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MERMAID

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The Mermaid was a large wooden clipper of 1326 tons built in 1853 by J. McDonald of Saint John, New Brunswick and owned by D. Plain (Davies & Plain managers) of Cardiff.  She was chartered by the White Star Line to run to Australian ports in the fifties. In 1859 she was in the New Zealand trade. On the '62 voyage she was chartered by the Shaw, Savill and Co. She made seven trips to Lyttelton all under the command of Captain Rose. Captain Henry Rose b. 1833 was the first manager of the Wellington branch of the New Zealand Shipping Company. Timeframes has a portrait of this gentleman who devoted fifty years to shipping. He captained the Merope, Mermaid, Rakaia and Waimate.

To Auckland : Sailed July 11, arrived Oct. 19 1859, Captain White.
From London via Melbourne arrived Auckland Nov. 22 1860 under Captain Kerr.
Sailed Sep. 3 and arrived Dec. 16 1861 under Captain H. Rose.


To Lyttelton: Arrived Dec. 27 1862, Feb. 16 1864 with 380 passengers, Jan. 21 1865, Jan. 1 1866, Jan. 5 1867, Jan. 2, 1868 and Jan. 8 1869 all under Captain H. Rose.


From the Lyttelton Times, December 27, 1862

The favourite clipper ship Mermaid maintains her high reputation for speed and regularity. Less than eight months have elapsed since she left Lyttelton with a homeward cargo of wool, and of that period nearly two months and a half have been spent in London. As previously announced she made a run home in seventy-five days, and was safe in the docks on the 78th. Her outward trip has been hardly more lengthy, only reckoning eighty-one days from Plymouth to Lyttelton. On this occasion she brings out 267 passengers, the greater part Government immigrants, who are well spoken of as regards their conduct and a general stamp. She also brings a fair number of cabin passengers, several of whom are old familiar faces and therefore more welcome. Among the later we notice the Rev. H. Fendall, Mr. and Mrs. E. Jollie, Mrs. Phillips, and Mr. Gray. The passengers of all classes write in expressing feelings of warm regard for and attentive conduct of Captain Rose and his officers, most of whom are old friends, well appreciated in these parts. Four births occurred during the voyage and eight deaths. Seven of these were infants, and one adult, a Miss Buxton, sister of Mr. Buxton, saddler, Christchurch, who we believe died from the result of epilepsy.

Passengers by the Mermaid.
Arrived - December 27, ship, Mermaid, 1233 tons, Rose, from London. Passengers -
Mr and Mrs Baines
Mr and Mrs Lean and family
Mr and Mrs Jollie and child
Rev. H. Fendall [went back to England from Christchurch so made a round trip on the "Mermaid"]
Mrs Philips
Mrs Edwards
Miss Coe
Messrs Woodhouse, Barker, Langren, Leggitt, Elias, Hayward, and Gray

Government immigrants - Married Couples:

