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Auckland Islands are abandoned as a whaling station

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 The Enderby Settlement 1850-1852 down under.

Notes from the Web

Daily Southern Cross, 14 December 1849, Page 4
New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian, 26 December 1849, Page 2
THE AUCKLAND ISLANDS. (From the Hobart Town "Britannia," Nov. 22.)
The barque " Samuel Enderby, Capt, Henderson, from England, 17th August, anchored off Crayfish Point on Monday evening, having on board Charles Enderby, Esq., the well known and much respected merchant and ship.-owner of London, who has been appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the settlement about to be formed at the Auckland Islands, of which Mr. Enderby and a company for the promotion of the South Sea Fisheries by British capital and industry have obtained a grant. He is accompanied by his secretary, a Mr. Smith, and a medical gentleman. There are also about fifty persons on board, principally married families, who intend trying their fortunes in the new colony. Having been on board several hours, we have authority for stating, that great satisfaction was expressed by the passengers generally, at the treatment they had received from the Lieutenant-Governor and the captain and officers of the vessel. Mr. Cleburne supplied about six tons of fresh supplies of all things likely to make those on board comfortable in every way during the remainder of the voyage, which will be, probably, a week. The " Enderby" was to sail yesterday morning at daylight. In an early number we will give particulars as to what was expected by the Company promoting this particular scheme of colonization, merely observing now, that in its pecuniary interests it is entirely free from British Government control. Two other ships from England for the Auckland Islands are on their way, on board of which is an Assistant Commissioner.

New Zealander, 19 December 1849, Page 2
Shipping Intelligence.
DEPARTURES. Dec. 17— H.M.S. Fly, Captain Oliver, for Wellington
The Samuel Enderby.— This barque, 395 tons, Captain Henderson, is now lying off Brown's River, bat will immediately leave for the Auckland Islands, her original destination. Charles Enderby, Esq. came to town this morning 1 to order some necessaries for the vessel, and who states that the Auckland Island Company have sent this vessel with 40 mechanics and their families, for the purpose of forming a new Colony ; two other vessels— the Fanny and the Brisk, left Plymouth the? same time, 17th August. The Admiralty have decided that  man-of-war shall touch at the settlement once a month. The Islands are situated in 51 south 166 east. Mr. Enderby is the Chief Commissioner of the Company, and has been appointed by the Queen, Lieutenant - Governor of the Islands, independent of all other colonies— Colonial Times, Not. 20.

New Zealander, 30 March 1850, Page 2
We have to acknowledge the kindness of two gentlemen belonging to H, M. ships Havannah and Fly, in furnishing us with a few interesting particulars of the cruise of these vessels, from hence to the Auckland Islands and back. The men-of-war sailed from Wellington on the 6th February, and after a favourable passage anchored in Port Ross, Auckland Islands, on the 13th. The members of the preliminary expedition, under the command of Lieutenant-Governor Enderby, with Messrs. Macworth and Smith as Assistant and Secretary, with about 30 mechanics and artizans, arrived all well, on the 15th December, 1849, in the ships Samuel Enderby and Fancy, which vessels were lying at anchor, together with a cutter from Sydney. A bachelor's house, a house for Mr. Enderby, and two cottages had been erected, and a large zinc, or galvanized iron store, to work the blubber in, was in course of erection. They had also ready for launching a small cutter, which had been brought out in frame — in fact, everything evinced energy. The people complained of want of fresh provisions and vegetables, which were daily expected from Sydney ; but, as large supplies will be required for the whalers, we imagine that the Auckland Islands will have, ultimately to be supplied from New Zealand. The new comers also complained of not being able to make an appeal against any decision of Mr. Enderby, who was both law maker and law breaker. This may be easily rectified by the inhabitants electing two or three of their number to act as magistrates with Mr. Enderby. The weather was cold ; thermometer as low as 42 °. On Saturday, February 22 a heavy gale from S. S. W. and S. was experienced at the Aucklands. There are about 50 Moaries on the island, whose condition willbe materially improved by the arrival of the expedition. The Havannah and Fly left, the Aucklands on the 23rd February ; on the 28th the Fly communicated with Otago ; on the 28th the two anchored in Akaroa, where the Acheron was lying; on the 4th sailed for Port Cooper and anchored there on the 5th ; on the 7th, in the evening;, both ships sailed for Port Underwood and anchored there on the 10th ; left Port Underwood yesterday morning, and arrived here about 12 o'clock, thus completing trip interesting trio in little more than one month.— Wellington Independent , March 13.

