The whalers from Sydney and elsewhere, prosecuted the oil fishery, until by the short-sighted policy of destroying the cow whales with their young, the fishery itself failed. It was after whaling became no longer profitable in the 1860s that many whalers sought employment in New Zealand.
In 1840 the white population in the neighbourhood of Cloudy Bay was 150.
Items on whalers mentioned in the "New Zealand Colonist and Port Nicholson Advertiser" published bi-weekly in Wellington from 2 August 1842 and continued for one year only until the 3 August 1843. Additional Shipping Intelligence from the newspaper. Images online. NZ National Library Paper Past Website.
Tuesday 2nd August 1842
Arrived July 28 - The barque Wallaby, 287 tons, Bailey, master, from the whaling grounds
Tuesday August 16 1842
Aug. 12 - The New Zealander, 17 tons, Guard, master, from Cloudy Bay. Waitt & Tyser, agents
Aug. 14 - The schooner Vanguard, Murray, master, from Akaroa and Cloudy Bay. Passenger - Mr A. Hort
Tuesday August 30th 1842
Shipping at Cloudy Bay
The American ship Franklin, 380 tons, Halsly, master; 13 months out; 600 barrels black and 100 barrels sperm oil.
The French ship Orion, Nantz, 350 tons, Captain Baxter; 16 months out, had 1600 barrels black oil.
The French ship Catos, Nantz, 380 tons, Captain Brewer; 13 months out, had 800 barrels black oil
The shipping at Cloudy Bay, had taken 40 tons of black oil. The shore parties have also taken 60 tons of black oil, and were anticipating much better success.
The barque Wallaby was lying between Mana and the main land. No whales have been taken at Mana. There had been one taken at Porirua, and two at Teti.
The Bright Planet, Morrison, was at Kapita, taking in oil for Mr Jones. The four parties have about 90 tons of black oil.
Friday September 2nd 1842
Aug. 30 - The brigantine Success, 82 tons, Mason, master, from Cloudy Bay; put in in distress. C.M. Evans, Agent
Aug. 31. The barque Lady Mary Pelham, of Launceston, John Harper, master, from the whaling grounds, with 300 barrels Black, 100 barrels Sperm Oil. Willis and Co. agents.
The Lady Mary Pelham reports that a French whaler had been wrecked on Long Beach, Tinaroo, about 90 miles to the southward of Akaroa, all hands perished. It is said that she had a large quantity of oil on board.
Yesterday, at the South Sea Hotel, before J. Fitzgerald, M.D., Coroner, and a jury, on view of the body of William Cousens, late cook on board the Whaling Barque, Lady Mary Pelham. About six miles off Cape Campbell, during a heavy gale of wind, and whilst shortening sail, the deceased fell overboard in getting a bucket of water. Two boats were immediately lowered, reached him in half an hour, during which time he was struggling for life. Every effort was made by Captain Harper to restore animation, but without success, there being no surgeon on board. Verdict: Recommending all vessels of her size to carry a medical man.
Tuesday September 6 1842
Sept. 2 - The cutter Royal William, 43 tons, Lovitt, master, from Nelson and Cloudy Bay. Passengers - Mr Sclanders, Mr Warwick and Mr W.E. Wallace.
Sept. 4 - The cutter Brothers, 53 tons, Bruce, master, from Southern Coast, with black oil and whalebone. Passengers - Mr Dunn and Mr McKenzie.
Friday September 9 1842
Sept. 8 - the schooner, New Zealander, 10 tons, Guard, master, from Cloudy Bay.
Sailed. Sept. 7
The cutter Royal William, Lovett, for Cloudy Bay. Passenger - Mr W. E. Wallace.
Mr W. Deans, of Okiwi, who has just returned in the cutter Brothers, from the southward, we have been favoured with the following state of the fisheries, with names of the fishery and headsman, which he has personally visited.:
July 28, at Peraki, Hemplemans, 8 tons;
ditto ditto, Ekalali, Price, 60 tons,
ditto ditto Go'Ashore, Wood, 28 tons
August 26, at Jacob's River, Howell, 40 tons
ditto ditto, Bluff, Sterling, 30 tons
August 28, at Waikowiti, Lone 3 tons
ditto ditto, Wikowiti, Smith, 6 tons
ditto ditto, Maraki, Hughes, 30 tons,
ditto ditto, Toutuki, Cheslan, 40 tons
The great complaint at all the shore fisheries, is the number of ships fishing on the coast, added to a inclement season. There are upwards of thirty French ships.