Surname	    Given name	Sp #Children Origin	   Occupation	Remarks
Bates       William     Y  1   Lincolnshire        Farm Labourer            
Bettle      William     Y  2   Northamptonshire    Labourer                 
Bradford    J.          Y  6   Oxfordshire         Carpenter                
Browne      William     Y  1   Tyrone              Ploughman                
Buxton      John        Y      Staffordshire       saddler                  
Cassan      John        Y  1   Down                Farm Labourer            
Chinery     Charles     Y  3   Norfolk             Farm Labourer            
Clark       A.          Y      Inverness-shire     Ploughman                
Clarke      Hans        Y      Down                Farm Labourer            
Cocking     T.          Y      Cornwall            Farm Labourer            
Cole        John W.     Y  3   Middlesex           Tailor                   
Corrick     John        Y  3   Somersetshire       Shoemaker            
Dalley      William H.  Y      Cornwall            Smith                    
Dance       George      Y      Worcestershire      Labourer                 
Deyell      George      Y      Cavan               Ploughman                
Diggle      M.          Y  4   Leicestershire      Farm Labourer            
Evans       Charles     Y  2   Cornwall            Farm Labourer            
Fletcher    E.          Y      Gloucestershire     Labourer                 
Forquar     George      Y  1   Armagh              Farm Labourer            
Gadd        Alfred      Y  3   Nottingham          Gardener                 
Greig       Alexander   Y  4   Aberdeenshire       Labourer                 
Griffiths   William     Y  3   Montgomeryshire     Labourer                 
Hawkins     William     Y      Bucks               Baker                    
Howard      Patrick     Y  2   Cork                Labourer                 
Hudson      Francis     Y  4   Derbyshire          Smith                    
Hindly      David       Y  1   Forfarshire         Ploughman      (?Findlay)   
Keast       J.          Y      Cornwall            Farm Labourer            
M'Grath     Charles     Y  1   Down                Farm Labourer            
M'Wha       Matthew     Y      Down                Farm Labourer            
Maneton     J.          Y  2   Cornwall            Smith         
Moore       James       Y  1   Down                Farm Labourer  
Murphy      T.          Y  1   Galway              Shoemaker                
Oates       J.          Y  1   Cornwall            Labourer        
Ravenhill   Henry       Y  1   Antrim              Farm Labourer 
Satchell    William     Y  1   Warwickshire        Bricklayer    
Shade       William     Y      Alderney            Farm Labourer
Smith       John        Y      Roxburghshire       Ploughman      
Stan        G.H.        Y  2   Devonshire          Tailor     
Stanbury    J.F.        Y  2   Devonshire          Mason     
Stevenson   Thomas      Y  1   Down                Farm Labourer   
Thompson    John        Y      Yorkshire           Mechanic     
Virtue      James       Y  2   Berwickshire        Shoemaker                
Voghan      George      Y      Cavan               Farm Labourer            
Walters     T.J.        Y  1   Cornwall            Smith
Walters     Thomas      Y  1   Cornwall            Smith                    
Weir        T.          Y      Antrim              Farm Labourer
unable to read one couple's name.  
Single Women
Ainge         Sarah           Warwickshire   Domestic Servant    
Bray          Martha          Cornwall       Nursemaid             
Black         Eliza           Antrim         Domestic Servant                
Boulger       Kate            Galway         Domestic Servant
Bow           Marion          Lanarkshire    Domestic Servant       
Brien         Mary            Limerick       Dairymaid                
Brien         Elizabeth       Limerick       Dairymaid           
Brown         Ann             Fifeshire           
Brown         Caroline        Middlesex      Milliner         and nephew  
Buxton        Mary Martha     Staffordshire  Domestic Servant            
Buxton        Elizabeth       Staffordshire  Domestic Servant         
Byrne         Anne            Queen's County Domestic Servant         
Cardell       Prudence        Cornwall       Domestic Servant           
Cariney       Margaret        Isle of Man                          
Cariney       Louisa          Isle of Man                           
Cariney       Mrs             Isle of man                         
Cloe          Edith E.        Middlesex      Domestic Servant     
Coghlin       Mary            Cork           Cook
Cole          Edith E.        Middlesex      Domestic Servant   
Cole          Eliza Ann       Middlesex                         
Cole          Sarah J.        Middlesex      Nurse                  
Cole          Ellen R.        Middlesex      Milliner                 
Cole          Lucy E.         Middlesex      Governess                
Cole          Catherine W.    Middlesex      Housekeeper            
Connel        Bidelia         Galway         Domestic Servant           
Corbett       Bridget         Galway         Dairymaid                
Corrick       Eliza           Somersetshire  Domestic Servant     
Cox           Dinah       1   GloucestershireDomestic Servant     
Daley         Ellen           Antrim         Domestic Servant   
