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'Mongol'

New Zealand Bound
She made one voyage to Port Chalmers, leaving London in December 1873, and arriving in February 1874 plus seven day in quaratine.

The Mongol was an iron screw steamer of 2265 tons register, and 400 horse power nominal, 1600 indicated ; is fitted with compound engines length, 800 ft; beam, 35ft ; depth of hold, 31ft 7in, by Dobie, Glasgow. Built for the New York, London & China Steamship Co. for the San Francisco Mail Services. Sank near Hog Kong in Dec. 1874.

Reference online:  'Papers Past' - a NZ National Library website. 

Otago Witness 21 February 1874, Page 16
ARRIVALS Feb 13 — Mongol, s.s., 2262 tons, John Flamank, from London, via Plymouth, December 23rd. Driver Stewart, and Co., agents. Cabin passengers: Messrs Glendinning, Holloway, and 21 others.

Otago Daily Times 17 February 1874, Page 2
The following is the list of first-class passengers per steamer Mongol: For Otago—Mr and Mrs Glendining.
For Wellington— Mr and Mrs Hamilton, Mr and Mrs Stowe, Messrs Marsh, Yates, Yates, Richardson.
For Auckland — Mr and Mrs Andrews and family of two sons and three daughters, Messrs Williams, Kennedy, Phillips, Gibson, Rowe, Holloway, Oakes.

Otago Witness 28 February 1874, Page 14 Departure
Feb 21— A. and A. M. Co.'s s.s. Mongol, 2262 tons, John Flamank, for Lyttelton and the north. Driver, Stewart, and Co., agents. Passengers: For Lyttelton: Mr and Miss Jacobs, Messrs Moore, White, Morey, Ostler, Roskruge, Parke, Murison. For Wellington - Messrs M'Master, Haimes, Smith, and 3 in the steerage. 

New Zealand Herald, 16 March 1874, Page 2
INWARDS. Per Mongol, mail steamer, from Southern ports:—
For Auckland: Messrs. Brissenden, J. K. Anderson, Biddle, Caldwell, J. C. Anderson, H.H. Palmer, Mrs. Evans, Miss Rich, Mr. and Mrs. Sutton, Mr. and Mrs. J. K. Turton, Mr. and Mrs. Anderson, Mr. and Miss Rich.
For San Francisco: Messrs. Osgood, A. C. Nicholls, Booth, Post, J. Watson, J. Scrawler, Morrison, Colonel Russell, Misses Russell (2), Mrs. Whitmore, Mrs. Tenner, and 6 in the steerage.
For Liverpool: Messrs. H. Blandell and J. Richards.

Otago Daily Times 18 February 1874, Page 3
ARRIVAL OF THE MONGOL.
The signal of a steamer to the northward on the morning of the 13th was immediately followed by the appearance of the vessel herself between the Heads, where she loomed up a big barque rigged boat, showing' a great deal of side above-water. She was at once pronounced a stranger by the shipping authorities of the Port, and then a very general conclusion that she would be no other than the expected Mongol was arrived at, and proved to he correct. And a fine stately vessel she looked as she steamed rapidly through the Cross Channel, and then, just as folks were beginning to speculate on the probability of her coming right up, she eased steam and came to an anchor in the Quarantine Ground. This was regarded as an ominous proceeding, but then again it was thought that it was but a prudential measure on the part of the pilot, who, doubtless; retaining a lively remembrance of the Mikado's little misadventure, had taken the precaution to select the widest part of the channel as a mooring place for the Mongol. As soon as she "was moored, Captain Thomson, the Health Officer, together with Dr O'Donoghue and Mr Monson, of the Customs Department, proceeded down to her in the steamer Golden Age, and wore met by the unwelcome intelligence of sickness on board in the form of scarlet fever, measles, and bronchitis. This, of course, left but one course to be pursued, viz., to-quarantine the steamer, and communicate with the Board of Health at Dunedin. Accordingly instructions to hoist the yellow jack at the main were given, and the Golden Age returned to the Port. During the forenoon a meeting of the Board of Health was held, and in the afternoon Professor M'Gregor, Dr Webster, Dr Drysdale, and Captain Thomson, members of the Board, proceeded to the Mongol in the Golden Age, and made known to the Captain the decision arrived at, and which ran as follows:—" That the ship Mongol remain in quarantine in the meantime, and that she be thoroughly fumigated. That the 14 emigrants for Otago be placed on Quarantine Island, and all usual and necessary steps to taken to fumigate and cleanese their baggage, bedding, and personal effects. That the cargo for the port be placed in lighters and fumigated prior to being landed. That in the event of the colonial Government so desiring it, the whole of the passengers on board the Mongol be landed on Quarantine Island, and their effects be thoroughly cleansed and fumigated. A copy of the above resolution was handed to Captain Flamank of the Mongol, by Captain Thomson, and then Doctor Davidson, the Surgeon-Superintendent of the Mongol, came to the gangway and replied to certain interrogatories from Professor M'Gregor. He stated that the emigrants were shipped at Plymouth, and were taken from the Depot there, and that they were unhealthy at the time, scarlet fever and measles having previously appeared amongst them. Two of the families had been removed from the Depot in consequence, and several of the intending emigrants had to be left behind. On the morning of the day that the steamer sailed from Plymouth a family was sent on shore because its members had only lately recovered from scarlet fever, and were in a very weak state there from. Moreover, as Dr Davidson remarked, the infection of fever must have been about them. Professor M'Gregor then asked Dr Davidson whether he considered it prudent to undertake the voyage with emigrants in such a very unsatisfactory condition. To which the Doctor replied that he certainly did not, and expressed surprise that the Emigration authorities at home had not detained her. He furthermore remarked that if one case of fever had been apparent on the day she sailed, he would have taken the responsibility of detaining the steamer. The emigrants, however, were, to all appearance, well on the day she sailed, but on the following day fever and measles appeared amongst them, and remained throughout the passage.

