ILN Engraving : Showing the Canterbury Association ships in the East India Docks, London, 1851.
Bangalore, Dominion, Duke of Portland, Lady Nugent, Midlothian and Canterbury,
No. of Souls. These numbers are very inaccurate because the surgeons, shipping and emigration lists do not tally. Also young children or those born aboard were not given rations or counted as ticketed passengers. Search site Canterbury Bound Early ships - images NZ Archives CHCH
|My count of souls||Museum's est.||pg 9 Star Dec. 15 1900||Vessel||Tonnage||Master|
|3||17||Dec||1850||155||227||227||Sir George Seymour||850||Seymour|
|8||6||Jun||1851||135||130||150||Duke of Bronte||500||Barclay|
|9||8||Jun||1851||114||135||135||Steadfast Account of voyage||534||Spencer|
|10||14||Aug||1851||134||137||137||Labuan Shipping Papers||547||Scott|
|14||26||Sep||1851||151||151||151||Duke of Portland||533||Cubitt|
|17||10||Nov||1851||145||162||150||Sir George Pollock||630||Withers|
|20||24||Jan||1852||3+||20||Columbus arrived via Nelson and Wellington||468||Holton|
|24||21||Sep||1852||3+||10||Persia arrived via Nelson and Wellington (os)||699||Broadfoot|
|25||21||Oct||1852||106||106||Duke of Portland (os)||533||Alexander|
About 3554 souls came out to Canterbury in 2� years on Canterbury Association vessels
Above lists were transcribed from microfilm available at Family History
Centres worldwide through their loan programme. Lyttelton Shipping List. Item
#1066515 which is a copy of passenger lists of some Canterbury Association emigrant ships
held in the Canterbury Museum and Archives New Zealand, Christchurch.*
Passenger lists of Canterbury Association Ships published 1900, 24 Jan 1852 arrival at Lyttelton only lists:
Fatima, a wooden barque, tonnage (A520) and (B 441), built in 1849 in Sunderland,
England. Port Registered: Liverpool. Came out to Lyttelton arriving 27 Dec. 1851
under Captain Sproul, after a voyage of 104 days, she was becalmed for a
fortnight on the "Line" with 122 passengers including
G. DUNNAGE, and his father, Rev. George Dunnage, the chaplain (who suffered a slight stroke on the voyage and died in May 1853)
Alfred DOBSON and his sister-in-law Mary Ann Dobson
Mary Ann Dobson nee LOUGH wife of Edward Dobson who came out on the "Cressy" and the children listed below.
Mary Ann Dobson (1844�1913)
Caroline Dobson (1845�1932)
Edward Henry Dobson (1847�1934)
Maria Eliza Dobson (b. 1848)
Alfred was Edward's brother. Lucy LOUGH sister to Mary Ann came out on the 'Egmont' to married Alfred DOBSON at Sumner, NZ in 1858.
Evening Post, 2 January 1914, Page 9
At the age of ninety-two. Mrs. Dobson, widow of the late Mr. Edward Dobson, for many years Chief Engineer of Canterbury, has died. She was married in England. Her husband came out before her in the Cressy, one of the first four ships, and with him came his two sons. Mrs. Dobson, with three other children, followed in 1852 in the Fatima. There were ten children : Mr. George Dobson, engineer, killed by the Kelly gang on the West Coast in 1866; Mr. A. D. Dobson, city engineer, of Christchurch ; Lady Von Haast, who died in England recently ; Mrs. Charles Todhunter, at present residing in Christchurch; Mr. Edward Dobson, farmer, now in the North Island ; Mrs. Weedon, now residing in England ; Mr, Robert Dobson, who died in Napier some years ago, and who had a good deal to do with starting the frozen meat industry in this country ; Mrs. Hogben, wife of the Inspector- General of Schools ; Mr. Herbert Dobson, freezing works engineer at Gisborne; and Mr. Collet Dobson, who is at present in Australia.
David Anderson b. at Clatt, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on 27th June, 1831. Learned coach building under his father. Came to Canterbury on the "Fatima." He was employed on stations in Huranui and was employed as a builder in Lyttelton. He went to the Victorian goldfields and stayed 2 years. Came back and established himself in the building trade in Christchurch. In 1861 he settled in Timaru and at Pleasant Point, where he followed as a coach-builder and blacksmith for 20 years. He married Miss Elizabeth Bell of Akaroa in 1861. Sister of the late James Bell. Mr Anderson wrote various poems of local interest. Had four sons and five daughters. Moved to Napier 1886. Reference: Cyclopedia of NZ Vo. 6, 1908
Arthur Emileus Ross (1829 - 1876) arrived at Lyttelton on board the
Fatima on 27 December 1851. He came out for two reasons. 1. To restore his
health. 2. He had a distant relation, the Rev. James Wilson, who had arrived in
Lyttelton on the Isabella Hercus. Ross was offered a
cadetship on T. H. Tancred's Malvern Hills station and stayed six months. In
1852 he went to the Victorian goldfields were he remained for two years then
returned to New Zealand. In 1864 he settled in Timaru and at Pleasant Point,
where he followed his trade as a coach builder and blacksmith for twenty years.
