 1782, on the old State road, about half a mile from the Lower Blue Licks, between a large force of Indians under the infamous renegade Simon Girty, on their return from Bryant's Station in Fayette County, where they had been repulsed, and a small party of whites, from that section, which had been sent in pursuit of them. The following account of it is from Collins, which he accredits to McClung's historical sketches: Col. Daniel Boone, accompanied by his youngest son, headed a strong party from Boonesboro - Trigg brought up the force from Harrodsburg, John Todd commanded the militia around Lexington. Nearly a third of the whole number assembled were commissioned officers, who hurried from a distance to the scene of hostilities, and, for the time, took their place in the ranks. Of those under the rank of Colonel, the most conspicuous were Majs. Harlan, McBride, McGary and Levi Todd, and Capts. Bulger and Gordon. Todd and Trigg as senior Colonels took the command. A tumultuous consultation, in which every one seems to have had a voice, terminated in a unanimous resolution to pursue the enemy without delay. It was well-known that Gen. Logan had collected a strong force in Lincoln, and would join them at furthest in twenty-four hours. It was distinctly understood that the enemy was at least double, and, according to Girty's account, more than treble their own numbers. It was seen that their trail was broad, and obvious, and that even some indications of a tardiness and willingness to be pursued, had been observed by their scouts, who had been sent out to reconnoiter, and from which it might be reasonably inferred that they would halt on the way, at least march so leisurely, as to permit them to wait for the aid of Logan. Yet so keen was the ardor of officer and soldier, that all these obvious reasons were overlooked, and in the afternoon of the 18th of August, the line of march was taken up, and the pursuit urged with that precipitate courage which has so often been fatal to Kentuckians. Most of the officers and many of the privates were mounted.
"The Indians had followed the buffalo trace, and, as if to render their trail still more evident, they had chopped many of the trees on either side of the road with their hatchets. These strong indications of tardiness made some impression upon the cool and calculating mind of Boone, but it was too late to advise retreat. They encamped that night in the woods, and on the following day reached the fatal boundary of their pursuit. At the Lower Blue Licks, for the first time since the pursuit commenced, they came within view of an enemy. As the miscellaneous crowd of horse and foot reached the southern bank of Licking, they saw a number of Indians ascending the rocky ridge on the other side. They halted on the appearance of the Kentuckians, gazed at them for a few moments in silence, and then leisurely disappeared over the top of the hill. A halt immediately ensued, and a dozen or twenty officers met in front of the ranks for consultation. The wild and lonely aspect of the country around them, their distance from any point of support, with the certainty of their being in the presence of a superior enemy, seems to have inspired a seriousness bordering upon awe. All eyes wore now turned upon Boone, and Col. Todd asked his opinion as to what should be done. The veteran woodsman, with his usual unmoved gravity, rephed: 'That their situation was critical and delicate; that the force opposed to them was, undoubtedly, numerous and ready for battle, as might readily be seen from the leisurely retreat of the few Indians who had appeared upon the crest of the hill; that he was well acquainted with the ground in the neighborhood of the Lick, and was apprehensive an ambuscade was formed at the distance of a mile in advance, where two ravines, one upon each side of the ridge, ran in such a manner that a concealed enemy might assail them at once both in front and flank, before they were apprised of the danger. It would be proper, therefore, to do one of two things: either to await the arrival of Logan, who was now undoubtedly on his march to join them, or if it was determined to attack without delay, that one-half of their number should march up the river, which there bends in an elliptical form, cross at the rapids and fall upon the rear of the enemy, while the other division attacked in front. At any rate, he strongly urged the necessity of reconnoitering the ground carefully before the main body crossed the river.'
pp. 35-36
"Such was the counsel of Boone, and although no measures could have been much more disastrous than that which was adopted, yet it may be doubted if anything short of an immediate retreat upon Logan, could have saved this gallant body of men from the fate which they encountered. If they divided their force, the enemy, as in Estill's case, might have overwhelmed them in detail; if they remained where they were without advancing, the enemy would certainly have attacked them, probably in the night, and with a certainty of success. They had committed a great error at first in not waiting for Logan, and nothing short of a retreat, which would have been considered disgraceful, could now repair it. Boone was heard in silence and with deep attention. Some wished to adopt the first plan; others preferred the second, and the discussion threatened to be drawn out to some length, when the boiling ardor of McGary, who could never endure the presence of an enemy without instant battle, stimulated him to act, which had nearly proved destructive to his country. He suddenly interrupted the conversation with a loud whoop, resembling the war-cry of the Indians, spurred his horse into the stream, waved his hat over his head and shouted aloud: 'Let all who are not cowards, follow me!' The words and the action together produced ail electrical effect. The mounted men dashed tumultuously into the river, each striving to be foremost. The footmen were mingled with them in one rolling and irregular mass. No order was given, and none was observed. They struggled through a deep fold as well as they could, MeGary still leading the van, closely followed by Majs. Harlan and McBride. With the same rapidity they ascended the ridge, which, by the trampling of buffalo foragers, had been stripped bare of all vegetation, with the exception of a few dwarfish cedars, and which was rendered still more desolate in appearance by the multitude of rocks blackened by the sun, which were spread over its surface. Upon reaching the top of the ridge, they followed the buffalo trace with the same precipitate order, Todd and Trigg in the rear, McGary, Harlan, McBride and Boone in front. No scouts were sent in advance; none explored either flank; officers and soldiers seemed alike demented by the contagious example of a single man, and all struggled forward, horse and foot, as if to outstrip each other in the advance, Suddenly the van halted. They had reached the spot mentioned by Boone, where the two ravines head on each side of the ridge. Here a body of Indians presented themselves and attacked the van. McGary's party instantly returned the fire, but under great disadvantage. They were upon a bare and open ridge, the Indians in a bushy ravine. The center and rear ignorant of the ground, flurried up to the assistance of the van, but were soon stopped by a terrible fire from the ravine which flanked thein. They found themselves as if in the wings of a net, destitute of proper shelter, while the enemy were in a great measure covered from their fire. Still, however, they maintained their ground. The action became warm and bloody. The parties gradually closed, the Indians emerged from the ravines, and the fire became mutually destructive. The officers suffered dreadfully. Todd, Trigg, Harlan, McBride and young Boone were already killed.
"The Indians gradually extended their line, to turn the right of the Kentuckians, and cut off their retreat. This was quickly perceived by the weight of the fire from that quarter, and the rear instantly fell back in disorder, and attempted to rush through their only opening to the river. The motion quickly communicated itself to the van, and a flurried retreat became general. The Indians instantly sprang forward in pursuit, and falling upon them with their tomahawks, made a cruel slaughter. From the battle ground to the river, the spectacle was terrible. The horsemen severally escaped, but the foot, particularly the van, which had advanced farthest within the wings of the net, were almost totally destroyed. Col. Boone, after witnessing the death of his son and many of his dearest friends, found himself almost entirely surrounded at the very commencement of the retreat. Several hundred Indians were between him and the ford, to which the great mass of the fugitives were bending their flight, and to which the attention of the savages was principally directed. Being intimately acquainted with the ground, he, together with a few friends, dashed into the ravine which the Indians had occupied, but which most of them had now left to join in the pursuit. After sustaining one or two heavy fires, and baffling one or two small parties, who pursued him for a short distance, he crossed the river below the ford, by swimming, and entering the wood at a point where there was no pursuit, returned by a circuitous route to Bryant's Station. In the meantime, the great mass of the victors and vanquished crowded the bank of the ford. The slaughter was great in the river. The ford was crowded with horsemen and foot and Indians, all mingled together. Some were compelled to seek a passage above by swimming; some, who could not swim, were overtaken and killed at the edge of the water. A man by the name of Netherland, who had formerly been strongly suspected of cowardice, here displayed a coolness and presence of mind equally noble and unexpected. Being finely mounted, he had outstripped the great mass of fugitives, and crossed the river in safety. A dozen or twenty horsemen accompanied him, and having placed the river between them and the enemy, showed a disposition to continue their flight, without regard to the safety of their friends who were on foot, and still struggling with the current. Netherland instantly checked his horse, and, in a loud voice, called upon his companions to halt, fire upon the Indians, and save those who were still in the stream. The party instantly obeyed; and facing about, poured a close and fatal discharge of rifles upon the foremost of the pursuers. The enemy instantly fell back from the opposite bank, and gave time for the harassed and miserable footmen to cross in safety. The check, however, was but momentary. Indians were seen crossing in great numbers above and below, and the flight again became general. Most of the foot left the great buffalo trace, and plunging into the thickets, escaped to Bryant's Station. But little loss was sustained after crossing the river, although the pursuit was urged keenly for twenty miles. From the battle ground to the ford, the loss was very heavy."
Such was the fatal battle of Blue Licks, which for the small number engaged, is one of the severest recorded in Indian warfare. Like the defeat of Braddock three-quarters of a century before, the disaster was attributable to a refusal to accept good counsel and sensible advice. Had the counsel of Boone been followed, instead of the example of the hot-headed McGary, and the little army have fallen back on Logan, with this re-enforcement they would have been strong enough to have defeated the Indians instead of themselves being defeated. Of the one hundred and eighty two whites engaged in the battle, sixty were killed, and three were taken prisoners, who after a long and dreary captivity were exchanged and liberated, and returned to their homes. When the battle was over and the pursuit ended, the Indians, fearing the whites might rally and with re-enforcements turn upon them, collected the spoils as quickly as possible, and continued their march to the Ohio River, which they crossed without further molestation from their enemies. Col. Logan arrived at the battle ground the second day after the battle, but the enemy had disappeared, and he did not deem it prudent to pursue. He performed the sad and melancholy duty of burying the dead, after which he disbanded his men and returned home.
The foreging incidents are illustrative of the life our pioneer ancestors lived in this country. All their adventures, hair-breadth escapes and narrow risks, would form a large volume of thrilling interest. Only a few have been given, however, to embellish these pages, and show what it cost to make the blue grass section a paradise.-Perrin.
Chapter III--Settlement of Bourbon County By the Whites--Their Early Trials and Hardships--Organization of the County--Its Name, County Seat, Public Buildings, Etc.--County Officers--The Census From 1790 To 1880--Division Into Precincts
pp. 36-37
From across the ocean, the colonists of a new and powerful people came and effected a lodgment at isolated spots on the Atlantic coast. They achieved in time their independence, but could not pay their soldiers for their long and faithful service in the war for liberty. As a partial remuneration, wild lands were donated to them in the distant territories of the "far west," of which Kentucky was then the frontier. These Revolutionary land grants brought many adventurous individuals hither, and Kentucky became at once the center of attraction. More than a century ago the whites took possession of the territory now embraced in Bourbon and the surrounding counties. The lands were wrested from the savages with little regard for hereditary titles. The Indians sought to hold their favorite hunting-rounds, and for years held in check the tide of immigration. The story of this long and sanguinary struggle is "an oft told tale." The line of settlements firmly established along the Ohio, from Pittsburgh to the Falls, began to advance, and, with every step, slowly pressed back the Indian race to extinction.
Settlements were made in Bourbon County as early as 1776, but were not permanent. Collins says in his history of Kentucky, that the first corn raised in Bourbon County was by John Cooper, near Hinkston Creek, in 1775. That he lived alone there in his cabin, and was killed by the Indians on the 7th of July, 1766; also, in the same year, Michael Stoner, Thomas Whitledge, James Kenny, and several others, "raised corn, a quarter of an acre to two acres each." Thomas Kennedy built a cabin on Kennedy's Creek, a short distance south of Paris, in 1776, but left in the fall, going back to Virginia, where he remained until 1779, when he returned, and settled permanently on the little creek which still bears his name. While upon his first visit, he assisted Michael Stoner. who owned a large body of land on what is now Stoner Creek. to clear a piece of ground and build a cabin. During the time they were thus engaged, they lived for three months without bread or salt. Stoner was a man of some prominence and wealth, and was among the very first settlers of the county.
Hon. James Garrard was among the early settlers of the county, and a man of considerable prominence. He was twice Governor of Kentucky, and held other important positions, with honor and credit to the people whom he represented. The following is inscribed upon the monument erected to his memory by the State: "This marble consecrates the spot on which repose the mortal remains of Col. James Garrard, and records a brief memorial of his virtues and his worth. He was born in the county of Stafford, in the colony of Virginia, on the 14th day of January, 1749. On attaining the age of manhood, he participated with the patriots of the day in the dangers and privations incident to the glorious and successful contest which terminated in the independence, and happiness of our country. Endeared to his family, to his friends, and to society, by the practice of the social virtues of Husband, Father, Friend and Neighbor honored by his country, by frequent calls to represent her dearest interests in her Legislative Councils, and finally by two elections, to fill the chair of the Chief Magistrate of the State, a trust of the highest confidence and deepest interest to a free community of virtuous men, professing equal rights, and governed by equal laws; a trust, which for eight successive years, he fulfilled with that energy, rigor and impartiality which, tempered with Christian spirit of God-like mercy and charity for the frailty of men, is best calculated to perpetuate the inestimable blessing of government and the happiness of Man. An administration which received its best reward below, the approbation of an enlightened and grateful country, by whose voice, expressed in a resolution of its General Assembly, in December, 1822. THIS MONUMENT of departed worth and grateful sense of public service, was erected, and is inscribed."
Gov. Garrard died at his residence, "Mount Lebanon," near Paris, on the 19th of January, 1822, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. He was all exemplary member of the church, and a man of great practical usefulness. His death was sincerely mourned, not only by the people of the county but by those of the State at large.
James Douglass, probably the first surveyor in this region, and who visited Central Kentucky as early as 1773, finally settled in Bourbon. He is said to have been a member of the first Grand Jury, of the first Court of Quarter Sessions held after Kentucky was admitted into the Union as a State. A colony, consisting of the Millers, McClellans, Thompsons, McClintocks and others settled in the neighborhood of Millersburg in 1778; but like many of the early settlers of this section, they were forced to leave on account of Indians. They returned, however, the following year, and erected a block-house where Millersburg now stands. John Martin built a cabin, which was afterward changed into a block-house. about three miles south of Paris. Ruddel's Station, of historic fame, is supposed by many to have been in what is now Ruddel's Mills Precinct, but Collins says it was situated just over in Harrison County. Houston's cabin, on the present site of Paris, was also fortified, or changed into a block-house, the better to afford protection to the scattered settlers. Thus, amid dangers and hardships, the whites obtained a foothold in what now forms Bourbon County. In the chapters devoted to the towns, villages and election precincts, additional facts and particulars will be given of the settlement of each neighborhood.
pp. 37-39
Every age and land and country have had their great men, whose names have been enshrined in poetry and soug, in history and romance. Britain boasts of Alfred the Great, and France of Henry the Fourth; America sings the praises or Washington, Franklin and Jefferson, and why should not Kentucky embalm the name of Daniel Boone? The laurels that bloom around the tomb of this old pioneer should never fade from the minds of Kentuckians. Though it is not known that he ever had his abode in either of the counties treated of in this volume, yet there is not a spot of Central Kentucky but he was familiar with, and in one of the precincts of Bourbon County sleeps a brother of the old Kentucky Indian fighter. We deein it highly appropriate in this work to give a brief sketch of the man, who, without violence to the subject, might be termed the discoverer, as well as the first settler of Kentucky. He was born in Pennsylvania February 11, 1731, and was the first white man who ever made a permanent settlement within the limits of the present State of Kentucky. But little is known of his early life, or of his career prior to his emigration to Kentucky. His father removed to North Carolina when he was but a boy, and there Daniel remained until forty years of age. The glowing descriptions that reached the pine barrens of North Carolina, of the rich lands beyond the Cumberland Mountains, excited in him a desire to visit this "favored clime." In 1769, he left his home, and with five others, of whom John Findlay was one, he started to explore the country of which he had heard so favorable in account. They built a cabin on the banks of Red River, to shelter them from the rigor of winter, and spent their time hunting and trapping. Boone, in company with a man named Stuart, was surprised and captured by the Indians, in December, but they effected their escape after seven days captivity. On regaining their camp, they found it deserted. The fate of its inmates were never fully ascertained. A few days after this, they were joined by Squire Boone, a younger brother of Daniel, and a companion, who had followed them from North Carolina. In a second excursion, Boone and Stuart were again assailed by the Indians, when the latter was killed, but Boone was fortunate in making his escape. Their only remaining companion, becoming disheartened at the perils by which they were surrounded, returned home, leaving the two brothers alone in the wilderness. Their ammunition finally running short, Squire Boone was sent back to the settlements for a fresh supply, and for months Daniel was left alone to battle with the wild beasts and Indians. In July, 1770, the younger Boone returned, with ammunition, and together they continued to range the forests until the spring of 1771, when they retraced their steps to North Carolina. For nearly three years, Boone had been absent from his family, and, during that time, he had not tasted bread nor salt, nor seen the face of a white man, except those of his brother and friends who had been killed.
Boone was so well pleased with the country he had seen that he determined to sell his farm and remove, with his family, to Kentucky. Disposing of his property, he started for his El-Dorado, on the 25th of September, 1773. At a place called Powell's Valley, he was joined by five other families and forty men, well armed. With this addition to his force, he proceeded on his journey with confidence. When near the Cumberland Mountains, the party was attacked by a large force of Indians, and, though the savages were defeated, it was not without a loss to the whites of six men killed and wounded. This so discouraged them that they retreated to the settlements, on Clinch River, where they remained until 1775, when Boone, in company with a few men, made another visit to Kentucky, in the service of Col. Richard Henderson, leaving his wife and family at the settlements on Clinch River. They arrived on the 25th of March, and, on the 1st of April, they commenced building a fort, which was afterward called Boonesboro. Here they were several times attacked by Indians and lost some five or six men, killed and wounded. As soon as the fort was completed, Boone removed his family hither. "From this time, the little garrison was exposed to incessant assaults from the Indians, who appeared to be perfectly infuriated at the encroachments of the whites, and the formation of settlements in the midst of their old hunting-grounds. The lives of the emigrants were passed in a continued succession of the most appalling perils, which nothing but unfailing courage and indomitable firmness could have enabled them to encounter. They did, however, breast this awful tempest of war, and bravely and successfully, and in defiance of all probability, the small colony continued steadily to increase and flourish, until the thunder of barbarian hostilities rolled gradually away to the north, and finally died in low mutterings on the frontiers of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois." In these exciting times, Boone stood the central figure in that band of hardy pioneers, who bore the shock of the dreadful struggle, which gave a yet more terrible significance and a still more crimson hue to the history of the old dark and bloody ground.
In July, 1776, Boone's daughter was captured by the Indians. They were pursued by Boone, with eight men, and, on the third day, were overtaken, and his daughter rescued, uninjured. During this period, they lived in constant peril and anxiety. The fort was attacked, in April, by an overwhelming force of Indians, but were finally defeated and driven off. In July, it was again attacked by 200 warriors, and again they were defeated, with loss. Boone himself was captured in January, 1778, at Blue Licks, where he had gone to make salt for the garrison. He remained a prisoner until June following, when he contrived to make his escape and returned to Boonesboro. After his escape from the Indians, the fort was attacked by a large force of savages, commanded by Canadian officers well skilled in modern warfare. But, after a siege of nine days, they gave up the matter, and retired, having sustained quite a heavy loss. From this time, he enjoyed a period of peace and quiet, until August, 1782, a time rendered memorable by the disastrous battle of Blue Licks, in which Boone participated, and in which a son was killed. He almost miraculously escaped the slaughter of this ill-fated battle. He accompanied Gen. George Rogers Clark on his expedition against the Indian towns, but of his service in this affair little is known, except that he was one of the number engaged in it.
In the treaty of peace between the United States and Great Britain, in 1783, Boone saw the standard of civilization planted in the wilderness. "He had laid out the larger part of his little property to procure land warrants, and, having raised about $20,000, on his way from Kentucky to Richmond, he was robbed of the whole, and thus left destitute of the means of procuring more. Unacquainted with the technicalities of the law, the few lands he was able afterward to locate, were, through his ignorance, swallowed up and lost by better claims. Dissatisfied with these impediments to the acquisition of the soil, he left Kentucky, and, in 1795, he was a wanderer on the banks of the Missouri, a voluntary subject of the king of Spain." The remainder of his life was devoted to the society of his children. He died at the house of his son-in-law. Flanders Callaway, at Charette Village, on the Missouri River, September 26, 1820, aged eighty-nine years. The Legislature of Missouri was in session when the event occurred, and resolved that, in respect to his memory, the members would wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty days, and voted an adjournment for that day. On the 13th of September, 1845, his remains were, according to a resolution of the Kentucky Legislature, brought to Frankfort and interred in the State Cemetery. and there they repose, awaiting the final resurrection.
pp. 39-40
The early pioneers of Bourbon and the surrounding Counties were a hardy, fearless and self-reliant people; they were a quiet people, simple in their habits and accomplishments, and devoid of all reckless extravogance. Fresh from the scenes of the Revolutionary struggle--a free people--their manhood elevated, they shrank from no difficulty, but, with a stern, unflinching purpose, they went forth to subdue the wilderness and subject it to the use of man. They lived in comparative social equality, the almighty dollar did not form a Chinese wall between the rich and poor; a man was esteemed, not for his money bags, but for his actual merit. Aristocratic distinctions were left beyond the mountains, and the first society lines drawn were to separate the very bad from the general mass. No punctilious formalities marred their social gatherings, but all were happy and enjoyed themselves in seeing others happy. The rich and poor dressed alike, the men generally wearing hunting shirts and buck-skin pants, and the women attired themselves in coarse fabrics, the produce of their own fair hands. Silks, satins and fancy goods that now inflate our vanity and deplete our purses, were then unknown. The cabins were furnished in the same style of simplicity. The bedsteads were home-made, and often consisted of forked sticks driven into the ground, with cross poles to support the clap-boards or the cord. One pot, kettle and frying-pan were the only articles considered indispensable, though some included the tea-kettle. A few plates and dishes, upon a shelf in one corner, was as satisfactory is is now a cupboard full of china, and their food was as highly relished from a puncheon-slab as it is it the present day from an oiled walnut table. Some of the wealthiest families had a few splint-bottomed chairs, but, as a general thing, stools and benches answered the places of lounges and sofas, and, at first, the green-sward or smoothly-leveled earth, served the double purpose of floor and carpet. Whisky toddy was considered good enough for the finest party, the woods furnished an abundance of venison and corn-pone supplied the place of every variety of pastry.
The credit of subduing the wilderness and transforming it into an Eden of loveliness was not the work of man alone. The women did as much, in their way, as the men the themselves. They were the help-meets, as well as the companions, of the men, and bore their part, uncomplainingly, in all the hardships of border life. They assisted in planting, cultivating and harvesting the crops, as well as attending to their household duties. They were happy and contented, and, we dare to say, yearned far less for the frivolities of fashionable life than do their fair descendants. A hundred years, however, have brought with them marvelous changes, not only in the face of the country, but in the usages of society and grand improvements have been made in our manners and customs. We have grown older, in many respects, if not wiser, and could not think of living on what our ancestors lived on. The corn-dodgers and wild meat they were glad to get would appear to us but a frugal repast, and would cause our Grecian noses to go up in lofty disdain. But this is all age of progress and improvement, and these observations are made by way of contrasting the past and present. The pioneers who bore the brunt of savage warfare, and made this country an earthly paradise, have long since passed to their final account, but their trials and hardships are remembered, and their names deserve to be "written in characters of living light upon the firmament, there to endure as radiant as if every letter was traced in shining stars."
The rich lands of Central Kentucky were settled rapidly after the close of the Revolutionary war. The influx of emigrants brought hither by the extravagant reports of the first visitors to this "land of corn and wine," and military land warrants of Revolutionary soldiers soon served to people the Licking and Elkhorn country. So rapidly did the country settle up that the fast-increasing population required increased civil rights and more perfect territorial organization.
Kentucky was, originally, a part of Fincastle County, Va. It was afterward made an individual county of the Old Dominion, and so remained for several years. But its territory was large, and its citizens remote from the seat of government, and, as soon as the number of inhabitants required it, changes were made, by a division of the unwieldly county. In the month of November. 1780, by an act of the General Assembly of Virginia, the county of Kentucky was divided into three districts, which were designated, respectively, Fayette, Lincoln and Jefferson Counties. The next county formed was Nelson, in 1784, from a part of Jefferson. In the following year (1785), Bourbon was formed from the territory of Fayette, thus being the fifth county erected in what now comprises the State of Kentucky, and was created seven years before Kentucky became a member of the Federal Union. Bourbon, at the time of its formation as a county, extended north to the Ohio River, and covered a large area since divided into a number of counties. The first division of her territory occurred in 1788, when Mason was set off; in 1793, the formation of Harrison took off a large slice, and, in 1799, Bourbon and Mason contributed jointly to the formation of Nicholas. Thus liberally has Bourbon given of her territory for the creation of new counties, until the frequent drafts made have brought her down to her present area. As now bounded, Harrison lies on the north, Nicholas and Montgomery on the east, Clark on the south, and Fayette and Scott on the west. The county was named in honor of the House of Bourbon, whence had descended the monarch of France, reigning at the time of our Revolution and at the time the county was organized, and Paris, the seat of justice, received its name, doubtless, from France's gay capital.
pp. 40-42
The formation of a county, a hundred years ago and the organization of its different departments--judicial, civil and political--is a somewhat interesting study to the readers of the present day. Rumaging through the old records at the court house, we, with the assistance of Judge Turney, unearthed the first book of the Bourbon County Court in which is recorded the proceedings of that august body. The first entry bears the date of May 16, 1786, and is in a plain, old-fashioned hand, still perfectly legible, though the book is old, musty and stained with age. As a matter or interest and curiosity to our readers, we copy some of these early proceedings, "in the original," as we might say, no effort being made to improve the phraseology. The first record of the Court proceedings is as follows:
MAY COURT. 1786.
At Colonel James Garrard's in Bourbon County Tuesday the sixteenth day of May Anno Domini one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six and in the tenth year of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
A new commission of the peace dated the twelfth day of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six to this county directed to James Garrard (afterward Governor of Kentucky) Thomas Swearington John Edwards Benjamin Harrison John Hinkson Alvin Mountjoy Thomas Warring Edward Waller and John Gregg Gentlemen was produced and read whereupon the said James Garrard took the oath of fidelity and the oath of a justice of the peace which were administered to him by John Edwards (first United States Senator from Kentucky) Named in the said Commission And then the said James Garrard Gent. administered the aforesaid oathes to Benjamin Harrison John Hinkson Alvin Mountjoy Thomas Warring Edward Waller and John Gregg Gent. who took the same respectively.
A Majority of the Justices Commissioned being present John Edwards is appointed Clerk to the Court of this County who thereupon entered into Bond with his securities in the penalty of one thousand pounds for the execution of his office and took the oath required by Law.
Absent John Hinkson Gent.
A Commission from his excellency the Governor of this State (Virginia) to Benjamin Harrison (for whom Harrison County was named) Gent. to be Sheriff of this County was produced by the said Harrison who took the oath of fidelity and the Oath of Office and together with John Edwards and John Hinkson his securities entered into Bond for the due performance thereof according to Law. Present John Hinkson Gent.
The Court being then opened by the Sheriff proceeded to business.
At a Court held for Bourhon County at the house of James Garrard Gent. on Tuesday the Sixteenth day of May one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six in the terith year of the Commonwealth.
Present James Garrard John Hinkson Alvin Mountjoy Thomas Warring Edward Waller & John Gregg Gent.
On the motion of John Edwards Clerk of this Court John Machir is admitted as Deputy Clerk who took the oath prescribed by law.
John Allen Esquire produced a commission of his fitness to act as an Attorney at Law and had the oath prescribed by law administered to him whereupon he is admitted to practice as an Attorney at Law in this Court.
On the motion of William Bennet administration of the Estate of Joshoway Bennet deceased is granted to him whereupon he took the oath required by Law and together with David Hughes his security entered into and acknowledged Bond in the penalty of two hundred pounds for his due admin of said decedants Estate.
Ordered that John Strode John Constant Edward Wilson and Van Swearingen or any three of them being first sworn before a Justice of the peace for this County appraise in Current money the Slaves (if any) and personal estate of Joshua Bennet deceast and return the appraisement to the Court.
Absent James Garrard Gent.
Ord' James Garrard Gent. is by the Court recommended to his excellency the Governor as a proper person to act as Surveyor of this County.
Absent Alvin Mountjoy Gent. present James Garrard Gent.
On the motion of Benjamin Harrison Gent. Sheriff Robert Hinkson was admitted and sworn as deputy Sheriff.
James Garrard John Hinkson Thomas Warring Edward Waller and John Gregg Gent. are sworn Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer for this county.
Absent James Garrard Gent.
James Garrard Gent produced a commission from his Excellency the Governor to be surveyor of this County whereupon he took the oath required by Law and together with William Routt and John Edwards his securities entered into and acknowledged Bond in the penalty of three thousand pounds for the due performance of said office.
Present James Garrard Gent.
Ordered that Edward Waller John Waller Miles Conway and Henry Lee or any three of them be appointed to examine the fitness of those persons nominated by James Garrard Gent. as deputy surveyors.
Ordered that court be adjourned till to morrow morning ten o'clock. The minutes of these proceedings were signed thus--James Garrard.
Such is a complete record of the proceedings of the first day of the first court ever held in Bourbon County. Without encumbering our pages with the proceedings in detail, we will make a few extracts by way of illustrating the past and present in court matters as well as in the general history of the county. On the second day of court, Edmund Lyne, Henry Lee, Miles Conway, Andrew Hood, John Grant, William Routt, George Reading, Sr., Abraham Bird and John Waller were recommended in a petition to the Governor "as proper persons to be added to the commission of the peace of this County." Upon the same "Benjamin Harrison, Sheriff of the county, protested to the court that he would not be answerable for the escape of any prisoner for want of a gaol--ordered that it be certified." Also upon the same day, Miles Conway, Edward Dobbins and Henry Lee were appointed to view "the best and most convenient way for a road from the mouth of Limestone on the top of the Hill," etc.
The second session of court was held at the house of John Kizer, beginning on the 20th of June, 1786. Among the proceedings we notice that it is "Ordered that Edmund Lyne Gent be appointed overseer of the road from the Lower blue licks to Johnson's Fork of Licking, and that the titheables residing at the Licks assist him in keeping the same in repair." It was also "Ordered that Thomas Warring Gent take in a list of the titheables north of main Licking, that John Hinkson Gent take in a list of the titheables between main Licking and Hinkson's fork, and on the water's of Stoner's fork below Cooper's Run, John Gregg Gent in the forks of Stoner and Hinkson, Alvin Mountjoy Gent on Houston's fork and Cooper's Run ; and James Garrard Gent east of Houston's Fork and southeast of the main road, leading from Lexington to Limestone, and return their respective lists to the court." And the following : "The court proceeded to fix the rates of Liquors, Diet and provender as follows (to Wit): West India Rum at twenty-four shillings per gallon, Continent rum at fifteen shillings per gallon, Brandy at fifteen shillings per gallon, Whiskey at ten shillings per gallon, Wine at twenty-four shillings per gallon, for a warm Dinner one shilling and six pence. For a could dinner one shilling, Breakfast with Tea, Coffie or Chocolate one shilling and three pence, breakfast without Tea, Coffey or Chocolate one shilling, for corn per gallen six pence, Pastrage for twenty-four hours six pence, Stablage and Hay or fodder for twenty-four hours one shilling, Lodging in Clean Sheats six pence. Ordered that the Ordinary Keepers in this County take pay according to the above rates and no more."
The third session of court, commencing July 18, 1786, was held at John Kizer's; the fourth session, beginning August 15, 1786, was held at Fairfield; the September and October terms were likewise held at Fairfield. At the November term, the place of meeting was established at the mouth of Houston, under the following order, which forms a part of the records of that session:
Ordered that the place for holding Court for this County be established at the Continence of Stoner and Houston forks of Licking, and that Alvin Mountjoy, John Grant and James Matson, Gentlemen, be appointed to procure two acres of land at said place for the purpose aforesaid, and also that they let to the lowest bidder the building of a Court house, which shall be a frame, thirty-two by twenty feet, with a shingle roof and finished in the necessary manner, and a jail sixteen feet square, of hewn logs twelve inches square.
Teste, JOHN EDWARDS, C. B. C.
The next records we fished up after this old book, were a little different in their character. The followins is a specimen:
For value received I promise to pay to Mr. Hugh McClintock bearer, fifteen pounds current money of Virginia, on or before the first day of April next, as witness my hand and seal at Limestone the third day of February 1786.
Signed, EBENEZER PLATT. [Seal.]
Teste, DANIEL BOONE.
Attached to the note is the following in Daniel Boone's own hand writing:
Sir as capt platt hath Left his store house and all other conserns on My hands in order to Rase the cash I Will oblige myself to pay the cash at the time the note seacifies or before witness my hand this 3 Day of febury 1786. DANIEL BOONE.
It seems the old pioneer did not "Rase the cash," at the time the note "seacifies or before," and, that it was finally sued on, judging from the following "verdict," which is recorded on the back of it:
We, the jury, do find for the plaintiff sixteen pounds and eleven pence damages. Signed,
AQUILLA STANDERFORD, Foreman of Jury.
The following is another interesting specimen :
The Commonwealth of Virginia to the Sheriff of Bourbon County Greeting. You are hereby Commanded to take Thom Theobold if be be found within your Baliwick and him safely Keep so that you have his body before the justices of aforesaid County at the Court House thereof on the third Tuesday in November next to answer John Troutman of a Plea Trespass on the Case, Damages, two hundred pound, and have then there this Writ. Witness,
JOHN EDWARDS, Clerk of said Court House-
7th of September, 1789. In the xv year of the Commonwealth.
JOHN EDWARDS, CLK.
On the back of this ironclad document is the following indorsement:
Executed on Thos Theobold and he has not give security, because he run in a house and armed himself with a shot gun after the writ was served. GEORGE MOUNTJOY.
It seems that this service of a writ was not altogether satisfactory to the majesty of the law, as it is crossed out and the following entry made just below it:
Executed and broke Custiday. GEORGE MOUNTJOY.
An old note was also found given by Simon Kenton to John Nichols for "three pounds, thirteen shilling's and eight pence," dated July 12, 1786. Upon the back of this note is the indorsement
To dangerous to go where Kenton is.
It seems the note became due when Kenton was out among the Indians, and the valiant officer concluded it to dangerous " to go after him.
The machinery of the courts and the new county was, at length, with the aid of the lubricating oil of frontier wisdom, fully put in motion, and, in a short time, the different departments were running smoothly. As we have seen, John Edwards was the first Clerk. He was a man of considerable prominence, and was afterward, upon the admission of Kentucky as a State. the first United States Senator. Benjamin Harrison was the first Sheriff, James Garrard the first surveyor, and John Allen the first attorney admitted to the bar. But without going into further details of these early proceedings and early officers, we will give the first county officers elected under the present Constitution. They are as follows : William M. Samuels, County Judge; Richard Brown, County Clerk; James M. Arnold, Circuit Clerk ; Joshua Irvin, Sheriff; W. W. Alexander, County Attorney; Joseph Porter, Jailer. John M. Taylor, Assessor; W. W. Fothergill, Coroner; William Garth, Surveyor, and A. M. Brown, School Commissioner. The present officers of the county, and of the different courts are as follows ; Circuit Judge, Hon. B. F. Buckner; Commonwealth's Attorney, Hon. C. J. Bronston; Clerk, Joseph M. Jones; Master Commissioner, R. H. Hanson; Sheriff, John B. Nortthcott. Criminal and Chancery term second Monday in January. Regular terms, third Monday in April and October. Judge of Court of Common Pleas, C. S. French. First Monday in March and July. Judge of County Court, Hon. Matt. Turney; County Attorney, Ben. G. Patton; Clerk, James M. Hughes; Sheriff, John B. Holladay; Assessor, Claude Paxton; Surveyor, L. B. M. Bedford; Jailer, Joseph MeCarney; Master Commissioner. R. H. Hanson; Circuit Clerk, Joseph M. Jones; Treasurer, C. V. Higgins, Jr.; School Commissioner, W. H. Sockhart. Bourbon Quarterly Court, Hon. Matt Turney Judge; Clerk, P. M. Miller; Constable, J. M. Taylor.
pp. 44-45
The first court house of the county, and which we have already alluded to, by giving the original order of the court for its erection, was built according to the specifications given in that order, viz. a frame, thirty-two by twenty feet," etc. It stood on the "Court House Square," and after years of service was replaced by a commodious building. It was sold to John Allen, when the new one was finished, who moved it to his farm a short distance from town. It was first occupied by the court, October 16, 1787. At a term of the court held in February, 1797, an order was made for the new court house as follows :
"The Commissioners appointed to draft a plan for a court house have proceeded to sketch out the present one, which they now offer for the consideration of the court, and have fixed on the center of the Public Square as the most convenient spot for the house to stand on. Given under our hands this 20th day of February, 1797. Signed, John Allen, John Metcalfe, Charles Smith and David Hickman, which is accepted by the court. And it is ordered that Charles Smith, Jarnes Duncan and Thomas Jones, gentlemen, be appointed commissioners to let out, and superintend the building of the same to the lowest bidder after the time and place has been advertised three weeks in the Kentucky Herald."