According to the Doctor's report, 67 cases of measles, 21 cases of scarlet fever and 8 cases of bronchitis have been treated during the passage, and out of that number 12 resulted fatally, viz 4 cases of measles, 5 of scarlet fever, 3 of bronchitis. Besides these there was 1 fatal case of diarrhoea, 1 of ulcer, 1 of death from inanition, and a death from sunstroke. A list of those persons deceased, with their ages, &c, has been supplied us, but is evidently incorrect in one or two particulars as to the causes of death. We, however, publish it, with dates, as follows: —
January 6—Arthur Lammas, infant, inanition
January 9— Jane Matter, 3 years, bronchitis
January 19—Fanny Batty, 1 year, ulceration
January 22—Elizabeth Lammas, 3 years, diarrhoea and measles
January 28 —Arthur Spragget, 5 years, measles and malignant sore throat; William Lammas, 1 year, inanition
January 24—Henry Cullimore, 18 months, measles and glandular swelling
January 28—George Spragget, 10 years, malignant sore throat
January 29—Ann Johnson, 10 years, ulcerated sore throat and mania
February 1—Elizabeth Timms, 6 months, measles and scofuloas swelling of joints
February 2—Elizabeth Kendall, 12 months, bronchitis
February 4—Emily Hewitt, 9 years, sunstroke
February 7—Henry Turner, 2 years, scarlet fever and diarrhoea
Februtry B—Robert Toombs, 11 months, measles and bronchitis
February 9 William Withams, 28 years, diarrhoea
February 11—Emma Johnson, 6 years, scarlet fever and ulcerated sore throat

From the above it appears that the deaths were confined to children of ten years of age and under, excepting the case of William Withams. The steamer came into port with 4 cases of scarlet fever, 2 of abscess, l of diarrhoea, 1 of bronchitis. The precaution was taken to destroy all the clothes and bedding used by infected persons during the voyage, whilst the infected persons were carefully isolated. No doubt Dr William J. Davidson has had a trying time of it. Be looked worn and jaded.

When the Mongol left Plymouth, she had 245 statute adult immigrants on board, besides a number of paying passengers, and her crew of 54 men and boys. The immigrants come out through the New Zealand Shipping Company, and are for distribution through the Colony as follows: —10½ statute adults for Otago, 71 for Canterbury, 91 for Wellington, 74 for Auckland. We were not impressed favourably by the appearance of those who were to be seen from the deck of the Golden Age. They seemed to lack physique, and were pale and unhealthy looking. Those of the Otago contingent were described as particularly healthy, not one having succumbed to disease during the passage. They are to be landed on Quarantine Island to-morrow morning

The Mongol is one of the steamers engaged to run in the new Australian and American Mail Line, and has demonstrated her ability to undertake the running of the mail service by making the quickest direct passage from England to New Zealand on record. Her time from land to land was 50 days 8 hours, and 51 days 18 hours from Plymouth to Port Chalmers. We recollect what stress was lad upon the performance of the steamer Otago, when that vessel made the passage from England to Melbourne in 52 days, but the Mongol has beaten that by four days at the fewest. She is a handsome boat of 2265 tons register and 1463 tons carrying capacity. Her length is 300 feet, beam 35 feet, and. depth of hold 31 feet 6 inches. She is fitted with a compound engine of 400 horse-power nominal, and 1600 horse-power indicated. Her accommodation is good there is a magnificent saloon, with ladies' cabin and retiring room, bath-rooms, ice-house, &c. She is built with three decks. The owners of the Mongol are the New York, London, and China Steam Company. She was specially built to carry tea between China and New York, and is the sister-ship to the Tartar, lately arrived on a similar mission at Melbourne, and belongs to the same owners.

We gleaned the above facts with some difficulty, as we were debarred from boarding the Mongol. From the same cause we were unable to acquire a detailed account of her passage. All that we could gather that point was that she left Plymouth at noon of the 23rd of December, crossed the Equator on the 6th of January, and rounded the Cape of Good Hope on the 23rd day out. Capt. in Flamank intended to have run the easting down in between 48 and 49 deg. latitude, but on account of the health of the passengers, he selected the warmer parallel of 45 degrees. The coast of New Zealand was made at the Snares on the morning of the 12th, and Otago Heads reached at 8 30 a.m. on the 13th. Light head winds prevailed during the passage, and for twenty-nine days the ship was propelled by steam only. Only two vessels were sighted on the way, and the only land that hove up was one of the Canary Islands. Her engines are described as having worked in a most satisfactory manner and were built by Messrs Dobbie and Co., of the Clyde. They were only stopped once, for one hour, for repacking the pistons. Mr Lawrence is the chief engineer. Of the passengers on board the Mongol, 23 are first-class, 2 second class, and 299 free assisted immigrants.