Daily Southern Cross, 15 October 1850, Page 4
Auckland Islands. (From the Wellington Spectator.)
The settlement formed at these Islands under the. direction of C. Enderby, Esq., for the prosecution of the whale-fisheries in these seas has now been established nine months, Mr Enderby, the Governor, having arrived there with the first settlers 4th December, 1849. The group known as the "Auckland Islands" consists of six islands, the largest, Auckland Island, on which the settlement is established, at Port Ross, the principal harbour, is thirty miles long by fifteen miles broad, and contains about 120,000 acres, mostly available land. Adam's Island, the next in importance, lies to the southward of Auckland Island, from which it is separated by Adam's Straits. This Island is about fifteen miles long. Enderby Island, at the entrance of Port Ross, is a small island nearly free from wood, about two miles and three quarters long by one mile wide, and the land of an undulating character. There are three smaller islands, Ewing Island, Ocean Island, and Rose Island, and several islets, but these latter are not of any practical value. The population amounts to seventy-three souls, and since the formation of the settlement there have been two marriages and four births the general health of the settlement has been very good, no sickness has occurred, and the settlement generally is in a thriving condition. All the Company's buildings were erected, and the settlers had completed their dwellings before the approach of winter, and several of them had commenced the formation of gardens. The soil is described to be of the richest character, and nine feet in depth, and the vegetation very luxuriant ; the general character of the Auckland Island , is hilly, and it is covered with dense wood, chiefly Rata. .The highest hill, about three miles from the settlement, is 1500 feet above the level of the sea. The winter has proved milder than was expected, in fact milder, than an average winter in England, but we are able to supply to supply information at this point, haying been favoured by Mr. Enderby with a copy of a Meteorological Journal for the months of June and July, kept at Port Ross, an which all the variations of temperature and weather have been carefully noted. There have been two or three falls of snow during the winter, but the snow has never laid even on the tops of the hills for more than three days together.  The Spring and Autumn are described (according to the experience of the settlers) as being the most boisterous season the winds are mostly from the westward. No earthquakes have been. felt since the formation of the settlement, and the natives living on the island have no recollection or tradition of earthquakes. Fish are caught in great abundance, forming a useful addition to the settlers' fare, the sorts are described as excellent, but there does not appear to be any great variety : snipes also are very plentiful, and three sorts of ducks are found on the island. The sheep and cattle which have been brought to the settlement, have been turned on Enderby Island and left without any attendance and have thriven  uncommonly well. The general depth of water in Port  Ross is from seven to nine fathoms, at the spot selected for the erection of the Company's wharf there is a depth of twelve feet water, which will allow- Vessels to lay' alongside, and discharge their cargo. The rise and fall of tide is between five and six feet. The South Harbour in Adams' Strait, at the opposite extremity of the island, to Port Ross, is described as being a magnificent harbour, with an entrance from the east and west ; the former is the entrance for vessels, the western entrance being contracted, and only fit for boats; the average depth of water is from twenty to fifty fathoms, and the habour is indented with numerous coves and branches; it has, not, yet been, sufficiently surveyed.. The Company's ship Fancy was lying at Ocean Point, whales were setting in at the end of July, with every appearance, of their being plentiful, and active preparations were mating for commencing whaling operations. Two vessels were daily expected out from England,, the Earl of Hardwicke built by Messrs. White of the Isle of Wight, and the Sir James Ross, by Messrs. Moore & Co., expressly for the Company, they are, both barques of 250 tons, each, and from I the established reputation of their builder are expected to prove, regular clippers. After discharging their cargoes, they will immediately proceed to the whaling grounds. We hope to have frequent, opportunities of recording the prosperous progress of this settlement, and the successful development of the Company's plans, as we are persuaded their operations are calculated to exercise a most important influence on the Whale Fisheries of these seas, and they cannot fail to assist an promoting the prosperity of the Southern Settlements of New Zealand. I We subjoin the Harbour Regulations, having reference to whaling and, sealing : "Notice . — The Island denominated Lord Auckland's Group, having been granted to the Messrs. Enderby, for the purpose of enabling them, to prosecute the Whale and Seal Fisheries, have become private property, although now vested in the hands of a Chartered Company. No vessels, therefore, except those belonging to the "Southern. Whale Fishery Company," will be permitted to anchor on the Coast, nor in the Bays of the said Islands, for the purpose of Whaling or Sealing, since persons capturing such Whales and Seals are no more entitled to them than in England, where they would be claimed as belonging to the Crown, Droits of Admiralty, Lord of the Manor, &c. Every assistance and accommodation, however, will be afforded to vessels which may visit these islands for Trade, Repairs, Stores, or Refreshment ; but no vessel will be allowed to break bulk, nor land goods, of any description until twenty-four hours after the master of such vessel has delivered to the Storekeeper a Manifest of the cargo, and in case of failure or refusal to answer all such questions relating to the cargo, the master of such vessel shall either quit the Islands without breaking bulk, or forfeit the sum of (£2O) Twenty Pounds. Any person or persons attempting to introduce, sell or dispose of Wines or Spirituous Liquors, without permission first obtained in writing from the Lieutenant-Governor, shall be subject to a fine of (£2O) Twenty Pounds, and such Wines or Spirits will be forfeited. The masters of all vessels touching at tie Auckland Islands will understand /that application to wood, water and refresh, must be made to the Storekeeper appointed.
Charles Enderby, Lt-Governor.
Port Ross, Auckland Island,
15th June, 1850.