The three ships in Cloudy Bay had ceased lowering their boats in consequence of the scarcity of cetacea. The schooner New Zealander, Guard, was about to start for Nelson.
Tuesday 13th September 1842
Thorough the kindness of Captain Harper of the Barque Lady Pelham, with the following list of the Whaling Ships cruising Pegansi Bay during the present season.
The French Ship Mary, Toupell, from Nantz; had caught one whale, 60 barrels oil
The French Ship Bourbon, Mason, out fifteen months; 300 barrels of oil, had caught one whale this season, 35 barrels
The French Ship Asia, Flamm, out fifteen months; 900 barrels, had got one and a half whale this season, 100 barrels.
The French Ship Catos, Brewer, out fifteen months; 900 barrels, had got no fish this season
The French Ship Havre, from Havre; out fifteen months, 1000 barrels, had got four whales this season, 250 barrels. The Captain had died at sea, and the vessel was in charge of the chief officer.
The Barque Boston, Hemstead; out fifteen months, 1500 barrels, all black oil; procured this season 150 barrels
The French Ship Rawlings; left Pegansi Bay for Hobart Town; no fish this season.
The French Ship Gustave, Declure, from Havre; fifteen months out, 1800 barrels black oil; 400 barrels this season at Pegansi Bay and Temaroo Beach.
September 16th 1842
Sept. 12 - The cutter Royal William, 43, Lovitt, master, from Cloudy Bay; oil and bone, for Wallace and Co.
Sept. 14 - The schooner New Zealander, Guard, for Cloudy Bay, with sundries. Passenger - Captain Hodges.
Friday September 30 1842
Colonial Whalers at Sea
Australian, Hogg, master, 306 tons, Cooper and Holt, owners, left Sydney 22nd December, 1840; spoken in October, 1841, with 200 barrels
Avon, barque, 248 tons, Wiles, master, Walker, owner; left Sydney 19th May, 1842
British Sovereign, Sargent, master, 350 tons, Lamb, and Parbury, and Mitchell, left Sydney 28th February, 1842.
Tuesday October 4th 1842
Colonial Whalers at Sea
Australian, Hogg, master, 306 tons, Cooper and Holt, owners, left Sydney 22nd December, 1840; spoken in October, 1841, with 200 barrels
Avon, barque, 248 tons, Wiles, master, Walker, owner; left Sydney 19th May, 1842
British Sovereign, Sargent, mast, 350 tons, Lamb and Parbury, and Mitchell, left Sydney 28th February, 1842
Cape Packet, Powell, master, 210 tons, H. Moore, owner, left Sydney 8th October, 1840, spoken 1st September 1841, with 400 barrels.
Caroline, 192 tons, Hunter, master, Walker, owner, left Sydney 8th August, 1842
Clarkstone, 250 tons, Stewart, H. Moore, owner, left Sydney 24 December, 1841; spoken May 1842 with 40 barrels
Fame, Sullivan, master, 202 tons, R. Jones, owner, left Sydney, 8th November, 1841
Genii, Aldrich, master, 160 tons, Mitchell, owner, left Sydney 8th November, 1841
Jane, McCarrol, master, 221 tons, Hughes and Hosking, owners, left Sydney, 27th January, 1842
Jane, Fairweather, master, 365 tons, J. Jones, owner, left Sydney, 7th April, 1842
Jane Eliza, Wright, master, 419 tons, H. Moore, owner, left Sydney 23rd September, 1841; at Manilla, May 1842, with 150 barrels
Lady Blackwood, Harris, master, 154 tons, Campbell, owner, left Sydney, 27th May 1841; spoken 22nd December 1841, with 300 barrels
Lindsays, Williamson, master, 200 tons, Mitchell, owner, left Sydney, 9th March 1842
Lucy Ann, Ventam, master, 213 tons, Jones and Dacrc, owners, left Sydney 14th February, 1842
Mary, Stein, master, 250 tons, Hughes and Hosking, owner, left Sydney 22nd September, 1840
Mary, McDonald, master, 368 tons, Hughes and Hosking, owners, left Sydney 4th October, 1842; at Navigation Island, May 1842, with 150 barrels
Merope, Blaxand, master, 312 tons, Walker, owner, left Sydney 24th July 1842
Nimrod, Hertford, master, 230 tons, H. Moore, owner, left Sydney 24th July 1842