Otago Daily Times 16 February 1874, Page 2
We regret to say that two more deaths have occurred amongst the Mongol's passengers. On. Friday night a female infant named Julia Higgs, aged 12 months, died of abscess; and on Saturday afternoon, a little fellow named Charles Stripp, aged 17 months, died of bronchitis at the Quarantine-Station.

Press, 10 March 1874, Page 2
The Mongol Immigrants.—Referring to these immigrants, the "Otago Daily Times" of March 2nd, says We regret to hear that another case of scarlet fever appeared in the person of a little boy amongst the residents of the Quarantine Island on Friday night last. This is the more unfortunate because it will protract for some days at fewest the term of quarantine the sixty or seventy persons that, were on the island are undergoing. But for the new case, the greater number of them would have removed to town on Saturday morning. Thus they are condemned to a further detention a term that will not be abridged by the arrival at the Island of the sick and convalescent people from the ship Carnatic." On the 3rd the same paper remarks:— Another death occurred at the Quarantine Station, during Monday night, a' little boy named Husband, aged three years, being suddenly carried off by convulsive fits supervening upon an attack of fever. His death was quite unexpected. He was one of the Mongol's immigrants."

Otago Daily Times 21 February 1874, Page 3
PORT CHALMERS. (Before Captain Thomson. J.P., and Dr. Dryadale, J.P.)
Row on board the Mongol.—Henry Austin, alias Henry Harsto Donogue, the boatswain of the steamer Mongol, was charged by Captain Flamank with having been guilty of wilful disobedience of lawful commands on the 18th inst. The Captain deposed that hearing a great row in the saloon early in the evening he went below and found the boatswain very drunk and abusing the steward. He held in his hand a box of -sardines that had evidently been taken from the steward's room, and threatened and attempted to strike the steward with it. Witness ordered the boatswain on deck, and the man refused point blank, and dared the Captain to put him out. The chief officer was then Bent for, but the accused still refused to go, and threw the sardines at the steward.
Mr Bryan, chief officer of the Mongol, deposed to the accused being the worse for liquor when the hands were called at 6 o'clock in the morning of the day in question, and abused witness when the latter advised him to go to his cabin.

Wellington Independent, 6 March 1874, Page 2
The Hon the Premier, along with the Hon Messrs Richardson and Pollen, is a passenger for Wellington by the Ladybird, which left Auckland yesterday, bringing the English and American mails received by the steamship Tartar, The fears entertained as to the condition of the passengers by the ship Scimitar have to some extent been realised, but it is fortunate that the facts are not worse than they have proved to be. There have been twenty six deaths during the passage, but disease does not seem to have prevailed among the adult passengers, nor are there as yet complaints of mismanagement such as have been circulated regarding the Mongol. Meantime the ship has been placed in quarantine, with her living freight of four hundred souls, there being at present six cases of scarlet fever on board. The fact of diseases and death having been confined almost exclusively to children, strongly confirms the complaints and suggestions made in these columns two days ago by the Rev Mr Kennedy, a passenger by the Mongol.

New Zealand Herald, 17 March 1874, Page 3
Passengers Act —John Flamanck, master of the s.s. Mongol, was charged by John Williams, under the Passengers Act, 1855, that he did Twongfully land the complainant (he being a passenger in the Mongol) at Port Chalmers, instead of at the port of Auckland, a breach of the stipulations of the complainant of passenger contract ticket, for which he (the complainant) sues for the sum of £15. by way of compensation for loss and inconvenience occasioned. Mr. Joy appeared for the complainant, and Mr. J. B. Russell for the defendant. The question of jurisdiction was raised and discussed, and the case adjourned until the 30th inst.