New Zealander, 3 September 1851, Page 2
CLEARED OUT. September 1 - Black Dog, schooner, 142 tons, J. R. Garrick, for Port Stephens, New South Wales- Passengers — Lieutenant-Governor Enderby, M. A. King, Esq., Dr. and Mrs. Ewington, Mrs. Cook and child, Mr. Bell, Henry Waite. Brown and Campbell, agents.
September 2 — Helen S. Page, barque, 226 tons, Captain J. J. Church, for Sydney. Passengers — Captain Dacre, Messrs. Johnson, Fishwick, Hust, Beaton, and Mr. Strangwide and wife. — J. Macky, agent.

EXPORTS— Foreign. Per Black Dog, for Port Steven, New South Wales— 24 casks of pork, 28 bags of pollard, 250 bushels of maize, 1 case of furniture ; and part of original cargo, from Wellington.
Per Helen S. Page, for Sydney — 2 anchors, 1 chain cable, 10 cases oilman's stores, 1 case ironmongery, 5 cases lime juice, 48 demyons, 16,000 feet sawn timber.

New Zealander, 19 May 1852, Page 3
The following statement is taken from the Sydney Empire of April 26. It will be read with some interest, especially now when a promising 1 effort is in progress for the establishment of a Whale Fishery from our own port: — By the Samuel Enderby, which arrived in this port on Saturday last, we learn that the Auckland Inlands Whaling Station has been abandoned. Two Commissioners, Messrs. George Dundas and Robert Preston, appointed by the Company in London, had arrived at Port Ross previously to the sailing of this vessel, with instructions to break up the Establishment. It is reported that the conduct of these gentlemen towards the Lieutenant-Governor, Mr. Enderby, was most unnecessarily harsh and discourteous, and as it appears to have extended to an actual subversion of his Royal Commission, without any delegated authority in that respect, it will probably lead to a complicated process of litigation. On the 27th of last month, H.M.S. Calliope arrived at Port Ross, and an application was made to her by Mr. Enderby for assistance to maintain his position as Lieutenant-Governor, but with what particular result we are not informed. As the Calliope left on the 30th for Hobart Town, we presume all interference in the matter was declined. It is said that Mr. Enderby was even peremptorily denied the privilege of sending letters to Sydney by the vessel which arrived on Saturday, and that in consequence they were enclosed in the Calliope's mail. A vessel was about to proceed to New Zealand, and probably to this colony, to select a new station for the Company ships; we have not, however any positive information as to her instructions.