This building was commenced immediately and was finished and occupied during the year 1799. The stone foundation was built by Thomas Metcalfe, afterward Governor of the State, and who lived in Nicholas County, but his uncle, John Metcalfe, built the superstructure. Collins says of Gov. Metcalfe :
"As a mason, he built of stone several court houses at West Union, Adams Co., Ohio; at Greensburg, Greene Co., Ky., and others, and laid the foundation of that at Paris, Bourbon Co., which was burnt down May 8, 1872. From his trade and his great earnestness afterward as a public speaker, he received the sobriquet of the 'Old Stone Hammer,' by which he was familiarly and proudly known for forty-five years."
As we have said, John Metcalfe, an uncle of the Governor, built the edifice, the carpenter's work being done by a Mr. McCord. The history of Paris, published by Keller & McCann, a few years ago, says:
This house was built to rival the great stone temple of justice at Lexington. For years it was the pride and boast of the Bourbons, and, in 1816, when the little box cupola was removed and in its stead the magnificent spire that went down in its ruins in 1872 was erected, the heart of the nation was supposed to be happy. Those of our citizens whose memories carry them back to that day, inform us that the boys stood and gazed upon this imposing structure with awe, and only ceased to look and wonder when their necks seem to break with pain, and their heads swim with the floating clouds. The bell that hung in this steeple was purchased in Philadelphia by Hugh Brent, Esq., for $50. It had seen service on the high seas, and bore the date of 1730.
pp. 45-46
The present courthouse, which, Phoenix-like, has arisen from the ashes of the old one, is a model of beauty and elegance. It was built in 1873-74, the first session of court being held in it in October, 1874. An act was passed by the Legislature, empowering the County Court to issue $100,000 in bonds, for the erection of the building. The bonds were issued by the court, and Joseph Mitchell, William Shaw and George C. White, appointed Commissioners to superintend the work, which was begun early in the year 1873. The supervising architect was A. C. Nash, of Cincinnati; the carpenter's work was done by Thomas Pollock; the foundation and stone work by McGrain, Woods and Farrell, the stone was furnished by Collins & Stevenson, from the Cane Ridge quarry the brick was made by J. M. Thomas and J. H. Bradshaw, and laid by G. W. Sidener and Robert Ransdall the freestone work was done by Finnigan & Son, of Cincinnati the galvanized iron and slate by Dunn & Witt, and the wrought and cast iron by M. Clements, of the same city; the plastering was done by William Haye, of Paris; the plumbing was done by T. F. Donnelly, of Lexington the painting and graining by Charles A. Daugherty, of Paris; the tiling by M. Finnigan & Son. The clock was made by E. Howard & Co., of Boston, Mass., and the bell by Meneely & Kimberly, of Troy, N. Y. The benches of the circuit court room were furnished by J. T. Hinton, the chairs by George W. Davis, and the registers and furnace by J. J. Shaw, all of Paris.
The following description from the Western Citizen, of October 30,1874, is an appropriate conclusion to the sketch of this model structure : "The architecture is chaste and tasteful, surpassed by few public buildings in this country, and reflects great credit on the architect, Mr. A. C. Nash, of Cincinnati who also ranks it as one or his most successful specimens. The style of architecture is French renaissance. The building is of brick, and elaborately and tastefully trimmed with freestone. The cornices are of iron; the roof covered with slate, and gracefully topped out with an elegant and symmetrical tower, one hundred and thirteen feet above the ground line, in which is placed the clock and bell. The building is three stories, and contains rooms for circuit court, county and Circuit Clerk's and Sheriff's offices; and also offices for County Judge and County Attortney, jury rooms, etc. Also, the necessary fire and burglar proof vaults for the safe keeping of all State and county papers. The ground plan is one hundred and fifteen feet from front to rear, and eighty-two feet across the wings, having a large and spacious hall from front to rear, the county offices being on each side. The hall floors are of iron, concreted and laid with the best Euo-lish tiling, in neat and appropriate patterns, the base being in Egyptian marble, The hall is fifteen feet and four inches in width, and is spanned at intervals with neat, plain arches, resting upon appropriate corbels, etc. The stairways are of wrought iron, spacious. and of handsome design.
"On the second floor is situated the Circuit Court room its dimensions sixty-two feet by sixty-eight feet, with a gallery sixteen by sixty-two feet; the ceiling being twenty-eight feet six inches above the floor, and neatly ornamented with a large ventilating center piece of stucco; also the angles, with walls and ceiling, coved and neatly finished--the walls blocked and colored in imitation of stone work. The Judge's stand, platform and canopy are or handsome design; gallery front railing around the bar, the furniture, gas-fitting and heating are all in keeping with the design. The room is, without exception, the handsomest court room in the State."
The total cost of the building, including furnishing, interest on bonds, etc., is not far short of $125,000.
The first jail or county prison was erected in the winter of 1786-87. It was built of logs, hewn twelve inches square, which made a very formidable structure one hundred years ago, and which was considered a rather safe lodging for evil-doers, but at the present day it would not long hold "boy-burglars," much less our more experienced criminals. This was superseded in a few years by one built of stone, which stood upon the corner of the square, opposite the Northern Bank building." The present jail building was erected in 1878-79, and is a substantial edifice. It is of Stone, and cost about $15,000, though according to estimates, the cost was not to exceed $12,660. The plans were designed by H. P. McDonald, and the building was erected by Peter Pfeiffer. It is built on the modern prison style, and fitted up with the latest and most approved "furniture," and everything necessary for the safety or boarders and occupants.
The county farm and poor house comes rightly under the title of public buildings, and in this connection will receive a few words. "The poor ye have with ye alway," we were told, and their care is a sacred duty of the county. To the shame of the wealthy, grand old county of Bourbon be it written, that she is lamentably careless and negligent in the care of poor. A gentleman said to us: "I would die before I would go the county's poor house; it is a shame and disgrace, to a county of the wealth this possesses to provide no better than it does for the poor." We have visited a number of such institutions in Ohio and Illinois, and have usually found them a home for the poor and helpless--institutions creditable alike to the counties in which they are located and the people who support them.
The Bourbon County Poor Farm consists of about one hundred and fifty acres of land near Ruddel's Mills, on Hinkston Creek. The improvements are a Superintendent's house, frame, two stories high, with an L, and five houses for paupers, which are cheap, two-room cottages. John Reynolds is Superintendent; John Current, Commissioner of the Poor. The county gives the Superintendent the use of the land, pays him a salary, and furnishes everything to run the institution. The buildings will accommodate about fifty persons, and the care of the paupers cost about $100 apiece annually. James Ingles managed the farm for twenty years, and the cost of running it is said to have been much less than now, the cost now being about $5,000 a year. It is divided into two departments--white and colored, and at the present time there are eighteen whites and sixteen blacks being cared for. The colored department has accommodations for about thirty persons. This was originally a separate institution, but both whites and blacks are now under the same management. All of the inmates dependent on the county for support do no labor on the farm. The farm is in excellent repair, having a good stone fence nearly all around it. In the past there has been an average of about forty inmates per year.
Incidents of some interest occur occasionally within the unenviable precincts of the place. As, for instance, about the year 1870, it marriage took place in it, and the high contracting parties are still inmates. A man named Shields has been in inmate for fifty years. Henry Towles, who once owned several thousand acres of land in the county, and could ride for seven miles in a straight line upon his own land, died, it is said, as keeper of the poor house. Richard Samuels, now an inmate, is a son of Judge Samuels, first County Judge under the new constitution of the State.
pp. 46-47
The population of Bourbon County for the several decades since its formation is as follows: In 1790, when its territoral limits were almost limitless, its population was 7,837; in 1800, 12,825; in 1810, 18,009; in 1820, 17,664; in 1830, 18,436; in 1840, 14,478; in 1850, 14,456; in 1860, 14,860; in 1870, 14,863; and in 1880, 15,958. [NOTE: the population is now almost the same as is was in 1830-the 1990 census listed the population at 19,260-Bob Francis] The difference in population is attributable to the change of territoral limits. We find from an old record that the county was assessed for £550 sterling in 1790. Its annual assessment has increased since then. At the time of its organization, the county, although of large dimensions: had but few inhabitants, and hence did not require many divisions of its territory. As the poplation increased, however, for the sake of convenience, the county was divided into a number or districts, for election and other purposes, necessary to facilitate its business, and aid in the administration of its affairs. But, without going into a discussion of these divisions and subdivisions made from time to time, it is only necessary to add, that, at present, the county is divided into eight election precincts, as follows, viz.: Paris, No. 1; Millersburg, No. 2; Flat Rock, No. 3; North Middletown, No. 4; Clintonville, No. 5; Hutchinson, No. 6; Centerville, No. 7; and Ruddel's Mills, No. 8. Each of these precincts has two Magistrates and a Constable, before and by whom the petty business of the county is transacted. The magistrates from the different precincts form the County Court, and at present the board is composed of the following gentlemen: Paris (No. 1), John M. Daniels and Thomas Isgrigg; Millersburg (No. 2), J. W. Miller and Y A. Jameson; Flat Rock (No. 3), T. M. Squires and B. F. Wilson; North Middletown (No. 4), James W. Mitchell and W. P. Schooler; Clintonville (No. 5), John Cunningham and George W. Morrow; Hutchinson (No. 6), J. S. Kenney and J. W. Beatty; Centerville (No. 7), James M. Barlow and H. Hawkins; Ruddel's Mills (No. 8), George W. Wyatt and W. B. Smith.
In the early history of Bouibon County, as at the present time, there was more or less of party strife. Bourbon County was formed just after the close of the Revolutionary war, when the people had for some time been divided into Whigs and Tories. Afterward came the "Old Court," "New Court," "Federal" and "Republican" or "Democratic" parties. These parties had their day, and then had their time to--die. The war of 1812, and the accompanying events, wiped out the old Federal party that had so bitterly opposed Mr. Jefferson. The war measures of Mr. Madison, and the then Republican party in Congress were strongly supported by the citizens generally. But as time passed on, and politicians became better educated to the business of wire-pulling, partyism grew, "and waxed strong." The Presidential election of 1824 was attended with unusual excitement. It was more exciting, perhaps, than any election that had ever taken place in the country. At this election the Presidential candidates were Henry Clay, Gen. Jackson, of Tennessee, John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts, and William H. Crawford, of Georgia. These candidates had each his friends, who supported their favorite from personal motives, as well as from party consideration and party discipline. Mr. Clay carried his State but was overwhelmingly defeated for the Presidency. Neither of the candidates had a majority of the votes in the Electoral College, according to the constitutional rule, but stood, Jackson in the lead, Adams second, Crawford third and Clay fourth, the latter being dropped from the canvass when it came to the count. Upon the House of Representatives devolved the duty of making choice of President. Each State, by its Representatives in Congress, cast one vote. Mr. Clay was Speaker of the House of Representatives, and, it is supposed, that, through his influence, the Kentucky delegation cast the vote of its State for Mr. Adams, instead of for Gen. Jackson. By this little stroke of policy, Mr. Clay was instrumental in organizing political parties that survived the generation in which he lived, and ruled, in turn, the destinies of the republic for more than a quarter of a century. At the next Presidential election, party lines were closely drawn, between Mr. Adams and Gen. Jackson, and the result of a hot and bitter contest was the election of the hero of New Orleans, by both the electoral and popular vote. For several years after the political power and official patronage had passed into the hands of Old Hickory, parties were known throughout the country as Jackson and anti-Jackson parties. These, with some modification and changes, finally became the Whig and Democratic parties, the latter of which has retained its party organization down to the present day, and is still one of the great political parties of the period. In 1856, upon the organization of the Republican party, in which organization, the Whig party lost its identity, the county has been Democratic. Notwithstanding the great number of negroes added to the voting population, by virtue of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the national Constitution, the county still rolls up Democratic majorities.-Perrin.
Chapter IV--Pioneer Christianity--Early Meetings And The Building of Churches--The Cane Ridge Revival--Educational History--State Aid to Schools--Extracts From State Superintentent's Report--Colored Schools--The Press, Etc.
pp. 48-49
"And lifted up our hearts in prayer To God, the only Good."-- Gallagher.
It is to the credit of the early settlers of the county that they were a moral and God-fearing people, and that the introduction of the Gospel was coeval with their settlement in the wilderness. There were no churches, but each settler's cabin served as a temple of worship, and when the weather permitted, their
"Temples then were earth and sky;
None other did they know."
Often on the Sabbath Day, the scattered settlers would congregate at the most conveniently located house, when some one accustomed "to lead in meetin'" would read a chapter from the Bible, and after a hymn, offer prayer. The services, though simple in character, were fervent and sincere, and no doubt found favor with Him who declared that "where two or three are gathered together in My Name, there am I in their midst." When chance brought a minister to the neighborhood, the people were notified for miles around, and came to hear "the glad tidings of great joy." As their numbers increased and their means permitted, church buildings were erected, church societies were organized, and preachers engaged to point out to the sinner, as well as the believer, the way unto eternal life.
It is not possible, at this day, to designate the spot on which stood the first church building ever erected in Bourbon County, or the denomination to which it belonged. The Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists established churches in an early day, and several church buildings were erected in the county prior to 1800. The minister came "as one crying in the wilderness," gathered the lost sheep into the fold, and organized churches in the different neighborhoods. To the honor and credit of the county be it recorded, that she has liberally supported the claims of the Gospel, as evidenced in the number of handsome church buildings to be found in her midst. If is not inappropriate in this connection to give a brief sketch of the Cane Ridge meeting mentioned in religious history in connection with what is known as the "Great Kentucky Revival." It took place in 1801, at the Old Cane Ridge Church, in the east part of Paris Circuit, under the ministrations of the Rev. Barton W. Stone, a preacher widely known, and esteemed throughout Central Kentucky, and who was Pastor of the Cane Ridge Church at the time. The sketch is taken from an old work published in 1848, by Elder Levi Purviance, and will recall to the minds of many still living an incident that is fast fading away with the rolling years, and that would soon be forgotten. It is as follows :
"The great meeting at Cane Ridge commenced on Friday before the third Lord's Day of August, 1801. From the commencement the roads were literally crowded with wagons, carriages, horsemen, and people on foot, all pressing to the appointed place, until by the Sabbath Day the grove that was then open near Cane Ridge meeting-house, was filled with wagons, tents and people. It was supposed that there were between twenty and thirty thousand people present. Elder Stone in his journal remarks : 'A particular description of this meeting would fill a large volume, and then the half would not be told.' For the sake of the present and future generations, I will attempt a faint description: From the very commencement, an uncommon solemnity appeared to rest on the countenances of the people. Not unfrequently several preachers would be speaking within the bounds of the encampment without any interruption to each other. Wagons, stumps and logs were used for stands. The preaching and exhortations were interesting and impressive. Salvation free to all mankind was proclaimed, and the willingness of Jesus to save all that would come was urged universally by the speakers. 'The Word of God was quick and powerful, and sharper than a two-edged sword.' Many sinners were cut to the heart, and fell prostate under an awful guilt and condemnation for sin. This was not confined to any one class. The moral, genteel and well-raised; the giddy and profane, the wicked, the drunkard and the infidel; the poor and also the rich, as well as the proud and vain, with all their gaudy attire, were brought down by the spirit of the Almighty, and they appeared to have forgotten everything in this world in view of their souls' eternal salvation.
"I recollect having seen a small girl, not more than ten or eleven years of age, held up by a friend that stood in a wagon, while she invited sinners to the Savior. All who heard her seemed to be astonished at her eloquence and Judgment manifested in inviting sinners to God. It appeared that from the months of children 'God had ordained strength; He took the weak things of the world to confound the mighty,' and by this means the most stubborn sinners were brought to bow to the Savior. At this meetting, and in this revival, there was a most solemn and interesting spirit of prayer manifested. In crowds, tents and wagons, you could hear fervent prayer. I have gone from the camping-ground into the woods, and it was difficult to getaway from prayer. For more than a half mile, I could see people on their knees before God in humble prayer.
pp. 49-50
"This was not a sectarian meeting, although it was held at a Presbyterian mpeting-house. Baptists, Methodists and Presbyterians were simultaneously engaged. Perfect friendship, unanimity and brotherly kindness prevailed. They had come together, to the help of the Lord against the mighty, and 'Zion was terrible as an army with banners.' The meeting lasted six days-the last sermon that was delivered on the occasion was by a Methodist preacher by the name of Samuel Hitt. It is known only to God how many were converted at this meeting. There were no means by which even to ascertain how many professed religion. The object of the meeting was not to build up any sect or party, but to bring sinners to the Savior. When the meeting was over, the 'people returned to their homes and friends. There were many there from Ohio, and some from Tennessee, and the excitement spread with the people, and the young converts' joined the churches of their choice. The good work of reformation went on with irresistible force, and appeared like carrying everything before it. Many were persuaded that the glorious millennial day had commenced, and that the world would soon become the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ. But alas! That enemy of God and man, SECTARIANISM, raised its hydra head, and 'made war upon the saints of the Most High God and overcame them,' and the fair prospects of Zion were in some degree blasted. A cruel jealousy began to show itself among the leaders; some concluded that the spoils were not equally divided; others, that their craft was in danger. Notwithstanding the pride and selfishness of little-minded men raised a barrier in the way of the work, and in some degree obstructed it, yet, where the people continued humble and devoted to God, the good cause advanced, and sinners were converted to the Christian religion. But the bodily exercise, as it was called, seemed to change its manner of operation. The falling exercise became not so common, and the jerks succeeded. These, if possible, were harder to account for than the former, and it is impossible for me fully to describe them. The first I saw affected with them were very pious, exemplary persons. Their heads would jerk back suddenly, frequently causing them to give a yelp, or make some other involuntary noise. After this, nearly all classes became subject to them. The intelligent and the ignorant ; strong, athletic men, and weak, effeminate persons were handled &like by them. Sometimes the head would fly every way so quickly that their features could not be recognized. I have seen their heads fly back and forward so quickly that the hair of the females would be made to crack like a carriage whip, but not very loud. A stranger looking on would have supposed that they would be killed instantly. Some wicked persons have taken them, while ridiculing them, and have been powerfully operated upon by them; others have taken them while trying to mimic them, and had them in good earnest. One thing that appeared almost miraculous was, that among the hundreds I have seen have them, I never knew or heard of one being hurt or injured by them."
Such is an historical sketch of one of the greatest religious revivals, perhaps, on record. It was not confined alone to the Cane Ridge Church, but extended all over Central Kentucky, and into Ohio and Tennessee. The same writer says: "I have no doubt many of my readers will pronounce it a delusion. Some of that day called it so; others called it the work of the devil, and some witchcraft." Another writer, William Rogers, of Cane Ridge, says of this same revival: "When, early in the month of April of the year in question (1801), a phenomenon in the religious history of the West, made its appearance in the south of Kentucky, more than one hundred miles from Cane Ridge. It was, in the language of that day, styled-'The falling exercise.' The accounts of it narrated were wondrous to our ears. In the month of May, the strange work was witnessed in the two churches of Cane Ridge and Concord, the former in Bourbon, the latter in Nicholas County, and both at the time under the pastorate of the Rev. Barton W. Stone, a young man of much purity, and high respect for learning, for talent and amiability of manners, in the Presbyterian ranks. The exercise in question soon spread in all directions, and meetings for public worship were kept up with but little intermission, not only in these two churches, but throughout the great West. The Rev. Stone was a regular and distinguished actor in many of them. The interest and the exercise was truly astounding, and thousands were the converts of that summer. Many a tall son and daughter of worldly pride was made to bear submission to Prince Messiah."
A few words of Barton W. Stone. one of the most remarkable preachers of his day, in Kentucky, is a fitting conclusion to the history of this wonderful revival. He was born in Maryland December 24, 1772, and was a son of John Stone, who died when he was very young. His mother, after her husband's death, removed to Virginia, and settled in what was then termed the backwoods, in Pittsylvania County, eight miles below the Blue Mountains, where the future great preacher received his early education in the private schools of the neighborhood, and which he afterward completed at Guilford Academy, in North Carolina. While pursuing his studies he was converted, and in 1793 became a candidate for the ministry in the Presbyterian Church, in Orange County, North Carolina. Before he was licensed to preach, however, he became discouraged, and determined to give up the idea of the ministry and engage in some other calling. Under this determination he visited his brother in the State of Georgia, and, while there, was chosen Professor of Languages in the Methodist Academy, near Washington, in 1795. In the following spring, he resigned his professorship, returned to North Carolina, attended the Orange Presbytery, and received his license to preach. Soon afterward he went to Tennessee, and finally made his way through the wilderness to Kentucky, and commenced preaching at Cane Ridge and Concord, in Bourbon County. He continued to labor in these churches until 1798, when they gave him a regular call, which he accepted, and was installed as their pastor. He preached for them several years, and during his pastorate occurred the great revival already noticed. But the liberality of his doctrine was at length complained of by the more rigid and Calvinistic, and, in 1803, the matter was brought before the Synod at Lexington. Foreseeing that the Synod would most likely decide against him, he, and four others, withdrew from its jurisdiction, and sent in their protest to the proceedings. The Synod, however, proceeded to pass on them the sentence of "suspension," for the crime of departing from the doctrines of the Confession of Faith. Upon this action of the Synod, he severed his connection with his congregations, and with his companions, formed what they termed the "Springfield Presbytery," but soon gave it up, as it savored of partyism, and then took the name of CHRISTIAN-the name given by divine appointment first at Antioch. Having divested themselves, to use his own words, "of all party creeds and party names, and trusting alone in God, and the words of His grace, we became a by word and laughing-stock to the sects around us; all prophesying our speedy annihilation."
Mr. Stone continued to live a useful life. He finally became identified with the Christian Church (called, in derision, sometimes, Campbellites),and was one of its faithful ministers until his death. In the fall of 1834, he moved with his family to Jacksonville, Ill. In October, 1844, he made a visit to his children, relatives and friends living in Missouri, from which he never returned. He died on the 9th of November, at the residence of Capt.. Samuel A Bowen, in Hannibal, Mo., at the age of 71 years. Thus passed away an able minister, a zealous Christian, and an exemplary man.
The sketches of the great revival of religion, and of Mr. Stone, are given as a part of the history of Bourbon County. In the chapters devoted to the city of Paris, and to the different villages and election precincts, a fall and complete history will be given of all the churches and religious denominations existing in the county, or that have existed since its settlement, so far as can be obtained. Hence, we only allude to the subject here in general terms, and pass to other matters claiming our attention.
pp. 50-51
The common schools should interest every individual, not only of this county, but of the whole State. It is by education that communities attain civilization and reflnement, and the child of the poor man rises to honor and greatness. In our own free country, and under the influence of our free schools, the poorest may become eminent and renowned. Without education, Henry Clay, the "mill-boy of the slashes," never could have become the leader of statesmen, nor James A. Garfield have risen from the canal-boat to the Presidential chair.
In the early settlement of this section, there were a great many drawbacks in the way of general education. The people were mostly poor, and money, or other means of remunerating teachers scarce; there were no schoolhouses, nor was there any public school fund. All persons, of both sexes, who had physical strength enough to labor, were compelled to take their part in the work of securing a support, the labor of the female being as heavy and important as that of the men; and this continued so foryears. In the last place, both teachers and books were extremely scarce. Taking all these facts together, the wonder is that they had any schools at all. But the pioneers of Central Kentucky deserve the highest honors for their prompt and energetic efforts in this direction: Just so soon as the settlements would justify, schools were begun at each one. The teacher or pupil of today has no conception of getting an education under difficulties. There are, perhaps, however, a few aged people still living in Bourbon County who may remember some of the early difficulties that stood in the way of learning.
The first steps of Kentucky to extend the fostering aid of State patronage to the interests of general education, were taken more than three-quarters of a century ago. On the 10th of February, 1798, an act was approved by the State Legislature donating and setting &part of the public lands of the Commonwealth 6,000 acres each for the benefit and support of Franklin, Salem and Kentucky Academies, and for Lexington and Jefferson Seminaries. Similar acts were approved December 21, 1805, and January 27, 1808, embracing like provisions, and extending them to all the existing counties of the State. "Within twenty years," says Collins, "from the passage of the act of1798, the following additional academies and seminaries were endowed with the grant of 6,000 acres each: Shelby, Logan, Ohio, Madison, New Athens, Bethel, Bourbon, Bracken, Bullitt, Fleming, Hardin, Harrison, Harrodsburg, Lancaster, Montgomery, Newport, Newton, Rittenhouse, Stanford, Washington, Winchester, Woodford, Somerset, Transylvania, Greenville, Glasgow, Liberty, Rockcastle. Lebanon, Knox, Boone, Clay, Estill, Henry, Greenup, Grayson, Warren, Breckinridge, Caldwell, Gallatin, Henderson, Union, Adair, Allen, Daviess and Pendleton."
Chapter V--INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS--TURNPIKES AND MACADAMIZED ROADS--THE MAYSVILLE AND OTHER TURNPIKES--STAGE COACHES--RAILROADS--KENTUCKY CENTRAL--PROJECTED ROADS--AGRICULTURE IN THE COUNTY--FAIR ASSOCIATIONS AND OFFICERS--CATTLE SHIPMENT--DISTILLERIES, ETC.
pp. 55-56
THE roads and highways of a county or State constitute an important part of their internal improvements. Those of Bourbon County and of Central Kentucky are unsurpassed in any country. Turnpikes and macadamized roads pass in every direction and to every point of importance. Collins gives the origin of turnpikes in Kentucky as follows: "A turnpike road, or road on which turnpikes (i. e., toll-gates) are established by law, and which are made and kept in repair by the toll collected from travelers who use the road--the road itself being formed by throwing the earth from the sides to the center in a rounded form--usually confounded with the modern macadamized or artificial road (invented by Macadam) of broken stone. No such road as the latter was made in Kentucky until 1829. By act of March 1, 1797, Joseph Crockett was appointed to erect a turnpike at some convenient place, and purchase as much land as may be necessary for that purpose, not exceeding two acres, or the road leading from Crab Orchard to Cumberland Gap, beyond where the road from Madison Court House intersects said road. The turnpike (toll-gate) was to be farmed out to the highest bidder, who should give bond and security, payable to the Governor of the State, for the faithful payment of his bid. He should 'have the right and privilege to receive the following tolls: For every person (except post-riders, expresses, women, and children under the age of ten years) 9 pence (121 cents); for every horse, mare or mule, 9 pence; two-wheel carriage, 3 shillings; four-wheel carriage, 6 shillings ($1); and for every head of cattle going to the eastward, 3 pence (4 1/2 cents). The surplus tolls, after paying for repairing the road, were to belong to the keeper of the turnpike (toll-gate).' Thus turnpike originally meant toll-gate, but now generally means the road itself on which the turnpike or toll-gate is established." From this small and insignificant commencement has originated as fine a system of roads as may be found anywhere. The limestone of this region has proven its value beyond controversy in the matter of road-bailding. Owing to the nature of the soil, the roads of the county, before they were macadamized, became almost impassable in winter. Limestone soil is more easily washed and out into gullies by heavy rains than soil where the limestone does not exist. Hence, it became necessary to adopt some means of preserving the roads and preventing them from washing into gullies. No successful plan was invented until that of covering them with limestone. No amount of rain affects this covering, but on the contrary the rain assists in smoothing and leveling the surface and otherwise adding to its durability.
pp. 56-57
The first turnpike road ever built in the State passed through Bourbon County, and is still a popular highway, and also a road of almost unparalleled excellence. It was chartered as the Maysville & Lexington Turnpike Road. The career of this pioneer road was somewhat checkered and eventful, and were its history fully written it would form a rather readable narrative. It was chartered on the 4th of February, 1818, under an act "for the purpose of forming artificial roads," but years passed before it was built. It was incorporated anew January 22, 1827, with a capital stock of $320,000, to which, at any time within three years, the United States Government was authorized to subscribe $100,000, and the State of Kentucky the like sum. Ged Metcalfe, afterward Governor of the State, then a Representative in Congress from the Maysville District, brought before Congress the subject of an appropriation for the proposed turnpike, but too late in the session to get the measure through. He, however, induced the Secretary of War to order a survey for the location of a "great leading mail road from Zanesville, in Ohio, through Maysville and Lexington, in Kentucky, and Nashville, Tenn., to Florence, Ala., en route to New Orleans." On the 12th of May following, Col. Long and Lieut. Trimble, of the United States Engineer Department, began the survey at Maysville. By a resolution of the Kentucky Legislature, adopted February 13, 1828, Congress was recommended to extend a branch of the National Road from Zanesville; Ohio, to Maysville, Ky., and thence through the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi, to New Orleans; and instructed her Senators in Congress, and requested her Representatives to use their utmost exertion to effect this object. A bill with an appropriation for this purpose passed the House of Representatives, but was defeated in the Senate in the spring of 1828. While the matter was thus delayed, Maysville took an initiatory step toward building this important road, procured from the Legislature, January 29, 1829, a charter for the Maysville & Washington Turnpike Road, which was but four miles in length. The necessary amount of stock was at once subscribed, and the "first spade of earth dug amid great rejoicing on the 4th of July following the passage of the act." The road was steadily pushed forward until its completion in November, 1830. This road was afterward finished through to Lexington, and became the "Maysville & Lexingtua Turnpike Road." Under this title, a bill passed the Lower House of Congress, on the 29th of April, 1830, "authorizing and directing the Secretary of the Treasury to subscribe, in the name and for the use of the United States, for 1,500 shares ($150,000) of the capital stock of the Maysville, Washington, Paris & Lexington Turnpike Road Company." It passed the Senate May 15, and, twelve days later (May 27) was vetoed by President Jackson. Kentucky, however, aided the enterprise, and took stock at different intervals, until her subscription amounted in the aggregate to $213,206, one-half the cost of the entire road. A new impulse had been given to the building of artificial roads, as "the only kind which can be permanent on Kentucky soil," in the winter of 1826-27. In his annual message to the Legislature, December 4, 1826, Gov. Desha took strong ground in favor of the road from Maysville to Louisville, "through the most important towns of Paris, Lexington, Frankfort, etc., etc."
This, as we have stated, was the first macadamized road through the county, and was built at a cost of $426,400, "including thirteen toll-houses and six covered bridges." Since its completion, a number of others have been built, until the county is a perfect network of pikes, diverging from Paris and connecting it with all important points. The following are the titles of some of them: Georgetown and Paris; Paris and Winchester; Paris and Clintonville; Paris and Flat Rock; Mount Sterling Pike; Bethlehem and Paris; North Middletown Pike; Paris and Jackstown; Cane Ridge Pike, and others. These roads are built on the general macadamized plan--the stone broken, usually, so as not to exceed six ounces in weight, and laid upon the road, according to probable wear, nine to ten inches deep, and one to three inches deeper in the center. Substantial bridges span many of the large streams where they are crossed by these roads, thus rendering high water no impediment to travel. The county has several iron, and a number of wooden bridges, and still there is room for a few more. The only objection that can be urged to the turnpike roads of the county, is the tax imposed upon those traveling over them, in the way of toll. The paying of toll is a nuisance that should be abated, and Paris and the county would do well, and find it to their interest, too, to take the matter into their own hands and make their roads all free.
The stage coach of the old regulation pattern seems almost a part of the turnpike road, and in the early days was the common mode of travel. The old vehicles were usually painted a kind of fawn color, ornamented profusely with red. The body was swung high above the wheels on heavy leather springs, so that every lurch of the coach seemed to threaten sure destruction to the passengers. While in the zenith of their glory, their arrival in town created far more of a sensation and a greater interest than the railroad trains do now. Everybody rushed out to see the stage and hear the news, and to catch a glimpse, if possible, of that great man, the driver. What a hero he was! In the innocency of our youth, he is the only man we ever remember having envied. Mark Twain gives an excellent pen portrait of him in his trip across the plains, but he had his day, and now he is laid on the shelf. The turnpike was not complete without a stage coach, nor the stage coach without a driver. Both are now gone with other relies of the olden time, and we are away on the "fast train" of internal improvement and development.
pp. 57-58
Railroads-The railroads of Bourbon County are soon written. The history of the roads already built is brief and somewhat uninteresting; to projected roads more interest attaches, perhaps, than to those already in operation. The introduction and building of railroads form an interesting part of our history, and unquestionably hold the first place among the social forces of the present day. There is not a single occupation of interest which the railroad has not radically affected. Agriculture, manufactures, commerce, city and country life, banking, finance, law, and even government itself, have all felt its influence. But especially has it been a potent influence in providing the material organization for the diffusion of culture among the people, and thus preparing the conditions for a new step in social progress. Wholly unknown three-fourths of a century ago, the railroad has become the greatest single factor in the development of the material progress, not only of the United States and of the other civilized nations of the earth, but its blessings are being rapidly extended into the hitherto semi-civilized and barbarous portions of the globe.
Our progress and improvement in the building of railroads has kept pace with our advancement in everything else. None but a prophet could have foreseen the improvements that would be made in their construction in the first half century of their existence. As we travel over the great trunk lines in palace coaches, we may well wonder at the perfection of railroads, for certainly there is nothing more wonderful in our history. As we contemplate the subject, we are ready to exclaim, "What further improvements can be made in railroads!" Who can answer the question? The railroad system is the most stupendous monument to man's enterprise ever erected. It forms a perfect network of iron and steel in every portion of the country, running daily and nightly and continuously, thousands of locomotives and tens of thousands of freight and passenger cars, loaded with tons and tons of the products of the country, with valuable merchandise from every part of the world, and with an almost innumerable number of precious human beings, dashing with lightning speed from city to city, and from State to State from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Lakes to the Gulf, representing a capital of at least $5,000,000,000. Ah, where is there another such (to quote from a circuit bill) colossal combination? and we may add-monopoly?
The first railroad built in the West, and one of the first in the United States, was built on the present line from Lexington to Frankfort. It was originally chartered as the Lexington & Ohio Railroad, January 27, 1830, and was to extend from Lexington to Portland on the Ohio-River, a village now included in the corporate limits of Lousville. This pioneer road, in its "primitive purity and innocence," was somewhat unique in its mechanical construction. The iron rails were soldered upon stone sills, which were laid lengthwise, instead of being spiked upon wooden cross-ties, as railroads are now built. It was finished at Frankfort in December, 1835, and its completion celebrated in a manner becoming so important an event. Although ranking as one of the oldest railroads of the United States, it was not fully completed through to Louisville until 1851 and by a consolidation of the two divisions of the road--that between Lexington and Frankfort, and between Frankfort and Louisville--in 1857, it became one road and company.
One of the first railroad projects that excited special interest in Paris and Bourbon County, was that known as the Charleston & Cincinnati Railroad. This trunk line was to extend from Charleston, S. C., to Cincinnati, Ohio, on from Cincinnati to Charleston (as might appear to it friends most convenient and practicable), passing through Lexington with diverging lines from the latter place to Louisville, Paris, Maysville, Newport, Covington, etc., etc, and almost every other town that wanted a railroad. The people took a lively interest in the matter, and flattering hopes were entertained of its successful and early completion. For several years, the agitation of the enterprise was kept up. Companies were formed and chartered by the Legislature, lines were surveyed, terminal and intersecting points suggested, and wind and gas enough expended to build several railroads. But it all amounted to nothing, and the interest in the project "grew smaller by degrees, and beautifully less," until finally the Charleston & Cincinnati Railroad died a natural death.
pp. 58-59
The Kentucky Central Railroad. This road, so far, is the only culmination of railroad enterprise Bourbon County enjoys. Of all the railroad projects that have been agitated by her people, this, and its Maysville branch, are all that have been carried through to completion. These are much better than no railroad at all, but in the system, the experienced railroad man discovers vast room for improvement. The agitation of building a railroad from Paris to Covington, and from Paris to Lexington commenced as early as 1848. The county gave originally $150,000 in private subscriptions, and, afterward voted $100,000 more. In 1853, the road was completed from Lexington to Paris, under the title of the "Lexington & Covington Railroad," and the first train passed between Lexington and Paris on the 22d of December of that year. In the fall of 1854, it was finished from Covington to Paris, and trains ran through from Covington to Lexington. The building of the entire road cost near $5,000,000.
The early years of the Kentucky Central were somewhat checkered, like many other railroad enterprises of that day. It was sold in 1859 by a decree of court, and bought by Boulder & Co. for $2,225,000. Afterward, the stockholders resisted the sale, and the matter was submitted to the United States Court at Covington, and the sale decided valid. A number of the old stockholders, John Bedford, Dr. Perrin and others then carried it to the Court of Appeals, which tribunal reversed the whole thing. Boulder & Co. next made an application to the Court of Appeals to have the case remanded back to the Court at Covington for a new hearing. In the meantime, however, a compromise was effected at 75 cents on the dollar for a new road. The title was also changed from "Lexington & Covington" to "Kentucky Central Railroad," by which it is still known. In 1880, the company sold out to M. E. Ingalls & Co., at 40 cents on the dollar. Recently, it was purchased by Mr. C. P. Huntington, of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, at 60 cents on the dollar, who is the present owner. C. Alexander, one of the directors, owns most of the stock now held in Bourbon County. The present directory is composed of the following gentlemen: C. P. Huntington and George Bliss, of New York; Gen. John Echols, Virginia; C. Alexander, Paris, Ky.; E. H. Pendleton, B. S. Cunningham and M. E. Ingalls, Cincinnati, of whom M. E. Ingalls is President and Gen. Echols Vice President.