Deyell        Sarah           Cavan          Farm Servant       
Donelly       _               Tyrone         Domestic Servant     
Downes        Marion          Lanarkshire    Domestic Servant      
Dysert        Mary            Antrim         Dairywoman            
Dysert        Martha          Antrim         Dairywoman               
Fitzsimmons   Jane            Cornwall       Domestic Servant    
Fitzsimmons   Mary            Cornwall       Domestic Servant     
Glasgow       Rosanna         Antrim         Dairywoman             
Glasgow       Eliz.           Antrim         Dairywoman       
Gough         Sarah A.    1   Staffordshire  Domestic Servant   
Gray          Grace           Aryshire       Domestic Servant    
Greasby       Mary            Yorkshire                         
Greg          Jean            Buteshire      Domestic Servant   
Gunn          Ann             Sutherland     Domestic Servant   
Hudson        Emma        4   Derbyshire                         
James         Elizabeth J.    Cornwall       Domestic Servant     
Jaures        Sarah           GloucestershireDomestic Servant   
Jenning       H.M.            Yorkshire      Domestic Servant   
Keast         Eliza M.        Cornwall                       
Keeley        Katherine       Limerick       Dairymaid            
Keeman        Margaret        Derry          Housemaid       
Madden        Winifred        Galway         Domestic Servant   
Maguire       Catherine       Antrim         Dairywoman        
Malley        Biddy           Galway         Farm Servant      
McCeland      Margaret        Aramgh         Domestic Servant    
Murphy        May         1   Galway         Domestic Servant    
Park          Hannah          Armagh         Domestic Servant    
Parsons       Louisa          Bucks          Domestic Servant    
Patterson     Eliz.           Cavan          Farm Servant      
Radford       Harriet         Oxfordshire                       
Richards      Ann             Glamorganshire Domestic Servant 
Stodden       Grace           Cornwall       Domestic Servant   
Talmon        Eliz.           Notts          Housekeeper              
Toms          Clara           Middlesex      Dressmaker              
Wall          Honora          Queen's County Dairywoman   
Wall          Bridget         Queen's County Dairywoman  
Willis        Mary            Cornwall       Dairywoman  
Worthington   Margaret    1   Notts      
Single Men
Bates     	George    Leicestershire      Farm Labourer            
Browne    	Joseph    Staffordshire       Labourer                 
Bryne     	Martin    Queen's County      Farm Labourer            
Buxton    	William   Staffordshire                                
Campion         Charles   Staffordshire       Farm Labourer            
Commins   	Michael   Limerick            Farm Labourer            
Corrick   	Albert    Somersetshire                                
Cox       	David     Forfarshire         Mason                    
Donelly   	James     Tyrone              Farm Labourer            
Donelly   	Edward    Tyrone              Farm Labourer            
Geoghehan 	Patrick   Galway              Ploughman                
Ginavan   	John      Limerick            Farm Labourer            
Gray      	Charles   Ayrshire            Labourer                 
Grey      	Thomas    Buteshire           Carpenter                
Gunn      	Donald    Sutherland          Labourer                 
Gunn     	Robert    Sutherland          Labourer                 
Head      	Edward John Cornwall          Smith                    
Hopkins  	Alfred    Gloucestershire     Labourer                 
Howard    	Daniel    Cork                Labourer                 
Howard    	Michael   Cork                Labourer                 
Luddy     	William   Limerick            Farm Labourer            
Malley    	John      Galway              Farm Labourer            
Malley    	John      Galway              Farm Labourer            
Malley    	George    Galway              Farm Labourer            
Maneton   	Edwin     Cornwall            age 13                         
Menzies   	Archibald                     Gardener                 
Paton     	James     Ayrshire            Labourer                 
Plumridge 	William   Bucks               Farm Labourer            
Quick     	Paul      Cornwall            Carpenter                
Radford   	John      Oxfordshire                                  
Richards  	Thomas    Gloucestershire     Farm Labourer            
Richards  	James     Gloucestershire     Farm Labourer            
Richards  	Joseph    Gloucestershire     Farm Labourer            
Rooney    	William   Tyrone              Farm Labourer            
Salmon   	P.H.      Middlesex           Labourer                 
Smith     	John      Forfarshire         Cartwright               
Smith     	David     Ayrshire            Stonecutter              
Smith     	James     Ayrshire            Ploughman                
Virtue    	James     Berkwickshire       Labourer                 
Wiiliams  	George    Cornwall            Farm Labourer            
Williams  	David     Staffordshire       Labourer                 
Married couples and families 153 153 = 46 couples (92) + 61 children 
Single men   40   41
Single woman and children   78   76 = 67 + 9
Total souls �   �  �   �  �  �  271 270  plus 20+ in cabins
290+ (my count)