Pocklington, Hayes, master, 204 tons, Walker, owner, left Sydney 22nd September 1841; spoken in April, 1842, with 170 barrels
Tamar, Butcher, master, 197 tons, Flower, owner, left Sydney 26th November 1840, spoken July 1840, with 300 barrels
Tigress, Abbot, master, 195 tons, Hughes and Hosking, owner, left Sydney 25th November 1841; spoken 30th June 1841, with 750 barrels
William, 344, tons, Dixon, master, Grose, owner, left Sydney 22nd May 1842
Woodlark, 225 tons, Spurling, H. Moore, owner, left Sydney January 6, 1842; off Howe's Island May 1842, with 400 barrels
Friday October 7th 1842
Oct. 4 - Schooner New Zealander, 17, Guard, from Cloudy Bay, in ballast. Agent, J. Guard
Oct. 4 - Schooner Industry, 24 tons, Barker, for Porirua
Oct. 6 - The brigantine Success, Mason, master, for Wairarapa and Cloudy Bay
Tuesday 11 October 1842
South Sea Whale Fishery.
Yesterday morning the large ship Active, of London, which has been wind-bound in the Channel for nearly three weeks, came into the river, and was hauled into the East India dock with one of the richest cargoes of oil ever brought into this port. She has been out four years, and had brought home 3850 barrels oil, besides whale bone,&c. - London Paper
Friday October 14th 1842
Oct. 12 - Schooner Industry, from the Coal Heaver, oil and bone
Oct. 13 - H.M. Colonial Brig Victoria, Nagle, from Cloudy Bay. Passenger, Mr W.E. Wallace
Same day - Brigantine Success, Mason, from Cloudy Bay, with oil and bone. Passenger, Mr Evans
Oct. 10 - Schooner New Zealander, 17, Guard, for Cloudy Bay and Nelson. Agent J. Guard. Passenger, Mr Wright.
The Victoria Brig which returned Wednesday evening last, has made an extensive seizure of spirits at different whaling stations at Cloudy Bay. The quantity is said to exceed one thousand gallons.
Tuesday October 18 1842
Oct. 15- Schooner Henry, Daymond, for Cloudy Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound. Passengers, Mr W.E. Wallace and Mr Butler
Supreme Court, Civil Side, Oct. 4. 1842
W.E. Wallace and J.H. Wallace v. Guard.
Action brought to recover the value of nine casks of oil taken by the defendant from the station of the plaintiffs together with the casks in which the oil was contained. It was contended by Defendant, that the oil was the property, and had been purchased, of one Charles Samuel Cave, who had the right to sell. To this the Plaintiffs replied, that Cave was their servant, and that Defendant knew him to be such.
James Calder. I am a whaler at Coalheaver; I was headsman at Mr Cave's whaling establishment at Cloudy Bay. I joined the party at Cloudy Bay, to whale, about 25th April, 1842. We caught the fish (whale) somewhere about the 18th June; the oil was put into the sixty-gallon casks. Mr Guard's vessel was lying in Ocean Bay, opposite Mr Cave's fishery. The whaling season commenced about 25th April and carried on till the latter part of July. This is not the usual whaling season, the whaling season usually terminates about the 1st October. William Potts. I was recently mate of the brig Victoria. I was master of the schooner Ariel in July last; I went to Cloudy Bay (Guard's Bay). Verdict for Plaintiffs, the value of the oil at �36 per ton, and costs.
Friday October 28th 1842
Supreme Court (Civil Side) Wednesday Oct. 5 1842
Watson v. Wade.
This action brought to recover from Defendant compensation for false imprisonment. The Plaintiff acted as chief headsman for the Defendant at his whaling station at Wydcrop. On the 2nd September the Plaintiff was dismissed for incapacity, went to the office of the Defendant, and having obtained articles, was walking away with them, and the Defendant arriving at the time, gave custody, on charge of stealing a deed.
J.G.R. Dixon - I am clerk to Mr Wade
John Moles was made chief headsman
William Eades and G.G.Wilson were also in Mr Wade's employment.