While resident in South Canterbury Mr Anderson wrote various poems of local
interest. In 1886 he moved to Napier and after six years moved to Dannevirke. In
1862 at Christchurch he married Miss Elizabeth Bell, the only sister of the late
Mr James Bell, of Akaroa. David Anderson who arrived in Lyttelton Dec 1851 on
the ship Fatima, after a voyage of 104 days. Source: The
Canterbury, 1903. David Anderson was born at Clatt, Aberdeenshire,
Scotland, on the 27th of June 1831.
Richard Turnbull was born at Oxford, England in 1826, and arrived in New Zealand by the Fatima in 1851.
Length in m 34.1376, beam in m 7.9248, draft in m 5.7912
Lost (Lat. 11.7'S Long. 144.1'E) 26 June 1854 at Great Detached Reef (GBR), near Torres Strait, QLD
She was on her way from Melbourne to Batavia (Jakarta) Master W.H. Hardi, owner Hamilton
Reference: Australian National Shipwreck database The "Tasmania" also foundered in Torres Strait.
Otago Witness, 7 February 1852, Page 3
We notice by the "Lyttelton Times," that the "Fatima" had arrived at that port on the 27th December, with upwards of 100 passengers, having sailed from England on the 12th , September direct for Canterbury...
...A spirited sailing match took place in the harbour on New Year's Day between some of . the small vessels chiefly engaged in the Sumner trade. The match, which was hastily got up by the exertions of a few of the settlers, was for two prizes of �7 and �3 10s. respectively. The following vessels started : � Cutters " Katherine Ann and Fisherman ; schooners "Wave, Flirt, Elizabeth, William Horina, General Palmer, and Diana ; sailing from opposite the town, round the ships Cornwall and Fatima, retracing their course round a craft moored off the town, again circumnavigating the ships, and back to the Jetty. The coming in was full of excitement ; three vessels, the Katherine Ann, Flirt, and Wave being nearly abreast of each other. The Umpires awarded the first prize to the Katherine Ann � BELL, master ; and the second to the "Wave � M. Crockett.
Hampshire, ship, 627t, built 1852. Left Gravesend and arrived Lyttelton 11 Dec. 1852 under the command of Capt. Reynall. She was probably the last Canterbury Association vessel. A copy of diary by Edward Palmer Chapman is by the Canterbury Museum Archive and the original was at the Wellington Maritime Museum now The Museum of Wellington - City & Sea
Persia, ship 800 tons, arrived at Nelson 24 July, 1852 after a slow voyage of 205 days
from London, via Hobart were she replenished provisions and water, commanded by Capt.
Passenger lists of Canterbury Association Ships published 1900, 21 Sept. 1852 arrival at Lyttelton only lists:
Stag, 678 tons, Clarke, from London, was built in Sunderland, Scotland in 1842, sailed from the London Docks January 4th 1852 and arrived Lyttelton May 17th 1852. Dr. J. H. Martin's diary is at the Christchurch Museum Archives along with the Canterbury Association shipping papers. Passenger lists of Canterbury Association Ships published 1900. During the voyage there were six on board deaths among the young children. These occurred on or about 16th March, 22nd March, 27th March, 11th April, 26th April and the 8th May.
|Bartram, George S.
Bartram, Mrs Sarah
Eaton, Edward Farmer
Eaton, Emily Gates
Eaton, Mary Ann
Martin, Mr. J.H. (Surgeon Superintendent)
Matthews, Miss. (2) [Mathews, Lyttelton Times]
McBratney, John C.
McBratney, Sarah and son John
Nicholls, Rev. W. (Chaplain & school teacher)
Nicholls, Mrs. [Nichols, Lyttelton Times]
Philpotts, Mr. [Mr. Phillips, Lyttelton Times, 22nd May 1859]
Perceval, Mr. E.