The Maysville Railroad.-This is now a division of the Kentucky Central and was commenced about the same time of the Lexington & Covington Railroad, and was originally known as the "Lexington & Maysville Railroad." Bourbon County contributed $200,000 to its building; Fayette and Mason voted alike amounts. After passing through various changes, full details of which will be found under the head of Nicholas County, it was purchased by the Kentucky Central, and is now operated as a division of the latter road. It should be a good paying line, but seems rather to always have been a somewhat poor investment to its owners.
The Kentucky Central Extension appears now to be a settled fact. It diverges from the main line at Paris, and passes through Winchester and Richmond, tapping the Knoxville Branch of the Louisville & Nashville system at or near Livingston, Ky., making the Kentucky Central proper about 170 miles in length. The estimated cost of the extension is $1,915,000. The following is from the last report (January, 1882) of President Ingalls, of the Kentucky Central: "The right of way was donated by Bourbon County, and exemption from taxation for twenty years was guaranteed by Clark County, and what was equivalent to $125,000 voted by Madison County in aid of same. The work is now in progress, and the board hopes to have the line in operation by July 1, 1883. At the same time the extension was resolved on, it was decided to at once rebuild the main line and equipment, so as to be ready for the increase of business that was expected from the new line. The increase in gross earnings has been very satisfactory. They net all we could expect in the condition of the property and the extensive improvements we were making. After this current year, the property will be in such fine condition it can easily be operated for less than 60 per cent of its gross earnings."
This extension, when completed, will render the Kentucky Central one of the most valuable roads in the country, as the new line passes through coal fields and mineral regions, the best in the State, and hitherto with little or no railroad facilities. As work is now in rapid progress upon the different divisions of the extension, its completion may be expected at no distant day.
The Paris, Georgetown & Frankfort Railroad. This is a project that has been agitated somewhat in this county, but as there is considerable opposition to the enterprise, its final completion, or building rather, for so far nothing has been done but the "wind work," seems just a little problematical. As a gentleman informed us, "The road begins nowhere, ends nowhere, and there are no stations between." If built, the most it can ever be is a local feeder to some other road. Under the first proposition to build a road from Paris to Frankfort, the county agreed to give $400,000; it failed, and under the new order of things the county, we believe, proposes to give $100,000. The project is still being agitated, but time only will show to what result.
p. 64
[NOTE: I moved ahead to the section on cattle and the fairs in case some of you are wondering about the abrupt transiton in subject matter--Bob Francis]
As showing something of the size and weight of Bourbon County cattle, a carload was shipped from Paris, consisting of twelve head, December 15, 1874, by Bedford, Kennedy & Ferguson, which averaged 2,515 pounds. They were shipped to New York, and taken altogether are said to have been tile largest ever received in a single lot in that market-the lightest weight being 2,150, and the heaviest, 2,995 pounds. They were thoroughbred Durhams, of the "1817 importation," were bred and raised by Alexander Brand, Esq., and sold by John A. Merrett and H. F. Burchard. The item went the rounds of the press at the time and was highly commented.on throughout the country. So much interest did the shippers take in it, they had each steer photographed and grouped into a sort of portrait gallery.
Fairs.-The progress and growth of agriculture in the county, is more fully shown by a sketch of the fairs and associations that have existed, and are now in existence. Collins tells us that the first agricultural fair in Bourbon County was held in 1818. and that the present association held its first fair in 1836, and regularly every year since, except two years during the war, but another authority (Keller and McCann) takes issue with Mr. Collins, and says that if a fair was held in 1818, the proverbial "oldest inhabitant" knows nothing about it. Nor have we found anything nor learned anything of a fair held in 1818. There is little to be learned in regard to the early fairs of the county, as most of the early records have been destroyed. We find in an old copy of the Citizen, published in 1838, an address delivered by Gov. Garrard before the Bourbon County Agricultural Society, several extracts from which we have already given in the preceding pages. Without attempting to follow the association through all of its eventful history, from its organization to the present time, we will give a list of the officers and directors since the close of the war, which is as far back as we have been able to obtain reliable data. Beginning with the year 1866, the officers and directors were as follows: B. J. Clay, President; James Hall and Horace Miller, Vice President; W. W. Mitchell, Treasurer, and B. F. Pullen, Secretary. Directors, James A. Cunningham, W. A. Parker, J. D, Butler, George M. Bedford, F. P. Clay, Val Hildreth, Joseph Ewalt, Jacob Spears and Joseph Mitchell.
In 1867, the following officers were elected: B.J.Clay, President; James Hall and George M. Bedford, Vice Presidents; W. W. Mitchell, Treasurer, and B. F. Pullen, Secretary. Joseph Mitchell, Horace Miller, James A. Cunningliam, Val Hildreth, J. D. Butler, H. W. Rice, E. G. Bedford, J. W. Ferguson, John Cunningham, Dr. W. Fithian, were elected Directors. In 1868, B. J. Clay was re-elected President, and Joseph Mitchell and James Hall, Vice Presidents; B. F. Pullen, Treasurer, and J. A. Howerton, Secretary. Directors: J. A. Cunningham, Horace Miller, J. W. Ferguson, J. D. Butler, H. W. Rice, J. H. Ewalt, G. M. Bedford, E. G. Bedford, B. F. Bedford and E. B. Bishop. Annual membership was fixed at $4. In 1869, the same officers were elected, with the exception of J. W. Ferguson, who was elected Vice President in place of James Hall. Several changes were made in the directory, as follows: H. J. Rice, J. D. Butler, Horace Miller, B. F. Bedford, F. J. Barber, J. A. Cunningham, J. S. Kenney, Abram Renick, Joseph Ewalt and M. M. Clay.
pp. 64-65
In 1870, the annual meeting was changed from the second Saturday in April to the second Saturday in February, and the following officers elected: Same as last year, except James Hall was elected Vice President in place of Ferguson; J. W. Ferguson, H. M. Rosenberg, H. W. Rice, Joseph Scott, E. G. Bedford, F. J. Barber, J. D. Butler, J. S. Kenney, G. M. Bedford and James A. Cunningham, Directors. In 1871, B. J., Clay, President; Joseph Mitchell and J. W. Ferguson, Vice Presidents; B. F. Pullen, Treasurer, and James A. Howerton, Secretary. Directors: J. D. Butler, F. J. Barber, B. F. Bedford, Jr., E. G. Bedford, J. A. Cunningham, M. M. Clay, Joseph Ewalt, James Hall, J. S. Kenney and H. M. Rosenberg. In 1872, the old officers were re-elected, and a few changes made in the directory.
The same result followed the election of officers for 1873, and J. S. Kenney, E. G. Bedford, M. M. Clay, B. F. Bedford, S. P. Kennedy, James Cunningham, W. H. Renick, Harmon D. Ayres, H. O. Hutchcraft and Joseph Scott were elected Directors. In 1874, James Hall took the place of Joseph Mitchell as a Vice President--other officers were re-elected. A few changes were made in the directory. Same officers in 1875, with a few changes in.the directory. In 1876, B. J. Clay was re-elected President; Joseph Mitchell and J. A. Howerton, Vice Presidents; Mr. Pullen was re-elected Treasurer and W. A. Parker, Secretary; a few changes were made in the directory. In 1877, J. W. Ferguson took the place of J. A. Howerton as Vice President, and T. P. Muir was elected Secretary in place of Mr. Parker, with a few changes in the directory. The old officers were re-elected in 1878, except C. M. Clay, Jr., who the place of Ferguson as Vice President, with the following directory: F. Gano Hill, H. C. Hutchcraft, G. W. Morrow, J. Smith Kenney, B. F. Bedford, M. M. Clay, William Bedford, J. B. Kennedy, W. H. Renick and W. A. Parker. In 1879, C. M. Clay, Jr., was elected President; r. W. Ferguson and Joseph Mitchell, Vice Presidents; B. F. Pullen, Treasurer and W. A. Parker, Secretary, with but few changes in the directory. The old officers were all re-elected in 1880, and a few changes made in the directory. The same result was had in 1881, and in 1882, the following gentlemen were elected, viz.: J. W. Ferguson, President ; B. F. Bedford and F. Gano Hill, Vice Presidents; B. F. Pullen, Treasurer; W. A. Parker, Secretary; and Brent Hutcheraft, H. C. Hutchcraft, M. M. Clay, John E Hinton, John B. Kennedy, W. H. Renick, J. T. Hughes, H. C. Smith, George W. Morrow and J. W. Bedford were elected Directors.
p. 65
Distilleries.-The manufacture of whisky is one of the most extensive and valuable interests, not only of Bourbon County, but of the entire Blue Grass Region. Indeed, the blue grass seems to have a beneficial effect on whisky, as it has on everything else that comes in reach of it. William Warfield, Esq., of Fayette County, tells us that the "peculiar suitability of blue grass pastures for beef-making" is unsurpassed- Mr. Ben Bruce, editor of the Live Stock Record, says: "No portion of America is so highly favored for the breeding and rearing of fine horses" as the Blue Grass Region of Kentucky. Dr. Peter, chemist to the State Geological Survey, is of the opinion that "even men take on a higher development," in this favored section; we all know that the beauty of the Blue Grass ladies has become proverbial; then why should not Blue Grass whisky be better? It is the universal opinion abroad, that all the Bourbon whisky shipped to every point is not only made in the Blue Grass Region, but is the product of Bourbon County alone, whence it receives its name. That whisky is a valuable commercial interest in this part of the State, and that the revenue derived from its sale and manufacture is large, is a fact beyond dispute -- that it is a foe, bitter and relentless to Christian civilization, is a fact equally Palpable.
It is not our province, however, as a historian, to discuss the evils of whisky, but to view it from a commercial standpoint. We were informed by a gentleman in Ohio, some time ago, that whisky would be sold as long as there was 8 cents profit on a 10-cent drink, and we have no doubt that so long is it is extensively sold, as it is now, it will be manufactured. Commercially then, it is one of the great business interests of this portion of Kentucky next to tine stock, the most important, perhaps, and the most valuable.
From the very earliest settlement of the country, the manufacture of whisky has been numbered among its industries. The pioneers made whisky for the purpose of finding a market for their surplus grain. Since the day of the little log distillery, with a capacity of a few barrels per week, tile business has grown and increased with the growth and development of the country. It is a significant fact, that of all the early manufacturing industries of Paris and Bourbon County, that of whisky alone has kept pace with the time. The hemp factories, the cotton mills, etc., are gone, and few of the present generation can point out the sites where first they stood, but the distilleries are more flourishing than ever before.
It is not known at the present day, with any degree of certainty, perhaps, who started the first distillery in the county, or in what year the business was begun. Collins has the following upon the subject: "The first distillery in Bourbon County was near where the manufactory of W. H. Thomas stood in 1869, and was erected about 1790, by Jacob Spears, and others from Pennsylvania. Two negroes cut down the trees and hauled them to the distillery, while Mr. Spears cut the timber into suitable sizes, distilled, went to mill, and also attended a fine stallion he had brought with him. Others claim that Capt. John Hamilton, who run away from Pennsylvania on account of his participation in the 'whisky insurrection,' distilled in this region before Spears." We do not know if this is true, but no doubt it is, that the business commenced at least that far back. Emanuel Wyatt operated a small distillery in a very early day on land now owned by C. M. Clay; Benjamin Bedford also had a distillery very early. Robert Owen built a small distillery in the present precinct of North Middletown in 1806; and in what is now Centerville Precinct there were several distilleries built in early times. Thus the business was inaugurated in different parts of the county, and has increased and expanded to its present dimensions. An old gentleman informed us that those were the days of "honest whisky," when a bushel of grain would make two gallons of whisky that would retail at 25 cents a gallon. Then there was not so much red tape connected with making whisky as there is at present; "Uncle Sam" was not an interested partner as he is now, and anybody and everybody who felt a desire to do so were permitted to make it in the light of the sun, instead of having his operations veiled in "moonshine." But without dwelling longer upon the early manufacture of the article, we will devote a little space to the business as conducted at the present day.
pp. 66-67
There are seven distilleries in Bourbon County, now in successful operation, (and several others standing idle, owing toscarcit.yofarain the pastyear),owned andlocated as follows: White's Distillery at Paris; the Paris Distillery in Paris Precinct; Davies' Distillery at Millersburg; W. H. Thomas' in Paris Precinct; Ford & Bowen's at Ruddel's Mills; George Pugh's and Gus Pugh & Co.'s in the north part of the county.
White's Distillery, No. 14, Seventh District, is located in East Paris, on Stoner Creek. It was commenced by a man named Foley in 1855, but not completed until the following year. James A. Miller bought out Foley, and started it in operation in 1856, continuing the business until his death in the summer of 1860. In the following fall, Tarr, Hibler & White took charge of it and operated it for two years. Hibler sold out in 1863 to Tarr & White, and, in 1868, C. Alexander bought Tarr's interest. G. G. White bought out Alexander in 1877, and, in 1880, Mr. Ferguson bought a half interest in the concern, since which time the firm has been G. G. White & Co. The capacity of this distillery is four hundred bushels every twelve hours , the brand, "Chicken Cock," and there is a ready demand for the article; the manufacture of which amounts to about 9,000 barrels yearly. The storage capacity of the establishment is now 2,400 barrels, and the firm contemplate building a new warehouse soon of 1,800 to 2,000 barrels capacity. The article manufactured is "Sweet Mash Bourbon, Fire Copper," and all modern appliances are used, and thirty-five men are employed. The capacity for stock-feeding is 500 cattle and 800 hogs. Until the years 1880-81, all the grain used was purchased in the county : since that time most of it has been received from abroad. The main distillery building is 40x48 feet ; boiler shed 42x5O feet. The concern is now mashing 600 bushels daily, though the usual quantity is 400 bushels. In 1881, the average yieldwas 4.14 gallons; in 1882, nearly 4 1/2 gallons to the bushel. A cooper-shop is attached to the establishment.
Paris Distillery. No. __, Seventh district, is located in Paris Precinct, on the North Division of the Kentucky Central Railroad, and on the Paris & North -Middletown Turnpike, one mile from Paris. It was built in 1868, and commenced operation in January, 1869, W. T. Buckner and George M. Bedford, proprietors, under the firm name of Buckner & Bedford. They continued until the summer of 1880, when they were bought out by Samuel Clay, Jr., & Co., who have since operated it. Under the proprietorship of Buckner & Bedford, it made "sweet mash," but under the new firm it has changed to a "sour inash" establishment. The brand is "Paris Distillery-Hand Made." The capacity is 412 bushels; feed about 300 head of cattle, and employ in distillery proper some thirty hands. Storage capacity is about 15,000 barrels.
The Millersbura Distillery in the Seventh District was completed February 1, 1882, and was built by William Davie. It is hand-made sour mash; with all the modern conveniences, has a daily capacity of 500 bushels, and annual product of 6,000 barrels. The distillery building proper is 70x145 feet, and was completed ready for business at an expenditure of about $40,000. Thirty hands are employed at an average of $2 per day wages. It is located on the Maysville Division of the Kentucky Central Railroad, in the village of Millersburg. Bonded capacity of the warehouse is 15,000 barrels, and the necessary corn-cribs, cooper-shops, etc., are attached. Pure water from wells, 24 to 30 feet, is used. Everything is complete, about the establishment, and the reputation of Bourbon whisky will be fully maintained. It is expected to use the products of the surrounding country in the manufacture of whisky. At the present writing (February, 1882), it is just getting down to business.
Ford & Bowen's Distillery is located at Kiser's Station, on the Kentucky Central Railroad, north of Paris. It was originally built by Mr. B. Bowen in 1857, the father of H. C. Bowen, and was run by him until 1867, with the "Bowen Brand," and is the second oldest sweet-mash distillery in the county. The building was formerly a cotton and woolen factory. B. Bowen first took in his son George, and son-in-law Thomas Duvall, as partners, which continued for three years, when the Bowens bought out Duvall, and in 1867 Mr. Bowen sold to his son George. The latter took George W. Wyatt into partnership, under the firm of Bowen & Wyatt. He afterward bought out Wyatt, and sold an interest to H. C. Clay and James K. Ford, when the firm became H. C. Clay & Co., and so remained until 1880, since when it has been as above, Ford & Bowen. The brand is "Peacock," which was established when the firm became H. C. Clay & Co. Capacity, 600 bushels of sweet mash every twenty-four hours. Capital invested, $50,000. Warehouse, built in 1880; capacity, 4,000 barrels; and brick house, built in 1881, of 8,000 barrels capacity; amount now in bond 6,000 barrels; cooper-shop attached, and about twenty hands altogether are employed.
H. C. Bowen's Distillery, No. 102, of the Seventh District, is located at Ruddel's Mills, on Stoner Creek, and was built by Howard & Bowen in 1868-69. About a year afterward, Mr. Howard died, and after several changes in firm in 1879, Mr. H. C. Bowen became sole proprietor. The warehouse was erected by the present owner, and has a capacity of 8,000 barrels; made in 1881, 3,400 barrels; now in bond 5,500 barrels; capacity, 444 bushels per day.
The distillery is located about two miles from Shawhan's Station, on the Kentucky Central Railroad, from which most of the shipments are made. Most of the grain is purchased in the county; cooper-shop attached, which makes from thirty-five to forty barrels per day. About twenty hands are employed, at an average of $2.00 per day wages. Capital invested, $50,000 brand, " H. C. Bowen," and is sweet-mash make.
W. H. Thomas' Distillery is five miles north of Paris, and three miles west of Kiser's Station. This is an old establishment, dating back to 1836-38, and was built by Jacob Spears, and has been owned and operated by several parties; has stood idle, and then been started up again, finally becoming the property of W. H. Thomas, the present proprietor. It makes pure copper whisky, and has storage capacity for about 2,500 barrels a cooper-shop is attached, which makes the barrels used in the distillery. The brand of whisky made is "W. H. Thomas;" capacity, 54 bushels per day and during the year 1881 there were made 900 barrels, it being a small establishment.
George Pugh's Distillery, is No. 13 of the Seventh Internal Revenue District of Kentucky, and was built by Jacob Wilson about 1800, and is the oldest distillery in the county now in operation. It was washed away during a time of high water, and re-built by John Ewalt. It lay idle for several years, and in the fall of 1856 George Pugh bought and re-built it and he and his sons have since run it. It is operated by water-power, and is a very small establishment, making only about one hundred and fifty barrels annually. It is in Ruddel's Mills Precinct, at the mouth of Townsend Creek, about eight miles from Paris. Has storage room for 700 barrels, and about 400 barrels in bond.
The distillery of J. S. Shawhan is a small establishment, located on the pike, about one and a half miles west of Shawhan Station, on the Kentucky Central Railroad. It was built by Mr. Shawhan in 1874, and made in 1881 only 232 barrels, and is at present standing idle.
Gus Pugh & Co.'s Distillery is No. 44, and is located about a quarter of a mile east of Shawhan Station. It was built in 1858 by Samuel Ewalt, and remodeled in 1872 by Gus Pugh--bought by him in 1870 of Ewalt. The brand is "Gus Pugh;" amount in bond, 300 barrels capacity, 30 bushels per day; about 250 barrels annual production. The establishment is run by steam, and the production is the "hand-made sour mash." Like the last mentioned, it is a small establishment, doing but little business.-Perrin.
(Skipped Chapter VI which deals with cattle)
CHAPTER VII--WAR HISTORY OF BOURBON COUNTY--THE REVOLUTION AND INDIAN TROUBLES--OUR SECOND WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN--CAPT. GARRARD'S COMPANY--TROUBLE WITH MEXICO--A COMPANY MADEUP BY CAPT. SIMMS--THE LATE WAR--INCIDENTS, ETC., ETC.
p. 75
"Then the glad ears of each war-martyred son
Proudly shall hear the glad tidings 'well done.'
God will reward those dead hefoes of ours,
And cover them over with beautiful flowers."
-- Carleton
THE first knowledge the Anglo-Saxon had of Kentucky was intermingled with "wars and the rumors of wars." When the pioneer, Boone climbed
"The mountain there, and stood alone, alone!
Upon its top amid the rounding clouds."
a mighty war with the mother country was upon the eve of breaking forth--a war that led the American people to freedom and liberty. Many of the Kentucky pioneers were soldiers who had fought in the Revolutionarv army and when they arrived in their new homes--homes that had been given them for gallant service-they were forced to fight the savages for their possession, often to the death. These contests between the white and red men are more particularly described in a preceding chapter. How many of the early settlers of this section were Revolutionary soldiers is not known, but it is believed that a large majority of them had taken part in the struggle for independence. According to Collins, there were known to be still livinig, in 1840, within the limits of Bourbon Countv, the following soldiers of the Revolution : Archibald Bell, William B.Branham, John Brest, Sr., George Bryan, Isaac Clinkinbeard, James Davis, John Debinler, Nathaniel Harris, Andrew Harves, Thomas Hays, Benjamin Henniss, John Hinkston, Joseph Jackson, Edward McConnell, William Scott, Sr., Abner Shropshire, Michael Smith, Joseph L. Stevens, Henry Towles, Henry Wilson and Henry Wiggington. This was quite an array of soldiers to be living sixty years after the scenes of their campaigns, and gives a pretty good idea of the number that must have been among the original settlers. After their settlement here, it was one long-continued struggle, as elsewhere mentioned, almost up to the beginning of our second war with England. Considering her population at the time, Kentucky furnished, perhaps, twice as many men during the War of 1812 as any other State in the Union , without it was Virginia. Not a battle nor a skirmish was fought during the whole period of the war in which Kentucky was not well and fully represented.
As in the war of the Revolution, so in the war of 1812, it is impossible to say how many soldiers Kentucky did furnish. This we do know that where life was to be risked and glory won, Kentuckians were always found. Collins gives the following list of a company that went from Bourbon County: "William Garrard, Captain; Edmund Basye, First Lieutenant; David M. Hickman, Second Lieutenant; Thomas H. McClanahan, Cornet; Charles S. Clarkson, First Lieutenant; William Barton, Second Sergeant; John Clark, Third Sergeant; Benjamin W. Edwards, Fourth Sergeant; James Benson, First Corporal; William Walton, Second Corporal; Jesse Todd, Third Corporal; John S. Bristow, Fourth Corporal; Joseph McConnell, Farrier; Ephraim Wilson, Trumpeter; William Davis, Saddler.
pp. 75-77
"Privates (War of 1812)-John Finch, William Beneer, David B. Langhorn, John Wynne, William Mountjoy, Samuel Henderson, Henry Wilson, William Jones, John Terrell, Walter Woodyard, Moses Richardson, Jacob Shy, Lewis Duncan, Robert Thomas, Jacob Counts, John Snoddy, Thomas Bedford, James Finch, Walker Thornton, Thomas Eastin, Gerrard Robinson, William M. Baylor, Alexander Scott, William Scott, James Clark, Roger P. West, Frederick Loring, Thomas Barton, Samuel J. Caldwell, John Baseman, Jesse Bowlden, John Funston, James Johnston, John Layson, William B. Northeutt, Jonathan Clinkinbeard, Thomas Webster, Abel C. Pepper, Beverly Brown, Edward Waller, Gustavus E. Edwards, Stephen Barton, Stephen Bedford, John M. Robinson, Jacob Sharrer, Isaac Sanders, James Brown, Henry Towles, John Metcalfe, Stephen Owen, James Conn, Jacob Thomas, William Allentharp, Nathaniel Hill, Strother J. Hawkins, Edward McGuire and Troy Waugh." This list purports to be taken from the original muster-roll of the company. It was cavalry, or, as designated, "State dragons." It served for one year, and was in "Maj. V. Ball's squadron." Thomas Bedford and Beverly Brown are reported as killed in action; Lieuts. Basye and Hickman, Joseph McConnell, Farrier, and privates Moses Richardson, Thomas Eastin, William Scott, Thomas Webster, G. E. Edwards, Stephen Barton and S. J. Hawkins were wounded. Sergt. John Clark died; fourteen are reported sick, thirty-nine frostbitten, and three fit for duty. These casualties occurred between October 31 and December 31, 1812, inclusive.
But the data at hand is too meager, so far as connected with Bourbon County, to give an extended sketch of the part she took in it, beyond the fact that a majority of her able-bodied citizens were engaged in it at some time during its progress. The battle of the Thames ended the war in the Northwest, and the glorious victory of Gen. Jackson at New Orleans put a stop to it for good and all, and the news of peace, which had already been negotiated at Ghent, soon spread throughout the country. Thus quiet came once more to the people of the West. "It was time," says a writer upon the subject, "that Kentucky was allowed a little rest, for she may be said to have fought through the two first years of the war by herself. Virginia gave the Northwest to the nation, and her daughter, Kentucky, saved it from conquest by savage and foreign foes at the cost of her noblest blood." Peace settled down with her inestimable blessings, and almost for the first time within the memory of the white man, the dark and bloody ground was in a perfect state of quietude, and free from the dread of savage foes. War no more disturbed our peaceful pursuits, except at intervals as the faint sounds of savage yells and conflicts rolled along our frontiers, and only came to our ears as the low mutterings of thunder, from a distant storm cloud, whose lightnings could harm us not.
For several years the surviving soldiers of 1812 have been holding their annual re-unions at Paris, and as year by year is recorded upon the muster-roll of Time, their number is growing smaller. A few more rolling years, and the last or these old hefoes will have answered the reveille for the last time. At the annual meeting, held in 1881, there were present the following: Moore Johnson, from Mt. Sterling, aged eighty six years; Thomas Jones, from Paris, aged eighty-nine; Thomas Casey, from Falmouth, aged eighty-five; Dr. C. C. Graham, from Louisville, aged ninety-seven; Zach Corbin, from Owen County, aged ninety; Enos B. Payne, from Newport, aged eighty-eight; Dr. G. H. Perrin, from Cynthiana, aged eighty-seven; Gilead Evans, from Nicholas County, aged eighty-seven; Dr. T. G. Chinn, from Lexington, aged eighty-four; Joshua Webb, from Madison County, aged eighty-nine; S. M. Berry, from Scott County, aged eighty-five; Samuel Jones, from Fleming County, aged ninety; and Thomas White, from Paris. aged eighty-nine. Since the annua meeting of 1880, the following old veterans had died: William Northeutt, Kenton County, aged ninety-one years; Samuel Chinn, Clark County, aged ninety-three; William Rupard, Clark County, aged one-hundred and ten; Gen. William O. Butler, Carroll County, aged ninety; Maj. J. R. Curry, Harrison County, aged ninety-two; Hy Lancaster, Garrard County, aged eighty-seven; Thomas Mount, _________, aged eighty-nine; William Boyd, Oldham County, aged eighty-five; Ayres Leforge, Fleming County, aged eighty-six; Hamilton Wilson, Newport, aged eighty-nine; and John Gillespie, Oldham County, aged one-hundred and one years.
An occasional misunderstanding, with some obdurate tribe of Indians comprised our war experience, until the American eagle swooped down upon disrupted Mexico. The causes which led to this unpleasantness grew out of the admission of Texas into the American Union as a State, and may be termed but the forerunner of that great internecine war that commenced with the fall of Fort Sumter in 1861. That politics bore an important part in it there is no question. The majority of the Whig party opposed the measure of annexing Texas to the utmost of their power. Hon. Tom Corwin, of Ohio, made the ablest speech of his life, and said to have been one of the ablest ever made in the United States Senate, against the further prosecution of the war, just after the fall of Monterey. The Whig party--dominant in the North--believed it a measure for the extension of slavery, and upon that ground alone all the Northern members of the party opposed it. In the Presidential election of 1844, it was made a question at issue, and James K. Polk, the Democratic candidate--and whose party favored the annexation of Texas--was elected over Mr. Clay. This was taken as an indorsenietit of the measure by the people, and, accordingly, the " Lone Star" was admitted into the Union as a State. This led to open hostilities between the United States and Mexico, which began in the spring of 1846. In the declaration of war against Mexico, and the call for troops which followed, Kentucky was required to furnish four regiments of volunteers, comprising 2,400 men, but so great was the zeal of the people, that nearly 15,000 men responded to the call. The Louisville Legion, nine companies strong, reported to the Governor without delay, and were accepted. The four regiments furnished were officered as follows : First Regiment Cavalry, Humphrey Marshall, of Louisville, Colonel (Major General in the Confederate army in the late war); E. H. Field, of Woodford County, Lieutenant Colonel, and John P. Gaines, of Boone County, Major. Second Regiment, William McKee, of Lexington, Colonel (killed at Buena Vista); Henry Clay, Jr., of Louisville, Lieutenant Colonel (killed at Buena Vista) - C. H. Fry, of Danville. Major, Third Regiment, M. V. Thomson, of Georgetown, Colonel, (formerly Lieutenant Governor of the State); T. L. Crittenden, of Frankfort, Lieutenant Colonel (Major General in the Federal army during the late war); John C. Breckinridge, of Lexington, Major (Vice President of the United States under James Buchanan). Fourth Regiment, John S. Williams, Colonel (now United States Senator from Kentucky); William Preston, of Louisville, Lieutenant Colonel (Major General in the Confederate army); William T. Ward, of Greensburg, Major.
The Third Regiment (Col. Thomson) contained a company (Company H) from Bourbon County, under Capt. William E. Simms, while a number of men were scattered through the other regiments and companies. The following is the complete roll of the company : W. E. Simms, Captain; W. P. Brainlette, First Lieutenant; C. G. Campbell, Second Lieutenant; William Fisher, Third Lieutenant; Isaac H. Skillman, Orderly Sergeant; John H. Thompson, Second Sergeant; William Ewalt, Third Sergeant; L. C. Hughes, Fourth Sergeant and James Taylor, Berry Kennedy, Reuben Sandford and William Samuels, Corporals. Privates-George W. Leonard, William Adair, Jackson Aubrey, John Anderson, P. N. Beathers. V. H. Bivens, D. C. Bonta, Benjamin F. Burden, Charles Barnett, Thomas P. Ball, William Briscoe, James Boswell, Foster Collins, Andrew Cole, J. G. Craddock, James Cravens, P. E. Coons, Joseph Delaney, Andrew Durgeon, Benjamin Ford J. N. Fowl, Joseph Gipson, Isaac Gillespie, L. M. Howell, Harvey Humble, Caleb Hitchins, James Butchinson, J. W. Hedges, James R. Henry, Francis Hulett, Perry Hughes, Leroy Hughes, Alfred Hulett, A. R. Fisher, Perry Hampton, J. M. B. Higgins, Joseph Hogg, J. W. Henry, James Innes, George M. Kenney, Jefferson Kenney, David Long, John T. Lloyd, M. W. Laughlin, Hugh Lowry, R G. McDonald, John Norton, James McCracken, John Martin, Samuel Mullins, William Murphy, James Nunan, William H. Norton, Thomas Ryan, L. Ross, John B. Stivers, A. J. Speyers, Jacob Stokeley, John H. See, Robert Shidell, Samuel Scott, William Sharp, Joseph Stivers, Philip Swartz, Thomas H. Sample, John T. Henry, Claiborne True, Joseph Thompson, Henry Trimble, Jordan Thomas, Elias Way, John Watkins, W. T. Wells, Lewis Wyman, Burrell Wood, Andrew Waggoott, Lenox Waggott, James Young, Henry Wilkins, Henry Sharp, Benjamin Utterback, Horatio Talbott, Joseph Williams, Francis Hall, W. T. Browning, W. E. Bush, John T. Turrey, Henry Trumbull.
This company was recruited to 108 men, and, as we have said, formed Company H, Third Regiment Kentucky Volunteers. The regiment under command of Col. Thomson was in the army of Gen. William O. Butler, and reached Mexico shortly after the capture of the city, where it was on active garrison duty for nearly a year. It behaved very well ; about twenty died in Mexico, the remains of whom were brought home by Capt. Simms, and interred in the Paris Cemetery, where a handsome monument, erected by the county, marks their resting place.
The great civil war--the war between the States-was the next to disturb our peace and tranquillity. Less than a decade and a half passed, after the close of the Mexican war, before the great rebellion-as our Northern neighhors term it-broke upon the country. It is scarcely possible to write a correct, or a just history of this war, even after this long lapse of time. All the wars we had hitherto engaged in were waged against savages or foreign foes, but now we were called to measure strength among ourselves-literally, it was Greek meet Greek. A civil war was inaugurated without a parallel in the world's history. Of all the conflicts that have ever scourged our earth, a civil war, wherein the " brother betrays the brother to death, and the father the son, and children rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death," is the most dreadful. The rival houses of York and Lancaster, with their emblems of "White" and "Red," shook Old England to her center, filling her houses with mourning, her fields with carnage, and wasting the blood of her bravest and best, but when compared to our "war between the States," it pales into insignificance. Though the "pen were dipped in the gloom of earthquake and eclipse," it could not write a true history of those four dreadful years--1861-65. All the evils of war, and all the horrors of civil war were crowded into them, and the refined cruelties known to the civilization of the enlightened age in which we live were practiced by the opposing parties. But after four years of strife and bloodshed, the olive branch of peace again waved over us, and now fraternal love and prosperity smile upon the land from one end of the nation to the other. As we become naturalized to the new order of things, we find it a source of congratulation that the object of strife between the sections is forever removed, and will never cause another war on American son. In the final union of "the Roses," England found the germ of her future greatness and glory, and in the harmonious blending of "the Blue" and "the Grey," who shall limit our own greatness and glory ?
pp. 79-82
Our State being located upon the border, between the North and the South, it was but natural that our people should be divided in their opinions, as to the justice or injustice of the war, the acts of the National Government, and the project of setting a new Republic. Thus, divided in sentiment, the contending sections received many recruits (perhaps nearly an equal number, each) from Central Kentucky and from Botirbon County. Each actuated by motives of the highest honor, with a firm, unswerving faith in the righteousness of their cause, rallied around their respective standards, and went forth to fight the battles of their country. imbued with more than a Roman valor and patriotism, they bore uncomplainingly the privations of camp and field, and when the oft-repeated news was brought home of depleted and broken ranks, a similar Spirit hurried on fresh legions to brace up the tottering colunins. Bourbon County's valor was attested on many a hard-fought field, both in the ranks of the blue and the gray, and her sons were ever ready for posts of danger. Some. who went out to fight for the cause they deemed just and right, with only the benediction of a mother's prayers and tears, came not back to that mother's arms. They sleep in the swamps of the Chickahominy, on the banks of the Rapidan, at Shiloh, Chickamauga, Corinth, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and the Wilderness, and it is no reproach to their valor that they fell before foes who were as brave as themselves. Their memory is immortal; and beautiful as a crown of gold, the rays or the sunset lay upon the hilltops where they repose after their battles. Others, worn down with toil and exposure, dragged their wearied bodies down to die, and now sleep in the quiet churchyards, where, with each recurring anniversary, surviving friends gather together, moisten with tears the graves and with loving hands lay immortelles upon the green hillocks above them. This is eminently proper. The custom of strewing floral mementoes on the graves of departed friends is time-honored and ancient. It is of Oriental origin, and we read that
"In Eastern land they talk in flowers,
And tell in garlands their loves and cares,"
and that each little velvet petal that spreads itself to the light contains a mystical language more powerful and sympathetic in its nature than tongue can express. In ancient times, the people were as careful in guarding the memory of their dead, of embalming their virtues and erasing their errors, as they were mindful of their liberties. This sweet privilege, through the long roll of years that have passed, has fallen a blessed boon to our people, and they have felt it a duty to recall the virtues and heroic deeds of noble sons who endured the stern discipline of the camp, and dared the storm of battle for a cause in which their hearts and natures were enlisted, and with spring's first flowers they garland the spot where they slumber in glorified rest.
"Winds of summer oh! whisper low
Over the graves where the daisies grow,
Blossoming flowers and songs of bees,
Sweet ferns tossed in the summer breeze-
Floating shadows and golden lights,
Dewy mornings and radiant nights-
All the bright and beautiful things
That gracious and bountiful summer brings,
Fairest and sweetest that earth can bestow,
Brighten the graves where the daisies grow."