Note - There will probably be in addition 12 single women and 4 married couples.
____________________

Information above courtesy of Jean Price. Page created 30 Nov. 2000. Jean's ancestor on this ship is Dinah COX (nee THOMAS from Lydney, Gloucestershire) and son. Dinah is Jean's great grandmother. Family legend has it that she originally travelled with the FENDALL family to NZ as a companion to the Fendall children. I have nothing to substantiate this (except she was on the same ship), but find it interesting that she travels on the same ship as the Fendalls back to England with her first born, on the round trip of the "Mermaid". The Rose of Sharon (F. Young & Co.'s line) 1500 tons, for Wellington and Canterbury on 20th Sept. 1856.

The Rev. FENDALL had been the vicar of Crambe, Yorkshire, and his sister was Mrs Bathurst, of Lydney Park, Lydney, Gloucestershire. Diane is found as a cabin passenger travelling with the Fendall family on the Rose of Sharon to Canterbury in 1857.] His 2nd eldest son, Walpole founded Fendalton, a suburb of Christchurch. Henry's uncle, John became Lieutenant-governor of Java and Singapore in 1816. Henry's father, William was Sheriff of Gloucester. Anglican History pdf

Timaru Herald
FENDALL. On the 27th May, 1882 at Ashbury, the residence of his son- in-law, Captain Belfield Woollcombe, R.N., the Rev. Henry Fendall, aged 87. [Buried in the Timaru Cemetery]

____________________

Daily Southern Cross, 27 September 1862, Page 3
We copy the following from the Times, July 22nd : "To Henry Rose, Esq , captain of the ship 'Mermaid.' � July 19th, 1862 �Sir, we, the undersigned passengers by the ship 'Mermaid,' from Canterbury, New Zealand, to London, having, by the mercy of a kind providence, arrived at the place of our destination after a short and pleasant voyage of 73 days, cannot now take our leave of you without expressing the grateful sense we entertain of the constant, kind, and courteous attention which we have received at your hands We are quite sure you have not left a single opportunity unimproved of administering to our comfort and happiness by means consistent with the necessary ship regulations, and whilst if the hour of danger had come we should have placed the greatest confidence in your comage and skill as a commander . It gives us pleasure to acknowledge that in the hour of relaxation we found in you a cheerful, agreeable, and most gentlemanly companion. We feel too, that the same remarks equally apply to all the other officers of the ship, and we shall esteem it as a favour if you will covey to them the expression of our grateful acknowledgments. We are also bound to state that we have found the table ; arrangements on board your ship conducted upon so liberal a scale, that not only all the necessaries, but the greater part of the luxuries of her have been supplied to us in ample abundance. Sincerely wishing to yourself and the other officers of the ship every happiness, and much professional success, we remain, Sir, your very obedient servants, A. K. Abbott, Wm. Ewart, H. Fendall, W N. Millton, John Wallace, Thomas Fisher, M.D., Michael Lewis, John Miln, Arch. Clark and family.

____________________

The two families children had 'identical names' but different birthdates.

My Opie ancestors under the surname 'Manaton' (Maneton in the Lyttelton Times) came from Calstock Parish, Cornwall. Peternell, my great great grandmother, married Francis Opie (d.1861), of Stithians, m. in Calstock in 1841 and she married John Manaton in 1862 just a week before the �Mermaid� sailed, settling in Christchurch. The official shipping list indicates that there were two Henrys and two Marys Manaton. In fact there was a Henry and a Mary Manaton and a 'Henry' and a Mary Opie. Henry Opie was in fact Charles Henry Adolphus Truscott Opie. CHAT Opie as he was known, was not called 'Henry' in any other circumstances, as far as I am aware, so it is tempting to think what form the conversation with the booking/boarding agent took. That said, the Lyttelton Times shows only two Manaton children in the married couples list, so the transcriber could not make sense of the four children officially listed, despite their recorded various ages. Our greater family believe that the 3rd Opie child (18 years) also came out on the journey, but paid full fare and was therefore a cabin passenger. He was not therefore recorded as a government immigrant and did not rate highly enough to get mentioned in the Lyttelton Times  cabin passengers list.  G R MacDonald in his "Dictionary of Biographies, Canterbury" obviously had problems reconciling the two Henrys' and 2 Marys', because he records one of each as 'Harry' and 'May'. Information courtesy of Melville Opie, posted 14 March 2008.

The Opie family emigrated to USA, from Devon, and returned to Cornwall, overall somewhere between 1845 and 1855. Their first child, Francis Thomas Opie, was registered birth certificate Oppey, so this may have been the family name by which they passaged to America. The second born, a son was born in Cornwall in 1847, was drowned in Lake Superior.