New Zealander, 2 June 1852, Page 2
The Stag arrived at Lyttelton on the 17th of May, after a passage of 133 days from England. She brought 150 passengers, amongst whom were Mr. Bowler, and Dr. Evans, one of the early settlers. The Foundation Stone of the first Church in the Canterbury Settlement had been laid by Mr. Godley on the 24th of April. It is to be called " The Church of the Holy Trinity." The old Society of Land Purchasers being defunct, a Public Meeting had been held to promote a new organization of the settlers. It was resolved to constitute a "Society of Canterbury Colonists, for the discussion of all subjects of public interest." The plan included! Lectures, which Mr. Godley volunteered to commence, taking for his subject the history of New Zealand upon which, he said, " he had bestowed considerable attention."
In a letter from Charles Simeon, chairman of the Society of Canterbury Colonists, dated November 21, 1850, to the secretary of the Canterbury Association, Simeon wrote "the first expedition of colonists consisted of 1200 passengers in six vessels; for though only the Randolph, Sir George Seymour, Cressy and Charlotte Jane sailed from England at the same time; they were so closely followed by the Castle Eden and the Isabella Hercus that the whole of the first colonists really emigrated as a body."
Between 1853 and 1876 New Zealand had a semi-federal system of government, with a central government first in Auckland and then in Wellington, and provincial governments, similar to the states in the USA. Democratically elected provincial councils had, at their head, democratically elected superintendents. John Robert Godley, represented the London-based Canterbury Association in Canterbury. He led the infant settlement from 1850 to 1852, then returned to England. He was never Superintendent. Canterbury's first superintendent was James Edward FitzGerald, the founder of The Press.
John Robert Godley's goal was to establish a fully organised settlement on the Wakefield plan. The New Zealand Company purchased land in Canterbury and sold it to the Canterbury Association for 10 shillings per acre. The Association was to sell it to the emigrants for �3 per acre, a high price. Ten shillings of the money begin returned to the New Zealand Company, ten shillings for surveying and road making, etc, �1 to pay to bring out useful settlers of good character and members of the Church of England, �1 for building of churches and schools and providing for teachers and clergy. The Association charted twenty five ships with, the Charlotte Jane being the first to arrive. In 1853 the Canterbury Association ceased to function and local government was established. The price of land was reduced to �2/acre and the fund for ecclesiastical purposes was dissolved. 12 pence = shilling, 20 shillings = �1. The Provincial Council gave the sheep its due, spending much time legislating to control sheep diseases, fencing and pastoral leases. Wool was king and filled the columns of the Press and the minds of men. The pastoralist followed his sheep through snowstorms and swollen rivers. Later farmers upon smaller English pastures grazed the fat lambs destined to become " prime Canterbury." Provincial Councils were abolished in 1876. In the General Assembly a Liberal-Labour Government in 1891 passed a graduated land tax to "burst the big estates" and a compulsory repurchase plan. By 1900 Canterbury was a province of mixed farming, relying on sheep but producing the largest wheat crop in the Dominion and operated on the plains freeholds of moderate size and in the high country, in extensive leaseholds where the housewife cooked, sewed, gardened, kept house, and reared her family, far from company of other women, in some remote homestead. The agricultural farmer gathered his crops in the parching "nor'wester". It was the men and the women who made the province. The Shepherd is the foundation of Society.
I thank God and ever shall
It is the sheep hath payed for all.
The passengers on board the first fleet bringing English settlers to the Christchurch area were known as the Canterbury Pilgrims. The Charlotte Jane was the first vessel to arrive on 16th December, 1850 followed by the Randolph, Sir George Seymour and the Cressy all sailing into Port Cooper which is now Lyttelton Harbour. In the centre of the city is the Cathedral Square and the Anglican Cathedral where many of Canterbury's pioneers are commemorated in carved stone, timber, brass and glass. Godley Head at the entrance to Lyttelton Harbour was named for the founder of the Canterbury Association, John Robert Godley, an Irish gentleman, who met the ships when they arrived and had over one hundred men preparing for their arrival by surveying, building roads, bridges and barracks under the supervision of Captain Joseph Thomas. The Canterbury pilgrims stayed in the barracks until they made their way via the bridle path over the Port Hills to the Canterbury plains. Godley who arrived in April 1850 was an advisor to the settlers for the next two years and he gave the seat for Canterbury its name after his old university college of Christ Church in Oxford, England. Source: The Story of New Zealand by A.H. Reed. Godley died in England in 1862. News received in NZ end of January.