Of the troops furnished to the National armies from this county, the Seventh Cavalry and the Fourth and Twenty-first Infantry received the larger number of men. Among the commissioned officers of the Seventh Cavalry, from Bourbon, were the flollowing: A. B. and J. C. Masoner, Ruddel's Mills; Thomas L. Scott, Paris; H. H. Talbott, Paris: Rev. M. J. W. Ambrose, Paris; W. W. Bradley, Berry Station; Jesse Bryant, Berry Station: William M. Bell, Paris, and perhaps others. The The Masoners were Quartermaster and Commissary of the Regiment; Rev Ambrose was Chaplain, but resigned September 6, 1863. Jesse Bryant was promoted to Captain February 7, 1863, and to Major, but never mustered as such. Thomas L. Scott, promoted from Second to First Lieutenant, May 7, 1863, promoted to Captain, but not mustered as such--mustered out of service July 10, 1865. H. H. Talbott, promoted from Sergeant, Company C, to Second Lieutenant, Company, A, wounded at Hopkinsville, December 16, 1864, and mustered out July 10, 1865; and William M. Bell, Second Lieutenant. W. W. Bradley entered the service as Captain of Company D, was promoted to Major February 6, 1863; to Lieutenant-Colonel, September 17, 1864, and mustered out July 10, 1865. The following sketch of the Seventh Cavalry is from Gen. D. W. Lindsey's report as Adjutant General of Kentucky during the war:
"This regiment was organized at Paris, Ky., in August 1862, under Col. Leonidas Metcalfe, and was mustered into service by Maj. L. Sitgraves, United States mustering officer. Before the regiment was thoroughly equipped or disciplined, they were ordered into active duty, and engaged in the battle of Big Hill Ky., where they received the charge of the enemy under Gen. Kirby Smith, and lost many officers and soldiers in killed, wounded and prisoners. Owing to the enemy having possession of nearly the entire State, the organization of the regiment was much retarded. In October, 1862, under command of Col. Faulkner (Col. Metcalfe having resigned), the Seventh was placed upon active duty, and assigned to the Department of the Cumberland.It was in all of the early engagements in Southern Kentucky and Tennessee, and by their gallant bearing and soldiery conduct upon many well-fought fields won the commendation of the Commanding General."
The regiment participated in the following named battles, in which loss was sustained, in addition to several others not mentioned on the rolls, viz: Big Hill, Richmond, Cynthiana and Hopkinsville, Ky.; Franklin, Truine and Nashville, Tenn.; La Fayette, Resaca, Ga.; Gainseville, King's Hill, Gadsden, Scottsville, Randolph and near Montgomery, Ala. The veterans and recruits of this regiment were transferred to the 6th Kentucky Veteran Cavalry.
The Fourth Kentucky Infantry drew quite a number of commissioned officers and privates from Bourbon. Among the officers were the following: R. M. Kelly, who was promoted from Captain of Company K to Major of the regiment March 23, 1862; to Lieutenant Colonel April 18, 1864; to Colonel, August 25, 1864; mustered out of the service August 16, 1865, and is now editor of the Louisville Daily Commercial. John T. Croxton was promoted from Lieutenant Colonel to Colonel March 23, 1862; to Brigadier General August 16, 1864; brevetted Major Genral, and resigned December 26, 1865. John A. Roberts, promoted from a private to sergeant September 1, 1861; to Second Lieutenant, March 1, 1862; to First Lieutenant, March 27, 1863; to Captain, June 17, 1865, and mustered out August 17, 1865. C. V. Ray, promoted from Second to First Lieutenant January 12, 1862, and November 6, following, was appointed Adjutant. Elliot Kelly, commissioned First Lieutenant January 2, 1865. N. M. Kelly was First Lieutenant Company D, and died at Lebanon, Ky., January 12, 1862; and a large number of privates. This regiment was organized at Camp Dick Robinson, under Col. Speed S. Fry, and mustered into the United States service October 9, 1861, by Brig. Gen. George H. Thomas, United States mustering officer. The regiment saw hard service, and in the sketch given in the Adjutant's report, published by Gen. Lindsey, of Frankfort he bestows upon it much praise. He concludes his notice of it in the following words: "It received the praise and commendation of every general officer under whom it served, and the casualty list clearly shows it to have been foremost in every battle. It participated in the following among other battles in which loss was sustained, viz.: Mill Springs, Ky.; Corinth, Miss.; Rolling Fork, Ky.; Tullahoma, Tenn.; Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Mission Ridge, Lafayette, Mason's Church, Newnan, Ga.; Pulaski, Tenn.; Shoal Creek, Ala.; Lewisburg Pike, Franklin and Lynnville, Tenn., etc."
The Twenty-First Infantry also drew a large number of officers and privates from the county. Among the former were M. M. Clay, S. R. Sharrard, L. W. Dunniington, E. B. Davidson, J. B. Buckner. J. R. Jameson, and perhaps others. M. M. Clay entered the service as Captain of Company C, and resigned October 3, 1862. S. R. Sharrard, promoted from First Lieutenant to Captain October 3, 1862, and resigned April 7, 1864. L. W. Dunnington, promoted from Sergeant to Second Lieutenant April 12, 1864, transferred Twenty-first Veteran Infantry, and mustered out of service at Victoria, Tex., December 9, 1865. John B. Buckner entered the service as Orderly Sergeant, promoted to Second Lieutenant October 3, 1862; to First Lieutenant April 12, 1864; transferred to Company C, Twenty-first Veteran Infantry, and promoted to Captain Company K January 18, 1865. J. R. Jameson, promoted from First Lieutenant to Captain February 27, 1862 and resigned June 12, 1863. The regiment contained, likewise, a large number of private soldiers from Bourbon. Indeed, Company C, Capt. Clay, was raised principally in Paris and the surrounding community.
The first commander of the Twenty-first was E. L. Dudley, of Lexington, who died February 20, 1862. The regiment saw much hard fighting during the war. The following extract is from its record in the Adjutant General's report: "After the retreat of Bragg from Kentucky, the regiment ruturned to Nashville, Tenn. On the 9th of December, 1862, it, with other regiments of the brigade, under command of Col. Stanley Matthews, while out foraging, were attacked near Dobbin's Ford by Wheeler's rebel cavalry. The conduct of the Twenty-first on that occasion was highly commended by the brigade commander, and the following-named non-commissioned officers and men were were complimented in field orders by Gen. Rosecrans for their gallant conduct, viz.: Sergt. J. F. Morton, Company F; Corp. Henry Stahel, Company A; Corp. J. P. Hagan, Company F; Private George P. Montjoy, Company A; Private Cassius Keger, Company A; Private Edward Welch, Company A; Private William Murphy, Company A; Private R. B. Clusin, Company F; Private W. W. Oliver, Company F; Private John Morton, Company F; Private B. S. Jones, Company F."
It participated in the following battles, in which loss was sustained : Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, New Hope Church, Pine Top, Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville.
The following commissioned officers from Bourbon were in scattering regiments, viz.: Greenberry Reed, Captain in the Fortieth Infantry; C. B. Petitt, First Lieutenant in same regiment; John W. Evans, Second Lieutenant in same regiment; Jesse Dennis, First Lieutenant in the Fifty-third InFantry, and W. H. Drinkhard, First Lieutenant in the Fifty-fifth Infantry. John T. Farris, Quartermaster of Fifth Cavalry, afterward promoted to Major of Ninth Cavalry, and resigned November 10, 1862; John C. Brent, promoted from First Lieutenant Company B, to Major of Ninth Cavalry, February 9, 1863, and mustered out with the regiment. There may be other commissioned officers, that should be credited to Bourbon County, but we have scanned the Adjutant General's Report closely, and if such there be, he has overlooked them.
The Confederate army received perhaps a larger number of recruits from this county than the opposite side. Among the soldiers furnished to the South, were the following commissioned officers: Lieutenant Colonel, E. F. Clay ; Major, Thomas Brent; Captains, James M. Thomas, R. G. Stoner, Harry Bedford, James Bedford, John Hope, _____Fowle, John B. Holladay, James Rogers, Hugh Henry, E. F. Spears; Lieutenants, James A. Allen, Samuel Hawes, William Talbott, A. J. Lovely and Harry Boesh, John P. Talbott and Charles Benton, Surgeons. Captain John Bradshaw was from Powell County, but is now a resident of this county. Col. E. F. Clay raised a company, of which he was Captain, of fifty or sixty men, which rendezvoused at Prestonburg. Capt. Clay was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and was wounded and taken prisoner at Puncheon Creek, in Magoffin County. Ky. Of his old company, William Talbott was First Lieutenant, Harry Clay, Second Lieutenant, and James Rogers, Brevet Lieutenant. The latter afterward resigned, and raised a company, of which he was made Captain. A. J. Lovely entered as private, was brevetted Lieutenant, and afterward promoted Captain in Commissary Department. This company was "D" of the First Kentucky Rifles," John Williams, Colonel; and formed part of Gen. Humphrey Marshall's brigade.
Capt. J. M. Thomas raised a Company principally in Bourbon and Nicholas Counties. He retired front the service at the end of a year, and W. T. Havens became Captain. He was a Sergeant in the company at the time of its organization. He is now editor of the Mount Sterling Sentinel. R. G. Stoner went in as captain of a company from Montgomery, and was afterward promoted to lieutenant-colonel of the regiment. John Hope raised a company, mostly in Bourbon, of which he was Captain. E. F. Spears was First Lieutenant, and afterward succeeded Hope as Captain. Samuel Hawes was Second Lieutenant, and was killed at Stone River. James A. Allen went out as Brevet Lieutenant, and was afterward promoted to Second Lieutenant; was severely wounded in the leg. This company was attached to Col. Roger Hanson's brigade.
Capt. W. E. Simms, who commanded a company in the Mexican war, entered the service as Colonel of the First Kentucky (Confederate) Cavalry. Col. Simms was elected to the Confederate Senate, when Col. Clay (at the time Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment), succeeded him in its command. Maj. Thomas Brent was killed near Lebanon, Capt. Harry Bedford was captured at Cynthiana, Ky. Capt. Holladay had a company from Nicholas County; he is now a citizen and Sheriff of Bourbon. He entered the service as Captain of his company, but was promoted to Major.
It is a more difficult matter to obtain correct data of the Confederate service, as there has been less published on the subject, than of the National service, the Adjutant General's Report of Kentucky, affording much valuable information pertaining to the forces in the service of the Government. In both sections we have only given the names of commissioned officers, so far as we could obtain them. The privates from the county would form, perhaps, two or three regiments, and their gallant and soldierly bearing is remembered by all who knew them. What more can be said of them beyond the breathing of a prayer, that they may never be called to face each other again in such an unholy war.--Perrin
CHAPTER VIII--PARIS PRECINCT--BOUNDARIES, TOPOGRAPHY, PHYSICAL FEATURES, ETC.--THE PIONEERS--THEIR TOILSOME JOURNEYS--KENNEDY FAMILY--OTHER SETTLERS--EARLY INDUSTRIES--EDUCATIONAL AND RELIGIOUS--OLD CANE RIDGE CHURCH
pp. 83-84
"But long years have flown o'er these scenes of the past,
And many have turned gray in the winter's cold blast;
While others only think of the time that is gone;
They are bent by the years that are fast rolling on."
When first seen by white men, Central Kentucky was an unbroken wilderness. Dense forests overhanging the margins of crystal streams were unmolested by the pioneer's ax. The notes of myriads of songsters, the howl of wild beasts and the yell of savages alone awakened the silence that had brooded over them for centuries. But now came a change! The first wave of immigration rolled westward, precurser of an overwhelining tide destined to sweep everything before it. The fierce contest commenced between the pale-face and the Indian, and was waged with relentless fury, but the superior prowess of the white man prevailed, and his title to the "dlark and bloody ground" was sealed with hundreds of human lives. The red sons of the forest have disappeared, and Cooper's "Last of the Mohicans," preserves in romance a story of the race. The plowshare levels their graves; their favorite hunting grounds groan beneath the white man's harvests, and will know them no more forever. Fulfilled to the letter were the gloomy forebodings of the chief, when he spoke in the pale-face's council: "My people are like the scattered stalks that remain in the. field when the tempest has passed over it. The Great Spirit ordained us for the forest, and our habitation is the shade. We Pursue the deer for our subsistence, but they are disappearing before the pale-faces, and the red man must starve or leave the graves of his fathers, and make his bed with the setting sun." Thus it has been, and thus has the mellowing hand of Time served to
"Make their name sublime,
And departing, leave behind them,
Footprints on the sands of time."
The section to which this chapter is devoted, though small in extent, is not without traditional interest. Like every spot of Central Kentucky, it is entwined with historical association, and these associations and reminiscences, will be presented in a becoming form to our readers. They have been gathered from the most reliable sources now available, and are no doubt correct.
Paris Precinct, the Election Precinct No. 1 of Bourbon County, comprises the central part, and is as fine bluegrass land as the county contains, or as may be found, perhaps, in the entire blue grass region, Its configuration is good, save possibly a few bluffs contiguous to the watercourses. It would puzzle a mathematician to define the shape of Paris Precinct, or one of fertile imagination to give correctly its boundaries. As much as we can venture is, that it is bounded by Harrison County, and by Ruddel's Mills, Millersburg, Flat Rock, North Middletown, Clintonville, Hutchinson and Centerville Precincts. These extend round it, and we leave it to the reader to give to each the cardinal point of the compass, to which it is entitled. The precinct has an excellent system of natural drainage in its numerous watercourses. Stoner Creek or river is the largest stream, and flows nearly north through the center and through the city of Paris, where it furnishes waterpower and supply to mills, distilleries, etc. It unites with the Hinkston near Ruddel's Mills, just before entering Harrison County. Kennedy's Creek is a tributary of Stoner, and flows in nearly the same direction, emptying into the latter a little south of Paris. Houston Creek enters the precinct from the west, near Houston Post Office, and unites with the Stoner at Paris. Clark's Branch is a small tributary of Houston, in the west part of the precinct. Flat Run flows north and empties into the Stoner near Ruddel's Mills. Cooper's Run in the northwest empties into the Stoner near Ewalt's Cross Roads; and Townsend's Creek passes through the northwest corner. The timber growth of Paris Precinct was that indigenous to this section of the State, and consisted chiefly of oak, hickory, black walnut, buckeye, ash, sugar maple, etc.
Like the most of Bourbon County, and of Central Kentucky, Paris Precinct was settled chiefly by Virginians, with now and then a family from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina. To name him who erected the first cabin in what now forms this precinct, with any degree of certainty, is a task that no one, perhaps, can truly accomplish. The Kennedy farnily were early settlers, though it is not known that they were the first in the precinct. Thomas Kennedy was the first of the fainily to emigrate to Kentucky, and from him Kennedy's Creek took its name. From an old manuscript written by his son, Jesse Kennedy, in 1850, and now in possession or Mr. Frank Kennedy, we glean many facts of interest pertaining to the settlement of the family in Kentucky, and the journey of Mr. Kennedy through the wilderness, from his old home in Maryland. Thomas Kennedy, the pioneer, made his first trip to Kentucky on a "tour of of inspection," in 1776, intending, if pleased with the country, to secure land for himself and two brothers, John and Joseph. He arrived at Boonesboro without accident or adventure, and there met with Michael Stoner, afterward an early settler himself in Paris Precinct. Stoner invited him to go and assist him in clearing a field and planting it in corn, which he did, This field was long known as " Strode's Field," and is now owned by Samuel Clay. At that time, the country was full of wild game, and fresh meat was plenty all the time. Buffalo were numerous and furnished all the settlers with meat. In the fall, Mr. Kennedy returned to Virginia, where his family then resided, intending to move out to Kentucky at once, but owing to various difficulties which interfered, he did not make the start until the fall of 1779, when he brought his family hither, consisting at the time of his wife and four children--three bovs and a girl--the eldest being but seven years of age. His trip here shows the difficulties which stood in the way of the pioneers of this country a hundred years ago. He was a brick-mason and carpenter, and gathered together such tools as he might need, and property that he could not well do without, and placed them on a train--not of railroad cars, but packhorses-and with his wife and little ones, and a few cattle, he commenced his journey through the wilderness toward the promised land. Although he did not wander forty years in the wilderness, yet his trials and tribulations while in it were great. Owing to the lateness of the season when he started, forage became scarce and his animals gave out and died by the wayside, and when he finally reached Boonesboro, they were all gone, except a mare and a little bull. Upon the latter he packed a bed, and upon the mare three of his children, while he and his devoted wife trudged on foot--he carrying his little girl upon his own back, and his wife carrying such things as she could. As his pack-horses, one by one, gave out, he hid his property in the forest, intending to return for it, but the unsettled state of the country prevented, and he thus lost it. To add to his troubles, the mare upon which his three boys were carried--the two smallest in willow-baskets swung across her back, and the large one riding upon her--fell down and broke the rider's leg, but without injuring the boys in the baskets. This was a distressing occasion. They were alone in the wilderness, but with that courage and fortitude born of desperation, they bandaged the boy's leg as best they could and continued their journey. In this forlorn condition they arrived at Boonesboro. After remaining there a short time, he joined a company under Capt. John Strode, and helped to build and settle Strode's Station, where he lived for four or five years. The winter of 1779-80, his first winter here with his family, was one of unusual severity. Much of the stock and wild game perished, and of the latter, that which lived through the winter became so poor that, to prevent starvation alone, forced the settlers to kill and eat it. In the spring of 1780, his wife died, and one of his children soon after followed her. He finally pre-empted land for himself and brothers, his own on Strode's Creek and theirs on Kennedy's Creek, and on which latter stream he, too, eventually settled, a few miles south of Paris. Amid many misfortunes which "followed so thickly as to tread on each other's heels," he lived and died on Kennedy's Creek, at an extreme old age. His son, Jesse Kennedy, lived with him, and devotedly watched over and cared for his aged parent until death relieved him of the solemn charge. Jesse served one year in the war of 1812, as master of a train of pack-horses, when he returned home and took charge of the homestead, and through his energy and untiring perseverence, he saved his rather's property from sacrifice, cheered his declining years, and, after his death, accumulated considerable property for himself. He lived an honored and respected citizen of the community, and, to quote a stereotyped phrase, "died regretted by all who knew him." He has a son, Frank Kennedy, a lawyer in Paris.
pp. 84-86
The Bedfords were early settlers in Paris Precinct, and were from the Old Dominion. The pioneer of the family was Benjamin Bedford, who came to Kentucky about the year 1787, and stopped in Madison County, where he remained one season and raised a crop; then, in the following year, came to this section. His brother, Littleberry Bedford, came out in 1789 and located in this precinct, near where John T. Woodford now lives. He there erected a cabin, and, as he had purchased his land, supposed his title was good. He had not remained long on it, however, when Col. Gist rode up to him one day, and told him to cease further improvements, as he had a prior title, which he showed him. Col. Gist told him he need not leave the premises - that he might stay as long as he wished for an ear of corn per year. But Mr.Bedford was wise enoughh to see in this liberal offer a "consideration," and aware that as soon as he improved the place, he would be unceremoniously dispossessed, he wisely concluded not to remain, but to locate elsewhere. He moved to the place where Mrs. Patsey N Clay now lives. Here he settled and remained until his death, which took place August 29, 1829, in his ninety-second year. He was a great hunter, and said to be the best shot in Kentucky, except Daniel Boone. He paid but little or no attention to agricultural pursuits, but, like many of the pioneers, spent his time mostly in hunting. Greenberry Bedford was another early settler in this neighborhood. He is said to have built the firsty "good" house in what is now Paris Precinct. Hitherto, none but cabins had been put up. and he lived in a very poor one for several years, when he erected a splendid house for the time. He hired a cabinet workman from Virginia to make his furniture, which was of the most substantial kind, and some of which is still in existence. He was a quiet man, peaceful alnong his neighbors, and highly respected by all. He came here and married a Miss Clay, and then returned to Virginia and brought out his negroes.
Michael Stoner and James Kenny were supposed to have settled in the present limits of the precinct as early as 1785. Stoner Creek was named for the former. He owned a large body of land on the west side of this stream, but also had fifty acres on the opposite side, which he gave to James Kenny in payment for "stocking" a shovel plow for him. The land is now owned by J. D. Butler; his house is located on it, and it (the land), is worth several car-loads of shovel-plows. Stoner traded 1,000 acres, upon which he settled, to Samuel Clay for a negro woman, a horse and a gun. Stoner was afterward killed at a barn raising, by a log falling on him. Kenny was from Virginia, and settled near where J. D. Butler now lives. He had a son, Capt. James Kenny, who was in the war of 1812, and died of disease while in the service. A man named Bruce settled near Kenny. He had two negro women killed by the Indians, after which he went away and remained until more peaceful times. A man named Gass was also an early settler. He, Col. Gist, Kenny and Stoner, all had surveys on the west side of Stoner Creek. Most of it is now owned by the Clay family, John T. Woodford and George W. Bedford. The Edwards family emigrated to Kentucky and settled in the present precinct about 1794-95. James Marvin came some time prior to the Edwards family, and located the land which Edwards afterward purchased. Jacob Langston, from Virginia, settled here previous to 1790, on the Robert Clark farm.
On the east side of the Stoner, one of the earliest settlers was Henry Leer, who came here from Virginia, but was originally from Holland. He settled among the very earliest, locating on the land now owned by his grandson David Leer. His son Daniel succeeded him, and he, in turn, was succeeded by his son David, who now owns the place as above stated, it having been in the family ever since its original purchase. Josiah MeDonald settled on what is now Flat Rock pike, near where the toll-rate stands, about the year 1790. Thomas Rogers settled near the month of Rogers' Creek. The place where Robert Clark now lives was once called Clark's Station. The Indians were numerous then, and hostile. The house was built bullet-proof, and part of it is yet standing, and forms the rear part of Mr. Clark's residence. John Honey came here in 1787, and was from Maryland. He settled on the farm now owned by Col. Lewis Muir. The old house is still standing, and has loop-holes, as the pioneers' houses were all built. It has been "weather-boarded" and modernized, however, since it served as a protection against prowling savages. David Caldwell came from Pennsylvania and settled on Houston Creek previous to 1800, where he died about the year 1828-29. He was a soldier in the Revolutiouary war, and received an injury in one of his arms, which necessitated its amputation after he settled in Kentucky--an operation that was performed by Drs. Todd and Nicholas Warfield. He was a man highly respected in the community.
John Reed, William Galloway, Samuel Lyons and Lawrence Protzman were early settlers in the vicinity of Paris. The first three mentioned pre-empted the land on which the city is located. Reed was from Maryland, and made his pre-emption Noveinber 18, 1784. Galloway and Lyons were from Virginia, and made theirs in 1786. Protzman bought a portion of Reed's land and laid out a town, which he called Hopewell, now Paris. James Garrard, afterward Governor, John Edwards, Charles Smith, Edward Walker, Thomas West and James Duncan were also early settlers in the present precinct. Gov. Garrard settted about four miles north of Paris, at "Mount Lebanon," about, 1780-85, and as noted elsewhere. The first session of court was held at his residence. Many other early settlers are entitled, doubtless, to mention in this chapter, but they are gone and forgotten in the long years that have passed, and no one now remembers them. Mr. Collins speaks of "Houston's Station," on the present site of Paris but of it little or nothing is now known.
When the first emigrants came to what is now Paris Precinct, not only this immediate section, but nearly the entire State of Kentucky, was a wild region, claimed by numerous tribes of Indians, many of them hostile toward the whites. Our early history bears proof to this state of affairs, in the details given of the long and sanguinary struggle between the two races for supremacy in this rich and beautiful country. The savages let no opportunity to murder, plunder and massacre the whites pass unimproved, and hence the, country contiguous to the early settlements, became a vast graveyard; while in more lonely spots, hunters and isolated settlers with their families were wantonly butchered, their bodies left exposed, when their flesh became the food of wild beasts, their bones the sport of the storm. No early station nor settlement, perhaps, in Central Kentucky, is known, but has connected with it a tale of savaye barbarity, of murder and bloodshed. The pioneer held his life in his hand; he stood ready at any moment to fight, and verily he found his lot cast in a land where he had plenty of it to do. It is said that the early Settler of Kentucky slept with one eye open, and was far more likely to be found without his hat than his gun. These were the circumstances under which this country was reclaimed and wrested from the Indians. When we take a disinterested view of the matter, we have but little ground to blame the Indians for holding on to their hunting-grounds with such a death-like grip. The pale-faces, although they have not held the land so long as did the savages, rather than be driven from their homes now they would fight for them more fiercely than did the savages themselves. And yet the sequel has proven that it was ordained that the Anglo-Saxons should possess this country. The pioneers of Kentucky were but the advance guard--the picket line of the grand army that was to sweep away the last vestige of a crude and imperfect civilization. It was won at it fearful cost, however, but as we look over the beautiful blue grass lands, dotted with luxurious homes, we must admit that it is worth the price paid for it. But the "irrepressible conflict" with the savages was not the only trouble the pioneers had to contend with. From the time they left their comfortable homes beyond the mountains, this toil and privation commenced, and ended not (with many) until their lives ended, and with others until the savages met their Waterloo at the the hands of Mad Anthony Wayne in 1794. As a proof of their hard life, the journey or Thomas Kennedy to the State affords ample illustration, and was but a type of that which fell to the lot of the pioneers generally.
Among the first improvements made in a newly-settled country are roads and mills. The savages have neither. Their roads are traits through the forest where men can only follow each other in single file. The first road through Paris Precinct was what was known as the "State road." This was merely the improvement of the old Buffalo trace. In the proceedings of the second session of court ever held Bourbon County, we find the following of this old road: "The persons appointed to view the best way for a road from the mouth of Limestone in the wagon road on the top of the hill, made their report in these words: To extend from the mouth of Limestone down the river bottom to the first drain crossing the same, thence up the north side into a hollow, up said bellow into an old buffalo trace, thence with said trace into the wagon road. Ordered that the same be established, that Edward Waller Gent, be appointed Assessor thereof, and that Thomas Warring, Gentleman, regulate the hands to assist him in opening and keeping the same in repair." This road crossed the Stoner, near White's distillery, "passed through a corner of the public square, and in a westerly direction along the Huston Cliffs, etc." Other roads were made, as necessity demanded, and improved from time to time, finally macadamized, until at the present day they are as fine a system of roads as any country possesses. The precinct has excellent turnpikes diverging from Paris in every direction. Among them are the Georgetown & Paris; Hume & Bedford; Paris & Townsend; Paris & Jackstown; Lexington, Paris & Maysville; Bethlehem & Paris; Paris & Clintonville; Paris & Winchestor; Paris & Harrod's Creek; Paris & Flat Rock, and Paris & North Middletown. The Lexington, Paris & Maysville pike is one of the oldest, not only in this county, but in the State, and has an interesting history, which is given in another chapter of this volume. The old style stage-coach, with its handsomely painted "body" and prancing team, was an almost inseparable part of the early turnpike road. But its day of usefulness is over; the locomotive has taken its place.
The first mill built in the present precinct of Paris is believed to be that known as Coulthard's, which, it is claimed, was built about 1785-90. It is on Stoner Creek, a short distance north of Paris, and is still in operation, although it has been several times improved and repaired. It was originally built by Abraham McJoy, and has been owned successively by a man named Bayler, Garrard, Hardin, Robert Palmer, Griggs, Goble, and in 1854 was bought by William Coulthard. In 1879, the firm became Coulthard & Honey, who still operate the old pioneer establishment It is a stone building, two stories high, two run of buhrs, and does an extensive business. About forty years after the building of the Coulthard Mill, Spears & Garrard built a mill on the opposite side of the creek. It was a small affair however, with but one run of buhrs. Previously, he had built a small distillery at the same place.
Another of the early mills, and by some claimed to be the first built in the precinct, was a small log structure
pp. 87-88
erected by James Wright, Sr., and was both saw and grist mill, with two run of small buhrs. It finally became the property of his son, James Wright, who some years later rebuilt it in a very substantial manner, making it three stories high. The work was done by a man named Boone, who quarried the rock, hauled it and built the stone work, for the sum of noe hundred The mill is on the Houston Creek, and on the south side of the Lexington & Maysville pike, about two miles from Paris. Robert Langston purchased the mill about 1854, and was the third owner. It is still running, and is in good condition. A man named Smith had a mill in the precinct at an early day. It is now run by a Mr. Spears. A little mill was built on Kennedy's Creek by one Michael Coachman, but of it we learned little of importance.
Ford's mill was another of the pioneer mills of the precinct, and was built by a man named Jourdan. He sold it in 1802 to a Mr. Brent, who, in 1811, had the road laid out to it; then sold the mill to Ford. He ran it until 1829, when Allison bought the site and built the Allison Mill, which ran until 1856, when it ceased business.
The manufacture of whisky was an early industry of the pioneers, and one that has not decreased in importance, even down to the present time. While the making of ardent spirits is considered by many as a business of somewhat questionable character, yet it is certainly a business that yields a large profit, and affords the country an immense source of revenue, and hence it is-honorable. Next to stock-raising, it is the most valuable industry in the Blue Grass Region. As we have said, the business was commenced at all early day. Capt. Kenny is said to have operated a distillery in the southern part of the precinct, as early as 1789-90, where he made apple brandy find whisky. Emanuel Wyatt had a distillery very early on land now owned by Cassius M. Clay. John Tillett had a distillery on what is known as "Still House Branch" many years ago, upon land now owned by Samuel Clay. Ford commenced distilling at his mill in 1829, and continued the business for about ten years.
Of all the industries, however, carried on in Paris Precinct in early times, Benjamin Bedford appears to have conducted one of the most combustible nature, viz., that of a distillery and a powder-mill. Verily, a more combustible combination could not be formed. The powder manufactured in this establishment was used in the war of 1812, and the whisky-well, it was used as an antidote for snake-bites. A man named Spears built a small distillery very early, not far from where the Coulthard Mill stands. He afterward sold out to B. F. Rogers, who sold to Joseph Mitchell. In 1866, Worrall & Hutchison bought out Mitchell, and put up a large steam distillery of some three hundred bushels' capacity. This establishment was operated until 1869, when it failed, and, as a man informed us, "went to the demnition bow-wows."
A hemp factory was built about 1816-18, on what is now the Maysville & Lexington pike, by William Alexander. It was situated a half-mile from Paris, where William M. Taylor now lives, and continued in operation until 1856, when it ceased business. Another was built about the same time by Samuel Williams, on the Georgetown road, a short distance from Paris, which ran for a good many years. Samuel Pike also built a hemp factory, as early as 1827-28. about a mile and a half from Paris, which continued in operation until 1845. Still another was built on the east side of the Stoner, by William Woodward, on land now owned by William Shaw. It was built about 1822, and ran until 1826-27, when it ceased operation. All these factories made bagging, rope and twine, which were shipped South, where they found a ready market. About the year 1820, a cotton factory was built by Jefferson Scott, on the present Maysville & Lexington pike, on the farm now owned by Horace Miller. Its capacity was 720 spindles, and it continued in operation until 1831-32, when it closed business.
The Kentucky Central Railroad passes through Paris Precinct, and is of some benefit to the people. Its history is more fully given in another chapter. The Maysville Division diverges from the main line at Paris. With these two roads, the facilities for travel and transportation might be better than they are. It is, however, being greatly improved.
The early settlers of the precinct were alive to the necessity of education, and schools were established prior to 1800. One of the first schoolhouses of which we have any account was built on the east side of Stoner Creek, near where Clay's distillery now stands. Another was built on what is now the Flat Rock pike, near the second toll-gate. Still another near David Leer's place, which was built in about 1815. A new house has been erected upon its site, which is now in use. The other two mentioned have long since passed away, and there are no evidences left of their existence. Robert Langston, we are told, learned his letters from Col. William Wright, who cut them on a shingle-a rather novel text-book. There are now some half-dozen schoolhouses in the precinct outside of the city of Paris. These, however, are inadequate for the purposes for which they were designed. It is much to be regretted that every portion of the State pays so little attention to common school education. We have far too many academies, seminaries and colleges, and not half enough of common schools. Fewer private schools and more common schools is what is needed to improve our system of education.
The preaching of the Gospel in the precinct was coeval with its settlement by white people. The exact date of the formation of the first religious society is not now known. The first church edifice erected, is believed to have been old Mount Gilead Methodist Church, known as "Matheny's Meeting House," about three miles from Paris, on the Maysville pike, and was built in 1790. It was a log building, the logs were two feet in diameter, hewed, and were blue ash. It stood for many years a monument of pioneer Christianity. They were a strict sect, these old Methodists were, and believed not in the gaudy gewgaws and fashionable toggery with which we ornament our church pews at the present day. The male members of Matheny's meeting house wore their coats without collars, and buttoned up to the neck like a little boy's jacket, while the sisters dressed correspondingly plain. An incident is still remembered which illustrates the strict propriety in dress maintained in this pioneer church. A Miss Leer wore a "bombazine bonnet" to church one Sunday, which was beautifully quilted and elegantly "fixed up"--in a word, it was "a perfect love of a bonnet." But the minister did not think so. He watched for an opportunity, snatched it from her head, and casting it upon the ground, administered a scathing rebuke upon the ungodly extravagance of dress.
Among the original members of this old church were the Howard family, the Lowers, Brands, Carters, Hicks, Hannas and Leers. Daniel Leer was the first class-leader, and acted in that capacity for many years. Revs. John Whittaker and Christian Lowers were among the first preachers. The members of this church did not believe in slavery, it is said. Upon a certain occasion, Mr. Leer, the old class-leader, bought a negro woman upon the division of an estate, and the church raised a good-sized row over it. To avoid discipline, "he," said our informant, "stepped down and out."
Concord Universalist Church, or as it was known, "The First Universalist Church of Bourbon County," was organized originally some forty years ago. The church building was begun in 1845, and completed and dedicated May 30 1847. The original members were Jesse Kennedy, Polly Kennedy, V. G. Wheat, W. A. Bacon, William L. Bacon, E. M. Kennedy, William Shaw and John Brown. The church prospered until the commencement of the war, when it was almost wholly broken tip. About the year 1867, the building was sold under a degree of the court, bringing about $1,200. The purchaser designed turning it into a store or blacksmith's-shop, but it was burned shortly after its sale. It was situated about three miles from Paris, near C. M. Clay's, and was a frame building of substantial construction.
The Cane Ridge Church which is still standing in the east part of the precinct, on the Paris & Flat Rock pike, is believed by many to have been built prior to the old Mount Gilead Church. The Rev. Mr. Cane, however, places the date of its erection about 1794-95, and Elder Barton W. Stone became its pastor in 1798. It was then a Presbyterian Church, and among the original members were Joseph Luckey, Nathaniel Rogers, H. Wilson, John Frakes, John Irvin, David Jamison, ____Hall, William Maxwell, J. P. Campbell, David Purviance, and old Uncle Charley Spencer, an old colored man, than whom no more faithful member belonged to the church-none were more highly respected. Elder Stone continued its pastor for a number of years. It was at this church, in 1801, that the great revival meeting was held, at which there is said to have been present from twenty to thirty thousand people, and which is more fully described in a preceding chapter. Among the preachers since Elder Stone, are the following: Elders Frank Palmer, Samuel Rogers, Jacob Creath, John T. Johnson, John A. Gano, Sr., John Rogers, John I. Rogers, and John and Joshua Irvin. Elder Thomas Arnold is the present pastor. The original church, which was built of logs, as we have said, is still standing, although it has been somewhat modernized by being "weather boarded." In the revolution or reformation that followed Alexander Campbell, this church became a convert to the new faith, and since that period has been known as "Cane Ridge Christian Church." It was once very strong in number, but death and removals have greatly reduced its strength. A cemetery is adjacent, in which sleep many of the old members, and of the number, Elder Stone himself.
This comprises a complete sketch of Paris Precinct, so far as we have been able to obtain it, and we will leave the city of Paris to be treated of in a new chapter, and by a writer familiar with its history.-Perrin.
Excerpts from William Perrin's
"History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison & Nicholas Counties"
Chapters IX-XII
CHAPTER IX--CITY OF PARIS -INTRODUCTORY -SELECTING A SITE FOR THE TOWN-THE ORIGINAL NAMES OF BOURBONTON AND HOPEWELL--EVERY-DAY LIFE OF THE SETTLERS--THE' FIRST BRICK HOUSE-TAVERNS--THEATRICALS AND OTHER PASTIMES-SOME DISTINGUISHED PIONEERS.
"O, the pleasant days of old, which so often people praise!
True, they wanted all the luxuries that grace our modern day.
Bare floors were strewed with rushes, the wells let in the cold,
O, how they must have shivered, in those pleasant days of old."
--Brown.
ATHOUGH a century has not elapsed since the first settlement of this city, yet its early history is involved in obscurity. It is not known when the first house was built, or who was the first inhabitant, or why this particular locality was selected for the future city of Paris. One or two things are evident: The pioneers who came to this county did not do so to build cities, but came because they could obtain cheap lands. The soil was ferfile; the country marvelously beautiful and attractive, and none would locate in towns who had the means to purchase farms, which almost all possessed. The wants of the people of that day were few and simple. Their clothing was the handiwork of the thrifty house-wife, who was ever busy with the loom and the spinning wheel. And all through this region may yet be found-treasured as heirlooms, articles of exquisite workmanship wrought by these pioneer mothers of Kentucky, who esteemed it their privilege and duty to share in the labors of the household, and whose sacrifices and industry and example laid the foundations of the future prosperity of the State. Corn, wheat, tobacco, flax, were the products of the soil. Almost every farm had its sugar camp, and the people made their own sugar, and from the ashes of burnt cobs they made their soda or saleratus. Except for needless luxuries they were self-sustaining. There was, therefore, no pressing necessity for large towns, with all their rush and bustle of trade. The blacksmith was, of course, indispensable; but he could locate at any cross-roads; and so, too, the carpenter was needed to rear the first rude structures in this then Western frontier of civilization; and then, along the highway of travel the primitive tavern, with its accomodations for man and beast became a necessity, and these, doubtless, formed the nucleus of the future city.