Cornwall Online Census Project�1861
Transcript of Piece RG9/1533 (Part 2), ED 4b 
Civil Parish of Luxulyan
Folio 42 Page 9
38, Pontsmill Rashleigh Arms,1
Francis 	Opie 	Head	M	51	Farmer And Inn Keeper, Stithians Cornwall
Peternell 	Opie 	Wife	M	41	Farmer's Wife, Calstock Cornwall
Francis J. 	Opie 	Son	U	16	Farmer's Son, Calstock Cornwall
Charles 	Opie 	Son		 7	Farmer's Son, USA. Overseas Brit. Subj.
Mary A. 	Opie 	Dau		 5	Farmer's Dau, St Blazey Cornwall

At that time, Cornwall was a (tin and copper) mining and farming county. It was experiencing the effects of industrialisation, where machinery was taking away the jobs of the workers (miners and labourers) and also allowing the land barons to farm more comprehensively for themselves, and so to close the tenencies.
    Also, typhoid was rampant in London and other cites which were struggling to cope with the disposessed, making migration to the cities unattractive. To the more adventurous and the disillusioned, the promise lands of America, Australia and NZ were increasingly attractive.
    Plymouth was the favoured point of embarkation after catastrophic collisions in the English Channel. Most of the immigrants were of assisted passage. Assisted immigrants were generally required to be not more than 40 years of age. Some occupations were favoured e.g. artisans and farm labourers.

Peternell's brother-in-law was John Keast. He and his wife, Eliza, (Peternell's sister) were both recorded as 43 years, so one assumes that they liked their chances of assistance better as a labourer than saddler, his occuption in Cornwall. They had one child, Eliza Mary who was 12 years at the time, at which age she was required to travel in the single women accomodation.

Cornwall Online Census Project�1861 
Transcript Piece RG9/1525 (Part 1)
Civil Parish of Botus Fleming, ED 1
Folio 25 Page 28 Landrake Village
John 	Keast, Head	M 44 Saddler	Callington Cornwall
Eliza F Keast, Wife	M 45 		Calstock Cornwall
Eliza M Keast, Dau	U 12 Scholar	Week St Mary Cornwall
William Keast, Father	W 65 Farmer	Callington Cornwall

1861 England census records are divided into groups by county, then by parish, and in many cases by enumeration districts as well. An ED was considered to be roughly equivalent to the area that a census worker or "enumerator" could cover in one day.


ARRIVAL OF THE MERMAID
(From the "Lyttelton Times," February 18 1864)
Emigration to Canterbury : Shipping Lists 1856-1874

On Tuesday afternoon, about three o'clock, a large ship was made out in the distance from the look out on the Sumner Road. The pilot reached her before entering the heads. Soon afterwards Captain Thompson hoisted her number on the mizzen mast of the Derwentwater. This was the signal for the rest of the fine fleet of ships now at anchor in the harbour to give Captain Rose a hearty welcome. In a few minutes the ships looked very gay with bunting, as if dressed for some holiday occasion. The tide was almost half flood, and a light breeze from the N.E. assisting the noble ship with her cloud of canvas to make good way she was not more than an hour and a half in reaching her anchorage. When rounded to, Captain Thompson saluted with his 16-ponders and dipped his ensigns. The Annie Wilson and Captain Clare of the Canterbury took up firing. Captain Rose, of the Mermaid, was not long in responding to the compliment, the crew and passengers joining with a right good hearty cheer. Dr. Donald and another of the immigration commissioners were alongside in a few minutes. After the anchor was down, and on receiving satisfactory replies to the usual questions respecting the health of the passengers the starboard gangway was lowered and they passed upon deck. By this time several boats full of anxious friends had arrived, and a regular struggle took place for the first shake of the hand with Captain Rose, Mr M'Quade and other familiar friends. The Mermaid brings 338 passengers, chiefly immigrants. Dr.  P. A.Cocksidge (late of the Chrysolite) comes out as surgeon-superintendent. During the voyages the passengers had the benefit of fine weather nearly all the way out, in their own language, �there was scarce one evening but they could dance on deck.� All are in high spirits, and it is needless to say are satisfied with the ship and her officers. One birth and three deaths occurred on the voyage.