Mr Raphael said - I am a merchant; I was employed as shipping agent in New South Wales, by the Water Shipping authorities; I am acquainted with the regulations of whaling establishments; It is customary with owners who send ships to fish in the high seas, to give articles to the master, but in the shore fisheries it is customary for the owners to hold the articles, or original document. The practice is, that the custody of the articles is with the owner.
I know John Jones well. I shipped a crew for John Jones, for his station on New Zealand, in the Nova Scotia. the original articles remained with Mr Jones; It is the practice of owners to trust articles with the masters.
Alexander Fraser said I am a cooper; I have been engaged for some time in the whaling business. I have been owner for three seasons; there are regular articles between the owners and the men; the chief headsman generally has the custody of the articles. I never knew of a headsman being disrated
John Guard said - I have been whaling for about twelve or fourteen years. I have been a whale myself; when I was master of a ship or gang, I always had the articles; I always had them when I was chief headsman; I considered myself entitled to them; I consider it to be the general custom for these articles to be in the custody of the chief headsman.; I never knew of a chief headsman to be disrated or broke. - or although I have been on the coast ten or twelve years. I have never seen articles signed under the owner; the form I have always used is similar to the articles produced; the men always signed under me; I should think the chief headsman had a right to the custody of the articles; I have been chief headsman for Mr Jones; Mr Jones was at Sydney, and I was fishing at Cloudy Bay; I and all the mane signed the articles; it was necessary that I should have the articles, because I could not have had control over the men; I considered the men under my orders, as chief headsman, and not under the orders of the owners; all the owners that I am speaking of placed the orders under me.
Thomas Brown - Chief headsman for Mr Wood at Go-ashore. I have been Chief headsman for four or five seasons; the articles are always in my custody. I first received articles at Otago from Mr E. Weller; the men agreed with Mr Weller, as owner, and myself as chief headsman; a blank was left for the chief headsman name, and was filed up with my name, and I signed the articles. Verdict for the Defendant.
November 1 1842
Oct. 29 - Schooner Henry, Daymond, from Queen Charlotte's Sound and Cloudy Bay. Passengers - Mr W.E. Wallace and Mr N. Butler
The Success and Industry were in Cloudy Bay last Saturday
Friday 9th December 1842
Before His Honor E.S. Halswell
December 1, 2, 1842
Wright v. Williams
The defendant, a prisoner called upon the plaintiff to show cause why he should not be discharged out of custody on Thursday last. The plaintiff is Mr William Wright, who was, till recently, a merchant in Sydney. The defendant is well known here as having owned and sailed the schooner Jane between this place and Cloudy Bay. By an agreement between the plaintiff and the defendant, the defendant undertook to procure oil, bone, flax, 7c. for the plaintiff, upon the usual terms in whaling agreements; and the defendant was also put into possession of a station at Cloudy Bay, with boats, whaling gear &c., that the plaintiff, in the beginning of 1840 supplied the defendant with goods to the amount of upwards of 1500, which, together with the property upon the station taken possession of by the defendant at Cloudy Bay, amounted in the whole, to more than 2000; that the plaintiff had never received from the defendant more than 165, or thereabouts...
Tuesday 27 December 1842
On Tuesday last, the Body of a Maori female and her child, a boy of about 18 months' old were found at Kokopo (Cloudy Bay); she had been living with a white man of the name of Whining. The women had been missed all day and some neighbours went to the house where she resided. They found an infant about ten weeks old lying on the bed almost starved with cold and hunger. A further search was made. She was discovered not far from the house, most horribly mutilated, and the child a little distance off, also dreadfully mangled.
The New Zealand Colonist
Friday, March 3, 1843 page 3
Whale Fishery.- We have been forcibly struck with a compendium of the number of vessels engaged in the whale fishery, by the whole of the maritime countries of the world; which is published monthly at Nantucket, and received yesterday by the Columbia. The list contains the names of all the ships, the date of sailing on their respective voyages, with the latest advices received from them, and their success up to that period. The enormous portion which the United States tonnage employed in the fishery, bears to the whole of the other nations of the world. The importation of oil into the untied States during the month of July, was 9,916 barrels of sperm, and 15,443 barrels of whale, in 12 ships, 2 barques, 3 brigs, and 1 schooner. The American tonnage at sea on the 1st of August was 169,737, and in port 25,179; making a total of 194,916 tons employed in the whale fishery. The quantity of oil on board of the ships at sea, at the date of the latest advices, respectively, was 193,632 barrels of sperm, and 101,091 barrels of whale.