It is not known, nor is it important to know, why this particular locality was selected by the early settlers as a site upon which to build a town. Possibly, the town was an after-thought. Rocky, hilly, marshy in places, it may have been selected because it was not suited for agricultoral purposes, and it would not have done, even at that early day, to have spoiled a blue grass farm to lay the foundations of a country town. That the proposed town was at the confluence of Stoner and Houston, two important creeks, which would yield an ample supply of water power near the large spring. which wells up a short distance from the mouth of Houston; and that it was on the line of the buffalo trace, the then great thoroughfare of travel, were of themselves sufficient reasons for determining the location.
It appears from the records that the lands upon which this city stands was pre-empted by John Reed, of Maryland, on the 18th of November, 1784, and William Galloway and Samuel Lyons, of Virginia, in August, 1786. Lawrence Protzman afterward bought a portion of Reed's pre-emption and laid it off into town lots.
Prior to the selection of a county-seat, the courts of Bourbon County had been held at James Garrard's, near Talbott's Station, at James Hutchison's, and at the residence of John Kiser, near the mouth of Cooper's Run. In November, 1786, the present site of Paris was selected by the court as the county seat, and the following order was made :
Ordered. That the place for holding courts for the county be established at the confluence of Stoner and Honston forks or Licking, and that Alvin Mountjoy, John Grant and James Watson, gentlemen, be appointed to procure two acres of land at said phace for the purpose aforesaid; and also, that they let to the lowest bidder the building of a court house, which shall be a frame of thirty-two by twenty feet, with a shingle, roof, and finished in the neccesary manner; and a jail sixteen feet square of hewn logs twelve inches square.
Teste: JOHN EDWARDS, C. B. C.
The buildings provided for in this order of court were erected during the next year, and the first court was held on Tuesday, October 17, 1787. This court house stood for ten or eleven years, but was sold, when a new one was built, to John Allen, who moved it to his farm on the Maysville road, one and a half miles northeast from town.
In 1789. the following act was passed by the Legislature of Virginia, establishing the town, which at that time was Called Hopewell:
Be it enacted, That two hundred and fifty acres of land, at the court house in Bourbon County, as the same Are laid off into town lots and streets by Lawrence Protzman, the proprietor thereof, shall be established a town by the name of Hopewell, and that Notley Conn, Charles Smith, Jr., John Edwards, James Garrard, Edward Waller, Thomas West, James Lanier, James Little, and James Duncan, gentlemen. are hereby constituted Trustees thereof.
The Trustees of said town. or it majority of them, are authorized to mak-such rules and orders for the regular building of houses thereon;as to them shall appear proper.
As soon as the purchasers of lots in the said town shall have built thereon it house sixteen foot square, with a brick or stone chimney, such purchaser shall then be entitled to, and have, and enjoy all the rights, privileges, and immunities which the foreholders and inhabitants of other towns, in the State not incorporated, shall hold and enjoy.
At the session of the Virginia Legislature in 1790, the following act was passed amendatory to the above:
SECTION 1. Whereas, by an act of the assembly passed at the last session, entitled, "An act to establish a town in Bourbon County," two hundred and fifty acres of land at court house of said county of Bourbon, as laid off into lots and streets by a certain Lawrence Protzman, the then supposed proprietor thereof, was established a town by the name of Hopewell, of which Notley Conn, Charles Smith, Jr., John Edwards, James Garrard, Edward Waller, Thomas West, James Lanier, James Little, and James Duncan, gentlemen, were constituted trustees, and whereas, since the passing of said act, many doubts have arisen who is the real proprietor of said two hundred and fifty acres of land, and in consequence thereof the present holders of many of the said lots are disquieted, and the sale of the remainder thereof thereby prevented.
SEC. 2. Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That from and after the passing of this act, the said two-hundred and fifty acres of land, as laid off into lots and streets, shall be, and are hereby vested in the said Notley Conn, Charles Smith, Jr., John Edwards, James Garrard, Edward Waller, Thomas West, James Lanier, James Little, and James Duncan, gentlemen, trustees, or a majority of them.
SEC. 3. The said trustees, or the majority of them, shall proceed to sell such of the said lots which now remain unsold, at public auction, for the best price that can be had, the time and place of which sale to be previously advertised two months in the Kentucky Gazette and convey the same to the purchaser, their heirs and assigns; subject, however, to the same rules, orders, and conditions, as the said lots are subjected to by the said recited act.
SEC. 4. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That said trustes shall, as soon as the said sale be completed, return an account thereof to the court of the said county of Bourbon, to be there recorded, and the money arising from such sale shall be retained by them for the use and benefit of the person or persons in whom the title to the said two-hundred and fifty acres of land shall hereafter be established, to be paid to such person or persons, or their legal representatives accordingly; Provided nevertheless, and be it further enacted, That in case the title of the said two hundred and fifty acres of land shall hereafter be established in any other person or persons than in the said Lawrence Protzman, the said trustees shall in such case convey such of the lots as were sold by him to the purchasers thereof, in fee simple, and the purchasers or holders of such lots, shall be subject only to account with the real proprietor thereof, for the value of the same when originally purchased as unimproved lots.
SEC. 5. Be it further enacted, that from and after the passing of this act the name of the said town shall be altered, and from thenceforth the name shall be established by the name of Paris; any law to the contrary notwithstanding.
There are conflicting statements as to the name of the place although the above acts of the Virginia Legislature would seem to settle the matter definitely. Mr. Collins. the historian of Kentucky, says it was called Bourbonton and a letter from the Treasury Department at Washington to the compilers or the volume entitled "Sketches of Paris," published here in 1876, corroborates the statement, and asserts that the post office was Created January 1, 1755, with Thomas Eades as Postmaster, who was succeeded by William Paton, appointed July, 1, 1800, and that the name was changed from Bourbonton to Paris, April 28, 1826, when James Paton, Jr., was appointed Postmaster.
Mr. James Paton, Sr., of this city, who is still living. and who was connected with the office from 1815 to 1837, is authority for the statement that there is some mistake as to the date of the change of name; that when he entered the office in 1815 it was known as Paris. He adds, however, that it had at one time been called Bourbonton, a fact which he had entertained by seeing the old way-bills in the office. From these statements and from the enactments of the Virginia Legislature, it seems clear that the town has borne the three names--Bourbonton, Hopewell and Paris. The selection of the last was peculiarly fitting. At the time the town was established there was a feeling of gratitude to France and to the Bourbons for the conspicuous part taken by the French people in the Revolutionary war, in which they contributed so largely to secure our National independence. Besides, the name of the County was Bourbon, given for the same reason. And it was, therefore, the more appropriate that the county-town should be called Paris; and this name was preferred and has been continued, carrying out in this instance, at least, the idea of the "survival of the fittest."
After the selection of Paris its the county seat, its population increased, and according to the census in 1790, six years after the settlement of the place, numbered 358. There is no reason to suppose that the early settlers indulged in any dreams of the future greatness of the town. If they did so, the illusion was rudely dispelled by the census of 1800, which showed a population of only 377, an increase in ten years of only nineteen inhabitants. The county, in the meantime, however, had increased with great rapidity.
The men of that day were not lacking in enterprise, for even then they looked forward to the opening of South Licking, and to carry out this purpose they secured the passage of an act through the Legislature in 1794, constituting John Edwards, Henry Clay, James Kenney, Charles Smith, William Garrard, William Kelley, William Boswell and James Smith, managers of a lottery, the object of which was to raise the sum of $2,800, to be used in opening the navigation of South Licking. Tickets were sold at $2, and the scheme was published for some time in the Lexington Gazette. We have been unable to ascertain whether the drawing ever took place, or the money was ever raised, or South Licking ever opened to navigation. The persons who were the managers of the lottery were leading and prominent citizens, showing that at that time there was not the same public sentiment against lotteries as now exists. In this respect, Paris was neither behind nor in advance of her sister towns; Georgetown had a lottery, and so also there were two in Lexington; one of the latter being for the benefit or the Dutch Presbyterian Protestant Church in that place.
In 1798, an act was passed by the Legislature, establishing Bourbon Academy, and "State aid" given to the institution, which donated for its benefit "six thousand acres of unappropriated lands."
In 1797, the publication of the Kentucky Herald was commenced. In an article published in 1855, in the Citizen, Mr. A. M. Brown, then the editor of that paper, states that James Stewart was the publisher. Other authorities are to the effect that it was published by Daniel Bradford, brother of the editor of the LeKington Gazette. It may be that both Stewart and Bradford were the joint publishers. The publication of the paper continued only one year. In March, 1797, the Legislature passed an act recognizing it as a medium of publishing laws or notices that required publication.
Very little is known of the habits or the every-day life of the early settlers. It is, however, clear, from the names which are mentioned, and from the prominent positions which many of them afterward held, that both the town and county was settled by some of the best citizens of Virginia and Maryland. It is probable that there were very few amusements in those days. There was no town hall. But, there was doubtless enough of social enjoyment and pastimes. The old-time quilting parties, the old-fashioned weddings, which were grand events, and the dance, probably the "Old Virginia Reel," and the Christmas festivities and holidays, and the crowning of the handsomest girl in the village, the "Queen of the May."
The facilities for obtaining news were not good. A post office wall not established here until 1795, and the mails were by no means regular. There was very little local news. The inroads of the Indians, and their pursuit, were the chief topics of interest, and constituted the sensational news of the times, whilst their recital by the fireside at evening was, no doubt, listened to with most thrilling interest.
The erection of the second court house wall begun in 1797, and the building wall finished in 1799. The foundation was laid by Thomas Metcalfe. "Old Stone-hammer," afterward Governor of the State. His uncle, John Metcalfe, had the contract to erect the building. The carpentering work was done by a Mr. McCord. This house was destroyed by fire in 1872.
As soon as the county seat was located permanently in the place, and the town wall laid off by Mr. Protzman, settlers were attracted here, who were on the lookout for suitable locations for merchandising and manufacturing. Mr. James H. McCann, who was born in Paris, in December, 1801, contributed some interesting facts, which appeared in "Sketches of Paris," a volume published in 1876, by G. R. Keller and J. M. McCann, and to whom we are also indebted for much information in regard to the early history of the place. From him we learn that the first settlers finding the bottoms all undesirable location for their purposes, they began to erect their houses on the higher ground. The first houses, it is believed, were built where the Bourbon House now stands, and along the road toward the Episcopal Church.
The first public house (or tavern) was erected of logs, on the lot now occupied by A. Shire's jewelry store, and was kept by Thomas West. It had no name like the hotels of today, but was known as "West's Tavern;" yet, in after years, when it was clapboarded, and washed over with a red-wash, it wall known as "West's Red Tavern," and the only sign displayed wall the "square and compass." The first hotel that bore a name was where the Bourbon House stands, and it was known as the "Indian Queen House," the sign displayed being a picture of a handsome Indian woman. The second hotel was kept by Thomas Eades in the Walker residence. The third was kept by Thomas Hughes, and stood just below the Citizens' Bank, occupying the site of the Stoker Hotel. The "Indian Queen House" (portion of the present Bourbon House), was erected about 1804-5, and kept by Maurice Langhorn.
The first brick house erected in Paris was built by Thomas West, about 1796, extending from Pullen and Chamber's grocery (now L. Frank's dry goods store) to Ficklin's property, opposite the Court House door. It was in three divisions, two stories high. In after years the street was graded down, and these houses had to be entered by high steps, the first floors being perhaps eight or ten feet above the level.
The first regularly organized school was taught by Turner Lane (1796), in a little frame building, where the First Presbyterian Church stands, corner of Pleasant and Mulberry streets. He was superseded by John McCann (father of the venerable James H. McCann, now living), in 1800. The first Church organized was in 1787, by Rev. Andrew McClure, a Presbyterian minister, though the church building was not erected until 1789, and was not completely fitted up until several years afterward. It stood on the corner of Church and high streets, where James T. Davis' residence now stands, The first public burying-ground was known as the old "Dutch Graveyard," and adjoins the City School premises. The ground was donated by Lawrence Protzman. The first election of Town Trustees was held the first Friday in March, 1797, and the following gentlemen elected: John Metcalf, Daniel Duncan, William Kelly, Andrew Todd, Thomas Arnold and Richard Henderson. The Trustees before that time their office by appointment by the Legislature.
The first bridge across Stoner at this point was built in 1795; was swept away in the fall of 1808, and was rebuilt the next year; this was torn away and replaced in 1833, by the one that stands firm yet, having been re-covered and otherwise repaired in 1875, and bids fair to last for several decades to come.
Paris in her earlier days seemed to have the same intellectual spirit animating her citizens as makes her famous for her educational institutions to-day. Establishing at the earliest day her academy and newspaper, it was but natural that she should have a public library, and as early as 1808 we find her with a chartered institution of this character. with the following gentlemen as Directors: William Garrard, Jr.. Robert Trimble, William Kelly, Samuel Hanson and Benjamin Mills. The library was destroyed by fire in 1829.
The first grist-mill within the town limits was near the mouth of Houston, and was owned by John Allen, Esq. The first post office was kept by Thomas Eades (grandfather of Mrs. B. E. Knapp), at his tavern in the Walker residence. He was succeeded by William Paton, an uncle of our present City Clerk, the venerable James Paton, Sr., who assisted his uncle in the office for some time.
In 1810 the town records were torn up by some unknown person, and the first records after that contain a resolution of condemnation of the unknown vandal.
The first dramatic performance in Paris was in 1807, in the old Burr House, which is yet standing. The dancing room was transformed into a theater, there being no suitable hall in the town in which to give theatrical representations. The company was an amateur one, composed of a number of young men of the place, and during the winter gave several performances. Among the plays enacted was Shakespeare's sublime tragedy of Macbeth, which the young actors essayed to produce, showing that they had the utmost confidence in their histrionic ability. Our informant recalls the tragedy of Macbeth, as one of the pieces presented, from the boys using as by-words, when they would meet each other on the street, the expression, "when shall we three meet again? "
Another amateur society gave performances in 1815. Among the members were a young man named Mitchell, Ed. Hannegan, and James May, an Englishman, who had some experience as an actor. They produced the play entitled "Wild Oats." Hannegan, the young man referred to above, was at that time a clerk in a store ; he was pale and delicate looking, and rather handsome, and in the fernale parts, which were usually assigned to him, made a very handsome and presentable lady. He subsequently, we are informed, went to Indiana, and years afterward, when Hon. E. A. Hannegan, one of the most brilliant orators of his time, was elected United States Senator from that State, it was said that he had been a clerk in a store in this place. It is, therefore, not improbable, that the amateur actor of Paris was, thirty or thirty-five years after, the eloquent Senator from Indiana. James May, who was also a member, figured afterward in the most exciting criminal case in the county, on a charge of forgery, and was sentenced to imprisonment in the State Penitentiary.
In 1823 or 1824, the first regular theatrical company appeared in Paris, under the management of a man named Cargill. The company comprised three ladies and three gentlemen. The performances, which continued nightly for some weeks, were given in the dancing-room of the old Paris Hotel. Among the pieces presented was Maturin's Bertram, which was a great favorite with theater-goers at that day.
The first carriage was brought here by Mr. Thomas Arnold, the Clerk of the Circuit Court, in 1807. He was also the first who purchased a piano, about the same time, Judge Robert Trimble, Judge Benjamin Mills, Jesse Bledsoe and Daniel Duncan, although they were leading, well-to-do citizens of the town, and had large families of children, had no pianos. For many years afterward, there were very few carriages; no buggies. The gig seemed to be a favorite vehicle for travel. Maj. A. Throckmartin, afterward the proprietor of the Galt House, in Louisville, had, it is said, the finest turn-out of that day--an elegantly finished and showy gig, to which two horses were driven, one before the other, tandem style. But horseback riding was then the usual mode of travel; and these were romantic and delightful days, when the young men went visiting or to church, with their sweethearts riding on behind and affectionately circling them with their arms.
In the earlier days, travel was exceedingly dangerous, on account of the liability of travelers being waylaid by hostile Indians. In looking over the old newspaper files, we find that those returning to Virginia would advertise weeks ahead for persons to accompany them through the "wilderness," as it was then called. The first stage that ever passed through Paris was in 1808, conducted by George Walls, of Lexington; but this was only temporary. The first regular stage line was established by E. P. Johnson & Co., of Georgetown, in 1818. It was not until long after, in 1854, that the Kentucky Central Railroad was finished to Paris, and the town placed in easy access with the important trade centers of the country.
In those times, the same care was bestowed upon dress as at the present day; if anything, the young men dressed more elaborately, in fine broadeloths, with tastefully ruffied shirt-bosoms, high stocks and standing collars. Some of the older men, among them Mr. Raines, the father of John B. Raines, for many years Cashier of the Northern Batik, and Mr. Thornton, Capt. Abram Spears, and others, were not led away by the changes of fashion, but adhered to the old time style of knee-breeches, with stockings reaching up to the knees. And there was a courtliness and a dignity in the style which was in admirable keeping with the stateliness and pride of these gentlemen of the olden time, in any one of whom, no doubt, might have been found a fit prototype for the latter-day apostle of aestheticism.
From 1800 to 1810, the town made rapid progress, springing from 377 to 838 in population. In the meantime, the county had become very populous, the census showing a population of 18,009, larger than the county now has after the lapse of seventy-two years,
In 1812, the second war with Great Britain was begun, and the citizens of Bourbon County rushed forward with patriotic ardor in defense of their country. Capt. William Garrard's troops were composed largely of the young men of Paris. During the progress of the war, the deepest interest was manifested, and the most intense eagerness to hear the news. When the dreadful intelligence of Dudley's defeat was received, there was mourning everywhere; but when word came of victories, there were processions, and firing of muskets, and hurrahing, and other demonstrations of joy. The news of peace, and the victory at New Orleans, January 8, 1815, caused great and universal rejoicing.
It was not until 1823 or 1824 that, so far as can be learned, the first debating society was organized. Among the prominent members were George W. Williams, afterward a leading citizen of the county, and George Redmon, a shoemaker. The latter, especially, was a ready speaker, and took an active part in the debates and proceedings of the society.
Such, chiefly, was the beginning of Paris. The men who laid its foundations were men of strong will, of ability, of patriotism, and many of them of culture. The long array of prominent names shows that there were truly "giants in those days." James Garrard, the second Governor of the State, who was among the earliest settlers, was a man of massive frame, weighing upward of three hundred pounds. He had represented the county in the Virginia Legislature, when Kentucky was a part of Virginia. He was a member of the State Constitutional Convention; afterward held important political trusts, and was recognized w one of the leading men of the State. Judge Benjamin Mills was a prominent lawyer, and one of the Judges of the Appellate Court during the old and new court controversy. He was heavy set, rather below the usual height, and those who have seen him say, in appearance, he was very much like his son, Rev. T. A. Mills. Jesse Bledsoe is spoken of as one of the ablest men of his day. He was Circuit Judge of the Lexington District, United States Senator, and held other positions of honor and trust. Judge Robert Trimble was a man of splendid presence; in intellect, and in all that goes to make up true manhood in every respect, one of the first men of the State. He was one of the Judges of the Supreme Court. A splendid granite monument marks his last resting-place in the Paris Cemetery.
These distinguished men--except Governor Garrard--were all contemporaries at the Paris bar, constituting a grand galaxy of legal ability unsurpassed in the State.
For many years, the history of Paris was only the record of ordinary, commonplace events. No startling murders, no great sensations, but everything moved on in the even tenor of its way. "Happy," it is said, "is that nation which has no history ; " where everything passes along calmly and pleasantly and peacefully, undisturbed by the rude shocks of bloodshed, and of war. Where every man reposes in peace beneath his own vine and fig-tree. But here, as everywhere, that great struggle in which all humanity is engaged, the struggle for daily bread, has always been going on; it is the terrible life struggle, and some become weary and heart-sick. and fall by the way. The aggregate histories of all these people, as they toil year after year, earning scarcely enough to save their families from want; the sowing in peril that another may reap the rich harvest; if the life's history of each individual could be given, it would make a history of deeper interest than any which shall ever be written.
And there is another side--another history of the beautiful home-life; of noble deeds of charity, and of kindness; of patient waiting and self-denying sacrifices; the tender and ennobling attributes of our nature, as they show themselves in the gentle ministrations of kindness, and in deeds of which the world knows nothing; these are not written in ephemeral earthly histories, but in another book.-F. L. McChesney
C HAPTER X--CITY OF PARIS--EARLY PERIOD OF THE TOWN--ITS GROWTH--PIONEER POLITICS--IMPROVEMENTS OF THE CITY--WAR EXCITEMENT AND SOLDIERS--TRANSIENT PROSPERITY--BURNING OF THE COURTHOUSE--CENTRAL UNIVERSITY--TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT--CHOLERA, ETC., ETC.
MR. James H. McCann, Who is now living, has a very distinct recollection of Paris as far back as 1805. There were, at that time, seventy-five or eighty buildings, situated mostly in the lower part of the town. From the best information that can be obtained, it is probable the first house built in Paris was the old log house on the northwest corner of High and Church streets, which was torn down last year. Some of these buildings are yet standing, among which are the old Burr House, now occupied by Mrs. Webb as it boarding-house, which was then a tavern, owned and kept by Mrs. James Duncan; the old Walker property, where Mr. Jeff Elgin now lives, is also one of the old landmarks; the two-story brick building, Dr. David Keller's residence, and the house adjoining were both built prior to that time, as was also a portion of the present Bourbon House; and the brick building lately occupied by Bayles & Davis. On High street, the town extended only to where Mr. James M. Hughes now lives. The ground now occupied by John T. Hinton's furniture store, the Adams Express, the post office and J. J. Shaw & Co.'s storehouse, and extending across Main street was then covered by a large pond of water, at times three or four feet deep, and had to be crossed on a log foot bridge. It was the delight of the boys when it was frozen over, and it is said that wild ducks were killed upon the pond even after this time.
We are informed that the building--the residence and store--of Mr. Philip Nippert was built from the timber cut on the ground where it is situated.
The present residence of James Short, Sr., was then standing, and then, as now, the old Paris Mills was one of the institutions of Paris. The lower portion of the town was compactly built, many of the houses being of brick, and the old court house, then comparatively new, was regarded as a model of architectural beauty and symmetry. However, there was not much regard had for tasteful residences; many of the dwelling-houses were erected close to the streets. There were very few front yards with attractive walks, and beautifled by evergreens and flowers. The people seemed to be of a more practical turn of mind, and regarded the ground they owned more valuable for gardens than for showy front yards.
The growth of Paris, from this time forward, for many years, was not rapid. In 1830, the population was 1,217; in 1840, it had decreased to 1,197. In the meantime, the population of the county had also decreased. The small land-holders sold their farms, and went to the West, where land was cheap, and their little homesteads were absorbed in the larger farms of their wealthier and more prosperous neighbors. There was, therefore, no reason to expect an increase of the population of the town, which depended for its prosperity almost exclusively upon the local trade of the county.
From the very first organization of the county and town. the people took a lively interest upon all political questions. They were almost all politicians. "Stump-speaking" has always been the favorite way with the public men of Kentucky in which to reach the people, and almost all the men who have risen to prominence have won success because they were good speakers, most of whom secured their education in oratory upon the hustings. As early as 1792, a political society was organized in Paris, modeled after the Democratic society in Philadelphia, and was formed to oppose the then Federal party. In 1798, the celebrated resolutions of 1798 were passed by the Kentucky Legislature, and the people were much divided, and there was great excitement on the issues of that day. The "Alien and Sedition" law enacted about that time produced a feeling of intense opposition throughout the country, which resulted in hurling the old Federal party from power, and making the name of Federalist ever afterward odious with the people. All this section of Kentacky ranged itself with the Republican party in opposition to the Federalists. Then came on the war of 1812, and our people were unitedly in its favor; then followed the conflict between the old and new court parties, which was probably the fiercest ever known in the State. In 1824-25, came the contest for the Presidency, in which Adams, Clay, Crawford and Jackson were the candidates. There was no choice of President by the people, and the election was thrown into the House of Representatives of Congress, and through the influence of Mr. Clay, the vote of the State was cast for John Quincy Adams. This caused a permanent division and a strict drawing of party lines here into Whigs and Democrats, and in all the subsequent contests Bourbon County and Paris were always carried by the Whig party by a decided majority, and from that day until his death the people followed with an unfaltering devotion the political fortunes of Henry Clay. To give an idea of the political feeling then existing, a public dinner, given in Paris. in July, 1827, to Mr. Clay, was attended by 8,000 people.
As far back as 1830, there was much interest in the construction of turnpikes, And the feeling then manifested has brought forth abundant fruit in giving to Bourbon County the most complete system of turnpike roads in the State. In that year there was much enthusiasm in favor of the Maysville & Lexington Turnpike road, which now constitutes our main street, and which, connecting with other roads extending hundreds of miles north and south, has not inaptly been called the "Broadway of the United States." To this road the citizens of Paris subscribed $30,500; in Lexington $13,000 was subscribed; in Millersburg, $5,200; in Nicholas County, $8,000, and $10,300 at Maysville. The Maysville & Lexington road bill passed Congress, but was vetoed by President Jackson. Collins' History of Kentucky contains the following "Practical Joke on the President," which was claimed, but, of course, groundlessly, to have some remote connection to the veto: "When President Jackson passed through Paris, in 1829, enroute to Washington, to be inaugurated President, some Adams men changed the sign-board, east of town, so as to make 'To Maysville' sign point to Mount Sterling. It is said, the General and party passed on toward the latter place some distance before discovering the mistake, It is added, that it was afterward claimed that this was, in great part, the cause of the old General's vetoing the Maysville road bill."
In 1851, the county of Bourbon subscribed $100,000 to the Lexington & Covington Railroad Company; individual subscriptions of stock were also made of $100,000. A like county subscription was also made to the Maysville & Lexington Railroad. Subsequently, the city of Paris subscribed $10,000 to the Covington & Lexington road. The Maysville & Lexington road, after being partially graded, and some other work done upon it, was abandoned, and was not finally completed until twenty years afterward, when the county subscribed $200,000 to aid in its construction. The Covington & Lexington road was finished to Paris in 1854. The road was afterward sold, and the stock of the county supposed to be lost. Subsequently, however, in a suit of the old owners against the heirs of an estate, who had purchased the road, the Court of Appeals decided to set aside the sale, and the title to the road reverted to its original owners. A compromise was affected by which a new company was organized, and this county accepted for its subscription $75,000 in stock, and this stock was sold last year for $45,000.
With the completion of the road to Covington, and the opening of new avenues of trade, the town and county both enjoyed, until the beginning of the late sectional war, an unwonted prosperity. There was a ready market for their stock and all their farm products. Indeed, the railroad, as is almost always the case, benefited the farmer more than it did the people of the town.
But the political excitement of 1860, followed by the terrible civil war, unsettled all business. In that year this county had given a large majority in favor of the Union candidates; but the feelings and interests and associations of a large majority of the people were with the South in its struggle. They deplored the war, and would have rejoiced could it have been averted, but when it begun and was followed up by the emancipation of the slaves, the white population, nine out of every ten, were in sympathy with the Southern people. In addition to this, the very flower of the young men had volunteered as soldiers in the Confederate army, Col. Roger W. Hanson's famous Second Kentucky Regiment and Gen. John H. Morgan's Cavalry being largely recruited from this section of the State. These people were in the anomalous position of being under Federal rule, yet sympathizing with the South. We state facts, and offer no comments. It was a civil war in which countrymen and townsmen and brothers were arrayed against each other, and that is the most dreadful of all wars. Paris and Bourbon County gave both to the Union and Confederate cause names which will be conspicuous in history. Judge Richard Hawes, the foremost citizen of his day in the county, at an advanced age, abandoned his home (which was seized by the Government and used as a hospital), to avoid imprisonment, took refuge in Virginia, and was afterward made Governor of the Confederate Provisional Government of Kentucky. Col. William E. Simms was one of the Senators from the State in the Confederate Congress ; Col. E. F. Clay, Maj. Thomas Y. Brent, Capt. J. Lawrence Jones, Capt. Daniel Turney, Capt. Ed. Taylor, Capt J. M. Thomas, Capt. Ed. F. Spears, and others, made a record of brilliant service in the Confederate army. On the Union side were Gen. John T. Croxton, Col. Charles S. Hanson, Col. R. M. Kelly, Col. G. C. Kniffin, Maj. John Hall, Capt. M. M. Clay, Capt. Greenberry Reid, Capt. Thomas Vimont, and others, who bore a prominent part in the great struggle, Find all of whom, both Confederate and Federal, are more particularly mentioned in a preceding chapter. Paris, fortunately, suffered very little from the ravages of war; no battle was fought in its immediate vicinity. In Novembar, 1861, a serious affray occurred near the jail, at the bridge, between a squad of Union soldiers, belonging to the Eighteenth Kentucky Regiment, and Abram Spears and Daniel Hibler, two well-known and prominent citizens, in which the former was killed and the latter severely wounded, being shot through the breast, after having shot and killed a soldier named Ford. It was with some difficulty that Hibler was protected from the infuriated soldiers, but he was immediately arrested by Capt. Greenberry Reid, who happened at the time to be passing through the bridge, and was lodged in jail, where he remained until the following July, when he was released by Morgan's command. This affair, on account of the prominence of the parties engaged in it, caused very great excitement in the community. At that time, military rule was supreme. In October, 1861, the Flag suspended publication. In April, 1862, the grand jury found indictments against thirty-four citizens of the county who had entered the Confederate service, and against twelve others for invading the State to make war against it. On July 18, 1862, about sundown, Gen. John Morgan's forces reached Paris. A deputation of citizens had met Gen. Morgan on the road to Ruddel's Mills and surrendered the town. His advent here caused much rejoicing among the Southern sympathizers. But, a short time afterward, when he had left, an order was issued by the Federal authorities forcing Morgan's friends to pay for the acts of their favorite chieftain; and, in the carrying out of this order, assessments were levied upon a number of citizens of this section of of the State. September 1, Paris was again abandoned by the Union forces, and was taken possession of by the Confederates, who paroled all citizens who were attached to the Home Guards. The Provost Marshal issued an order making Confederate money receivable for all goods and produce sold. One merchant who refused to take the Confederate notes as money was placed under arrest. After remaining here a short time, the Confederates abandolled this section, and, after the battle of Perryville, withdrew their entire forces from the State.
It was not until the close of the war in 1866 that Paris made any considerable advance in population. The slaves had been emancipated, and rejoicing over their new-born freedom were restless under the restraints of farm-life, and came to the city by hundreds. Besides, there was an almost universal belief that with the destruction of slavery, Kentucky and other States where the institution had existed would enjoy a prosperity which they had never betore realized. The prices of land, of houses, of everything, were inflated; money was plentiful; speculation was rife everywhere, and everything seemed to betoken an era of unexampled prosperity. In Claysville, a suburban town near Paris, one hundred houses were built in one week. In the meantime, railroad enterprises were infused with a new life. Action was taken looking to the completion of the Maysville & Paris Railroad, and the county, by a large popular majority, voted a subscription of $200,000 in aid of the enterprise. Another project, the Frankfort, Paris & Big Sandy Railroad was also agitated in 1871. A charter had been obtained from the Legislature in that year, and an application was made by Gen. John T. Croxton, the President of the company, to submit to a vote of the people of the county the preposition to subscribe $400,000 to the capital stock of the company. The Court, Judge Richard Hawes presiding, rejected the application. The contest was then transferred to the Legislature, and an amendment of the charter was asked making it mandatory upon the Court to submit the proposition to a popular vote. The question was thoroughly discussed, and although opposed by the Senator from this district and the Representative from the county, and the Railroad Committee in the House, of which Hon. J. C. S. Blackburn was Chairman, made a unanimous report against it, still the bill passed by a majority of thirteen votes; and in April, 1872, the Court, carrying out the mandatory act of the Legislature, submitted the proposition to the people, and it was carried by a majority of 288 votes; for the subscription, 1,672; against 1,384. The contest was very exciting, the county being thoroughly canvassed by Gen. Croxton, F. L. McChesney, R. S. Henderson, Col. E. F. Clay, Capt. James M. Thomas and Frank Kennedy in favor of the proposition. Hon. W. A. Cunningham was the only one who spoke against the subscription, replying to F. L. McChesney, at Clintonville. A subscription of $360,000 was made to the road in Scott County, and $350,000 in Bath, with the private subscriptions, making in all $950,000; but the road was never built, and the subscription never called for. The financial crash of 1873 followed, and put an end to all enterprise; the growth of the city was checked; the value of property fell; business became paralyzed; the mechanics had very little to do; a feeling of depression pervaded every department of trade; and the city has not yet recovered from the effects of that disastrous financial crisis.
In 1870, the negroes were made voters, and first voted here at the August election in that year. At the polls, a partition was erected, and the whites voted on one side and the colored men on the other. Prior to 1869, two villages, Claysville and Ruckerville, had been within the city limits, and in anticipation of their enfranchisement, and to keep them from obtaining political control, an act had been passed by the Legislature, cutting them off from the city, and re-arranging its boundaries. Nothwithstanding this Legislation, the Republicans for several years carried the municipal elections, and elected Roger W. O'Connor, Mayor. Subsequently, the charter was amended so as to require the payment of a per capita tax before voting, and since that time the Democrats have carried the city at each election by a decided majority.
On May 8, 1872, the old court house was destroyed by fire, the work of an incendiary. The True Kentuckian, of May 15, contains the following description of the fire, written by the Hon. R. T. Davis:
About 10 o'clock Wednesday night, smoke issued from the court house; but as no danger was apprehended, and no particular attention paid to it, it was mistaken for clouds; but, as the volume increased, and the smoke-wreaths ascended faster, persons went over, and, on opening the door, were horrified at finding that the interior of that ancient structure was in flames, and everything demonstrating, beyond a doubt, that some ruthless hand had applied the incendiary torch to our halls of justice. The windows, which were open in the evening, were tightly closed by the vandal, in order that the flames might make such headway, and eat so deeply into the vitals of the building, to defy all efforts to save it, when the incendary's work should be discovered. Even the doors opening from the vestibule into the court room were closed, and every precaution taken by the yet unknown burner to prevent an early discovery that might thwart his infamous design. When the inner door was opened, an appalling sight met the view; everything combustible was rapidly falling a prey to the devouring element; huge flame-tongues were darting, hissing, lapping and blighting everything they touched; struggling, so if obedient to fire king, whom motto was "excelsior!" And now broke forth upon the still night air the fearful cry of "fire!" which soon brought crowds to the scene of conflagration, some manifesting deep concern, while by far the greater number looked calmly on.
The engine was soon brought into requisition, and our firemen bore down on the brakes manfully, with what appeared at first a prospect of success of subduing the flames. But no sooner did a stream of water extinguish the fire in one quarter than it burst forth in another.
Seeing that the old structure was doomed, the firemen ceased their efforts to save it, and directed their attention to the other buildings that were jeopardized by sparks and flying cinders, until the heat became so intense that those who manned the engine at the cistern, new the scene of the burning, were compelled to abandon their work, and, as they could do nothing more, draw off to watch the flames, which men burst through the roof, and, in a few moments, fiery billows were rowing, tossing and seething around the base of the cupola, that symmetrical architectural work that lowered aloft a "thing of beauty" and just pride of the Bourbons for more than half a century.
As the shoots of flame amended, all eyes were directed to the old town clock, whom hands pointed to 10.50, the hour at which it cessed its labor, and when face had been familiar to us from childhood, and wore the same look for all--a look so tender for those in squalid poverty as those in regal splendor. Like a faithful sentinel, it stood at its post, and faced the fiery enemy, until the supports gave way, and it was forced to yield to the fire-fiend who had decreed that with it "time should be no more."
When the old cupola sank down into the bed of fire, many of the spectators gave utterance to an involuntary exclamation, and a beautiful young lady burst into tears when the dear old fabric disappeared from view forever.
There was more and heavier timber used in the construction of the edifice than one would have supposed, being erected at a period when, to use the language of a friend, "timber was cheap and carpenters were honest." The fall of the cupola, and the other lumber brought in its descent, filled the air with millions of sparks, that circled, eddied, whirled and danced through the atmosphere, making a scene grand and beautiful beyond description, and the myriads of swallows that had been dislodged from their homes in the cupola, were confusedly darting hither and thither, reminding one of the dove sent from the ark, seeking a place to rest its wearied wings, but finding it not.
The morning after the fire dawned bright and beautiful upon our city; but the beauty was marred by the sad spectacle presented by the ruins of the old buildings, where the law had been expounded for threescore and ten years. Nothing was left of the old structure, wherein andiences had listened, with rapt delight, to the eloquence of Clay, Marshall, Breckhrridge and others of the flower of Kentucky orators, but a shapeless mass of smoldering ruins. True, the old edifice was unsightly, and anything but a credit to a county possessed of so much wealth as Bourbon, but we deplore its loss, and say "peace to its ashes."