New Zealand Herald, 16 March 1874, Page 2
We are indebted to Mr. A. J. Lyall, purser, for report and prompt delivery of our Southern files. The Mongol did not come alongside the wharf as was expected, but anchored in the stream. She at once commenced to take in coal from the brig Albion, and is not expected to take her departure for Kanduvu until to-morrow. The steamer is built with three decks, the upper one flush, and comparatively unencumbered, there being only two permanent houses on it, one of which —just forward of the smoke-stack—comprises the captain's cabin, chart-room, and wheel-house, each connected with the other, provision thus being made for instant communication between the captain and the helmsman. The otter house comprises the saloon companion and a ladies' cabin. The five boats and a steam launch of lr.rge size, with which the steamer is provided, are of course carried on skids on the upper deck. Besides the steering-gear in the wheel-house, the steamer is provided with ordinary steering-gear aft, which, however, is seldom used. The saloon, officers' accommodation, and space for emigrants are situated in the 'tween, or middle deck. The saloon is rather insignificant, compared with the size; of the vessel, but for all that is a fine apartment, and flanked on either side by exceedingly roomy and comfortable sleeping cabins of two berths each, although on a pinch they would have to accommodate three persons. Forward, on the starboard side, n the ladies cabin, bath-room, &c. and on the port side opposite, the pantry store and ice-rooms, steward's berth and other offices immediate forward of the saloon is the roizen hatchway where the accommodation for emigrants commences. The crew, firemen, and petty officers are berthed in the eyes of the ship, and have very commodious and comfortable quarters. The engine, which is a model of strength, simplicity, and admirable workmanship, is situated amidships, and occupies a space 24 feet long by 21 feet wide. That is in fact the dimensions of the engine-room, and the full height from the skin of the vessel to the 'tween decks, the hatchway of course passing through to the upper deck. About this hatchway, on the 'tween decks, are the officers' quarters, including mess-room for the men and inferior officers. The engine is remarkable for its massiveness and high finish. It is on the com pound principle, the larger, or low-pressure cylinder being 90 inches diameter, and the smaller, or high-pressure, being 4S inches. The length of stroke is 4 feet, and the piston rods are 8¼ inches diameter, while the main shaft is 15 inches diameter. They were built by Howden and Co., of Glasgow and are fitted with an exceedingly simple and unique starting apparatus, so arranged as to almost obviate the possibility of any breakage occurring. The apparatus is on its first trial, and is one of the inventions of the makers of the engines. Another peculiarity of the engines is the absence of a receiver between the cylinders, and the steam passes direct from one to the other. Also the cranks of the main shaft are nearly in a line, instead of, as usual, at right angles to each other. The engine is of 400 horse-power nominal, but capable of producing 400 horse-power. It takes steam from three boilers, each 17 feet by 10J feet, and with two furnace 3 in each, one at each end, and each furnace having two fire-places. Each boiler has a steam receiver attached to it. The condenser of the low-pressure engine is on a new principle, for which a patent has been applied for by Messrs. Howden. The propeller—a screw—of the steamer is of 1C feet diameter, and 25 feet pitch. It has four blades, which screw into the boss, and can be shipped and unshipped with the greatest ease. The rig of the Mongol is that of a three-masted schooner, and she therefore does not spread much canvas. She is 300 feet long, and is thus over 80 feet shorter than, the Mikado, but is a deeper vessel, her draught being 25 feet, and depth of hold 31 feet 6 inches, 5 feet 6i inches deeper than the Mikado. Her beam is 35 feet, the same as the Mikado's. Her crew numbers 46 all told, classified as follows:—Captain Flamank; Mr. Bryan, chief officer; 3 mates; Mr. Laurie, first engineer, and 3 assistants: 1 boiler-maker, 12 firemen, 1 carpenter, boatswain, and lamp-trimmer, and 6 in the steward's department, besides stewardess. She also carries a medical man, in the person of Dr. Davison. The Mongol's daily consumption of fuel is only 24 tons. She has stowage-room for 1600 tons of coal, including the bunkers, the limited capacity of which amounts to 750 tons. The windlass is a pattern of ingenuity, strength, and hardiness, and is one of the latest patents of Messrs. Barfield and Co., of Glasgow. It is worked without a massenger by a pair of 8-iuch cylinder direct-acting engines, which drive two double cog-wheel purchases that act upon the two cog-bands round the body of the windlass. The action is sure and rapid, but in the event of the steam-gear going wrong, the windlass is fitted with the ordinary hand-mechanism, i.e., handles working athwart ships, and the common parcel gearing.

New Zealand Herald, 3 April 1874, Page 2
The mail steamer Mongol left last evening for Napier and the South. She will return to this port in time to leave for Kandavu with the next outgoing mail on the 13th instant. We learn that Mr. H. J. Ellis, many years shipping reporter in the Daily Southern Cross, has received the appointment of purser to this steamer.
Per Mongol, mail steamer, for Napier and Southern ports: Messrs. T. Ching. W. McLaren, L. E. Nathan, Geo. Tangye, H.B..F_x, B. Price, H. Williams. A. McHardy, Palmer, Grigel, S. F. Aicken, E. Woods, Smale, Ellis and servant. Mrs. Weston, 2 children., and 2 servants. Miss Buckland, Miss Williams, Miss E. Williams. Mrs. W. Guthrie, Mrs. Prebble and 2 children, Mrs. and Miss Reid and Miss Cheeseman.

AtoJs

D-02 IMMIGRATION TO NZ (LETTERS TO THE AGENT-GENERAL, TRANSMITTING REPORTS ON IMMIGRANT SHIPS.)
Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1874 Session I
Alfred Lay, storekeeper, s.s. Mongol. Heard emigrants Budd, Alan and Abrahams complain did not get their full share of water.
John Smith, carpenter, s.s. Mongol
Edward Robins, fourth mate, s.s. Mongol
Christopher Walker, second mate, s.s. Mongol
Miss Diggnes, matron
Rev. Mr Kennedy, passenger
Mr. Tanner, passenger
Mr. George Vesey Stewart, passenger


Mr Charles Holloway, a prominent member of the Agricultural Labourers' League, and delegate and chairman of the Oxford district, is a passenger by the steamer Mongol.

Otago Witness 21 February 1874, Page 3
Mr Charles Holloway, a prominent member of the Agricultural Labourers' League, and delegate and chairman of the Oxford district, is a passenger by the steamer Mongol, now in quarantine. Mr Holloway, we believe, comes out in charge of the immigrants on board, and has also been instrumental in forwarding those who will come out per ship Scimitar, which is announced in our telegrams published to-day as having sailed. There is every reason to believe that Mr Holloway proposes making himself acquainted with the special advantages which New Zealand offers to agricultural labourers as a field for immigration.