Tuesday 4 April 1843
The Susannah Ann reports that the schooner Ann of Sydney came into Kafia on the 2nd March dismasted. When refitted, will call here on her return to Sydney.
A new schooner, the Three Brothers, of about 50 tons, built by Thoms of Queen Charlotte Sound, is now ready for sea, and may be expected here daily. She is well fitted, and furnished for the whaling trade. The Susannah Ann is also going out whaling this season.
We understand there will be more whaling establishments this season than last at Cloudy Bay; there will be parties at
Kain's Bay belonging to Mr Wright;
Ocean Bay, to Messrs Wallace & Co
Capt. Cutter's Bay, to Mr Lewyn, who will have boats engaged
and at Evans and Gillett's at Kapiti, he will have four seven oared boats.
William Hay. Harbour-master of this Port; had lived in Wellington three years; formerly carried on business under the firm of Hay and Machattie. Knows Thomas Milne Machattie. Has acted as his agent; began to act as such agent in January 1840. Acted under a power of Attorney, which he produces.
Machattie was in partnership with Hay. Machattie received monies 178 2s 4d in Cloudy Bay on the 6th or 7th of May 1841; the greater part was paid in gold, the other by an order on Mr Wade......
Tuesday 11 April 1843 & Friday 14 April 1843
Charles Harris - was a cooper to Alexander Antonio's whaling party at Kapiti, paid �7 per month.
Robert Langhorn - Has been carrying on a whaling establishment for some time at Kapiti
Andrew Brown - A farmer residing at Mayhew's Island. Captain Mayhew.
John Wade - a merchant and auctioneer residing in Wellington. Been connected with whaling 3 years; is the proprietor of of stations, and purchaser of the proceeds of others; In a whaling party the cooper, carpenter, and cook are generally on wages and has no claim upon the oil; the other hands are on lay or share.
John Howard Wallace - a merchant residing at Wellington; has had some experience in whaling transactions; had a whaling station last year, and has one this year
Joseph Burrell - A clerk to Alexander Antonio's whaling party at Kapiti
John Gun - a cooper at the whaling station of Mr Fraser in 1841
Newton Levin - Master of the Susunnah Anne; has been four years connected with whaling establishments.; has visited most of the whaling stations along the coast
George Duke - Clerk to Mr Machattie of Wellington
Joseph Hippolite - was carpenter of Antonio's party last year.
George Young - a licensed victualler residing in Wellington, was formerly a whaler; it is 11 years since was first connected with whaling; the cooper in all shore parties is paid by the month
Charles Samuel Cave - A whaler residing at Cloudy Bay; connected with whaling about 17 years in a vessel and in shore parties, acted as a cooper about 14 years both at sea and on shore..
Tuesday 2 May 1843
Arrived Port Nicholson
April 30 - Cutter Enterprise, John Bathe, from Nelson, via Cloudy Bay
Sailed Port Nicholson
May 29 - Schooner Imp, 20, Tullett, for Wanganui, via Cloudy Bay
May 1 - Schooner Susannah Ann, Dogherty, for the whaling grounds
Tuesday May 9 1843
Mr Haines, of Mr Jones' whaling station, at Kapiti has succeeded in taking one whale. Another has also been taken at Cloudy Bay.
Friday June 9 1843
Mr John Wade's party at Palliser Bay, have captured two whales, one of which turned out ten tons of oil, a rare occurrence we believe on the coast.
The Maria Orr - This fine ship has been fitted out upon a whaling expedition by her owner, Mr W.M. Orr, merchant of this place (Murray Review). The Wallaby is another of Mr Orr's fine whalers.
The French Whalers - Gaglinani's Messenger states (from French papers) that the Minister of Marine has ordered every French whaler bound to the Pacific to be armed with at least eight guns, not less than eighteen pounders, if short guns; or nine pounders, if long guns. The reason for this armament is, that the ships should be able to defend themselves against "the savages." As there are upwards of fifty of those ships, all fine vessels, in these seas, they form a tolerably strong fleet, in case of accident. What could Hobart Town do against even a squadron of them? - Ib
Friday June 16 1843
Reports from several whaling stations on our coasts. The take has already been great, amounting in all to thirty-six.