In 1873, an earnest effort was made to secure the location of Central University in Paris. Rev. L. H. Blanton, then of this city, now the Chancellor of the University, was the leading spirit in the movement, but was heartily seconded by a number of our public-spirited citizens. A magnificent subscription, reaching $110,000, was made, and offered as an inducement for the location of the University here, and in addition to this amount, it was believed that the interest upon the Garth Fund could also be diverted in the same direction. This would have increased the amount of the subscription to fully $140,000. Considerable feeling, however, had been engendered as to the location, and although Paris offered much the largest bid, the institution, by a vote of the Alumni Association, under whose auspices the enterprise was carried on, was located at Richmond. The response made for subscription was exceedingly liberal, and in the highest degree creditable to the people of our county.
In the latter part of November, the Murphy temperance movement was began in Paris by Mr. I. N. Grubbs, of Pittsburgh, Penn., and George Leavenworth, a reformed drunkard, of Cleveland, Ohio. The meetings were held at the Baptist Church, and largely attended. Every night they would address immense audiences, and would be followed by brief remarks from local speakers. Leavenworth was an earnest and persuasive speaker, and certainly one of the most effective temperance lecturers in the country. During the meetings, which lasted more than two months, there were upward of one thousand signers to the pledge of total abstinence, all of whom enrolled themselves as members of the Christian Temperance Union. Such good order was never seen in Paris as on Christmas Day, 1877. There was a temperance dinner and supper in the dining-room of the Paris Hotel building, and no drunkenness seen anywhere. For a time, at least all was quiet, and temperance hold full away in this city. The movement unquestionably was productive of good, but the results fell far short of the expectations of those actively engaged in it.
Paris, in its earlier days, was not a healthy city. In 1816, it was visited by what was called the "cold plague." The victims of the disease were first seized with a chilly fever, after which there were symptoms somewhat resembling cholera. Not being understood, it was especially fatal to old people. Among those who died were John Hildreth, James Kenney and Peter Cline and wife.
In 1833, the cholera first appeared in Paris. Business was suspended, and all who could get away left the town. The following is a list of those who died during the epidemic: Jonathan Willett, Thomas Burdin, Sophia (daughter of Dr. N. Warfleld), Mrs. Lym, Thomas Hardwick, a daughter of Maj. George W. Williams, Mrs. Judith Bryan, Mrs. Gaither, Mrs. William M. Samuel, Mrs. Moore and son, Mrs. Hinton, Peter Sharrer, Sr., Mrs. Charles Brent, Parker (son of Mrs. Andrews), Jonathan Dearborn and son William, Erasmus Gill, Isaac Avery, Samuel D. Scott, Samuel Beeler, Mrs. Ann Kennedy, Mrs. James McCann, Peter Hizer, Mrs. Praul, Richard Samuel, George Davis, Mrs. James Paton, Richard Turner, a turnpiker (name unknown), Richard Holmes (a wagoner at John Mitchell's). Colored persons: Olivia, at William C. Lyle's; Julia, at N. Warfield's; Grace, at Mrs. Barker's; boy, at James H. McCann's; woman, at E. H. Herndon's; Jennie Jackson; Sarah Wallace; woman, at Mr. Cummins'; Marshall's woman; David, two men and woman at S. Pyke's; woman, at Mr. Waggoner's; Jenny, at Rev. Amos Clever's; Phoebe, at Jonathan Massic's; Gabriel, a stone mason; woman, at David Cline's; girl, at John Mitchell's; thirteen, at H. T. Duncan's factory. Citizens of the town who died in the country: George P. Bryant, Miss Susan Croxon, Dr. Davis, George W. Williamson, Mrs. John G. Martin, Elizabeth Leer, Mary Ann (daughter of Jonathan Massie), Mrs. Berkley.
At this time, Paris contained a population of about 1,200; and when this is borne in mind, the proportion of deaths from the scourge was very large..
In 1839, a disease known as the "Paris fever" prevailed, and a number of the citizens of the town were its victims, among whom were Benjamin Riggs, Hugh I. Brent, Joshua Smith, Sallie Davis, James Scott and others. The disease was supposed to have been caused by the miasma & rising from the ponds and stagnant water about the town.
Again, in 1849, the cholera visited Paris, and the following taken from a slip which was sent out from the Citizen office, dated August 4, 1849, tells the story of its workings:
"The cholera has raged with great malignity and frightful mortality in Paris during the first few days of this week, but we are gratified to announce that the disease has abated in the violence and number of its attacks. The following is a list of the deaths since Thursday noon (July 26) to noon to-day: A. S. Pomeroy, Dyer Austin, Mrs. Thomas Rule; Old Cato, at Mrs. Keiningham's; Mrs. Green McIntyre; Aaron, son of N. B. Rion, Mrs. Squire Taylor, James Gardner's child; E. P. Watts, at A. Cummins'; negro woman at Mrs. Scott's; Squire Robinson; Ned, negro man of C. Talbott's; James H. Wood, old Mrs. Lovely, Thomas R. Rule, John H. Thurston, Samuel McElroy, Dr. John A. Ingels; negro girl at Charles Talbutt's; George Elliott, James Heatherington, William Finlay, Mrs. Elizabeth Barker; Mary, daughter or George Northcutt; old negro woman, Smoot's mother; Charles, son of C. C. Daugherty; George, son of Dr. L. G. Ray; Dr. Quisenbury, Ezekiel Thurston (not cholera); Mrs. Sarah D. Scott, Charles Snyder (consumption); Mrs. Brent's negro boy, William T. Davis; Henry, son of Mrs. Robinson; Frank T., son of A. T. Sebree; Mrs. Martha Potts (in Millersburg); Mrs. Barbara Lennox (in Millersburg); James Daugherty, Mrs. Ann Mitchell, Mrs. Israel N. Smith, Jesse P. Kern, negro girl of Mrs. Williams; negro girl at David Kelley's; Mrs. Samuel Clair; Mr Sheppard (chair-maker); John McIntyre (in the country); Mrs. Catharine Hibler; Judy Klizer, a free woman; Stepney Barnett, free black; Old Davy, negro man near town, and James Scott.
"The above is as accurate a list as we have been able to obtain, but we believe it to be very nearly correct. We hear of very few new cases within the last twenty-four hours. The whole number of deaths, since the 3d of July (when the first case of cholera occurred) to the 4th of August, in town and vicinity, sixty-five, which includes all the deaths of cholera and five or six other diseases. Owing to sickness, we have been unable to publish the Citizen this week. We hope, however, that we shall be able to renew our regular issues next week."
In addition to the above, the following also died: Mrs. Richard Talbott, child of William M. Taylor, Mrs. A. S. Pomeroy, Mrs. Robert S. Morrow, Mrs. Cheshire, Roger D. Williams (son of Maj. George W. Williams) of fever, Thomas Rule, Jr., Miss Harriet Robinson, Mrs. John Crosby, Miss Susan Daugherty, John Talbutt (son of Charles Talbutt), William Scroggin, Mrs. Willis Wills, Mrs. Dr. John A. Lyle, Miss Mary Chambers and others.
In 1852--53, the cholera again visited Paris, but was not so fatal as in 1833 and 1849.
In the fall and winter of 1873-74, the cerebro-spinal meningitis prevailed in Paris, and was very fatal. Among those who died were the following: Mrs. B. F. Massie, Oliver Shaw, Mrs. William Lair and child, William Clay, Miss Katie Holliday, Mrs. Mary Buckner, three children of Mrs. Merringer, Willie Gaper and Miss Ollie Stoker. About this time there were other deaths, among them the following: Mrs. B. F. Pullen, Mrs. J. S. Sweeney, Mrs. J. T. Hinton, Mrs. O. P. Carter, Miss Carrie Stuart, Miss Mary Ingels, Mrs. W. T. Poynter, Mrs. G. W. Williams and Mrs. Louisiana Rankins.
In 1873, the cholera appeared at Millersburg, and was very fatal. There were no cases in Paris. During the former epidemics, well water was generally used; now almost every residence has a cistern, and it is claimed by some that the city owes its exemption from cholera in 1873 to the almost exclusive use of cistern water.--McChesney.
CHAPTER XI--THE CHURCH HISTORY OF PARIS--INTRODUCTION OF THE GOSPEL--BUILDING OF THE FIRST CHURCHES--PRESBYTERIAN ORGANIZATION--OTHER DENOMINATIONS--THE BARNES REVIVAL--SOCIETIES, THE PRESS, ETC.
"How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the Gospel of peace and bring glad tidings of good things."
HAND in hand with the early settlers came the earnest and devoted preachers of the Gospel. The husbandman tilled the son and the golden grain rewarded his industry, and in every household there was bread to supply the physical wants of man. But it is said, "that man shall not live by bread alone," and religion comes offering to satisfy the soul's hunger and the soul's thirst, and to give the bread, of which if any man eat he shall never hunger, and the water of which if any man drink he shall never thirst. And so in the early days, when the rude log house was built, the same hands erected the modest house of worship, where the Gospel of peace was proclaimed. First, in the county, so far as we can learn, came the Baptists; then the Presbyterians. Whilst there was wickedness then just as now, yet there seemed to be a strong religious element, transplanted here from the Valley of Virginia, which pervaded the whole community. But scarcely had the church gained a foothold than infidelity also appeared. Just before the close of the last century France had run wild, the Sabbath had been abolished, and the darkness of atheism had settled upon that people. At that time one of the most learned and brilliant of this school of infidels was Augustin Volney, the author of the "Ruins of Empires," whose whole life was devoted to the pulling down of all the altars of religion. It is not known why he came here, but about that time he became a resident of the county, and was industrious in sowing the seeds of infidelity; and the tares which were thus sown have grown up, and the baneful influence of his teachings have not passed away to this day. About the same time occurred in this county, that remarkable religious phenomenon, "the Shakes," the greatest revival which has ever occurred in the State, of which a full account is given elsewhere in the history of the county. In this connection we may state that we are informed on good authority that of all those who had the "Shakes," or spiritual "exercises," not one failed afterward to live a consistent Christian life.
The following full and accurate history of the Presbyterian Church, we reproduce from the "Sketches of Paris:"
Presbyterian Church.-The Presbyterians were the pioneers of religion in Paris, having established the first church in 1787, and continued ever since to sustain an organization, and to-day are sustaining two preachers, having two working congregations and owning two church buildings.
Rev. Andrew McClure, a man of devout and energetic disposition, was the first minister, and to him is due much of the honor for the firm hold his people have upon this community. He organized the church, was its first leader, and remained in charge until his death in 1793. The first official act of the session of the church, of which we have any record, bears date of September 25,1809. The Ruling Elder then were Isaac Orchard, John Curry, James Alexander, Joseph Mitchell and William McConnell. It is probable that nearly all of these men were Elders when the church was organized.
In the spring of 1795, Rev. Samuel Rannells took charge of the church, and continued until his death in 1817. During Mr. Rannells' ministry, as well as Mr. McClure's, the church at Paris was connected with the church at Ruddel's Mills (or Stoner Mouth, as it was known), and after Mr. Rannells' death this connection was dissolved, and the Paris congregation sustained a minister for his whole time, having extended a call to the Rev. William Wallace, a young man of brilliant talents and ardent piety. He preached in Paris for some time before his ordination and installation as pastor. Under his ministration, the church was blessed with a revival, and more than one hundred persons were added to the membership. He died in 1818, after a pastorate of about one year.
At the death of Mr. Wallace, and for some time afterward, the pulpit was supphed by the Rev. James McChord, a man of extraordinary ability and one of the most eloquent speakers of his day. Mr. Renck, in his history of Lexington, says he studied law with Henry Clay, but after mature deliberation abandoned that profession and attended a theological seminary in New York, where he took the foremost rank. His eloquence and energy built up a large congregation in Lexington, but he had his troubles, was removed, and died May 26, 1820, brokenhearted, aged thirty-five years. During the winter of 1819, or the spring of 1820, the Rev. John McFarland was called and installed pastor of the church. His pastorate extended through a period of eight years, and was terminated by his death on the 28th of July, 1828.
Rev. Mr. Pratt was engaged as pastor. During the following year, the pastor, assisted by Rev. John Black, conducted a meeting, during which thirty-four persons were added to the church, twenty-two of whom were colored. Again, in 1847, there was a considerable ingathering. Mr. Pratt's ministry closed during the spring or summer of 1852.
He was succeeded, in the fall of the same year, by Rev. E. B. Smith as pastor. Mr. Smith's ministry closed in the spring of 1856, and was followed by the Rev. Mr. Carrier, who seems to have labored as stated supply one year. In November, 1857, Rev. W. T. McElroy was invited to act as stated supply.
In January, 1858, a joint communion was held by the two churches, preaching alternately by the pastors. Twelve persons were received into the communion of the New School Church, and a less number into the Old School, and the Synod of Kentucky on the part of the New School, having taken action looking to organic union of the two bodies. This action was consummated in the Paris church, in April, 1859, the joint session then meeting for the first time. The preachers employed during the four following years were Mr. Liggatt, Revs. E. W. Bedinger, Holloway and W. B. Browne.
In the spring of 1863, Rev. D. O. Davies was called, and installed pastor, and it was during his ministry that the war trouble sprang up, which resulted in the division of the church in 1866.
Mr. Davies continued pastor of the church in connection with the Southern General Assembly, until 1868, when he resigned the charge, and a call was extended to Rev. L. H. Blanton, now Chancellor of Central University, which was accepted and he was installed as pastor. In 1869-70, the present splendid church edifice was built, and in November, 1870, the church was dedicated, the dedicatory sermon being delivered by Rev. Dr. J. C. Sthes. About the same time the Synod of Kentucky met in Paris. During the pastorate of Dr. Blanton, the church membership was largely increased, and great activity was observable in the promotion of all the interests of the church. It was a working pastor, and an active, working, giving church. During the twelve years of Mr. Blanton's ministry, the large sum of $75.000 was collected, including the amount subscribed to build the church. The ladies were especially active, and prepared and published a book, entitled "Cooking in the Blue Grass," from the sale of which they realized several thousand dollars. Mrs. A. E. Randolph, now a missionary in China, went from this church, which has contributed liberally to the cause of foreign missions. Dr. Blanton resigned in 1880, and was succeeded by Mr. Sumrall, who served as stated supply for several months. In the spring of 1881, the congregation extended a unanimous call to Rev. Dr. E. H. Rutherford, of St. Louis, Mo. The call was accepted, and Dr. Rutherford in May, entered upon the duties of pastor. The following is a list of the present officers of the church : Ruling Elders, George W. Davis, A. W. Wright, D. M. Dodge, Joseph A. Howerton, John Gass, Joseph M. Jones and R. P. Dow. Deacons, Joseph Neely, David Kennedy, F. L. McChesney, Ed F. Spears, W. A. Johnson, George R. Bell, Victor K. Shipp, Emmett M. Dickson. Secretary and Treasurer, Joseph M. Jones. The Sunday school numbers about 125 pupils. Joseph A. Howerton, Superintendent; George W. Davis, Treasurer; W. A. Johnson, Secretary; Victor K. Shipp, Librarian; William Webb, Assistant Librarian.
In 1866, a division occurred in the Presbyterian Church, a portion uniting with the Southern General Assembly, and the remaining adhering to the Northern branch of the Church. The division of property was arranged without litigation, in a way satisfactory to the parties interested. The history of the church in cunnection with the Southern General Assembly has already been given. The other branch of the church retained possession of the building on the corner of Pleasant and Mulberry streets, which has since been repaired and handsomely improved. The following is a list of the pastors since the division: Rev. W. F. C. Webster, 1870-71; from spring of 1871 to fall of same year, Rev. G. W. Coons; from September, 1871, to April, 1874, Rev. C. F. Beach; from December, 1874, to 1878, Rev. R. W. Cleland. For some time after this, the church was without a regular pastor. Last year, Rev. Ernest McMillan was called to and accepted the pastorate of the church. The following are the officers : Elders, B. F. Harris, Dr. Joseph Fithian, James McClintock, Sr., Thomas I. Brent. Deacons, James Hall, George F. Smith, William H. Park. Superintendent Sunday School, George F. Smith; Librarian, George D. McClintock.
The Baptist Church of Christ in Paris, in union with the Baptist Churches of the General Union, was constituted in the old court house on the 18th of February, 1818, upon the following members; Joel Prewitt, Rachel Johnson, James Pritchett, Pheba Pritchett, Agness Pullen, George Bryan, Hannah Gorham and Nicholas Talbott, by Elders Jeremiah Vardernan and Davis Biggs.
"The first business meeting was held March 5, 1818. Elder Vardeman was Moderator, and Joel Prewitt, Clerk. The first Deacons were Nicholas Talbott, George Bryan and William S. Bryan, and Willis Young, First Stated Clerk.
" From this time to December, 1832, the number that had united with the church was 302 whites and 153 colored, of whom, among the whites, there are now living here or holding membership: Joseph Stephens, Washington Wheat, James Paton, Mrs. Grosjean, Mrs. Lucretia Feemster and Joseph Porter and wife.
"On April 18, 1818, George Bryan, William S. Bryan, James Pritchett and Joel Prewitt were appointed Commissioners to build a meeting-house for the church, and obtained a large lot at the intersection of the Winchester Turnpike road with Pleasant street, which was finished in March, 1822.
"Elder Vardeman continued pastor of the church from its organization to 1826, preaching one Saturday and Sunday of each month. The church was also supphed with preaching, during that time, by Elders John Holliday, Mason Owings, James D. Black, A. G. Curry, G. Gates and others.
"A revival commenced in the winter of 1827-28, under the preaching of Elder Vardeman and others, when 135 whites and 46 colored persons were received into the church.
"In 1839, Elder Vardeman moved to Ralls County, Mo., where he continued to preach until about a week before his death, which occurred in May, 1842, aged sixty-seven. His biographer says of him: 'This distinguished minister was one of a class somewhat rare in the annals of the church. He possessed the peculiar talent of bringing the leading truths of the Gospel home to the consciences of his hearers. His illustrations were singularly varied, his language strong, simple and well suited to convey clear thoughts to every class, even the most illiterate, while the deep fountains of feeling gushed from his own heart, and poured, like a shower of rain, over the minds of his hearers. In deep emotion, vivid conceptions of Gospel truth and the power of exciting sympathy, he resembled Whitfield. His voice was powerful, sonorous and clear. He commenced his ministry about the year 1801.'" (From "Sketches of Paris," furnished by Mr. James Paton, Sr.)
The Deacons up to this time, in addition to those first named, were Jahab Wheat and Joseph Stephens; Clerks, Willis Young and Henry Croxton.
With 1832, commenced the "reformation," which caused a division in the church, and an act of separation from those claiming to be "Reformers" was adopted in December of that year.
In January, 1833, the church was re-organized, with about forty-eight white members. It has now a membership of about one hundred. From the time of its organization until a few weeks ago, the church has had a pastor--1833, Elder William Vaugh; 1836, R. T. Dillard; 1837, A. Goodell; 1838, G. C. Sedwick; 1842, J. W. Kenny; 1844, J. R. Davis; 1845, G. G. Goss; 1848, W. M. Pratt; 1849, T. J. Drane; 1849, F. D. Isbell; 1851, S. L. Helm ; 1852, J. M. Frost; 1853, Y. R. Pitts; 1854, J. H. Yeaman, J. B. Link.
In 1857, the colored members of the church were organized into a separate church, under the name of the "African Church," by Elder J. B. Link and others, and have kept up their own organization ever since, and have been prosperous, having built a large and comfortable house of worship.
In 1858, Elder George Varden was chosen paster, and served until 1870. In 1865, the congregation determined to remove their house of worship from the old location, and rebuild in a more central position, sold the old building and lot, and purchased a lot on the corner of Locust and Main streets, upon which the present building was erected in 1867-68.
In 1870, Elder John Kingdon was chosen pastor; 1872, C. S. McCloud; 1873. Elder A. Myers supphed the church with preaching, and occasionally Elder Salin; 1874, Elder A. N. White, who continued several years. He was succeeded, in 1878, by Elder S. F. Taylor, who has recently resigned. The church is now without a pastor. The following are the officers: Deacons, James Paton, Sr., Joseph Stephens, Chester F. Croxton, James Bradshaw; Clerk, W. M. Goodloe. Sunday school-R. S. Henderson, Superintendent; William M. Goodloe, Treasurer; R. H. Hudson, Jr., Secretary; John Prewitt, Librarian; number of scholars, fifty-five.
Methodist Episcopal Church South.-The organization of the Methodist Church in Paris dates back to 1807. For about ten years, the preaching was in private houses, and mostly in the house now occupied by D. B. Flanigan, then owned by Morgan Francis. In 1817, mainly through the efforts of Peter Schwartzweiler, a brick church was built on the site on which the present building stands. The congregation being weakly, the building was not finished until 1820. Here the congregation worshiped until 1860, when the present building was erected. Several of the members of the congregation here, now living, contributed to the erection of the church, but the success of the undertaking was mainly due to the liberality and energy of Mr. John D. Hearne, then a merchant of this city, now of Covington, Ky.
Until 1865, Paris was only a circuit, having preaching only once or twice a month. In the fall of that year, it was made a station, and Rev. William F. Taylor appointed pastor. During the four years' pastorate of Mr. Taylor, the membership increased from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty-four. Rev. James C. Morris succeeded Mr. Taylor, remaining four years, and though many were added to the church, yet the membership decreased, owing to deaths, removals, etc., to one hundred and thirty-eight. Rev. W. T. Poynter followed Mr. Morris, remaining four years. During his pastorate the church was prosperous, and under his skillful management its financial plans were well executed, and he left the church in very good working order. He was followed by Rev. E. H. Pearce, who remained but one year, leaving the church about as he found it Rev. Dr. James A. Henderson succeeded Mr. Pearce, and remained two years. He was followed by Rev. J. O. A. Vaught, who is the present pastor, now closing the second year of his pastorate, which is proving a prosperous year, more than forty persons having united with the church already.
Besides the above, nearly all the prominent ministers in the Kentucky Conference have preached in Paris-Cole, Lakin, Lindsay, Gann, Bascom, Durbin, Stamper, Cartwright, Kavanaugh, Stribling, Ray, and many others.
The following is a list of the officers : Pastor, Rev. J. O. A. Vaught; Stewards--James McClure, Gray Smith, John Trundle, Selby Lillerton, E. P. Gamble and Edward R. Fithian; Trustees--H. M. Rucher and Dr. Wash. Fithian.
St. Peter's Church.(written by Rev. G. A. Weeks)-The first services of the Episcopal Church in Paris, or which there are any records, were conducted by clergymen from Lexington, Ky. As early as August 27, 1815, the Rev. John Ward, of Lexington, came to Paris and held service in the old court house, and on that occasion baptized an infant daughter of Walker and Sarah Thornton. That infant, long years ago, grew to womanhood, and is still living in the county and is well known as the poetess, Mrs. M. R. McAboy. This was the tint baptism. After that time, up to the year 1830, occasional services were held, chiefly by clergymen from Lexington, among whom might be mentioned the Rev. G. T. Chapman, the author of a famous book of sermons on the principles and claims of the church.
During this period, no regular ministrations were sustained, nor does there seem to have been any further attempt made than to minister to certain persons who had preferences for the church on account of early associations in Virginia.
But in the year 1832 or 1833, a decisive attempt was made to establish a parish and erect a church edifice. This was done under the efficient leadership of the Rev. Amos Cleaver, who came to Paris from Philadelphia, then in the prime of his strength and energy. By indefatigable labor, covering a period of six years, he drew together a congregation of people, organized them into a parish, and completed a comfortable church edifice of brick. This church edifice was consecrated in due form and order under the name of St. Peter's Church, on the fifth day of August, 1838, by the Rt. Rev. B. B. Smith, Bishop of the diocese.
Soon after the consecration of the church, Mr. Cleaver saw fit to resign the charge of it, at least for a time, and the Rev. Francis B. Nash was chosen his successor, but did not long continue in the office, for, in the year 1840, Mr. Cleaver was recalled, and again entered upon the work which he had previously given up. He continued his second rectorship till some time in the year 1843.
During the ministry of Mr. Cleaver and Mr. Nash, a good many people were led to sympathize with the struggling parish and co-operate in its efforts, who did not become members of it. But some were baptized and confirmed.
Among the names of adults who received baptism at this time, mention might be made of Sarah A. Berkley, Mrs Cordelia Kelly, Mrs. Eliza J. Elliott (afterward Mrs. Garrett Davis), Mrs. Margaret T. Brent, Maj. Thomas Elliott, Caroline A. Scott, Amelia A. Timberlake. Of course, a much greater number of infants were baptized during the period.
Several of the adults named above were among the very first who received the rite of confirmation. Among the early confirmed we should also mention Mr. John Richards, Mrs. Mary A. Timberlake, Mrs. Elmira D. Brent, Mrs. Elizabeth L. Hart, Mr. William Hearne, Mr. Jefferson Scott, and, later, Mr. Hugh Brent. Some cummunicants had been confirmed elsewhere, as Mrs. M. Morray, Mrs. John Richards and Miss Nancy Marshall.
The first marriage under Mr. Cleaver's administration was that between John Alexander and Betsy Gass, and the second between Thomas Elliott and Eliza J. Morrow.
The first funeral was that of Matilda P. Hearne, an infant seventeen months old, and the second that of Charles E. Talbott, aged thirty years.
In the early part of the year 1843, Mr. Cleaver again gave up the charge of the church, and was succeeded by the Rev. J. Avery Shepherd.
The names of the rectors of the church succeeding Messrs. Cleaver and Nub, with the time they continued in office, are as follows:
Rev. J. Avery Shepherd, about one year; Rev. O. G. Moore, about three years; Rev. H. H. Reid, about two years; Rev. T. H. Mitchell, about four years; Rev. J. Austin Merrick, about ten years; Rev. G. A. Weeks, about seventeen years, and who is the present incumbent. Under the ministrations of Messrs. Shepherd and Moore, there was a marked increase in the number of baptisms and confirmations.
After Mr. Reid's popular rectorship, he went abroad and was accidentally killed by a fall from a balustrade in a hotel in Italy.
Mr. Mitchell, in addition to his work in church, conducted a flourishing school, in which he did much good in instructing the youth of the parish. Mr. Merrick, by his efficiency as a disciplinarian, and by a strict adherence to church principles, imparted a churchly character to the parish which it never had received in such measure before. He and his good wife also did much for the instruction of the youth in a parish school. He resigned, at last, on account of chronic ill-health, and finally died in a charitable institution in the city of New York.
Among the laymen, now gone to their rest, who have been eminently useful in upholding the above named clergymen in their work, it may not be deemed invidious to mention the names of Dr. Harry Hopson and Hon. Robert T. Davis.
In the spring of 1870, the old church which Mr. Cleaver had built, was in the main taken down, and during the fol. lowing summer and fall another of more elegant appearsees and more complete in its appointments, erected in its place. This rebuilding was done at a cost of nearly $10,000, including all the furnishings. And as the building was now essentially a new church, it wall reconsecrated on the 18th day of November, 1870. In its design as an ecclesiastical structure, it may be regarded among the best in the diocese.
The parish has slowly advanced in strength from its beginning, and without doubt to-day stands on a stronger basis than ever before. Its baptisms and confirmations, reaching up into the higher hundreds, are an indication of the good it has done. "O, pray for the peace of Jerusalem; they shall prosper that love thee."
Officers of church at present time (February, 1882): Rev. George A. Weeks, Rector; Dr. David Keller, Senior Warden; Mr. William S. Taylor, Junior Warden; Harry Spurs, Vestryman; W. W. Forman, Vestryman; O. A. Gilman, Vestryman; John C. Brent, Vestryman; Anderson Berry, Vestryman; James A. Stewart, Vestryman.
The following sketch of the early history of the Christian Church was written by Elder John A. Gano: "At the request of several brethren, members of the church in Paris, Ky., I write the following brief history of that church, in its origin, infancy and progress. For many years Elders Stone, Purviance, Dooley and others, in their itinerations, preached much in Bourbon County. The churches at Mount Carmel, Millersburg and Flat Run, at in early period, under their labors came into existence, nor should I fail to mention the efficient labors of those faithful ministers, Francis R. Palmer, Thomas Smith, Joel Haden and others, who, during the first quarter of the present century, throughout a considerable portion of Northern Kentucky, preached without any earthly compensation. Paris often shared in the benefit of these labors. It was not, however, until in September, 1827, when I came with Brother Thomas M. Allen to Paris to hold a meeting, that any encouraging movement toward the formation of a church took place. During that meeting he immersed Mrs. George W. Williams, and her mother, Mrs. Mary T. Webb. Later in the autumn of the same year, we held another meeting. Through the kindness of the magistracy we were permitted the use of that time-honored, grand old court house, all the meeting-houses in town being closed against us, until the good Baptist, Brother William Bryan, offered us the use of their house. As some of the members of his church objected, we preferred to use the court room and it was here, at this second meeting in the autumn of 1827, an effort was made to gather a church. On invitation several came forward to have their names enrolled, viz.: Mrs. Mary T. Webb, Mrs. George W. Williams, Mrs. H. Wilson, Mrs. M. Ashford, Miss M. Speak, and, perhaps, another. To encourage this little band, I had my name enrolled among them. Brother Allen and the writer preached either separately or together, monthly or oftener, for this little flock, which soon increased in numbers and influence. So many valuable additions, male and female, were made within a year that the church was organized on the same divine principles as the one in Jerusalem more than eighteen centuries ago. Mr. Allen was the influential and working man, and it was mainly through his instrumentality that the church prospered, and a good brick house of worship was erected in the year 1828. Brother T. M. Allen and John Rogers were present at the dedication of that building. Among the many generous contributors to aid in that work, I remember Mr. Hugh Brent, Sr., Mr. John L. Hickman, Sr., Mr. Daniel Duncan, George W. Williams, Esq., Mr. Samuel Pyke, Mr. Henry Wilson, Mr. Michael Ashford and Mr. Daniel Smedley. The first three were not members of the church. The others were, or soon became such. After the completion of the house, Brother Allen became the regular preacher. My labors were still frequent and were successful. In those days we never thought of receiving any salary. Brother Allen visited Virginia in 1831, and was urged to preach monthly for the church in Paris, and consented to do so. I continued my labors with them until about 1835, and it was during this period that so many of the Baptist Church in Paris, embracing the preacher, Brother G. Gates, Brother Hiram Bledsoe, Brother William Bryan, and many others, discovering, on mutual consultation, with many of our brethren, the entire religious harmony existing between us, a cordial union was formed, on the foundation of apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone. Our house became the place of worship, the brethren yielding up their former house to their quondam associates. Brother Allen removed to Missouri in 1836. Brother Aylett Raines succeeded me as the preacher in Paris, and, becoming permanently located here, did most efficient and successful service through a long series of years. The church has also had the labors of Elders R. C. Ricketts, David G. Burnett, John G. Tompkins, G. B. Moore, William S. Giltner, Dr. L. L. Pinkerton, O. P. Miller, L. Pyron, John Shackleford, David Walk, C. R. Marshall, and John S. Sweeney, the present pastor. A host of others have transiently visited and preached for this congregation, from the gifted Alexander Campbell, deceased, down to the many of humbler talents, both of the living and the dead.
"The church has continued to grow in members since its organization, and now has a membership of about four hundred. Elder John S. Sweeney is the pastor, having held the position for the past twelve years, and still retains a strong hold upon the affections and confidence of the congregation. He is a minister of decided ability, as is evidenced by his unusually long pastorate; longer, if we mistake not, than that of say other minister since the organization of the Christian Church in Paris.
"The following are the present officers of the church: Pastor, J. S. Sweeney; Elder, James M. Thomas; Deacons, J. T. Hinton, J. D. Butler, Horace Miller, W. T. Talbott, W. W. Gill; Treasurer, J. T. Hinton; Superintendent Sunday School, James M. Thomas. The Sunday school is largely attended, numbering upward of two hundred scholars. The old church building was torn down in 1859, and the present building crected and dedicated in June, 1859."
The Catholics of Paris and vicinity were occasionally visited prior to 1840 by missionary priests from Louisville and Cincinnati, among whom were Rev. Fathers Baden and Kenrick, afterward Archbishop of Baltimore,and others who labored hard in and around Paris. In 1850, Paris and the adjacent country were the flelds of labor for Rev. Fathers McMahon, Force, Allen and Perry, of Lexington. Services were held in private houses throughout the county. Rev. Father Force bought the present lot on Main street, and in 1854 Rev. Father Allen, under the direction of the Right Rev. Bishop Carroll, built a small church, which still stands on the lot, for the accommodation of the congregation. In 1858, the frame church being entirely too small, the membership numbering about two hundred, Rev. Father Allen began the foundation of the new brick church, the corner-stone of which was laid in 1858.
Rev. Father Brandts, the successor of Rev. Father Perry, came to Paris in 1860. Seeing the want of a larger church, he commenced the erection of the present building, which was dedicated in 1865. The membership had then increased to about four hundred. In 1869, the congregation determined to enlarge the church, and means were provided for that purpose. The building of an addition was begun at once, and was finished in 1870. The total cost of the church building, including the addition, was about $25,000.
Father Brandts was succeeded by Rev. James McNerney, in 1876, who remained until 1877, when Rev. Ferdinand Brossart was appointed. On November 6,1878, the present rector, Rev. James P. Barry took charge of the church.
The history of the church in Bourbon County may be summed up as follows: Some fifty years ago, the mentben were few and widely scattered, and had no regular church; consequently the Holy Sacrament of the Mass, as a matter of necessity, had to be offered up in some private residence. Today, the Catholics of Bourbon have a resident priest at Paris, a neat church, a spacious cemetery, and a visitation convent; with schools attached, boarding, academy and parochial. The Catholic population numbers one hundred and thirty famihes, or about one thousand persons.
The colored people have three new and substantial church buildings in Paris. The Methodist Church, finished within the last two or three years, is one of the most tasteful in the city. Rev. A. Price is its pastor. Rev. Elisha Green is pastor of the Colored Baptist Church, and Elder Julius Graves, of the Colored Christian Church.
For three weeks in March, 1882, Paris was the scene of the most wonderful religious revival which has ever occurred in its history. George O. Barnes, an evangelist, formerly a minister in the Presbyterian Church, but now out loose from all church connection, held a series of meetings in the court house, which will accommodate 1,200 per sons, and during the three weeks of his stay preached twice a day to crowded houses, and frequently hundreds were turned away unable to find sitting or even standing room. For several years, wherever Mr. Barnes has preached, them never has been a hall or church large enough to accommodate the throngs who wish to attend. Frequently the seats were filled an hour before the service began, and sometimes persons would remain from one service to another, without going to their homes. Such a deep religious interest never before pervaded the community. There are widely varying estimates of Mr. Barnes and his teachings. Some regard him as the most powerful preacher of the Gospel in the world, the Whitfield of the nineteenth century in eloquence, whilst a few are not favorably impressed by him, and regard his teachings as unsound and dangerous. His doctrines are sometimes severely criticised and his preaching condemned on account of the homely and so-called "slang" expressions used by him in the pulpit. But he rivets and holds enchained the attention of the audience from the opening to the closing word of his sermon. He never tires himself; while speaking, never moistens his lips with water; and never wearies his audience. His knowledge of Scripture is wonderful, and the great success of his labors is, in a measure, due to his deep earnestness, the simplicity of his language, his persuasive eloquence, and the absolute control he wields over those who listen to him. Holding that his commission as a minister of the Gospel is not only to preach, but to heal all manner of diseases, he prays with and anoints all the afflicted and suffering who wine forward, and "trust as best they can in Jesus to heal them." Under his ministry, during the last three months, about three thousand persons have been anointed. In a poem entitled "Pulpit Eloquence," by Mrs. Amelia B. Welby, is given a picture of a preacher which so nearly describes Mr. Barnes that we reproduce it here
In stature majestic, apart from the throng,
He stood in his beauty, the theme of my song!
Such language as his, I may never recall;
But his theme was salvation-salvation to all;
And the souls of a thousand in ecstasy hung
On the manna-like sweetness that dropped from his tongue;
Not alone on the car his wild eloquence stole;
Enforced by each gesture it sank to the soul.
He spoke of the Savior-what pictures he drew!
The scenes of His sufferinp were clear on my view;
The cross-the rude cross where He suffered and died.
The gush of bright crimson that flowed from His side,
The cup of His sorrows, the wormwood and gall,
The darkness that mantled the earth as a pall,
The garland of thorns, and the demon-like crews,
Who knelt as they scoffed Him- Hail King of the Jews!"
He spake, and it seemed that his statue-like form
Expanded and glowed als his spirit grew warm;
His tone so impassioned, so melting his air,
As touched with compassion, he ended in prayer,
His hands clasped above him, his blue eyes upthrown,
Still pleading for sins that were never his own,
While that mouth, where such sweetness ineffable clung
Still spoke, though expression had died on his tongue.