August 21 1852 Otago Witness
We are doomed to be disappointed!- the expected emigrant ship which last week raised our expectations has turned out to be a whaler. The barque "Earl of Hardwicke" comes from the Auckland Islands, and has on board the remnant of the Southern Whale Fishery Company's staff and crews. The Auckland Islands are abandoned as a whaling station' and from the not very flattering description of the place, we apprehend there is little prospect of any attempt again being made to colonise them. The breaking up is so complete, that the Government House has been brought away, and is now being offered for sale. It is a large wooden house, containing twelve rooms. The discovery of gold diggings will in all probability put a stop to the obtaining of crews for whaling voyages, at least for a time; The failure of the Auckland Islands scheme does not surprise us; One of the chief reasons for choosing the Aucklands as a station was to prevent the desertion of the crews, and by compulsion to make them work the time stipulated for in the articles. This compulsion is all very well to check the vagrant spirit of a few seamen who would else desert their ships at every port in which a pretty lass or a glass of grog offered their seductions to the susceptible Jack. Viewed in this light, the term of the articles thoughtlessly signed is nothing less than so many years of slavery. It is a well known fact that a considerable proportion of the population of New Zealand, especially in the older settlement, consists of sailors who have either deserted or been discharged from emigrant ships; and although they might possibly refuse to go on one voyage, they would in all probability go the next; and as vessels would return to the same port, the loss from one would supply another, the sailor would return to his home and become a fixed member of the community.

New Zealander, Volume 8, Issue 640, 2 June 1852, Page 2
The Black Dog had arrived at Wellington, having on board Lieutenant-Governor Enderby, and Messrs. Dundas and Preston, the Commissioners from the Whaling Company in London, whose " harsh and discourteous conduct" towards Mr. Enderby was pointedly referred to by the Sydney Empire. The Commissioners were sent out by the British South Sea Whale Fishery Company, to examine into the state of their affairs at Port Ross, and with the power to break up their establishment at the Auckland Isles if in the judgment of the Commissioners such a course should be deemed desirable. The Commissioners' decision being unfavourable to Port Ross as an eligible and desirable Whaling Station, Mr. Enderby resigned his commission as Superintendent of the Station into their hands ; but continued, of course, nominally the Lieutenant- Governor of the Isles. It having been determined to break up the establishment, and to seek an eligible station on the coast of New Zealand, the Commissioners insisted on Mr. Enderby accompanying them, under a threat of bringing him in irons if he would not consent. The conduct of the Commissioners, towards Mr. Enderby as the Representative of the Crown at the Auckland Isles, will be of course a subject of enquiry.

New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian, 30 June 1852, Page 3
The plaintiff in this action, Charles Enderby, Esq., on the 5th June instant, commenced an action against George Dundas and Thomas Robert Preston, Esquires, the Special Commissioners of the Southern Whale Fishery Company, to recover damages by certain acts of trespass alleged to be committed by them, Messrs. Dundas and Preston, against him. Large article....

Samuel Enderby, Merchant of that City (London), the original of the famous Whaling House of Samuel Enderby, Merchant of that City (London), the original of the famous Whaling House of Enderby & Sons.. Enderby

August 28 1852 Otago Witness
Arrived. August 18th, barque, Earl of Hardwicke, 247 tons, Young, master, from Auckland Islands. Passengers Mr W.A. Mackworth, Mr and Mrs Munce and 7 children, Mr Barton and 2 children, Mr Waite, Furneaux, Bryon, and Collins. F.V. Martin, agent.

September 4 1852 Otago Witness
Sailed. August 24, barque Earl of Hardwicke, 247 tons, Young, master, for Sydney, having on board original cargo and passengers from the Auckland Islands.