W.H.R. Dale Album, Canterbury Museum

Assisted Emigration to Canterbury
Families and Children page 32
Thorndon	Thomas 		37 Linlithgow Carpenter
		Mary 		33
		Mary 		12  			Transferred to pg22
		Ellen 		10
		James 		 9
		Catherine 	 6

Trail		George  	32 Aberdeen Farmer Laborer
		Elizabeth 	31
		Jane 		 9
		George 		 4
		Alexander 	 3
		Elizabeth 	 1

Buchan		William  	37 Fifeshire Ploughman
		Margrie 	37
		Marjorry 	14			Transferred to pg22
		Helen		11
		Eliza		 4

Burke		Martin  	22 Fifeshire Ploughman
		Anne 		21
		Mary 		 5 months

Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 7 January 1868
LYTTELTON. Arrived.�January 3, ship Mermaid, from London

On Nov. 10, 1883 the MERMAID of Cardiff left Quebec for Liverpool with a cargo of timber when, due to stress of weather - lost sails, rudder, etc, she was wrecked on the edge of the Salthouse Bank, (not the Horse Bank) England on December 13th 1883 as she had drifted ashore in the severe gale.  The crew of twenty-one plus Captain Coward's two daughters, abandoned the wreck in two boats. The Lytham, St. Annes, Southport and Blackpool Lifeboats all launched to her assistance.  The Lytham Lifeboat CHARLES BIGGS came up with the 2 boats as they were on the verge of sinking and rescued all twenty-three. The other three lifeboats returned to their stations. The MERMAID went to pieces and caused quite considerable trouble for a time with the cargo and wreckage floating up and down the river endangering other vessels, piers etc.  The Lytham to Blackpool railway line was even blocked with wreckage at one time.  A certain amount of equipment, cargo and metal hull sheathing was salvaged and taken to the Lytham wreck yard or stored at Stanner Point before the wreck was completely destroyed. Information courtesy of David Forshaw. UK. Posted 3 Dec. 2000.

Have tried the Canterbury Museum, and also NZ Archives, for an image of the 'Mermaid', but without success.


Lyttelton Times, 4 February 1860, Page 4 Cleared.
Feb. 3, ship Mermaid, 1233 tons, James White,- for London. Chief Cabin Passengers.—Archdeacon Paul, Mrs. and Miss Paul, Mr.C.E. and Mrs. Prichard and eight children; Miss Braitwaite, Messrs. J. Cotterill, J. Porter, Hankinson, Watson, Pharyzer, Smyth, and Halstead. Second cabin. Mr. and Mrs. Varyer, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan and six children, Mrs. Blackie. Mr Blackie. Intermediate:— Mr. and Mrs. W. Crocombie, Mr. and Mrs. W. Satchell, and child, Mr. and Mrs. J. Clarke, and two children, Mr. and Mrs. J. Moore, E. Bond and child, Messrs. D. Thomas, J. Whitmore, and J. Mereford.

Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 23 January 1869, Page 3
Lyttelton Times, January 9. The clipper ship Mermaid, Captain Rose, arrived in harbour yesterday morning, from London, after a passage of ninety-four days. She brings 131 Government emigrants � Male adults, 35 ; female, ditto, 89; male children, 4 ; female, ditto, 2 ; infant, 1. The Commissioners inspected the ship, and found everything in the most admirable order, and the ship a pattern of cleanliness ; the single women's compartment being especially neat. The Commissioners expressed themselves highly satisfied with the whole of the arrangements throughout. There was no complaint made by any of the emigrants or the passengers. The Mermaid brings out several old colonists. She has also on board a splendid short-horn cow, also some pure-bred Southdown sheep, and eight Merino rams. Mr. McQuade, the purser, has also brought out some linnets, larks, blackbirds, canaries, gold-finches, and also some pure-bred Cochin China fowls. The following are the names of the passengers : Cabin � Mr. and Mrs. R. Wilkin, Messrs. James David, John Robert, Miss Rachel Wilkin, Mr. and Mrs. Milton, family and servant, Miss Pilgrim, Mr. and Mrs. Allen, Mr. Brown, and Mr. Bishop ; second cabin � Mr. and Mrs. Palchett and family (9), Mr. and Mrs. Patchett, jnn., Mrs. Preston, Mr. and Mrs. May, Master May, Messrs. Condell, Goldsmith, Ogilvie, and Drummond. �