Wellington Independent, 19 February 1874, Page 2
The following reference to the Mongol's immigrants is made by a Plymouth paper of December 22 : — " On Saturday, December 20, upwards of 300 laborers, with their wives and families, left Oxfordshire for Plymouth, en route for New Zealand. About a month since it was announced that the Agent-General for that Colony intended to place the steamship Mongol, 2252 tons burden and 400-horso power, at the service of the National Agriculcultural Laborers' Union, for the conveyance of its members to that country, free of expense. In addition to the emigrants from Oxfordshire, several hundreds passed through Oxford on that day from Warwickshire and other midland counties. The Mongol being unable to accommodate them all, a sailing vessel, the Scimitar, has also been placed at their disposal. Both ships were to sail from Plymouth. Mr C. Holloway, chairman and delegate of the Oxfordshire district, accompanies the emigrants to New Zealand, with a view to attending to their welfare during the voyage, and seeing them located in their new home in that country. The emigrants were met at Plymouth on Saturday evening by Mr Arch, who delivered a farewell address to them."

Nelson Evening Mail, 3 March 1874, Page 2
Recent telegrams informed us that the reporter of the Otago Guardian had "interviewed" Mr Holloway, who came out with the immigrants per Mongol, concerning the object of his mission. The result of that interview is published at length in the Guardian of the 21st of February, and from it we make the following extracts, first of all stating that Mr Christopher Holloway, is chairman and delegate of the Oxford district of the National Agricultural Laborers' Association in England. He says: I have visited Urn country for the purpose of ascertaining its agricultural capabilities. The object of the Association to which I belong is to improve the general condition of the agricultural laborers of England. Finding that there is a surplus of laborers in our own country, we have turned our attention to emigration a wholesale system of emigration as a general means whereby the condition of the laboring classes can be improved. The question then arises: How, when, and where shall we emigrate? Several countries and colonies are now bidding for the English farm laborer. As a leader in the great movement now going on in my country I must say I am prejudiced in favor of New Zealand, and it is my opinion that, whatever advantages Queensland or Canada may offer, if we take into consideration the unhealthy climate of the one country and the long, cold, hard winter of the other, neither of them will bear comparison with New Zealand, that is, if all which I have been told of its climate health fulness, and resources, be true. This being nay opinion, an idea suggested itself to my mind, if some such scheme could be adopted and carried out in reference to New Zealand as has been carried out in regard to Queensland and Canada, namely, that one of our leading men -one in whom our people had confidence should raise a certain number of emigrants, go out with them to the colony, visit its provinces, inquire into its agricultural capabilities, return to England, and tell the people, not what he had heard, but what he bad seen with his own eyes, and for the truthfulness, therefore, of which he could vouch, such an influence would be brought to bear upon the minds of our people at home as would cause a stream of immigration to flow to this colony that would place it amongst the foremost and most wealthy nations of the earth. I communicated these thoughts to C. R. Carter, Esq., who is well known in Wellington, and who is also an intimate friend of Dr Featherstone, the Agent-General, asking that he should come, or send some one, to lecture on New Zealand as a field for emigration in my district. Mr Carter at once saw the feasibility of the scheme and thought, if it could be carried out, it would be the means of obtaining the right glass of colonists, and of turning the stream of emigration to this fine country. After some conversation with Mr Carter, I suggested that if the Agent-General or Government would pay the necessary expenses, I would have no objection to raise a shipload of emigrants, and accompany them to New Zealand, and visit its provinces for the purpose of carrying out the scheme. Mr Carter had an interview with the Agent General, and laid before him the whole matter which he had been discussing. The result was, the Agent- General consented to defray my expenses to and from New Zealand, blbo my expenses during a stay of four months in the colony, during which time I would be engaged in visiting the various provinces, on condition that I should bring out 200 emigrants with roe. He arranged that if I complied with his terms I was to go out in the Mongol. I agreed to these conditions. The Agent- General then inserted an advertisement in several of the papers, making public the fact that I had engaged to pay a visit to New Zealand, and that I was going to take out emigrants along with me. I then proceeded to lecture upon my intended visit, and the result was that from November 12th to December 10th I obtained 335 souls, equal to 252 statute adults. These were chiefly agricultural labourers from Oxfordshire and Warwickshire. I proceeded with them to Plymouth on December 13th, and remained there until the 22nd of the same month. Of the emigrants obtained by me, 126 were embarked on board the Mongol, there not being room for more, and the remaining 209 on board the Scimitar We set sail for New Zealand on December 23, and after a splendid run of 52 days, during which we never experienced a storm and scarcely a stiff breeze, we landed safely in limbo (i.e., in quarantine.) I am very favorably impressed with what I have already seen, and I hope in the course of next week to commence my tour through the province of Otago. Having done that, I will visit each of the other provinces. I will then return to England and report upon what I have seen. If I find New Zealand to be what it has been represented, there will be no difficulty in supplying the wants of this country, namely, able hands and willing hearts. One subject of my visit to New Zealand was to ascertain for myself, by personal observation, the treatment and accommodation which the immigrants receive on a voyage from England to New Zealand, In my opinion, the present system, or the way in which it is carried out, is faulty in the extreme. I have several suggestions to offer to the Government which, if carried out, will materially increase the comfort and well being of the emigrants, during their lengthy voyage from England to this country.