Index to the Unassisted Arrivals NSW 1842-1855

Augusta from Auckland Islands to Sydney 26 May 1850
BARNETT 	Robt H Mate 
COLE 		Mr, Mrs, 1Dau 
LANDELS 	Mr Landles in SMH 
MAISH 		Mr, Mrs, 2Sons, 1Dau 
SALT 		Mr Augusta 
SMITH 		Mr, Mrs, 2Sons, 2Daus 
STEPHENS 	Mr Stephen in SMH 
WARRENTON 	Mr, Mrs Warrington in SMH 
YOULE 		Mr, Mrs Yule in SR list 
YULE 		Mr, Mrs Youle in SMH 

'Earl of Hardwicke' arrived Sydney  from Otago & Auckland Islands 12 Sept. 1850. SMH

Names 							Status Date of Arrival From Pt 
BARTON 		Mr F 					P Mr F. Borton in SR list 
BARTON 		Mrs, 2Daus 	 			P 
BROWNE 		G 		 			M 12/9/1850 Auckland Is. Brown
BROWNE 		Mrs 		 			P 12/9/1850 Auckland Is. Brown
BYRON 		Wm Mr 		 			P 
COLLINS 	Daniel Mr 	 			P 
FURNEAUX  	Mr G		 			P 
MUNCE 		Mr, Mrs W J, 4Sons, 3Daus, & Serv 	P Munee in SR list 
WAIT 		Mr H  		 			P 
YOUNG 		R 		 			M 

The Fanny from Auckland Islands to Sydney 1 Feb. 1851
BROOKS 		Capt 
CATTIN 		Edwd  
HALLETT  	Dr C., Dau Hallatt 	in SMH 
HARRIS 		S  			Seaman? 
HARRISON 	B  			Seaman? 
JOHNSON 	Wm  			Seaman? 
JONES 		A  			Seaman? 
MARRIOTT 	W  			Seaman? 
MARSHALL 	Wm  			Seaman? 
PERRY 		James  			Seaman? in SMH 
STEWART 	Peter  			Seaman? in SMH 
STOWE 		J.S. Mate  		Stove in SR list
TAYLOR 		John 
WALKER 		Thos 			Seaman? 
WEEDEN 		Thos  			Seaman? 
Black Dog  from Pt Ross Auckland, arrived Sydney 13 April 1851
COOPER 		John, Mrs, Son, Dau 
KING 		Mr 
SMITH 		James 
WILKS 		George 		Wicks in SR list 
Black Dog from Auckland, and Bay of Islands 1 October 1851 
BELL 		Mr 
COOKE 		Miss 
COOKE 		Mrs, Dau 
ENDERBY 	Lt Govr Charles, Govr of the Auckland Islands 
EWINGSTON 	Dr, Mrs Ewington in SMH 
KING  		Mr C
STEELE 		James Steel in SMH 
WAITE 		Mr H Weight in SMH 
Fancy from Auckland Islands arrived Sydney 15 December 1851 
OLIVER 		Capt, Mrs, Dau 
RODD 		Mrs 
STOVE 		James 
STOVE 		Mrs, Son, Dau 
Amazon arrived Sydney 17 December 1851 from Auckland Is. and Macquarie Is.
BROWN 		Miss 
HOWELL 		John 
HOWELL 		Mrs, 3Sons, Dau 
STEPHENS 	Miss Honor 
Samuel Enderby from Port Ross, Auckland Is. & Macquarie Is. to Sydney 25 April 1852

CLARK 		Mr Mrs, 1Son 
CRANE  		Mr Mrs G 2Sons 
EVENTON  	Mrs W D. Mr, Mrs Emington 
HENDERSON 	W H J in SR list 

May 8 1852 Otago Witness
Arrived Port Chalmers. May 3, the Black Dog, 142 tons, Garrick, master, from Auckland Islands. F.V. Martin agent.

Black Dog  from Port Ross, Auckland Islands, arrived 6 August 1852 Sydney 
GARRICK 	John R  (Mate)
SMITH 		John 
Brisk from Pt Ross, Auckland Islands to Sydney 6 August 1852
BELL 		J/T, Mrs, 2Sons 
CHAPMAN 	J/T, Mrs, 3Sons, 1Dau 
EVANS 		Mrs, 2Daus, 1Son 
FREEMAN 	Mrs, Dau Brisk 
GOODGER 	Mr, Mrs, Son Goodyer in SMH 
HUNT 		Mrs, Son 
LOMAX 		Mrs 
RODD 		Mr, Mrs Dr in SMH 
WEBB 		Mrs, Son B