"When I first adopted, and made my own, the idea
of this colony, it pictured itself to my mind in the colours of a utopia. Now
that I have been a practical coloniser, and have seen how these things are
managed in fact, I often smile when I think of the ideal Canterbury of which our
imagination dreamt, yet I see nothing in that dream to regret or to be ashamed
of, and I am quite sure the without the enthusiasm, the poetry, and the
unreality if you will, with which our scheme was overlaid, it would never have
been accomplished." From the farewell address of John Robert Godley, 1852.
Daily Southern Cross, 3 February 1863, Page 5
At the end of 1852, Mr. Godley, after satisfactory accomplishing his task �3 founder of the colony, returned to England, leaving behind him a wonderful unanimity of opinion on questions of public interest. The Constitution had been granted to New Zealand, and was brought into force in 1853, when the first superintendent and council were elected. From the time when the ''Association's ships" ceased to arrive, to the year 1854, no steps were taken to promote systematic immigration. On the 31st Match of that year, we find that the population only reached the number of 3,805 souls, though the progress made had been very great since 1851. There were 830 houses in, the settlement, 7,221 acres had been fenced and about 3,900 cropped, while the sheep had increased to 115,000, the cattle to 6,363, and the horses to 596. In the April session, out of an expenditure of �19,000, �10,000 was voted for immigration, and Mr. Harman was sent to England as agent. �1,000 was devoted to education, and �2,445 to public works. In the October session of the same year, �10 000 was voted to make the Simmer Road, as the necessity for land communication between the port and the plains had become very pressing. The exports of the year amounted to �14,777, the imports to �100,120. In 1855 the exports reached �43,955, and the imports �97,592. In January, 1856, the population was 5,817, and the wealth of the country laid more than proportionally increased. 12,261 acres were returned as fenced ; there were 220,788 sheep, 12,134 cattle, and 1.189 horses. The exports, however, did not increase at the same ratio.
5 October 2006
The Press (Christchurch)
On the West Porch of the Christ Church Cathedral is the Letters Patent, which created the diocese of Christchurch and the appointment of Henry John Chitty Harper as Bishop. In 1856 Christchurch became the first city in New Zealand under the Letters Patent. The Letters Patent was the document for royal authority to call together the clergy of the provinces of Canterbury or York to deal with matters, which later included the establishment of colonial bishoprics. The city was to be named Christchurch after Christ Church, the Oxford College where one of the founders, John Robert Godley, had studied. In 1851, the Bishop of New Zealand, George Augustus Selwyn, resigned a portion of the diocese of New Zealand to enable the creation of a separate diocese of Christchurch, paving the way for its own bishop. A year later the secretary of the Canterbury Association forwarded a letter to the Colonial Secretary, Sir John Pakington, a "Draft Letters Patent of the proposal for a new Bishopric in New Zealand", stating that the Canterbury Association settled the final wording of the Letters Patent after consultation with "eminent civilians". The main alteration was to change the name of the diocese from Lyttelton to Christchurch "in consequence of a similar change in the name of the capital of the settlement". It was in this draft that the Letters Patent, in its altered form, urged no delay for approval to enable the Archbishop of Canterbury to proceed with the nomination, appointment and consecration of a bishop for Christchurch. Two petitions, signed by 184 people, were then sent. One to Queen Victoria asked her "to issue Her Royal Mandate for the appointment and consecration of a Bishop of Christchurch, the Rev John Chitty Harper", and the other to the Archbishop of Canterbury requesting him to "give the weight of your support to this prayer of our petition". This took place under the Letters Patent on August 10, 1856, in the chapel at Lambeth Palace, London. These Letters Patent set, among other things, the boundaries of the new diocese and ordered that "the Town of Christchurch in the said Diocese of Christchurch to be a Bishop's See and the seat of the said Bishop and do ordain that the said Town of Christchurch shall be a City". This saw the immediate and gratifying elevation of the settlement from town to city confirmed. Harper, according to the law, had to pay five guineas for a dispensation allowing him to be consecrated elsewhere than in Canterbury Cathedral. A month after his consecration, on September 10, Harper and most members of his large family, set sail on the Egmont for New Zealand, arriving in Lyttelton on December 23. They were to live for the next two years in a small, lone cottage in Cambridge Terrace, on a site between the old public library and the Canterbury Club. It was from this modest house on Christmas Day 1856, the day after his arrival in Christchurch, that Harper, with his family, walked to St Michaels Church to become installed as the first Bishop of the City of Christchurch. Harper, as bishop from 1856 to 1890. He steered the diocese through its growing pains in the 1860s and through economic retrenchment in the Long Depression that followed. He acted as Primate for the Anglican Church in New Zealand for much of his time as bishop. He placed pastoral care of his flock above other functions of his calling.