O God! What emotions the speaker awoke;
A mortal he seemed, yet a deity spoke;
A man-yet so far from humanity riven!
On earth-yet so closely connected with heaven!
Mr. Barnes is fifty-flve years of age. He has preached twice every day for the past five years, and seems to gather strength by his labors. His labors closed here on the 29th of March, with altogether 621 confessions and 156 anointings, total, 777. The like has never been seen before in Paris.
In this chapter devoted to sketches of the Christian churches, it is not inappropriate to say a few words of those secret and benevolent societies which have done so much good in the community, and the grand aim of which is charity; a virtue that Paul declared was greater than faith and hope. First in order as in age, is the Masonic Institution.
Paris Lodge No. 2, A., F. & A. Masons, was organized in November, 1791. The charter was obtained from the Grand Lodge of Virginia, Kentucky at that time being a part of that State. The lodge at Paris was the second organized in Kentucky, the first lodge being in Lexington. All the lodges in the State remained under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge in Virginia until 1800, when the Grand Lodge of Kentucky was established. The lodge here has a long history, extending over a period of ninety-one years, and during that time has done a great work of charity. It is now in a flourishing condition, and bids fair to increase in all the elements of usefulness, The following are the present officers of the lodge: H. R. Blaisdell, W. M.; S. B. Kennedy, S. W.; Charles Offutt, J. W.; A. Shire, Secretary; B. F. Pullen, Treasurer.
Bourbon Lodge, No. 23, I. O. O. F., Paris, Ky., was organized, under dispensation, November 29, 1845, which was granted by John B. Hinkle, then Grand Master of Kentucky, to the following members of the order - P. G., J. V. Lovely, George Stoll, Joseph B. Cooper, R. P. Timberlake and W. S. Simpson. The first officers of the lodge were: J. V. Lovely, N. G.; L. B. Allison, V. G.; J. T. Davis, Treasurer; (an office which he has held for thirty-five years), and W. W. Fothergill, Secretary. The lodge has had a total membership, up to January 1, 1882, of 441. The membership, January 1, 1882, is 84. Deaths to same date, 35. The receipts of the lodge from its organization to January 1, 1882, aggregate $30,500. The total expenditures, including benefits,etc., $27,000; leaving a balance on hand of $3,500. In 1854-55, the Odd Fellows Hall, now opera house, was erected at a cost of about $10,000. In 1879, the hall was enlarged and otherwise improved. The lodge has property and funds to the amount of $16,000. The following persons are now the officers of the lodge: George Winter, P. G.; F. R. Armstrong, N. G.; Joseph Honey, V. G.; James T. Davis, Treasurer; J. J. McClintock, Secretary; manager of the opera house, J. Z. Croxton.
Peabody Lodge, No. 13, Knights of Pythias, was instituted September 23, 1870, and remained in existence one year, when it surrendered its charter and effects to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. On the l3th day of February, 1873, it was again re-organized, and has continued unto the present day in a healthy and flourishing condition. The Knights of Pythias is an organization possessing peculiar attractions to the young men of our country, and to the middle-aged it is a haven wherein to pass the declining years of their lives, and, at the end thereof they can, through the agency of the endowment rank, leave a nice little competency to their loved ones. Of its membership here, B. F. Pullen is a Past Grand Chancellor, and A. J. Lovely is the Vice Grand Chancellor of Kentucky, at this time. The following members are the officers of Peabody Lodge, No. 13: E. S. Hedges, P. C.; A. C. Adair, C. C.; W. S. Taylor, V. C.; W. H. Lockhart, P.; A. C. Gatzeit, K. of R. and S.; J. G. Hanly, M. of F.; J. M. Daniels, M. of F.; W. M. Goodloe, M. of A.; J. H. Fuhrman, I. G.; J. W. Hite, O. G.; Charles Offutt, Trustee; A. J. Lovely, D. D. G. C.
StonerLodge, No. 559, Knights of Honor, was organized March 31, 1877, with the following charter members: B. .F. Pullen, J. T. Nichols, Benjamin G. Paton, J. G. Hatily, Joseph M. Jones, O. A. Gilman, Dr. J. Ed. Ray, J. McCarney, Irwin Taylor, O. P. Carter, George H. Shawhan, Matt. Turney, J. S. Kenney, T. K. Marsh, J. D. McClintock, John W. Jameson, W. A. Cunningham, G. W. Allison, R. M. Adair, F. C. Lewis, G. M. Davis, Ed. Taylor, J. M. Grinnan, A. S. Stout, B. R. Hutchcraft, M. C. Chapline, F. R. Armstrong, Dan. Turney, C. A. Kenney, A. J. Lovely. Since that time, eighteen have been initiated into the order. This lodge has lost only one member since its organization, by death, Dr. L. D. Burnes, recently deceased, whose family have received $2,000 insurance. The officers, at present, of this lodge are : Henry Spears, Past Dictator; Judge Matt. Turney, Dictator; J. G. Hardy, Vice Dictator; Dudley Talbott, Assistant Dictator; W. W. Forman, Guide; F. L. McChesney, Chaplain ; F. R. Armstrong, Reporter ; A.J.Lovely,Financial Reporter; Henry Spears,Treasurer; Hugh Henry, Guardian; O. P. Carter, Sentinel ; O. A. Gilman, Joseph M. Jones and Dr. J. Ed. Ray, Trustees. F. L. McChesney, Representative to Grand Lodge.
Paris has enjoyed unusual literary advantages. The "Lecture Association," for four or five years, brought here the most distinguished lecturers in the country, among whom were Mrs. Livermore, Henry Ward Beecher, Theodore Tilton, Robert Collyer, Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, Olive Logan, Miss Helen Potter, Josh Billings and others. The association was financially a success, and, although no lecturers have been engaged for two years, has not been disbanded, and has a handsome surplus fund in its treasury. The "Paris Literary Society" has, for a number of years, been one of the institutions of Paris, and has done much to aid in the cultivation of a higher literary taste on the part of our people. Owing to the absence of some of its members it was not re-organized this season. The Paris Historical Society is a new organization, under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church (S. G. A.). It has held several interesting meetings, and bids fair to contribute much to the improvement of the young people of the city. The exercises comprise essays on historical and other subjects, readings, recitations, and vocal and instrumental music by the members of the society.
The Press-The first paper ever published in Paris, as elsewhere stated, was the Kentucky Herald. It was established in 1797, by Mr. James Stewart, and was printed in a log house on High street. It however did not succeed, and, after a sickly existence of about one year, it died. No other paper was published until in 1808, when the Western Citizen was established by Messrs. Grimes & Johnson. In early times, printers were under the necessity of making their own ink, an art which few of them understood. Whilst this operation was in progress in the Citizen office, the fire used for the purpose communicated to some papers, and before it could be extinguished, the early files of the paper were destroyed. It is, therefore, impossible to ascertain the exact date of the first issue. The oldest number, seen by A. M. Brown, the editor of the paper in 1855, bore date, Thursday, November, 3, 1808, and was the thirtieth number of the first volume of the paper. Supposing a number to have been issued each week, this would bring the date of the 1st to the 7th day of April or that year. The number referred to was a curiosity; it was printed on foolscap paper, the pages measuring seven by twelve inches. This was smaller, however, than the ordinary size, for in the same issue this reference to the paper used appears: "We are this week reduced to the necessity of printing on writing paper, in consequence of having been disappointed in receiving a supply of the usual size." We have before us a copy of the paper, published in 1811, containing four columns to the page, a measuring nine and a half by fifteen and a half inches, besides the margin. This was probably the size of the paper at the beginning.
Early in 1809, the Citizen was purchased by Mr. Joel R. Lyle, who had before that been engaged as tutor in the "Bourbon Ladies' Academy and Boarding School," conducted by the Rev. John Lyle. Mr. Lyle was not then a practical printer, but in the course of his long connection with the office, acquired a knowledge of the business. He continued the editor of the paper until the summer of 1829, when a severe illness compelled him to resign his post to his son, William C. Lyle. The business was conducted under his name, however, until the 1st of January, 1832. For several years prior to this date, the paper was published under the name of Lyle & Keenon. Mr. Adam C. Keenon, now of Frankfort, for many years the Public Binder, was the partner ostensibly, but his brother, John C. Keenon, who was a practical printer, received the profits. Mr. K. learned the business in the Citizen office, and in 1817 published a paper in Cynthiana called the Guardian of Liberty, which was continued for a year or two. In this connection, it may be mentioned that Bishop H. H. Kavanaugh, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, worked in the office when a boy. Mr. J. L. Walker entered the office and commenced learning the printing business About the first of April, 1828. On the 1st of January, 1832, he and William C. Lyle became the owners of the office, and it was conducted under the name of Lyle & Walker.
It cannot be ascertained in what house the Citizen had its birth. After Mr. Lyle became the editor, the office was for some time in the second story of the stone house, on the corner of Broadway and High streets, and was entered by a stairway on the outside. It was afterward removed to the one-story stone house on the corner of High and Church streets, used before as a blacksmith-shop. It was again removed to the stone house on Broadway, second door from the corner. In 1841, the office was eitablished in the building, corner of Main and Church streets, where it remained until 1877, when it was removed to its present location.
In its earlier years, the Citizen supported the principles of the Republican party, as opposed to these of the Federalists; was a warm advocate of the war with England in 1812; in the fierce struggle between the Old and New Court parties took the side of the Old Court party; supported Mr. Adams and Mr. Clay in opposition to Gen. Jackson; and when parties became divided under the names of Whig and Democrat, was found consistently advocating the principles of the former. For a number of years, when under the control of Messrs. Lyle & Walker, the paper was edited with signal ability by Mr. A. M. Brown, who afterward went to Missouri. Mr. Joel R. Lyle died in 1849. The following sketch of Mr. Lyle wait given by one who knew him: "He was a man of strong, active and well-informed mind, arid conducted his paper with ability and spirit. He was possessed of a rich and genial humor, which made him a pleasant companion, while his integrity of character, And his warm and devoted piety, secured to him the respect and confidence of all who knew him. His personal appearance is amongst the earliest recollections of our boyhood. In those days, it was the custom in the Presbyterian Church for the leaders of the music, or clerks as they were called, to stand up in front of the pulpit while singing. Mr. Lyle and Ebenezer Sharpe, one of the beat men we ever knew, were the leaders of the music in the church on High street. They were both very fleshy, realizing Shakspeare's description of the fourth stage in man's life, and we remember them as they stood up there, thirty years ago, with their round, protuberant stomachs, and with voices uncommonly rich, mellow and powerful, sang the songs of praise they both loved so well, and of which they never wearied while on earth. William C. Lyle died in January, 1874. He stood high as a citizen, was respected by all while living, and his death wait sincerely mourned. Mr. John L. Walker died in 1873. He was for many years an office-bearer in the Presbyterian Church, first as Deacon, and Afterward as a Ruling Elder. He possessed the confidence and respect of all who knew him."
In 1867, the Citizen was published by John R. Johnson & Co. In February, 1868, F. L. McChesney and Lemuel T. Fisher became the publishers, and the politics of the paper was changed, and from that time forward it has been a consistent advocate of Democratic principles. In 1873, Mr. Fisher sold his interest, and William A. Johnson became one of the proprietors, and remained with the paper until 1878, when he disposed of his interest to the present publishers. The Citizen ig now conducted by F. L. McChesney, and his son, James R. McChesney. [Mr. McChesney is too modest to say the Citizen is a good paper, but we have no such conscientious scruples, and take this opportunity to tell the people of Paris arid Bourbon County that in the Citizen and True Kentuckian, they have two as good newspapers as may be found in Central Kentucky, and if they don't support them well they deserve to be bumped, This is not an Advertisement, but a gratuitous expression of sentiment.-Ed.]
In 1817, a young man named Lilly started a paper in Paris. Its name was the Instructor. It lived but a short time. It is stated that the paper was afterward removed to Millersburg. The editor died with consumption soon after.
A paper called the Paris Register was published here awhile, about the years 1827-28, by Messrs. Clay & Benning. We have before us as we write No. 7, Vol. 1, dated December 1, 1827. It was a New Court, Relief and Jackson paper. It survived a year or two. Mr. Thomas Clay, one of the proprietors, was the brother of Green Clay, of this county. Mr. Benning was the same man who was afterward killed at Lexington by Charles Wickliffe.
The Kentucky Flag was established here in 1854, by Samuel Pike. Col. Pike was recognized as an experienced editor, and the Flag, under his control, became one of the leading Democratic papers in the State. It was especially a popular campaign paper. Col. Pike was succeeded by Selucius Garfield, who was, in 1849-50, a member of the State Constitutional Convention, and afterward a delegate to Congress from Washington Territory. He was a fine speaker and writer. At that time, he was a Democrat in politics. When, however, he was elected to Congress from Washington Territory, it was as a Republican. He is now residing in Washington City. While in control of the paper, Mr. Garfield secured the services of Samuel Williams, who became a partner in the business. Mr. Williams afterward became the managing editor of the Louisville Courier, and is now prominently connected with the press of Kansas City, Mo. He is recognized as one of the best newspaper men in the country. Afterward, the paper was conducted by Judge M. M. Cassidy, now of Mount Sterling, and Judge Burgess, now a Circuit Judge in Missouri. In 1857, Col. William E. Simms and John G. Craddock took charge of the Flag, and under their management it was one of the ablest edited papers in the State--Col. Simms being the political editor. Col. Simms afterward, in 1859, was a candidate in this district for Congress, defeating Gen. John M. Harlan, now an Associate Justice on the Supreme Bench. He was afterward a Colonel in the Confederate service, and also one of the Senators from Kentucky in the Confederate Congress. Since the war he has retired entirely from public life, and resides at Mount Airy, his home-place in this city. John G. Craddock and R. W. Clayton conducted the Flag in 1858, and were succeeded by W. W. Pike, now or Cincinnati, who published it until the fall of 1861, when the war came on and the paper was suspended.
The Paris True Kentuckian was established in February, 1866, by a joint-stock company, with John G. Craddock, as editor and publisher. The Citizen was then pablished by Messrs. Lyle & Walker, but its political principles were not in accord with the views of a majority of the people of the county; the Kentuckian, being a Democratic paper, from its first issue received a liberal support; its subscription list rapidly increased, and its columns were soon overcrowded with advertisements. Since that time, its subscription has been steadily increasing until it now has the largest number of subscribers of any county paper in Kentucky, and as a newspaper is the most remarkable success of any journal in the State. It contains a vast amount of local, State and general news. It is, perhaps, only just to say that Col. Craddock has been ably seconded in his efforts to make the True Kentuckian a good paper by John W. Hite, one of the best newspaper men in the State, as well as by an efficient corps of reporters.
Within the last few years, a number of papers have been started in Paris. In 1875-76, G. R. Keller, conducted a weekly called the Saturday Night. Afterward, the Sunday Courier was established, edited by the late Louis S. Howell, and, in July, 1880, Messrs. John Gnadinga and Gus. Fee commenced the publication of a campaign paper, the Bourbon Republican. These papers were all short-lived. In October, 1880, G. R. Keller started the Semi-Weekly Sun, which was continued until January 1, 1882. A few weeks ago, Bruce Champ commenced the publication of the Bourbon News.
Such is a brief sketch of the newspapers of Paris. The True Kentuckian is known almost everywhere, whilst the old Citizen, after many vicissitudes, has reached its seventy-fifth volume. The men who founded it, like the men who laid the foundations of our little city, have passed away, and it is one of the few old landmarks of the past. In its day it has played no inconspicuous part in the history of the town and county, and whatever may be its future, its past, at least, is secure.
The Rescue Fire Company was organized March 16, 1874. The city furnished the company with a splendid handbrake engine and four-wheeled hose carriage, and afterward purchased of the Ahrens Manufacturing Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, a No. 4 steam fire engine, which was given the name of R. W. O'Connor, and a two-wbeeled hose carriage, calling it O. A. Gilman. Afterward, a hook and ladder truck was bought for the use of the company, which they named the Ever Ready. The company has rendered invaluable services to the people of our city, and is one of the beat inland fire organizations in the State. The following-named. members are its present officers : R. W. O'Connor, President; Nich. Kreiner, V. P.; A. J. Lovely, Secretary; J, T. Doyle, Treasurer; J. A. Stewart, First Chief; Nich. Kreiner, Assistant Chief; William Mitchell, First Engine Director; W. F. Ficklin, Second Engine Director; O. N. Fithian, First Line Director; E. B. January, Second Line Director; Frank Webb, Third Line Director; W. M. Goodloe, Fourth Line Director; G. F. Smith, First Pipeman ; G. W. Nippert, Second Pipeman; J. D. McClintock, Third Pipeman; Frank Ca", Fourth Pipeman; W. O. Hite, Engineer; John M. Schuman, Assistant Engineer. Standing Committee, J. A. Stewart, William Mitchell, C. N, Fithisn, G. F. Smith, A. J. Lovely.
The Paris Gas Company was organized Novernher 24, 1866. S. Salomon was elected President, and Allen Bashford, Secretary, with the following Board of Directors: R. T. Davis, Jacob Spears, W. W. Michhell, Dr. L. D. Barnes. Capital stock, $28,500. November 23, 1867, R, T, Davis was elected President, and W. W, Mitchell, Secretary; in 1874, B, F. Pullen was elected President, and James Paton, Sr., Secretary, and continued in office until January, 1878, when Dr. Ed. Ingels was elected President, January, 1879, A. Shire was elected President and Secretary. The capital stock was unchanged, remaining at $28,500, and was owned by seventeen stockholders. For a number of years, the company declared no dividend. Since 1879, under the new directory, it has paid an annual dividend of from 6 to 8 per cent, besides accumulating and setting aside a surplus fund of $1,000. Very much ofthe success of the company is due to the efficient President, Mr. A. Shire, who has managed its affairs; with signal ability. The city of Paris has stock in the company amounting to $10,000, which is now yielding a good revenue The following are the present officers of the company: A. Shire, President and Secretary; J. R. Swiney, Treasurer; Board of Directors, A. Shire, J. R, Swiney, J. K. Ford, W. R. Erringer, J. T. Hinton-McChesney.
CHAPTER XII--PARIS EDUCATIONAL HISTORY--THE BOURBON ACADEMY--PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CITY SCHOOLS--THE GARTH FUND--A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE-COLORED SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES--SOME MANUFACTURING AND MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. ETC.
AT an early day, the people of Paris enjoyed unusual educational advantages. The Bourbon Academy was founded in 1798, by an act of the Kentucky Legislature, and a donation of 6,000 acres of land appropriated toward its endowment. William Garrard, David Purviance, Augustine Eastin, John Edwards, Andrew Todd, John Allen, William Kelly, Thomas Jones, Sr., Hugh Brent, John Stone, James Brown, Sr., Barton W. Stone, James Matson and James Kenney were the original trustees of the institution. The lands donated by the State were located upon the south side of Green River. They were leased out at first, and finally sold for the benefit of the academy.
In 1799, a committee was appointed to select a suitable location and purchase grounds for the academy. A tract of eight acres of land was purchased on the Maysville road, nearly opposite the residence of Young Moran. The land was purchased of John Henry, the trustees paying him £105. A frame building was erected, thirty feet long and eighteen wide, capable of accommodating from thirty to forty pupils, and in May, 1800, the first session of the Bourbon Academy was begun, with Isaac Tull as teacher. The terms for tuition then were, to say the least, modest: For teaching reading, writing, spelling and common arithmetic, $8 per annum, and for English grammar, Latin and the sciences, $12-50 per annum. He was restricted to teach only thirty scholars, and the subscribers to the endowment fund of the Academy were given the preference to send their children. In January, 1802, Mr. Tull was succeeded by James H. Russell, who taught only a short time, William T. Fowler taking charge in October of the same year, and the school continued under his superintendence for some years.
In 1805, the lot on which the public school building now stands was purchased for $110, from Thomas Mitchell, the school property in East Paris having been sold for $500 to Samuel Pyke; and a more commodious school building wag erected in 1806-7, to meet the increasing educational wants of the community. The new building was large enough to accommodate a hundred or more pupils. In the year 1807, the Academy was re-opened with the Rev. John Lyle as President, and his brother Joel R. Lyle and James H. Dickey se assistant teachers. In the "Sketches at Paris," it is stated that Mr. Lyle continued in charge of the academy until 1810, when he resigned and established a female seminary. In Collins History of Kentucky, we find the following: "November, 1806--The first female academy in the West, if not in the United States, established, at Paris, Ky., by Rev. John Lyle, with from one hundred and fifty to three hundred pupils." From this it is evident that Mr. Lyle continued as President of the institution but a short time. His brother also resigned, and in 1808-9 became publisher of the Western Citzen. David V. Rannalls was elected President of the academy in place of Mr. Lyle, and Willis M. Arnold, assistant. The latter was succeeded in 1811, by Joseph Russell. In the same paper, we find the following: "An examination of the students of Bourbon Academy took place on the 9th inst., attended by several members of the Board of Trustees and citizens of the town, when the improvement of the scholars, under the tuition of Mr. David V. Rannalls, was very pleasingly evinced in the several departments of their studies. The Board of Trustees of the Academy by their committee took occasion to express their approbation of his exertions," etc. The paper is signed by Anthony Thuntin, Jr., James Hickman and Val Peers. In 1813, Mr. Ezra Howe was elected Superintendent, and provided his own assistant teachers. In 1814, Daniel Baldwin was appointed Professor of the Latin and Greek languages. In the "Sketches of Paris," the following reference is made to Mr. Baldwin: "Notwithstanding his superior abilities as a teacher, he retained his position only one year, for it appears that he did not get along as smoothly as possible with the students. He administered a severe chastisement to one of the pupils, which was the cause of his becoming the recipient of similar chastisement from the hands of the parent. The Bourbon Academy, however, is indebted to him to the extent of two shares of bank stock, a private donation made by him for the purpose of encouraging students who displayed the most proficiency in the dead languages, by giving them premiums. We find the following in his bequest: 'It shall be recorded, that this money was recovered by me from Edward Bayse, in a case of assault and battery.'
"Mr. Baldwin was succeeded in 1815 by Alban Stewart, with John Stevenson as assistant. In 1816, Stevenson gave place to Benjamin W. Hayden, who continued to teach until 1826. William E. Gallaudet, in October 1816, was appointed professor of the languages; he taught only a few months. In April, 1817, John Gayle was appointed President, who held the position for two years. At that time there were fifty-nine students in the academy--twenty-seven in the classical department, and thirty-two studying the other branches.
"In 1819, the Rev. James McCord was elected President, with Ebenezer Sharpe as Assistant Professor. Mr. McCord died in 1820, while in office, and the duties fell upon Mr. Sharpe, who discharged them most faithfully for seven years; so much so, that when he resigned, he received the unanimous approval of the Board of Trustees for the ability and skill with which he had managed the institution. In 1821, Charles Lincoln was appointed Assistant Teacher for one year, and the next year David Dunlap was appointed; and, in 1823, the Rev. Guerdon Gates was appointed Professor of the Natural Sciences. In October, 1824, John H. Harney, afterward the distinguished editor of the old Louisville Democrat, was employed by Mr. Sharpe as assistant, and in 1826 he was appointed Professor of Natural Sciences in place of Mr. Gates, who was compelled to resign on account of sickness in his family; but in October of the same year, he was recalled and elected Superintendent. He continued in charge till 1829, when John Roche, a former Professor of Languages in Transylvania University, was elected. He resigned in a few months, and the duties again devolved upon Mr. Gates. In 1831, Ebenezer Marston was elected Superintendent, and it remained under his supervision for some years. After this it began to lose its prestige, and the rooms in the building were rented out from time to time to different parties for private residences and for teaching private schools and one of the rooms was for awhile occupied by the Masons as a lodge room.
"The following persons taught school there at different periods: A. L. Mehurin, William Henderson, father of the Rev. H. A. M. Henderson, late Superintendent of Public Instruction; James Riddle, Simeon Smith, A. C. Raymond, Harvey Wood, Rev. A. E. Thorns, Daniel Vaughan, Joseph Raymond and John H. Pratt. About 1850, Mrs. Emily Tubman, a lady of great wealth, and who is renowned for her charitable works, rented a room in this building, and established the 'Tubman Free School,' paying the teacher, Mr. Redmon. Schools were taught in this house by Mrs. Murray, Mrs. Reed, George A. Irvine, Paul Guyser and Messrs. Stone and Colton. It was conducted in this way until 1856, when the Trustees of the Bourbon Academy, by a special act of the Legislature, transferred the property and the management of the institution to the Trustees of the town of Paris, and in this year was erected the City School building, as it now stands, exclusive of the commodious additions of 1875. It was completed in 1857, and was first occupied by Prof. J. B. Anderson and his two daughters, in teaching a high school. He was followed by Revs. George Varden and W. B. Browne, who taught school together until the commencement of the great civil war, and during that period it was occupied by the Federal troops as a hospital. After the war, it was repaired and again occupied for its original purpose, W. E. Clark and Thomas J. Dodd teaching separate and distinct schools.
"The Paris City School was organized in 1865, with Prof. Julius Herrick as Principal. Mr. Herrick held the position to 1867, when he was succeeded by Rev. Dr. George Varden, from 1867 to 1868; Prof. W. H. Lockhart was elected Principal in 1868, and served until 1871; W. E. Clark from 1871 to 1873; Ben. D. Best from 1873 to 1874. Prof. Puckett was appointed in 1874, and held the position of Principal until June, 1880, when Rev. H. R. Blaisdell, the present incumbent, was appointed. He is assisted by Misses Anna L. Oldson, Mary B. Spears, Nellie Fithian, Mrs. L. Walker and Mrs. Alice Woodward. The attendance is about three hundred. For efficiency, it is claimed that it is not surpassed by any public school in the State. The same School Board is in office under whose supervision the additions were made some years since. This fact is a striking proof of their faithfulness, and of the good sense of the people. In politics, they are equally divided ; while all belong to different churches and politics and religions, bids are not allowed to influence their action. They are elected for a term of three years-two members of the board being elected annually. The following is a list of the members of the board: James M. Thomas, Chairman; Dr. Joseph Fithian, Secretary; J. H. Brent, Esq., Henry Spears, H. M. Rucker, W. W. Massie."
Private Schools.--In addition to the City School, Paris has the advantage of several first-class educational institutions. The Garth Female Institute was organized in the summer of 1875 by a joint-stock company, with the late R. T. Davis as President. The institution was named in honor of William Garth, whose name is so prominently associated with the educational interests of the county, and of whom further notice is made in this chapter. Prof C. E. Young, formerly of Staunton, Va., and a graduate of the University of Virginia was elected Principal, which position he continues to hold. The institution having become involved, was sold publicly in the spring of 1880, and purchased by the Principal, who is now sole owner. The buildings are unsurpassed in beauty, convenience and location by any school building in the State. The course of study is unusually thorough and complete. Every department of study is under the charge of competent instructors. As now organized, the corps of teachers is as follows: C. E. Young, Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Miss Mary E. E. Johnson, Moral Philosophy and Higher English; Mrs. E. Muth, German; Miss Bettie Young, Principal of Primary Department; Mrs. C. E. Young, Matron and Teacher of Calisthenics; Prof. E. Amende and Mrs, Minnie Wilson, Music.
Bourbon Female College was founded at the close of the war by Prof. Walker Buckner, who conducted the institution several years. He was succeeded by Mrs. A. E. Randolph, now a missionary in China, who was assisted by Col. George M. Edgar and Miss Kate Edgar. At that time the school was under the patronage of the Presbyterian Church.
In 1874, Prof. J. A. Brown, now President of Harrison Female Academy, at Cynthiana, Ky., purchased the property. He associated with him in the conduct of the school Prof. Wharton S. Jones, now of Memphis, Tenn., and under their joint management the college was eminently successful.
In 1880, Prof. W. S. Jones and Mrs. A. B. Clay took charge of the college. Prof. A. Sanders leased the property in September 1881. The average attendance during the past year has been about seventy-five. The course of study embraces the branches usually taught in first-class female schools. The following persons comprise the faculty: A. Sanders, Principal, Mathematics and History; Dr. George Varden, Language and Psychology; Miss Mary B. Dennis. Natural Sciences and Composition; Mrs. E. M. Avirett, English Literature and Reading; Miss Alice Daugherty, Music; Prof. A. M. Gutzeit, Assistant Music; Miss Emily Halliday, Art.
The Edgar Institute was organized in 1875 by a joint-stock company, with Cassius M. Clay, Jr. as President, Col. George M. Edgar was elected Principal, with Capt. M. H. Cramp and Prof. B. B. Ford as Assistants. It at first embraced the department of military instruction, and the pupils were required to be uniformed, but this feature was afterward abandoned. During the principalship of Col. Edgar, he was also assisted by Prof. W. H. Lockhart and Rev. Dr. George Varden. He continued in charge of the institution until the summer of 1879, when the property was purchased by Prof B. H. Waddell and Col. C. H. Withrow. In July, 1881, Col. Withrow retired, and Prof. Waddell became the sole owner of the school. He continues to be the Principal, and is assisted by his brother, Capt. James Waddell. The school buildings occupy a commanding position, overlooking the city; the grounds comprise about twenty acres; the school building is new, and the institution certainly offers advantages of a high order. The property now used as the Institute, formerly was the homestead of the late Hon. Garrett Davis. Judge Matt Turney, in 1876, succeeded Mr. Clay as President of the institution, a position which he now holds.
Miss Maria Tipton has a select school of thirty scholars. She is considered one of the finest teachers in the State, and has recently purchased the late residence of Mr. J. H. Bassett, with a view of opening a boarding school for young ladies. Mrs. Jessie Parrish has charge of the department of music.
Prof. Yerkes has a select school for boys and young men. He stands in the first rank of educators, and within the past year has declined an appointment to a professorship in Center College, at Danville, being unwilling to give up his school in Paris.
For the past ten years. Prof. W. H. Lockhart has taught a select school, and many of his graduates have taken high rank in the educational institutions of the country. He is a thorough and accomplished teacher, and has done much to promote the cause of education in the State. He is Common School Commissioner of Bourbon County, a position which he has filled with marked ability and faithfulness for a number of years. His papers and addresses on educational subjects evidence research, thought and a trained mind.
St. Joseph's Academy, under the charge of the Sisters of the Visitation, is beautifully located on a commanding eminence overlooking Paris. The school was organized in 1870, under the control of the Sisters of Loretto, who remained about flve years. They were succeeded by the Benedictine Sisters of Covington, who had charge for about two years. Then the Sisters of Notre Dame, Covington, who kept it only one year. The Sisters of Visitation of Maysville, who have been here three years, have purchased the property, and are building up a successful school. Mother Gonzaga, who is admirably qualified for the position, is the Mother Superior. She is assisted by a fall corps of competent instructors.
The parochial school, numbering about one hundred pupils, is also under the management of the Sisters. The Catholic school for boys is taught by Miss Lucy Tully. Rev. Father Barry teaches a night school for young men--tuition free.
[The following sketch of a good man and a zealous friend to education, was written for this work by Mr. William Myall, a beneficiary of the "Garth Fund." He pays a deserved tribute to a deserving man, and we publish it in full in Paris' educational history, together with Mr. Garth's will, as of general interest to the reader.-ED.]
William Garth, the subject of this sketch and founder of the "Garth Fund," was the son of Thomas Garth, a native of Scott County, Ky. His mother's maiden name was Nancy Thompson. Thomas Garth came to Bourbon County at an early date, and settled on a farm about five miles northwest of Paris, on the Paris & Georgetown road. At this place, William Garth was born on the 29th of March,1815. He was educated in the schools of Bourbon County, with the exception of a year or two spent in the college at Georgetown, devoted principally to the study of mathematics, for which science he early developed considerable talent. When just out of school and while not yet twenty-one years of age, he was elected County Surveyor for Bourbon County, which office he held until elected Professor of Mathematics in the Georgetown College, when about twenty-four years of age. After filling this chair for eight or ten years he resigned. and retired to his farm in Bourbon County; a part of the farm formerly owned by his father and on which he had been raised. This farm, however, did not come to him by inheritance. When he reached majority his father gave him $5,000, which was all he ever received from his father's estate. With this money and the interest accrued thereon, together with what he had saved in his profession, he bought a portion of the old homestead, when a few years later his father, having become embarrassed, was compelled to dispose of part of his estate. For several years, Mr. Garth carried on this in connection with his professorship at Georgetown, and it is worthy of mention, as showing the industry and energy that marked his life, that he very frequently walked from Georgetown out to his farm on Friday evenings--a distance of about twelve miles--and back again on Sunday evening. While in Georgetown he was married to Mary Bartlett, a Northern lady who was at that Pime teacher in a female school in Georgetown, but there were never my children by this union.
Having resigned his Professorship and retired to his farm near Paris, he continued to reside there until overtaken by the calamity which resulted in his death. His life was exceedingly quiet and unassuming, but always full of employment. Business prospered in his hands and he soon accumulated a fortune which, at the time of his death, amounted to about $60,000; yet, though always a good business man and an excellent farmer, he was very far from being a man who allowed himself to be engrossed by mere money-making. Indeed he seems to have cared but little for money except as a means of doing good, and his strict habits of business appear to have been more the result of a fixed and conscientious rule of life, than of a desire for pecuniary profit. As an indication of this, both his heart and his hand were always opened freely to whoever appeared to him to need and to deserve assistance, and neither any individual nor any enterprise worthy of help ever applied to his generosity in vain. Indeed, he was more than once heard to say, in his quiet manner, that he did not regard it more his duty to pay his taxes than to contribute to the building of schoolhouses, turnpike roads, churches, or to any other enterprise that was likely to make the people of his native county either better or happier. The educational interests of his county always found in him a zealous supporter and friend, and he at one time made a proposition to become one of five persons who should contribute $20,000 each, for the purpose of endowing a college to be located at Paris. The proposition failed of its purpose, however, as the other subscribers could not be found, and is therefore only deserving of mention in that it serves to illustrate the large public spirit of the man which constantly showed itself in his life and which was illustrated yet more forcibly after his death, when the generous provisions of his will were made known the public.
As a business man, he was exceedingly prompt, accurate and systematic. His obligations of whatever nature were met with a religious scrupulousness, and so strict was his observance of what he conceived to be the requirements of good faith in business transactions, that he never allowed a piece of his paper to mature without having made provision for its prompt discharge or arrangement.
It is, however, in his private relations that we see most in Mr. Garth to love and esteem. His even temper, never ruffled or excited in the most trying circumstances of life; his calm concentration of nature, overflowing only in deeds of benevolence and love; his strong human sympathies, and the unassuming simplicity of his life and manners could not fail to win the love and respect of all. As a man, he was exceedingly modest and retiring, and shrank from everything that was likely to bring him into any sort of unpleasant publicity. His habits were such as we would expect in such a man-plain and simple to a degree. In his food and drink, he was temperate almost to abstemiousness, never using stimulants of any kind, and abstaining entirely from the use of tobacco. This was no doubt a question of health with him, and the preservation of health was, in his opinion, a moral obligation. Though never a member of any church, his nature was deeply religious. No man ever had a stronger sense of duty; no man ever tried to discharge his duty more faithfully. Throughout life, the idea of the imperativeness of duty, and of the binding force of even the slightest moral obligation was always paramount in his mind. He conceived that his word once given was as binding as his bond. This was most noticeable in his business relations, though it extended equally to the most minute affairs of life. If he made an appointment to be present at any assembly, or to meet any one at a given place or time, he was sure to be there promptly at the appointed hour. These are matters that lay so much on the surface of his life that they could not have escaped the notice of any one who knew him, and it is impossible that a man so scrupulously observant of his slightest promise should not have had the respect and confidence of every one who was permitted to look into his character and his life. The moral influence of such a man cannot easily be estimated. Death came upon him suddenly and unexpectedly in the prime of life, but his influence, so far from being destroyed by his death, was then only for the first time fully felt and recognized.
In the latter part of August, 1860, Mr. Garth, attended by his wife and his two half-sisters, Anna and Amanda Garth, started on a pleasure trip through the Northwest. Before going he called on Mr. John Lucas, who then lived in Harrison County, and who had always been one of his most intimate friends. There had been for several years an agreement between them that in event of the death of either, the other should make a settlement of his estate. The object of Mr. Garth's visit was to inform Mr. Lucas of his intended trip, and to tell him where his valuable papers, including his will, would be found in case he did not return alive.
Having attended to this matter, the party set out on their tour, and,reached Chicago the first week in September. About 9 o'clock on the night of September 7, they took passage on the "Lady Elgin" bound from Chicago to Milwaukee. The night was intensely dark and stormy, and the "Lady Elgin" had not proceeded more than twenty miles on her way when she was struck by another boat that ran upon her in the darkness, and so severely injured her that she filled with water in spite of all efforts, and sank in less than an hour. A large number, perhaps as many as one hundred of the passengers, took refuge on the upper deck and the pilot-house, which floated off when the boat went down. Mr. Garth and his party were of this number. The lake was exceedingly rough and wild, and the wind blowing directly landward, drove the wreck among the breakers on the shore, when it was capsized. Only a few of the strongest swimmers, dashed on the shore by the fury of the waves, were able to retain their footing. These escaped, but all the rest, including Mr. Garth and his entire party, were lost. It is very probable that Mr. Garth, who was a very cool and unexcitable man, could have saved himself had he not been encumbered by the presence of his wife and sisters, and no doubt he lost his own life in the effort to preserve theirs.