Colonist, Volume 1712, Issue 1712, 31 January 1874, Page 4
FARM LABORERS FEOM ENGLAND COMING THIS WAY.
Meetings of agricultural laborers are being held in various parts of the country. They are being held at night in the highways and byways and the open fields. On the 4th of the present month a meeting was held in a field at Milton, in Oxfordshire. Prom 500 to 600 persons assembled on this occasion in a tent dimly lighted by a few tallow candles. Mr Charles Holloway occupied the chair, and Hr C. E. Carter, from the New Zealand Agent-General's office, London, delivered a lecture on that Colony, which was listened to with the greatest attention. A unanimous vote of thanks to the lecturer concluded the proceedings in the tent; but many adjourned to a neighboring room and made applications to go out to New Zealand, On the evening of the 25th instant, another meeting was held in Charleburg, in Oxfordshire, in a tent, at which were present a very large number of laborers —many with their wives—to hear a lecture delivered by Mr Carter. The result of these and other meetings is that the pioneer steamer of the New Zealand and New South Wales line of steamers (to and from 'San Francisco) called the Mongol, and a fine clipper ship, are to start from Plymouth on the same day, the 15th of December next, when it is expected that between four and five hundred persons, consisting of agricultural laborers and their families, will embark under the charge of Mr Charles Holloway, chairman and delegate of the Oxford district of agricultural laborers,-who is to accompany them, at the expense of the New Zealand Government, to their new homes; see them settled, and then return to England to report on New Zealand as a suitable field for agricultural laborers to be sent to. It is expected that Mr Arch and Mr Taylor, secretary to the Union, will attend at Plymouth, to address their friends who embark, wish them a prosperous voyage, and bid them farewell.

Shipboard Diary by Christopher Holloway (1828-1895)
Holloway, an Oxfordshire union leader and an emigration agent for the New Zealand government, visited New Zealand to examine its potential as a field for emigration of farm labourers
Journal of a visit to New Zealand. Journal describes voyage to Port Chalmers on the Mongol and details extensive travel in all areas of New Zealand, especially Napier, where he met many of the local leaders, farmers and miners. The shipboard account mentions the Scimitar which departed for New Zealand at the same time, and lists names (partial passenger list) etc for those on both ships.
Originals Location : Rev W J Holloway, St Mary's Vicarage, Newbury, Berkshire
Typescript copy also held by Auckland Public Library and Hocken Library.

Arnold, Professor Rollo., The Farthest Promised Land,  Index
GORE Alfred 31, gardener, w & 2 chn, per Mongol
GORE Henry 21, gardener, per Mongol
GORE James Dixon 25, painter Leamington, per Mongol, kept diary.
Harwood, Richard, a 21-year-old gardener, from Warwickshire, took up work in Manawatu, near Foxton.
HEWITT Daniel 35, groom, Warks, per Mongol > Woodend, Canterbury
HEWITT Daniel 35,gardener,w+8ch,with Holloway party,>Woodend
HEWITT Emily d of Daniel, died on Mongol (7 other chn)
HITCHCOCK Arthur, Oxon, per Mongol, settled in Dunedin
HOLLOWAY Christopher Wootton, chmn NALU Oxfd dist, b1828, on Mongol
JEFFREY Ann w of Charles Jeffrey, per Mongol 1874
JEFFREY Charles AL, Lyneham, per Mongol 1874
Johnson, Joseph and Louisa and family, Taranaki. Of their five children who boarded the Mongol in December 1873, only Ellen survived the voyage.
JOHNSON Annie 10, d of Joseph & Louisa, died on Mongol
JOHNSON Ellen Infant d of Joseph & Louisa, survived Mongol
JOHNSON Emma 6, d of Joseph & Louisa, died on Mongol
KENNEDY Revd H M Chaplain on Mongol voyage 1872
LAMMAS Catherine w of Henry, 3 chn died on Mongol voyage. Henry Lammas from Wootton settled in Oamaru
MILLS James AL, Milton-u-W, 2 chn, per Mongol 1874
MORRIS Thomas AL, Charlbury, 50-ish, per Mongol
PEARCE Charles 38, AL, Churchill, per Mongol 1874
PRATLEY Jane w of Phillip, Ascott-u-W, per Mongol 1874
PRATLEY Phillip 25, AL, Ascott-u-W, per Mongol 1874
Smith, Eli, from Warwickshire, emigrated as a 26-year-old farm labourer, with a wife and three children.
Smith, Joseph - a young man who came out in the “Mongol” from Chesterton, Oxfordshire
TRIPP Frederick 38, AL, Lyneham, per Mongol 1874
TRIPP Leah 36, w of Frederick Tripp, per Mongol 1874
TRIPP William Lyneham, AL, widower, 6 chn, per Mongol 1874
TURNER Thomas AL, Milton-u-W, 8 chn, per Mongol 1874
WRIGHT Edward Civil/mech engr, acted as Mongol sch/teacher

"The voyage of the Mongol" by Brian Gore [Wellington, 2001] Part 2 and most of part 3 are extracts from diaries/journals of two of the passengers; part 5 consists of evidence presented to the resulting Royal Commission. xii, 146 p. : ill., maps ; 21 cm.

The Labourers' Union Chronicle published a diary of the voyage kept by James Dixon Gore, a single man of 25, a painter from Leamington,65 emigrating with a family party whose other members were Henry Gore, 21, a gardener, and Alfred Gore, 31, gardener, with a wife and two young children.