The Canterbury Pilgrims
Three half-score years ago-no more-
Since Godley stood upon the shore,
A leader of the Pilgrims bold,
Who framed the New upon the Old,
And stamp'd the Old upon the New,
'Neath speckless skies of sunny blue.
Three half-score years- and can this be?
'Tis but a ripple on the sea
Of Time: Oh! what a wondrous change,
Since o'er the ridge of yonder range
Hope led the Pilgrims, firm and true,
'Neath speckless skies of sunny blue.
They saw, from the yonder mountain's brow,
Plains yearning from spade and plough:
And where the naked rivers ran,
Vales waiting to be dressed by man:
Their help all Nature seemed to woo,
'Neath speckless skies of sunny blue.
They gave the breeze that fann'd the foam
Sweet farewell sighs to carry Home:-
But though old Albion was dear,
They saw a fairer England here
Awaiting them, the dauntless few,
'Neath speckless skies of sunny blue.
Behold their work! Revere their names!
Green pastures set in golden frames.
Around the City of the Stream.
Fulfil the Pilgrim's brightest dream:
With them a fairer England grew
'Neath speckless skies of sunny blue.
by Thomas Bracken
The Canterbury Association ships Bangalore, Dominion, Duke of Portland, Lady Nugent, Midlothian and Canterbury in the East India docks. [London : Illustrated London news, 1851
Amodeo, Colin The Summer Ships Publisher : Caxton Press March 2001
$49.95 Details on the first six immigrant ships into Lyttelton.
Colin has been writing for at least 40 years: poems, stories, plays and, in the
last 20 years, Pacific and New Zealand maritime history. His recent works
include Forgotten Forty-Niners. Coming up next is The Mosquito Fleet
of Canterbury, covering the small ships of the local coasting fleet
1830�1870. In his spare time, Colin likes to play the bagpipes�usually inside,
for maximum resonance.
*Canterbury Association Shipping Office (London, England) Lyttelton shipping list microfilm. Published: Salt Lake City, Utah : Genealogical Society of Salt Lake City, 1973. Copy of passenger lists who the Canterbury Association authorized to embark for Canterbury from England, Ireland, Scotland and Germany. Contents: Randolph, Isabella Hercus, Duke of Bronte, Labuan, Dominion, Midlothian, Sir George Pollock, William Hyde, Duke of Portland (1st voyage only), Castle Eden, Travancore, Steadfast, Bangalore, Lady Nugent, Canterbury, Cornwall, Samarang. Includes Bombay (1866), list of assisted and free passengers on the ship Blue Jacket (1866). Originals held in the Canterbury Museum.
The Star Saturday 11th August 1894 page 4
A number of friends of Mr F.R. Rayner, who for nearly eleven years, has been in charge of the lighthouse at the Godley Head, having heard that he was about to be removed to Cape Maria van Dieman Lighthouse, took the opportunity on Thursday of wishing him "good-bye" and presenting him with a handsome gold lever hunting watch suitably inscribed, as a mark of their esteem. Several of those present spoke of the hospitable manner in which Mr Rayner had treated all visitors to the lighthouse, and wished him success in his new house in the north.
Aug. 13. 1894 page 3 he Government steamer Hinemoa, which left Lyttelton to-day for Akaroa, took Mr Smith, one of the keepers of the Akaroa light to Farewell Spit, to which light he is being transferred, and also Mr Rayner, from Godley Heads.
Canterbury Museum The First four ships of the Canterbury Association's immigration scheme : [Charlotte Jane, Randolph, Sir George Seymour, Cressy] "These papers have been photocopied from the originals held in the Archives Department of Canterbury Museum for use as a resource for school pupils." 1985
Canterbury Old Colonist's Committee 1900. To mark the 50th Anniversary of the arrival of the first four ships. Canterbury Jubilee Celebrations, published Christchurch Press Printers 1900 by Old Colonists Committee (Canterbury N.Z.), contains incomplete passenger lists of Canterbury Association Ships arriving before 15 March 1853. Includes passenger's names, current address (i.e.1900) and date of death. Lincoln Archive DU 483.4 Can 1900. (subtitle) Passenger lists of Canterbury Association Ships. Lincoln University Library holding.
Canterbury Museum (Christchurch, N.Z.) Shipping lists to places other than Canterbury held by the Canterbury Museum (1872-1878) Christchurch, N.Z. : The Museum, 1978?