His body, and that of his sister Amanda, were washed ashore near the point where they were drowned, and were carried to the city of Milwaukee where, not being identifled, they were buried, the expenses of the burial being defrayed by money found on his person. The bodies were exhumed a few days afterward, identified by friends who had gone on in search of them, and brought to Paris and buried. The body of his other sister was picked up near Chicago about ten days after the disaster, and that of his wife, after drifting about for nearly three weeks, was carried entirely across the lake and cast out on the opposite shore, still in a good state of preservation. These were also brought home and interred in the cemetery at Paris.
Mr. Garth's will, which was written with his own hand, on the 22d day of August, 1859, was filed for record in the Bourbon County Court on the 22d of September, 1860, only a few days after the recovery of his body. It was not until now that the people of Bourbon County fully realized how deep was the sympathy which William Garth felt for the struggles and sorrows of the world, how earnestly he desired to ameliorate the condition of mankind, and how truly noble and magnanimous was the quiet, earnest man who had passed his simple and unpretentious life in their midst We have already noticed his devotion to the cause of education. He looked upon that as one of the great means by which the world was finally to be redeemed, and it was perhaps not less this belief than a generous love for his native county and a broad philanthropy that reached out its arms to all the poor and struggling youth of the generations to come, which led him to insert in his will the following provision which illustrates the character of the man in terms which, though simple and unostentatious as his life, are yet far more eloquent than any eulogy that could be written: "The entire balance of my estate not herein disposed of I wish to be appropriated to the cause of education in the following manner, viz.: So soon as my executor shall have paid off the before-mentioned special legacies, and has ascertained the balance in his hands of my estate, he shall cause to be published in the papers of the county of Bourbon the following proposition: If in one year from this time the citizens of Bourbon County will secure by good subscriptions the sum of $100,000 (to be paid in a reasonable time) to be appropriated to the endowment of a college to be located in Paris, Bourbon Co., Ky., then he will immediately pay over to those who may be appointed Trustees of the college such beforementioned balance of my estate in his hands (here specify the sum) to be applied by said Trustees to the endowment of a Professorship of Mathematics in said college. If at the expiration of one year from the date of this advertisement the conditions therein are not complied with on the part of the citizens of Bourbon County, then I direct my executor to pay over such before-mentioned balance of my estate in his hands to the Treasurer of the county of Bourbon, to be by the Bourbon County Court, a majority of all the Justices being present, safely invested in such manner as they may deem best, and the interest on such investment they are to apply to the education of such poor, worthy and sprightly young men of Bourbon County as they may think most conducive to the public good, and in the distribution of this interest as above directed the court may pay for tuition, board, books and clothing, any one or all as in their opinion may be deemed best. I further direct, that if any one or more of the beneficiaries of this will should not be living, or any child of such beneficiaries, when it is presented to the court for record, that his, her or their legacies must be appropriated by my executor to the cause of education in exactly the same manner as the before-mentioned balance of my estate was directed to be applied."
Owing to delays arising from litigation and from the confusion of the period of the civil war, the estate was not finally settled until 1866. The advertisement of this provision being then made according to the directions of the will, the citizens of Bourbon County failed to subscribe the required sum, and on the 1st day of April, 1867, the executor, Mr. John Lucas, paid over to the Treasurer of Bourbon County, to be held by the County Court in trust for the purpose set out in the will, the balance of said estate remaining in his hands after payment of all debts and legacies, amounting to the sum of $42,612, and on the 9th day of the same month this whole sum was invested in stock of the Northern Bank of Kentucky, at $125 per share. The first two dividends were also invested in bank stock and added to the principal, as follows: November 9, 1867, $1,610, invested in stock of the Farmer's Bank at $115 per share, and January 13, 1868, $1,443 invested in Northern Bank stock at $120.25. The fund now amounted to $45,665, and on the 6th day of April, 1868, L. K. Elliot, B. F. Rogers and J. M. Hughes were appointed Commissioners for its management, and for the purpose of examining applicants for the benefit thereof and to report to the County Court the names of such youths as they might deem worthy of selection, under the provisions of the will, and the amount to be allowed to each. In the following February the name of Matt Turney, now County Judge, was substituted for that of J. M. Hughes, and these Commissioners continued to serve until the death of B. F. Rogers in the summer of 1871. G. C. Lockhart was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by this death, and in 1876 Franklin Kennedy was substituted for L. K. Elliott, and he together with Judge Turney and G. C. Lockhart constitute the present Board of Commissioners.
The provisions of the will have been faithfully and conscientiously executed, and already many a young man whose lot in life would have stood like a mountain between him and his hopes of knowledge and usefulness, has had reason to bless the memory of William Garth. In the thirteen years in which the fund has been in operation there has been expended in appropriations for the assistance of young men selected by the Board, more than $36,000, or an average of newly $3,000 yearly, the appropriations varying from $300 to about $50, according to the necessities of the case. During these years there has been an average of nineteen young men kept in school by this fund, and nearly one half of this number each year in college, for it was not the intention of Mr. Garth that the recipients of this generous benefaction should be turned away with only the rudiments of an education, but that each one whose tastes led him to desire it, might be enabled by its assistance to avail himself of the most thorough training afforded by our best institutions of learning.
The fund has been established so short a time that its great practical results are perhaps as yet but little manifest, except to those who have shared the blessing of its benefits, and have been enabled by it to prepare themselves for honorable and useful positions in life. It was not so much the object of Mr. Garth to educate the youth of his native county, merely for the help that such education might be to them as individuals, though no doubt this was one of the considerations that led him to make the bequest, as it was "to conduce to the public good" by promoting in the most effectual manner possible the higher education of the people. It is therefore apparent also that the bequest was not meant to be local in its effects, but was intended as a great public benefaction, since it must have been foreseen that a large majority of the young men educated by it would pass from Bourbon County to a broader theater of action. It was, in a word, a touching manifestation of a large and intensely earnest human sympathy, a philanthropy that reaches out its helping hand to the generations yet to come, and sought to lighten the burdens of life by increasing light and knowledge among the poorer and less fortunate classes of his countrymen. The beneficent effects of such a deed can only be seen in the long results of time. Indeed they can never be seen in their fullness for they are never completed. Incapable of exhaustion or of alienation, it stands in our midst a perpetual and ever-acting agency for good, dispensing its blessings without favor, and shedding upon many an anxious and aspiring mind the divine light of truth and knowledge. No other citizen of Bourbon County has left so enduring a monument; no other has deserved to be remembered with greater gratitude by her people; no other has been so great a benefactor to mankind. More than this need not be said--less could not be. In a quiet spot in the little cemetery at Paris his body sleeps the last long sleep of peace, but his name will live forever in the grateful recollections of the thousands who will be blessed by his beneficence and who, in honoring his memory, will feel that they are performing a sacred duty to one who was to them a brother and a friend.
The will alluded to in the foregoing sketch, and from which Mr. Myall makes an extract, is given entire, and is as follows:
Will of William Garth.-I, William Garth, of the county of Bourbon and State of Kentucky, being of sound disposing mind and memory, not knowing at what time, God in His good providence, may call me hence, and desiring to dispose of my estate while in the full possession of my mental powers, do make and publish this writing as my last will and testament.
My executor must pay all my just debts, and in these, include my promises to pay usurious interest.
I give my wife, Mary M. Garth, $15,000. I give to my mother, Lester Nancy Garth, $1,000. I give to my half-sisters, Sarah A. Fisher, Amanda Garth, Anna Garth, Alice Garth and my half-brother, John Garth, each, the sum of $1,000.
I wish the graveyard where my father, Thomas Garth, was buried, to be inclosed with a neat stone fence, and for this purpose, I authorize my executor to use a sum not exceeding $500.
My negro man, Ben, is to be emancipated if he is willing to leave the State of Kentucky. If not, he and my other slaves are to have the privilege of selecting masters for themselves, provided it can be done, at no greater sacrifice than one-fourth of their value.
My said negro man " Ben," is to be paid $140 for his services for the year ending December 31, 1859.
I hereby nominate and appoint John Lucas, of Harrison County, my executor, with full power to qualify and act, without giving security, unless some of the beneficaries of the will should object. And when my executor has settled my estate, that he is to be allowed $5,000 for his services.
The entire balance of my estate not herein disposed of, I wish to be appropriated to the cause of education in the following manner, viz.: So soon as my executor shall have paid off the before-mentioned special legacies, and has ascertained the balance in his hands of my estate, he shall cause to be published in the papers of the county of Bourbon the following proposition: If in one year from this time the citizens of Bourbon County will secure, by good subscriptions, the sum of $100,000 (to be paid in a reasonable time), to be appropriated to the endowment of a college to be located it Paris, Bourbon Co., Ky., then, he will immediately pay over to them who may be appointed Trustees of the college, such before-mentioned balances of my estate in his hands (here specify the sum), to be applied by said Trustee to the endowment of a Professorship of Mathematics in said college.
If at the expiration of one year from the date of this advertisement the conditions therein are not complied with on the part of the citizens of Bourbon County, then I direct my executor to pay over such before-mentioned balance of my estate in his hands to the Treasurer of the Court of Bourbon County, to be by the Bourbon County Court, a majority of all the Justices being present, safely invested in such manner as they may deem best, and the interest on such investment they are to apply to the education of such poor, worthy and sprightly young men of Bourbon County, as they may think most conducive to the public good, and in the distribution of such interest as above divided, the court may pay for tuition, board, books and clothing any one or all, as in their opinion may be deemed best.
I further direct, that if any one or more of the beneficaries of the will should not be living, or any child of such beneficiary, when it is presented to the court for record, that his, her or their legacies must be appropriated by my executor to the cause of education in precisely the same manner as the before-mentioned balance of my estate was directed to be applied.
To enable my executor to carry this, my will, into effect, I authorize him to sell publicly my entire estate, the land in three payments, one, one-third cash, one, one-third in one year, and the balance of the property on six months' time.
In testimonv whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal, this & 22d day of August, 1859.
WILLIAM GARTH [SEAL.]
Colored Schools.-The colored city school is under the charge of the Board of Education. J. C. Graves is the Principal; Mrs. Lucy Fraser, Assistant. Average attend. ance about fifty pupils. Rev. James M. Thomas conducts a select school of about thirty pupils in the Baptist Church. Reuben Butler also teaches a select school in the Methodist Church with thirty pupils.
Such are the educational institutions of Paris, which will compare favorably with those of other institutes in the State. Tbey are ample to meet all the educational requirements of the times, and no one who desires an education but can avail himself of its advantages.
Hiram Lodge, No. 5, Masons (colored), organized in 1867. Officers-Thomas Kelly, W. M.; A . N. Smoot, S. W.; J. M. Porter, J. W.; George Watson, Treas.; E. J. Smoot, Sec.; Henry Craig, J. W.; Frank Thompson, Tiler.
Knights Templar (colored), organized in 1878. A. N. Smoot; E. C.; Thomas Kelly, G.; J. M. Porter, C. G.; J. W. Hatton, P.; E. J. Smoot, S. W.; Richard Kelly, J. W.; Henry Craig, W.; Frank Jones, S. B.; John Spears, S. B.; Alfred Bedford, G..
United Brothers of Friendship Lodge, No. 36. H. C. Smith, W. M.; Robert Claxton, D. M.; W. G. Smoot, Treas.; James Arnold, Sec.
Knights of Friendship-A. N. Smoot, K. C.; J. M. Porter, S. K.; William Smoot, Treas.; H. C. Smith, Sec.
Bourbon Star Lodge, No. 1,697, I. O. O. F. (colored), organized in 1869-George Wilkes, N. G.; Stephen Conway, V. G.; Morris Forsten, Treas.; Thomas Kelly, Sec.; Harry Hawes, R. S. to N. G.; Alfred Jackson, L. S.; Peter Mason, N. F.; A. N. Smoot, P. N. F.; Henry Howard, P. N. G.; Moses Murphy, W.
The following is the present municipal government of Paris, together with its material resources: A. J. Lovely, Mayor; James Paton, Sr., Clerk City Council; James Mernaugh, City Marshal; Hugh Henry, Deputy Marshal and Collector; W. O. Hite, City Janitor.
Councilmen-First Ward, Henry Turney, Henry Butler, Ben Perry; Second Ward, Mike Dowd, Bush Hart, W. F. Spears; Third Ward, Charles V. Higgins.
(A section is deleted detailing city expenditures and income. It is a tally of various expenditures, including moneys collected for licenses, fees, fines, etc., as well as expenses for schools, gas, and city administrative costs. Refer to pages 119-120 for this information-REF)
At an early day, there were a number of manufactories in Paris, which were kept busy supplying the wants of the people-for at that time the cost of wagoning goods was so great that it was cheaper to manufacture them at home than to buy them in distant places and bring them here.
Samuel Pike was a leading manufacturer of the early times. He was a native of England, and came here about 1810. He had but small means, and was himself a practical wool manufacturer. He was the first man who carded wool in Paris. He also made rope, bagging, etc., which he shipped South, and brought back cotton and manufactured it. In 1815, he built a cotton factory or mill where L. Price & Co.'s store is now situated, and continued the businsess until 1825. Another factory was built by him in 1822-23, on the ground east of the present Christian Church. The factory built in 1815 was merged into this in the fall of 1825, and continued in existence until 1837. It had a capacity of 720 spindles.
Mr. Pike also had a hemp factory at the upper end of Pleasant street, built about 1818, which he carried on until his death in 1837. He was succeeded in the business by Henry T. Duncan. It was run until 1840.
A cotton factory was built on the site of White's distillery about 1830, by Philip Adams & Co.; capacity about seven hundred and twenty spindles. It afterward passed into the hands of Kelly & Wilson, by whom it was run until 1851. A market was found at home for the most of their goods; the surplus was shipped to Louisville.
A cotton mill was built some time between 1820 and 1830, by Charles Ainsworth, of 240 spindles, on the corner above where Mrs. Ogden now lives. About 1835, a factory was built on the site of the Jones Block, on Main street. Its capacity was 240 spindles. It was run for a number of years.
The Paris Flouring Mill, which still exists, antedates all of these. The first flour mill, a frame structure, was built in l800. It was owned by Thomas Jones. It passed through several hands, and was bought in 1859 by William Shaw, who still owns it. Across from where Mr. Shaw's warehouse stands, Mr. Jones built a falling-mill, which was successfully carried on until 1854-55. Mr. Shaw's flouring-mill is one of the institutions of Paris. The flour manufactured is known and sought after in all directions. It is even shipped in large quantities to England. The mill is always taxed to its utmost capacity, frequently being run night and day to supply the demands of its customers. Mr. Shaw takes much pride in it, and is always improving and beautifying its surroundings.
The completion of the Kentucky Central Railroad in in 1854, placed Paris in easy connection with Covington, Cincinnati and other manufacturing cities, and the result was that articles which had before that time been manufactured here, could be brought by rail and sold here for less than our manufacturers could make them, and they could not compete with the manufacturers in more favored localities; the market here was not so large; the facilities for manufacturing were not so great; coal was much higher, and so the manufactories were all abandoned, and our people became and still remain dependent upon the manufactories of other cities. And so, from that time to the present no effort has been made to revive manufactures. With high-priced fuel here, there could have been no successful competition with other points. But it is not improbable that the long-expected and long-wished for time, when Paris will become a manufacturing town, will soon dawn. The mountains, rich in mineral resources and timber, are being penetrated with railroads; coal will soon become cheap; and, then, with cheap fuel and fine waterpower combined, Paris ought to become an important manufacturing city. Capital in plenty is here. It needs only confidence and enterprise to bring about a result so desirable.
During the present year the Kentucky Central will be extended from this place to Richmond, and soon thereafter direct connection will be made with Knoxville, opening up the trade of the entire South. The building of other roads is also contemplated. The repair-shops of the Kentucky Central are to be located here, and with roads diverging in every direction, Paris will offer advantages as a manufacturing point which cannot fail to attract capital.
The planing-mill of Capt. James M. Thomas, the flouring-mill of William Shaw, and the large distillery of Messrs. White & Ferguson, constitute now the manufacturing interests of Paris. The time, it is believed, however, is not far distant when other industries will spring into being, and a new life be infused into our oommunity.-McChesney.
[Note--The following article on Turnpike Roads, by Frank Kennedy, Esq., is given in conclusion of the history of Paris. Although some of the facts embraced in it are given in the chapter on Internal Improvements in Bourbon County, yet it is of sufficient interest to appear complete.--ED.]
One of the most valuable improvements in Bourbon County is its system of turnpike roads. Every road that leads to its county seat is graded to an elevation of about three degrees, and paved with broken rock, on the Macadam plan, to a depth of twelve to fourteen inches in the center, thinning off to six or eight inches on the sides. The first macadamized road in Kentucky was constructed through Bourbon County in the years from 1830 to 1835, under the charter of the Maysville, Washington, Paris & Lexington Turnpike Road Company. It is also the best road of the sort built in the State. It has the broadest and lowest graded road-bed, few of its elevations exceeding two degrees, while its wooden bridges are monuments to the fidelity and skill of Mr. Wernwag, their builder, whose name--the "Wernwag bridges"--have made historical. In 1847-48 and '49, the roads leading from Paris severally to Georgetown, Winchester, North Middletown and Flat Rock, were granted corporate privileges by the Legislature, and shortly afterward converted into turnpikes. Since then, road after road has been taken in hand and improved until the turnpikes are more than forty in number, and extend 215 miles within the limits of the county. To all of these the county, through its magistrates, subscribed stock, and is by far the largest stockholder in the county. These turnpikes have cost on an average about $2,300 per mile, except the first one, which, as before stated, cost nearly $6,000. More than half a million dollars have been expended in their construction. The county, in its corporate capacity, has paid $190,000, averaging about $900 per mile, while individuals have subscribed and paid more thin $300,000.
It is estimated that the yearly expense of repairs on the roads and toll-houses, falls little short of $75 per mile on an average. These are paid out of the tolls collected at the gates from passers over the road.
After defraying expenses, dividends are paid to stockholders, if be anything left to divide. Very few of them are so successful as to be able to declare dividends, and they necessarily small, except to persons who have purchased depreciated stock at very low rates.
Estimating stock at par value, the roads mentioned below, since they commenced operations, have paid in dividends as follows:
The Maysville & Lexington, in forty-five years, have paid 82.65/100s cents on the dollar's worth of stock; that is an average of 1.53/100 per cent per annum.
The Paris & Winchester have returned, In twenty-four years, 60 cents on the dollar, or 2 1/2 per cent per annum.
The Paris & North Middletown have returned, in twentyfour years, 80 cents on the dollar, or 3 1/8 per cent per annum.
The Paris & Georgetown have returned, in twenty-four years, 85 cents on the dollar, or 3 54/100 per cent per annum.
The Paris & Clintonville, in sixteen years, have returned 25 cents on the dollar, or 1 56/100 per cent per annum.
The Millersburg & Indian Creek, in sixteen years, have returned 24 1/2 cents on the dollar, or 1 53/100 per cent per annum.
These are the best returns made by any of the fortythree roads in the county. Of the whole number, less than one-fourth declare dividends.
It is easy to see that, as moneyed investments, they are not generally profitable, but as conveniences--public and private--their value is inestimable. In short, they are indispensable. The farmer who is ten miles away from town, on a good turnpike, is about as near in point of time, as the one who is three miles out; and is nearer in time, convenience and comfort than the man who lives one mile from market on a dirt road.
The half million dollars expended in turnpike roads In the county has added to its general wealth $2,000,000 at a low estimate. If they were suddenly annihilated and mud roads re-adopted, the lands of the county would fall to one-half of the prices they now command. There remain only about a half dozen public roads which are not macadamized, and these have lost their importance as public highways, and are useful only as neighborhood necessities. As the work of improvement is still in active progress, it is almost certain that in ten years more there will not be a public road in the county but will be of easy and secure travel at all seasons, in darkness as well as day-light.
The wisdom and liberality of the fathers who pioneered the system, have been nobly sustained by their sons, except that the latter have fallen into the error of constructing the roads too cheaply. That "the best is the cheapest," is eminently illustrated in the building of turnpike roads. A reduction of one degree would have added comparatively little to the cost of construction, and the saving would be fourfold in cost of repairs.
The county stock is represented by an officer called "Commissioner of Turnpikes," who is elected by the Magistrates, and whose duty is to attend all meetings of the stockholders, and vote the county stock, supervise the general interests of the roads, give legal advice to their managers, culled dividends on county stock, and report annually to the Court of Claims.
We are indebted to Mr. F. Kennedy, the present Commissioner, for details of facts and figures on this subject; Mr. Kennedy is an attorney at law in Paris, and has very full and elaborate statistics of the receipts, expenditures and dividends of the roads from their beginning. He has prepared also an index of charters and their various amendments of the roads in the county, the whole work filling a large book and involving a great deal of careful and patient labor, which is both convenient and valuable for reference.
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"HEARTS KNIT TOGETHER"
Nicholas County, KY MARRIAGES 1800-1812
Indexed By GROOM
or
Click Here to see it indexed by BRIDE
Records Compiled by Cecil D. Mc Donald, Jr. of Seattle, Washington; transcribed on-line by Wes Blair and Pam Miller
MARRIAGE DATE GROOM BRIDE
5 Aug 1811 Adamson, Joseph Wilson, Jane
8 Feb 1810 Alexander, Thomas Thomson, Harriet
2 Jun 1805 Allison, Alexander Taylor, Elizabeth
22 Dec 1803 Archer, Sampson Kincart, Polly
4 Feb 1808 Ardery, Robert Mitcheltree, Margaret
25 Jan 1810 Arlewine, Jacob Dotson, Kizah
29 Mar 1812 Armstrong, William Launderback, Nancy
1 Nov 1809 Asberry, William Ford, Mary
30 Aug 1806 Bagby, David Collier, Lucy
31 May 1810 Ballard, Appleton Hall, Anne
2 Jan 1812 Barlow, John Dotson, Nancy
13 Oct 1808 Barnet, John Mc Clenagan, Elizabeth
21 Apr 1808 Barny, Robert Bradshoe, Polly
24 Jan 1811 Batson, John Drummond, Rachel
01 May 1811 Beard, Robert Davis, Margarett
05 Dec 1811 Bedford, John Bedinger, Sally
23 Apr 1811 Bell, Edmund Brinson, Peggy
03 Nov 1803 Benson, John Musick, Sally
25 Aug 1808 Bonta, Henry Fulton, Jeany
06 Apr 1809 Brain, John Boatman, Polly
02 Aug 1810 Brown, James Baker, Polly
17 Jan 1805 Brown, Parker Bell, Sarah
26 Nov 1801 Bunton, Andrew Lockridge, Elizabeth
24 Oct 1811 Bunton, James Benson, Susannah
08 Nov 1810 Bunton, William Howard, Caty
06 Nov 1801 Burden, Benjamin Tully, Elizabeth
20 Sep 1804 Burns, Andrew Adams, Hannah
12 May 1809 Byers, John Ray, Sarah
25 Feb 1801 Caldwell, David McClenahan, Elenor
16 Mar 1809 Caldwell, Robert Howe, Elizabeth
02 Jun 1803 Caldwell, Thomas Caldwell, Sally
03 Mar 1808 Campbell, Joseph Davis, Sarah
20 May 1811 Camron, John Mc Ginnis, Nancy
18 Dec 1806 Carnehan, Aaron Mitchell, Elvira
22 Jan 1807 Carson, James Mathers, Isabella
23 Jun 1810 Caughley, David Burden, Jemima
13 Dec 1810 Clarke, Lewis Mitchell, Peggy
30 Jan 1812 Collier, Coleman Howarton, Jane
29 Sep 1803 Collins, James Mc Dowell, mary
09 Feb 1802 Conneirs, Dennis Burke, Polly
11 Dec 1807 Cord, Richard Madon, Polly
17 Jun 1806 Cosby, Overton Hyser, Susannah
08 Jan 1808 Crawford, Samuel Barnett, Mary Ann
02 Jun 1807 Crawford, William Doughty, Elsey
06 Aug 1801 Crisswell, Edward Stephenson, Mary
25 Feb 1808 Dampier, Henry Davidson, Martha
09 Dec 1802 Darland, Isac Wilson, Jenny
05 Jul 1804 Davis, Thomas Grosvenor, Elizabeth
24 Jul 1811 Dawitt, Jacob Man, Polly
20 Dec 1805 Dazey, Elijah Baskett, Milly
29 Nov 1804 Dorlan, Abraham Brown, Sally
17 Nov 1807 Earlick, [Easlick?], Joseph Griffith, Patsy
12 Sep 1805 Easlick, [Eslick?], Samuel Burden, Delilah
11 Oct 1804 Eidson, George Lilly, Mary
08 Dec 1808 Elliott, William Turner, Sally
20 Mar 1806 Ellis, James Doughty, Fanny
20 Jun 1805 Ellis, John Wells. Lucrece
01 Jan 1801 Evans, John Caldwell, Margaret
01 May 1806 Ewing, Robert Metcalfe, nancy
27 Dec 1810 Feeback, John Richey, nancy
06 Jun 1805 Fight, Jacob Cotrill, Peggy
20 Feb 1810 Frye, John Gonce, Polly
04 Sep 1806 Fuller, William Wilson, Mary
24 Nov 1808 Galbrath, Benjamin Sanderson, Elizabeth
01 Jan 1807 Gamble, David Sloop, Polly
25 Aug 1808 Godman, William Drummons, Elizabeth
07 Nov 1812 Gontz, John Earliwine, Susannah
01 Oct 1807 Grugg, Joseph Cord, Mary
24 Jul 1806 Guffin, Thomas Thomson, Archady
25 Dec 1811 Gunsanles, Thomas Powell, Hetty
09 Jan 1812 Haitley, Mordicai Wheeler, Grace
22 Apr 1802 Hall, Robert Thomson, Mary
31 Mar 1808 Hall, Samuel Potts, Polly
04 Oct 1810 Hamilton, James Turner, Peggy
06 Mar 1806 Hamilton, William Mc Intyre, Mary
31 May 1810 Hanny, Mills Smith, Mary
11 May 1812 Harberry, John Mc Clean, Mary
27 Feb 1811 Hardin, WIliam Duncan, Sally
10 Mar 1811 Harris, Titus Cleveland, Rosannah
25 Nov 1805 Harrison, George Gamble, Prudence
19 Dec 1804 Harvey, Thomas Grosvenor, Mary
20 Mar 1811 Hase, Gabriel Cord, Arabella
25 Mar 1802 Haskett, Samuel Stephenson, Mary
04 Aug 1806 Hastings, Henry Poatchel, Ann
08 Aug 1811 Hillock, James Snap, Susannah
28 Jul 1812 Hopkins, Joseph Murphey, margaret
31 Mar 1812 How, Aaron Caldwell, Polly
12 Jan 1806 Howard, Henry Saunderson, Jane
27 Aug 1812 Howard, Joshua Pondergrass, Rebeccah
12 May 1811 Howard, Mathew White, Ailsey
17 May 1807 Hughes, Tolliver Gamble, Susannah
21 Mar 1811 Hughes, William Boan, Elizabeth
28 Sep 1804 Ireland, Peter Allen, Ann
10 May 1807 Irvin, John Ishmael, Sarah
21 Jun 1804 Ishmael, James Mc Ferrin, Mary
04 Apr 1809 Ishmael, John Harbet, Elizabeth
01 Jan 1808 Ishmael, Thomas Mc Donnald, Elizabeth
21 Jul 1808 Jamison, John Hamilton, Peggy
25 Jun 1812 Jemison, Benone Catherwood, Mary
28 May 1801 Johnson, John Craig, Sarah
___ _____, 1800 Jones, Thomas Easley, Jane
15 Sep 1807 Kennady, Robert Carnahan, Rebecca
14 Apr 1807 Kimbrough, Robert Bashell, Sally
15 Mar 1804 Long, Samuel Barlow, Susannah
14 Mar 1805 Mann, Henry Jones, Rachel
30 Jul 1802 Marshall, Samuel Waggoner, Susannah
22 Jul 1809 Martin, James Fight, nancy
21 Feb 1805 Mathers, Gavin Mc Cune, Peggy
27 Oct 1808 Mathers, James Nesbit, Susanna
17 Mar 1808 Mathers, William Ardery, Peggy
02 Nov 1809 Michell[Mitchell?], Thomas Clark[e], Elizabeth
22 Sep 1808 Miller, James Davidson, Mary
04 Jun 1811 Mitcheltree, John Hillock, Sarah
07 Dec 1802 Moore, John Archer, Ester
16 Oct 1806 Mountjoy, George Collier, Polly
02 Apr 1807 Murphy, George Dean, Sally
19 Jun 1805 Myers, David Foster, Frances
06 Jan 1803 Myers, John Smart, Ruth
01 Oct 1811 Myers, Lewis Ishmael, Rosannah
23 Dec 1811 Mc Carty, Felix Hisler, Polly
27 Sep 1807 Mc Cord, John Mc Carty, Sally
01 Jan 1811 Mc Cune, David Ardery, Hannah
27 Dec 1804 Mc Cune, Robert Ray, Phoebe
23 Feb 1809 Mc Donald, John Mc Mitchell, Peggy
10 Jan 1811 Mc Guire, John Keith, Elizabeth
25 Feb 1802 Mc Lees, William Caldwell, Elizabeth
01 Aug 1805 Mc Miecah, Archibald Arnold, Elizabeth
15 Dec 1803 Mc Niele, John Barnett, Susannah
24 Apr 1811 Neives, Walter Chriswell, Rebecca
26 Mar 1801 Newcome, Daniel Davidson, Christine
26 Jul 1811 Oliver, John Powell, Malinda
24 Apr 1806 Overby, Henry Conway, Polly
14 Apr 1812 Paramough, Nathaniel Parsons, Polly
20 Jan 1811 Pauley, Isaac Paugh, Sarah
28 May 1812 Pauley, Jeremiah Poe, Esther
23 Sep 1802 Pendergrass, Robert Kilgore, Ester
16 Apr 1807 Peyton, Stephen Doughty, Nancy
21 Jan 1808 Philips, Joshua Irvine, Lucinda
27 Apr 1809 Pickard, Peter Tryman, Nancy
30 Nov 1802 Piper, James Ray, Frances
26 Sep 1805 Potts, Frederick Oliver, Elizabeth
02 Dec 1810 Potts, Samuel Taylor, Nancy
15 Mar 1810 Prather, Ashford Brattell, Polly
06 Aug 1812 Purcell, Elijah Powell, Nancy
17 Apr 1811 Raelesback, Edward Jinkins, Martha
21 Jan 1802 Reveal, Thomas Mc Ferrin, Elizabeth
20 Apr 1809 Richey, Noah Arlewine, Phoeby
08 Sep 1805 Richey, Solomas Davis, Rachel
08 May 1800 Roads, Silas Carnahan, Elizabeth
14 Jan 1812 Roggers, Samuel Irwin, Elizabeth
29 Mar 1810 Saunders, John Beard, Polly
05 Jan 1804 Saunders, William Plugh, Rebecca
21 Dec 1800 Saunderson, John Galbreath, Ibby
05 May 1808 Saunderson, Robert Howard, Polly
04 Jul 1805 Scott, John Caldwell, Elizabeth
03 Jan 1806 Scott, Mathew Philips, Jane
21 Jan 1812 Shepherd, Asa Richardson, Catherine
06 Jul 1809 Short, George Monical, Kitty
28 May 1811 Smart, Humphrey Myers, Polly
04 Sep 1806 Smith, Hugh Wilson, Mary
03 Aug 1809 Smith, John Howe, Mary
07 Jan 1810 Smith, Joseph Anderson, Polly
27 Dec 1810 Smith, Mitchell Overby, Patsy
24 Jan 1811 Snapp, Daniel Smith, Peggy
18 Apr 1805 Sparks, George Mc Clenehan, Rachel
08 Sep 1811 Staneford [Standiford?], James Stanerford [Standiford?], Casandra
06 Apr 1802 Stephenson, John Mc Anulty, Martha
04 Feb 1811 Stockdale, James Logan, Elizabeth
17 Jun 1811 Stoops, Phillip Morgan, Agnes
24 Nov 1803 Swinny, John Potts, Prescilla
21 Mar 1811 Taylor, John Harding, Mary
24 Dec 1807 Thompson, Mosese Atockwell, Ann
07 Nov 1809 Truelove, William Mattox, Polly
___ _____, 1800 Tryman, George Snap, Margaret
20 Jan 1812 Webster, Nathaniel Marsh, Rachel
29 Jul 1806 Wheeler, William Rotston, Margaret
23 Sep 1804 Wiggins, Aaron Ward, Elizabeth
21 Jan 1810 Wiggins, William Wells, Elizabeth
13 Jul 1800 Wiley, John Rouse, Hannah
30 Jul 1802 Williamson, John Grosvenor, Sarah
18 Oct 1802 Wishart, William Rodes, Betsy
                Census :
                      Date : 1840 (17 years old)
                      Place : Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA
                      Source : S388960
                            Name : Page
                      descriptive data :
                            GedCom File : Stephenson John A 1840 United States Federal Census.jpg

                              Stephenson John A 1840 United States Federal Census.jpg
                            Data format : jpg
                            Title : Stephenson John A 1840 Census
                Marriage :
                      Date : 1841 (18 years old)
                      Place : Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA
                Census :
                      Date : 27 AUG 1850 (26 years old)
                      Place : Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA
                      Source : S2810
                            Name : Page
                            Data :
                                  Quote from the original source document : Stephenson John A
                      descriptive data :
                            GedCom File : Stephenson John A 1850 United States Federal Census.jpg

                              Stephenson John A 1850 United States Federal Census.jpg
                            Data format : jpg
                            Title : Stephenson John A Family 1850 Census
                Census :
                      Date : 1860 (37 years old)
                      Place : Montgomery County, Illinois, USA
                      Source : S388917
                            Name : Page
                      descriptive data :
                            GedCom File : Stephenson John A 1860 United States Federal Census.jpg

                              Stephenson John A 1860 United States Federal Census.jpg
                            Data format : jpg
                            Title : Stephenson, John A 1860 Family
                Census :
                      Date : 1870 (47 years old)
                      Place : Lowell Township, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA
                      Source : S4113
                            Name : Page
                      descriptive data :
                            GedCom File : Stephenson John A 1870 United States Federal Census.jpg

                              Stephenson John A 1870 United States Federal Census.jpg
                            Data format : jpg
                            Title : Stephenson John A 1870 Family
                Census :
                      Date : 1 MAR 1875 (51 years old)
                      Place : Crawford, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA
                      Source : S388964
                            Name : Page
                      descriptive data :
                            GedCom File : Stephenson John A 1875 Kansas State Census Collection 1855-1915.jpg

                              Stephenson John A 1875 Kansas State Census Collection 1855-1915.jpg
                            Data format : jpg
                            Title : Stephenson John A 1875 Census
                Census :
                      Date : 2 JUN 1880 (56 years old)
                      Place : Lowell Township, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA
                      Source : S388933
                            Name : Page
                            Data :
                                  Quote from the original source document : Stephenson John A
                      descriptive data :
                            GedCom File : Stephenson John A 1880 United States Federal Census.jpg

                              Stephenson John A 1880 United States Federal Census.jpg
                            Data format : jpg
                            Title : Stephenson John A 1880 Census
                Census :
                      Date : 1 MAR 1885 (61 years old)
                      Place : Lowell Township, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA
                      Source : S388964
                            Name : Page
                      Source : S388965
                            Name : Page
                      descriptive data :
                            GedCom File : Stephenson John A 1885 Kansas State Census Collection 1855-1915.jpg

                              Stephenson John A 1885 Kansas State Census Collection 1855-1915.jpg
                            Data format : jpg
                            Title : Stephenson John A 1885 Family
                children :
                   STEPHENSON Elizabeth Frances (1843 Carlisle, Nicholas County, Kentuckey, USA - 1934 Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri, USA)
                   STEPHENSON Thomas Stiles (1844 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1896 Haskell County, Oklahoma, USA)
                   STEPHENSON Zachariah N (1846 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA)
                   STEPHENSON Susannah H (1848 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1930 Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, USA)
                   STEPHENSON Mary Ellen (1850 Nicholas County, Kentucky, USA - 1925 Galena, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA)
                   STEPHENSON William Henry (1853 Shelby County, Indiana, USA - 1923 Galena, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA)
                   STEPHENSON Jennie Lucy (1854 Shelby County, Indiana, USA - 1903 Galena, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA)
                   STEPHENSON Oliver C (1861 Montgomery County, Illinois, USA - 1897 Galena, Cherokee County, Kansas, USA)
                   STEPHENSON John Grant (1865 Montgomery County, Illinois, USA)

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