There is a photo of her online.  "De Maus Collection, Alexander Turnbull Library".


Kennedy, Henry Mortimer (c1840- 30 March 1905, vicarage Plumpton Wall, Cumberland, England

Auckland Star, 30 March 1874, Page 2
Judging simply from the results of excessive sickness and death on board the immigrant ships to New Zealand we have been led to the conclusion that there must be something radically wrong in our Government arrangements in England, and we have not been backward in giving expression to our feelings on the subject. We have just met with an unexpected corroboration of the inferences that we were compelled to make, in information published by a gentleman who has recently come out from home. In the April number of the Anglican Church Gazelle for the diocese of Auckland there is an interesting article entitled "A voyage to New Zealand by the Mongol," written by the Rev. H. M. Kennedy. This gentleman, it appears, was a beneficed clergyman of the Established Church of Ireland at the time when that Church was disestablished a few years ago. He then resigned that post in order to facilitate a desirable re-adjustmcnt of parishes, and he became assistant to the Rev. E. Bowen, the rector of a parish in the Northwest of Ireland, who is brother of the late Governor of this colony. From what he heard about New Zealand from Mr Bowen Mr Kennedy became interested in the country, and ultimately accepted an invitation to come to the diocese of Auckland, which was made to him by Bishop Cowie's commissary in England Mr Kennedy must be a very desirable sort of colonist if we may judge not merely from the tone of the article before us, but also from the circumstance that a considerable number of his ex-parishioners— it is not stated how many—accompanied him in his emigration. They came in the Mongol, the large steamer which has been brought out to take its place on the Trans-Pacific line. The Mongol, we are informed, steamed the whole way, and made the passage from Plymouth to Port Chalmers in fifty-one days, being the quickest passage on record by this route. It was, says Mr Kennedy, a most prosperous voyage, and one which would have been extremely pleasant to me had it not been for the sad mortality which attended it ; brought on, too, as it was, by want of necessary precaution, imperfect arrangements, and deficient supplies." These are the words with which the article alluded to terminates, and they derive all the more weight from the circumstance that the facts on which they are founded are narrated without the least asperity or bitterness. Those facts speak for themselves. The Mongol convened 250 emigrants, who embarked at Plymouth. Before leaving that port grave apprehensions had been excited. "Many of us," says Mr Kennedy, "marked with apprehension the delicate and sickly appearance of the children belonging to our contingent, and of whom we had a large proportion ; and when on the morning of the 23rd December, a few hours before we weighed anchor, a family of eleven were sent ashore as unfit for the voyage, we felt almost certain that scarlatina—known to have been in the emigration depot—would break out amongst us. Our fears in this respect were but too soon realised." There ensued much sickness, and sixteen deaths; and the Scimitar, which sailed from Plymouth about the same time, was still more unfortunate. It is a note-worthy circumstance that not one of the party attached to Mr Kennedy failed to make the voyage in good health, and this indicates a fact, of which even in Auckland we have had too much indication, that one great fault in the working of the immigration machinery is the want of care in the selection of the persons to be sent out. But this is not the only fatal fault that is becoming apparent. "Here," remarks Mr Kennedy, "I must take occasion to say, that there are some grievous defects in the emigration system as at present carried out. Ist. The preliminary medical inspection is not of a sufficiently stringent character, it generally amounts to ascertaining simply whether the applicant has been vaccinated or not. 2nd. The Government inspector at the depot is not sufficiently strict. Plainly we should never have been allowed to sail when scarlatina had already showed itself, particularly when we had so many children in our party. 3rd. The dietary scale is defective. There is not nearly enough of milk, eggs, and light food provided. Our medical officer continually had occasion to feel that this want, particularly when so many children were taken ill. Had it not been for the kindness of a Dunedin lady, who supplied me with several tins of preserved milk, and other comforts which she fortunately had with her, I believe we would have had greater mortality still amongst us." Other benevolent individuals are mentioned by the writer who joined in the work of mercy. The little incidents of the voyage are pleasingly told by Mr. Kennedy, and he relates feelingly the very touching scenes connected with the throwing overboard the bodies of the children. These things occurred in the case of the magnificent steamer the Mongol, and for less conspicuous vessels and longer voyages it may be feared that matters would be much worse. Such narratives as that on which we have been commenting are sure to be read widely at; home, and why should they not ? We are desirous of having suitable immigrants, but we have no desire to conceal the truth, and so to aid in luring innocent families of our countrymen to misery and death. In the name of our common humanity, and in the interest of our heavily taxed colony, we renew our protest against tolerating or coutenancing a continuance of licensed misprison of murder.


Sank when she hit Needle Rock
Timaru Herald Feb. 12 1875
Wreck of the Steamer Mongol and the drowning of Captain Flamank, Mrs Flamank, Gawthorp, and the chief mate, Ring, fourth officer; Smith, fourth engineer; Gentle, boilermaker; Smith, carpenter; Jewell, second steward; S. Bevis, mess steward; Ludlow, Murdoch and Lewis, fireman; Frankeustone and Stone, sailors; and two Chinese. She started from Yokohama. Stuck a rock in the vicinity of Nine Pins.