Bowler, William The management of shipping for emigration : in a
report to the Canterbury Association
London : Smith, Elder, 1851. Pamphlet 28 p. The accounts of the first eight vessels, allegedly written by E.G. Wakefield. "The ships were sent out at a great loss to the Association, though the report states otherwise" - Hocken.
Davie, Cyrus. 1821? 1871. Journal of a voyage from Plymouth to Port Victoria, or Cooper or Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand September 1850: aka 'Journal of Voyage on board the Sir George Seymour and 'Randolph' C. Davie, began his voyage in 'Sir George Seymour' and transferred ships at sea.
Godley, Charlotte Letters from Early New Zealand, 1850-1853 W&E, 1951. 387pp. 22.5cm. Map of the Canterbury settlement and several photo plates. Genealogical table. Edited with notes by John R Godley (her grandson). The entire book is her letters to her mother describing life in early NZ, particularly Canterbury. It was originally published in 1936 in England in a limited edition for private circulation but released for the general public in 1951, Canterbury Centennial Edition. "one of the most important and most readable records of pioneering life in Canterbury," states the blurb. The below item was written from Dunedin on Easter eve, 1850 in a letter home to her mother in London.
"There are already a great number of people settled outside the town up every little valley, and along the beach too, and ALL well off. Everything is dear, wages 4s a day, bread 9d. the 4lb loaf, meat the same as in London and VERY GOOD, milk ditto, fresh butter 2s a pound, and such washing bills! about 3s a dozen for everything, we pay, for a few things which we brought up to have washed. The poorest people have fresh meat at least once a day, but still there are plenty of grumblers."
......In a letter to her Mother, Charlotte Godley, wife of J.
Godley. Dec 1850,
...Our first days journey was only as far as Mr Deans' station [Riccarton] on the plain, about 10 miles, but we had to climb over the hill. I conclude you know that the great road [Sumner] is still very unfinished; several shoulders of rock that come in the way, and have to be blasted, stop it up completely, and in some places along the line even the path is quite a climb, with a rope to pull yourself up by. Since the money was lent by the Governor for carrying on the works (five weeks ago) about 300 pounds has been devoted to making a bridle path, over the hill, immediately above the port; which is about two miles shorter than the line of the road, but will only be meant for horses. When we went up there was still a bit at the top where no one can ride; a man and horse must climb over rough stones and rocks, and on the other side the descent is steep enough to make most people prefer walking too, until the path is completed.
From the top of the hill we had a lovely view, the day was so very clear. We had rocky hills all round us, and, below, the plain; a dead flat for forty or fifty miles each way, sea beach on one side and hills, rather mountains, on all the others. To the North as far as we could see were the Kaikouras; magnificent hills nearly 10,000 feet high, covered with snow, and clear to the eye as Snowdon on our finest days, thought it was 106 miles from us, as the crow flies.
Godley and his wife Charlotte had left Plymouth, England on 13 Dec. 1850 on board the 'Lady Nugent' to Port Cooper, later renamed Lyttelton via Otago Harbour. Jerningham Wakefield accompanied them. J.R.Godley was born at Killegan, Co. Leitrim, Ireland in 1814. Died in England 28 Oct., 1861 at age 47.. The Lady Nugent called into Wellington after leaving Lyttelton.
Canterbury Association (London, England). Canterbury papers (1850-1852). Christchurch [NZ]: Kiwi Publishers, c1995. 350 pp Facsimile reprint of first edition published in London : John W. Parker & Son, 1850-1852. The Canterbury Papers were published at intervals between February 1850 and May 1852. ISBN: 187714519X information concerning the principles, objects, plans and proceedings of the founders of the settlement of Canterbury in New Zealand
Carrington, C. E. (Charles Edmund), 1897-1990. John Robert Godley of Canterbury. Christchurch, NZ: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1950. 251pp
Godley, John Robert, 1814-1861. A selection from the writings and speeches of John Robert Godley. Christchurch, NZ: Press Office, 1863. Collected and edited by James Edward Fitzgerald, 1818-1896
Parker, John W. Plan of the Association for Founding the Settlement of Canterbury, in New Zealand. London: 1848. 23 pp Founding of Canterbury. NZ Research Room, Christchurch City Libraries holding
Schwarz, Carolyn J. The female emigrants of the Canterbury Association and their role in Wakefield's theory of systematic colonization. [Christchurch, NZ]: [C.J. Schwarz], 1993. Thesis (M.A.) - University of Canterbury. NZ Collection Christchurch City Libraries holding
Thomas, Joseph, b. 1803. Correspondence showing the reason why Mr. Thomas quitted the service of the Canterbury Association. London: Printed by Stewart and Murray, . 16pp NZ Research Room, Christchurch City Libraries holding
Smith, Elizabeth Hamilton, 1898-1987. Thomas Jackson: bishop designate of Lyttelton. Christchurch, N.Z.: [Edward B. Jackson], 1991.