Mr Wade's station, Kaikora, 12
Mr Wade's station, Palliser Bay, 3
Wallace's station, Cloudy Bay, 2
Mr Levien's Cloudy Bay, 1
Mr Wright's Cloudy Bay, 3
Mr Price's station Peraki, 6
Mr Wood's station Peraki, 4
Mr Hames' station, Kapiti, 4
Mr Jillett's station, Kapiti,1
A great many whales have been seen, and the season promises in every way to be successful.
Friday July 28 1843
Bay of Islands. - All the whalers have left the bay for the season. Tahiti appears to be now the favorite place of resort. No less than eighty whalers were there during the last season. The establishment of customs and other unnecessary restrictions, have driven them away from our ports. .. There need not be afraid that Russell shall ever be made a township. There is now no money to throw away on the rocks. These days are gone by. -Ib.
Tuesday August 1843 page 5
The Sea Whale Trade
(From the Times) (summarized)
A fleet of American vessels have fished in the most successful manner in the bays of Western Australia. The clearances of British craft during he season for the South Sea fishery have been 64, and average vessels from 200 to 600 tons each. The Marshall Bennett had the greatest success.
Tuesday 21 March 1843 The New Zealand Colonists. page 4
Australian Chronicle (summerized)
Murder of Captain Norris of the American Whaler "Sharon." The Sharon arrived at Ascension Island, on the 15th October, 1842, where eleven of the crew deserted the vessel. The vessel, after taking a supply of wood and water, and a few hands, sailed again on the 26th October, with seventeen hands in all, six of whom were natives of different islands. Captain Norris intended to touch either at Port Jackson or the Bay of Islands, for the purpose of making up his crew. When in lat. 2deg. 20 sec. N., long., 162 deg. E., they fell in with sperm whales, and being short of hands they were only able to man two boats, and putting off in chase of the fish, Capt. Norris, an apprentice boy named Emanuel, and three of the natives were all that were left on board. The boats after a short chase fastened to a fish and killed it, put a waft in it, and went after the others. The vessel running down took the whale alongside. About 5 p.m. the crew from the boats saw the flag at half-mast on the ship, and the mate at that time being about a mile from the vessel immediately pulled towards her, and on coming close to, saw the three natives naked, with cutting spades, lances and other weapons, at the side of the vessel for the purpose of preventing them from coming on board. The apprentice boy was at the main-topgalant mast head, who, upon being hailed, said that the natives on board had murdered the captain, with a cutting spade. Mr Smith (chief officer) then ordered him to cut the topgallant, topsail, and jib halyards to let the sails run down, and then clear them from the yards, and leave them hanging by the rigging to stop the way of the vessel; Mr Clough, the third officer, dropping into the water, swarm to the ship for the purpose of endeavouring to gain an entrance by the cabin window, which he cleverly managed to do. He loaded all the muskets. The muskets were nearly all charged and placed at the foot of the companion, but while Mr Clough returned into the cabin for more muskets, one of the natives came down and fell right over them. Clough seized a cutlass and a severe conflict ensured, in which both were wounded, when the native made the best of his way on deck. Clough seized a musket, and was on the point of rushing on deck, when he met another native, who he immediately shot dead on the spot. The boats' crews hearing the shot jumped on deck, and once more got into possession of their vessel. Light were in a short time procured, and a search commenced for the other two. The one who first entered the cabin was found lying on the transom by the window, with a cutlass and large knife, threatening the life of anyone who dared to approach him; upon which Smith levels a musket and shot him through the heart. The remaining one was not found until the following morning, having stowed himself away in the hold, and upon being taken offered violent resistance, but afterwards placed in irons, and kept in them until Thursday, the 22nd December, when the ship arrived in this port (Sydney) and he was brought on shore by the water police. ...The body of the unfortunate Captain was consigned to the deep the next day. The native now in custody can speak tolerable good English, and the only excuse offered by him for committing the murderous action is, that the Captain was cross. He belongs to Ocean Island.
Try pot used at Weller Bros. Whaling Station situated near this place.
This pot use to sit just inside the upper entrance to Caroline Bay, Timaru.
Iron try-pots were used by whalers in the boiling down of blubber to produce whale oil.