Timaru Herald, 19 March 1875, Page 3 WRECK OF THE S.S. MONGOL.
We published a short while back a brief account of the wreck of the s.s. Mongol, and now furnish fuller particulars with reference to the disaster, for which we are indebted to the Hong Kong Times of Dec. 24 : — " On Saturday, December 12, at about 12 o'clock, the steamer Mongol struck on a rock a few miles from Hong Kong. In about five minutes she was completely submerged. Of a crew of 52, 17 were drowned, including Captain J. Flamank and Mrs Flamank. "The Mongol was a vessel of 2265 tons burden, having been built on the Clyde last year. She belonged to the fleet of the New York, London, and China Steamship Company, Limited. Her commander was Captain Flamank. Her first trip to Hong Kong was made in June last. She then came up from the colonies by a new route— the passage being, we believe, the quickest on record. This trip in fact, gained for the Mongol something of a reputation; she was undoubtedly a handsome, well-fitted, and smart craft. Having gone back home, she made a second trip to China. Attention was again directed to, her, for this time she brought out several very heavy guns and considerable quantities of warlike stores for the Chinese Government. Leaving Hong Kong, she went up to Shanghai ; thence returning to this port, where she loaded for Japan. About 10 o'clock on Saturday morning, she started for Yokohama ; Captain Flamank in command, and carrying a crew, all told, of 52. She had a general cargo, about one-third only of what she could carry, and was drawing about 18ft. of water. The captain and a Chinese pilot were on the bridge. The captain was not, we believe, familiar with the navigation of these waters ; and it is said that the pilot, on leaving — just beyond, the Ly-ce-moon pass— directed that his attention should be called to keep clear of the Nine Pins. "The second officer, Mr Fry, afterwards took his place on the bridge with the captain. At about a quarter to 12 the captain told Mr Fry there was a little rock ahead, and asked him to see if he could make it out on the chart. The second officer examined the chart, but said he could not discover the position of the road. Then the captain, telling the second officer to keep well off the island, himself went and examined the chart. Soon afterwards he returned to the bridge, and said he could not discover the place of the rock. The captain, however, altered the ship's course a little more to the land. A few minutes afterwards there was heard a grating noise, followed by two or three shocks, and the steamer rolled heavily. There was no 'wash' or anything to indicate the presence of sunken rocks ; but m was evident that the steamer had struck upon one. the vessel was then going at full speed — 11 or 12 knots an hour — and contact with any hard and fixed substance must cause serious damage. A huge vent must indeed have been made m her bottom. The captain gave an order to sound the pumps, and it was found that the ship was full up to the orlop deck forward, and was rapidly filling. The engines were then ordered to be reversed ; and the steamer was got clear of the rock. The second officer suggested whether it would not be well to make for the land, but it was soon evident that the damage was of far too serious a nature to permit of that being done. It being reported that the water was gaining rapidly, the captain and the second officer left the bridge, and the boats were begun to be got out. Some confusion seems to have ensued, but two of the boats, which were hanging over the ship's sides, were lowered without any difficulty, and some of the crew got into them. Those boats were soon some little distance from the ship. Efforts were then made to get off another boat, but the gear did not work easily; and, as the vessel's head was then well under water, and the ship was fast sinking, the attempt had to be abandoned. Every one then did the best he could for himself. Those who could seized life-buoys and pieces of wood and jumped overboard. The chief engineer, meantime, had thoughtfully ordered the engines to be stopped, and directed the men below to at once come on deck and look to their safety. The only lady on board was the captain's wife, and she was an invalid. That she had perished is of course to be regretted, but it is satisfactory to know that, even amid the hurry and confusion, she was not neglected. The captain had placed her aft, thinking, no doubt, she would be safe till the third boat was lowered, in which he himself was assisting. Mr Rogers, the ship's surgeon, remained with her till desired to aid in clearing away the boat; not, however, quitting her till a life-buoy was fetched and placed round her. It is said that not more 5min. elapsed from the time of the vessel striking on the rock and going down. She disappeared head foremost. Some were washed overboard before she foundered, but most wout down with her. A violent explosion was heard as she sank, the decks being apparently blown asunder. The water completely covered her. The two boats which had been lowered were taken charge of by Mr Hodgkins and the chief steward, and they pulled about for a long time, picking up many who were struggling in the water, supported on an upturned boat or on pieces of wreckage. Mr Fry, who was the last to throw himself from the vessel, was in the water nearly three quarter of an hour before being rescued. Mr Rogers supported himself for a time on the keel of the life-boat, to which several others also were clinging. The body of the captain drifted towards him, and Mr Rogers seized it and held it for a few minutes ; till a swelling wave compelled him to relinquish his hold. It was then, however, evident that the captain had ceased to live. When all that could be were rescued, the two boats made for Hong Kong. They soon fell in with two Chinese boats, which Mr Hodgkins chartered to bring them on to Hong Kong. Mr Hodgkins at once reported the matter to Messrs Heard and Company, the local agents of the New York, London, and China Steamship Company. The crew were taken to the Sailors' Home, where their wants were attended to, the officers being furnished with accommodation at the Hong Kong Hotel.  The suddenness of the catastrophe prevented any attempt being made to save anything but life. It may be said that all have lost everything, not even one landing with a complete suit of clothes ; but we understand  that Mr Hodgkins, in addition to loss of other property, has been deprived of a valuable and extensive collection of curios. The carpenter has left a widow and 10 children and several others of the crew also were married and had families."