Dunedin's Hocken Library Collection includes the first minute book of the Canterbury Association, dated March 27,1848.
"Seadrift" is the tale of the adventures of a cutter, built and sailed in colonial New Zealand, written and illustrated with a series of watercolours by James Edward FitzGerald -- colonist, politician, editor and founder of The Press. It is one of Canterbury's first children's books started in 1851 and finished seven years later; the story of a small sailing boat launched on the shores of Lyttelton Harbour. The sole copy, written for a small Victorian boy, John Arthur Godley (known as Arthur), son of Canterbury's first superintendent, John Robert Godley, became a family treasure, handed down the generations. In 2000, the family gifted the book to the John Robert Godley Memorial Trust. In 2007, a limited edition will be published, complete with reproductions of FitzGerald's watercolours, to raise funds for choral scholarships at Christ Church Cathedral. FitzGerald, a close friend of the Godleys, spent hours sketching sailing ships for young Arthur and he promised to create a book for the boy, whose family left for England in 1852. In 1858, the book arrived in England as a Christmas present for 11-year-old Arthur. Seadrift incorporates maritime details, absorbed by FitzGerald during the three-month voyage to New Zealand, into a adventure story -- storms, attacks, mystery and exploration. Arthur, later Lord Kilbracken, treasured Seadrift as a reminder of the place where he spent his early childhood. Seadrift became one of Arthur's most treasured mementoes of those years of his early childhood. Arthur returned to England with his parents in early 1853, so he had sailed around the world before the age of six! In 1871, he married Sarina James, daughter of Canterbury Association member Sir Walter James and later first Lord Northbourne. The book is unusual for two other reasons. There were hardly any illustrations in New Zealand books for children until the late 19th century and these were limited to one or two plates. There is nothing like the number or complexity of FitzGerald's illustrations. 2006
Timaru Herald Nov. 4 1865 page 6
"A bronze statue of Mr Godley, by Mr Thomas Woolner (b. 1826 - d. Oct. 1892. Went to Australia from England for two years). The head is full of vivacity and firmness; the face looks keenly forward, the mouth set, the eyes are fixed on the horizon with the air of a man who foresees at once the immediate labors of the settlement and its long future career. Mr Godley is said to have been a man of unusual energy and simplicity of nature."
Members of The Canterbury Association by
which The Settlement of Canterbury was founded.
The Canterbury Association, Incorporated by Charter, 13 November, 1849.
The Association will grant Assisted Passages to the Port of Lyttelton, in the Canterbury Settlement. Ships to sail during February and March, to a __ Member of the Working Classes, being Gardeners, Farm Servants, Labourers, and Country Merchants. The Emigrants must be of the highest Character in Society, Steadiness, and respectability, as certified by Clergyman of their Parish. Particulars with Forms of Application, may be obtained at the Office of Canterbury Association. Adelphi Terrace, London, by Order of the Committee of Management H.F. Alston. Secretary.
The Archbishop of Canterbury (President) (Dr.
John Bird Sumner) (1780-1862)
The Archbishop of Dublin (R. Whately)
The Marquess of Cholmondeley
The Earl of Ellesmere
The Earl of Lincoln M.P.
The Bishop of London (C. J. Bloomfield)
The Bishop of Exeter (H. Philpotts)
The Bishop of Ripon (C. T. Longley)
The Bishop of Winchester (C.R. Sumner)
The Bishop of St David's (C. Thirlwell)
The Bishop of Oxford (Dr. Samuel Wilberforce) (1805-1873 )
Bishop W. H. Coleridge
Lord Geroge Lyttelton- formerly Under-Secretary for the Colonies
Lord Ashley M.P.
Lord Courtrnay M.P.
Lord John Maners M.P.
Lord Alfred Hervey M.P.
Sir Walter Farquhar Bt.
Sir William Heathcore Bt. M.P.
Sir Walter James Bt.
Sir Willoughby Jones Bt. M.P.
The Dean of Canterbury
The Rt. Hon. Henry Goulburn M.P.
Charles Bowyer Adderley M.P.
The Hon. Richard Cavendish M.P.- wealthy landowner who served under the East India Company
Thomas Somers Cocks M.P.
The Hon. Francis Charteris M.P.
John Robert Godley Resident Chief Agent in NZ.