Fancy (Fanny in SMH) from Auckland Islands & Port Cooper arrived Sydney 12 Sept. 1852 
BROWN 		Mrs 
COOK  		Miss E
COOK  		Mrs G, Son 
COOK 		Mrs R , 2Sons, 1Dau 
MANN 		Mr, Mrs, 1Son, 1Dau 
SCOTT 		Mrs 
SMITH 		James   mate in SMH
STONE 		Mrs, 1Son, 1Dau 
STONE 		Mate, James Smith in SR list 

 Kelya wrote: You cannot imagine my delight when I found Vol.3, Issue 2 of March 2000 by Greenwich Industrial History Society on the Web, with comprehensive notes regarding Charles Enderby and the Auckland Islands in the "Making History" section and the article by Barbara Ludlow titled "The Enderby Settlement Diaries". It has added much to my research regarding the ill-conceived settlement and spurred me on to find more information so I wanted you to know how much I appreciated the article, albeit four years after it appeared in print. I am seeking the passenger lists of the ships - "Brisk", "Fancy" and "Samuel Enderby" which carried the intended settlers to the Islands and am also endeavouring to have the Enderby Settlement Diaries checked for Mann Family references. I would be happy to hear from any descendants of the original settlers who may have contacted you following the articles, with a view to exchanging data.

The diaries of William Mackworth, Assistant Commissioner and William Munce, Company Accountant, start on 1st January 1850 and finish on 13th August 1852. They have now been published in New Zealand. As well as a complete transcription of the diaries there are excellent chapters on all aspects of the Auckland Islands settlement. 288 page book contains 32 plates plus maps and plans.

Mackworth, William Augustus, 1825-1855.
Enderby Settlement diaries : records of a British colony at the Auckland Islands, 1849-1852 / diarists, William Augustus Mackworth, William John Munce ; edited by P.R. Dingwall
xviii, 266 p. : ill., (some col.), facsims., maps, ports. ; 24 cm. Bibliography includes bibliographical references (p. 261-264).

The diarists : Macworth & Munce -- The diaries (Letters sent by William Munce ; A summary of the Enderby settlement) -- The commentaries (The Maori : Moriori community ; The settlement : Life in the Colony ; Law & order ; The main protagonists ; Whaling & shipping ; Farming ...).

Originally from Boston Massachusetts, the Enderby family settled in London and pioneered the expansion of British whaling into the South Pacific during the latter part of the 18th century. Ships designed for the Southern Whale Fishery were barrel-like, built for capacity rather than speed. Whaling ships were characterised by wooden davits along the side to launch the boats. During the restoration of this model a note was found inside written by the son of the maker "This model, built by Sam White, West Cowes, Isle of White was completed Christmas 1835 and presented to Messrs. Charles, Henry and George Enderby, being the model of a ship called the Samuel Enderby built by my father for the South Sea Whale Fishery in 1834. Sailed its first voyage to the South Seas in 1834 and I am satisfied that you who read will say, well, poor fellow, he has been dead years, yes, and remember your breath is in your nostrils, and in a short time you will be remembered with Sam White, therefore, prepare while you live that your death may be one which will secure to you a lasting eternity of bliss - Goodnight Sam White". This vessel is mentioned by name in the novel Moby Dick by Herman Melville.

New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian,  8 June 1853, Page 3
To Let. With possession on the 1st July, next,
The House at present occupied by Chas. Enderby, Esq., situated at the corner of Cuba Street and Manners Street, containing four rooms and kitchen, &c, complete, rent moderate, apply to Wm. HICKSON & CO. Wellington, June 8, 1853.

Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle,  20 March 1858, Page 2
The Auckland, the winning craft, is a smart little vessel of 12 tons, English built, formerly the yacht of Governor Enderby, at the Auckland Islands; the Sprite is also English built, her keel having been laid, we believe, at Cowes, and was brought out to the colony by her present owner, Mr. Dashwood; while the third Nelson boat, the Flying Fish, has been built by Mr. Freeman expressly for Mr. Duppa for this regatta, and was launched only the day before the race