The Rev. George Robert Gleig
Edmund S. Halswell- Barrister
The Ven. Julius Charles Hare
The Rev. Ernest Hawkins- Secretary to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
The Rev. Dr. Samuel Hinds
John Hutt- former Governor of Western Australia, Chairman of the Committee.
The Rev. DeWalter Farquhar Hook
Augustus Stafford M.P.
John Simeon M.P.
The Hon. John Talbot
The Rev. Charles Martin Torlesse - brother-in-law to E.G. Wakefield
The Rev. Robert Wilberforce
G. Keitilby Richards
William Forsyth M.P.
The Rev. Edward Coleridge
The Duke of Buccleuch (K.G.)
Edward Jeningham Wakefield - son of E.G. Wakefield
The Earl of Harewood
The Rt. Hon. Sidney Herbert M.P.
Viscount Mandeville M.P.
The Hon. Sir Edward Cust
The Rev. Richard Chenevix Trench
W. H. Pole Carew M.P.
Viscount Alford M.P.
Lt. Col. Archer
F. Alleyne McGeachy
Charles Griffith Wynne
The Rev. James Cecil Wynter
Lord Brooke M.P.
The Hon. Francis Baring M.P.
James Edward FitzGerald Emigration Agent, screened the working class men and women who wanted an assisted passage to Canterbury
The Rev. William Maddock
William Vaux Esq.
F.W. West M.P.
The Rev. Thomas Jackson
Henry Sewell Deputy-Chairman. He came to out to straighten out the financial difficulties
William Guise Brittan
The Rev. Nugent Wade
Captain Charles Simeon
Henry Selfe Selfe
the Rev. Dr. Rowley
The Rev. John Owen
The Rev. William Josiah Aylmer
The Rev. Robert Bateman Paul
The Hon. Mr. Justice J.T. Coleridge
John Duke Coleridge
Granville E. Harcourt Vernon?
Captain George Daswood
The Rev. John Philip Gell
Plaque at the Christchurch Cathedral entrance
Poster in the Canterbury Museum
Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 13 July 1850, Page 78
Canterbury Association staff
Capt. Joseph Thomas Chief Surveyor, selected Port Cooper Charles Obins Torlesse Assistant Surveyor, assisted in mapping Canterbury Thomas Cass Assistant Surveyor Felix Wakefield Recruited land purchasers for Canterbury William Bowler Manager. Arranged shipping contracts Frederick Young Manager of Shipping, responsible for comfort of the passengers Filby & Stayner London. Ships' Charteres
Captain Thomas with Thomas Cass and Charles Torlesse. Wakefield's nephew,
arrived at New Plymouth aboard the Bernicia on 2 Nov. 1848.
The list of officers in New Zealand, besides Mr. Godley as Resident Chief Agent, and Captain Thomas as Chief Surveyor, contains the names of Messrs. Thomas Cass and Charles Obins Torlesse as Assistant Surveyors. Next come the " Terms of Purchase," dated 1st January, 1850. "the whole quantity of land reserved for the Canterbury settlement, is about 2,400,000 acres in a block;" that with the exception of such land as may be selected by the Agent of the Association for the site of the capital (Christchurch), and of harbour and port towns, all the land will be open for purchase as rural land ; that the minimum quantity of rural land that can be purchased is 50 acres ;"that" the first body of colonists will be composed of such persons as may become purchasers of land, to an extent not exceeding 101,000 acres, on or before the 30th April, 1850;" and that every member of this body is to receive a gift of half-an-acre in the capital town in respect of every rural section of 50 acres purchased.
In January 1868 the English aristocrat Lord Lyttelton, with his son and London magistrate Henry Selfe, arrived in Canterbury to see the colony which Lyttelton and Selfe, as members of the Canterbury Association, had helped establish almost 20 years before. The trio travelled from Lyttelton to Christchurch via the recently completed railway tunnel. The 5 and 6 March were the visitors' last days in the province. At the Upper Riccarton Anglican Church, Lyttelton and Selfe were godparents at the baptism of George, son of Charles and Georgina Bowen. Thereafter the party travelled by steamer to Wellington where they visited the grave of a co-worker in the founding of Canterbury, Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Thence they returned to England. They came no more. In 1870 Selfe died from complications of his chronic gout problem. Lord Lyttelton, prone to bouts of insanity, killed himself in 1876.
Cust, the town, was named after General Sir Edward Cust, of
the Canterbury Association.
The town of Hinds name can be attributed to Captain Thomas, agent and chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, which planned the settlement of the province. Thomas chose the name of an association member, member of the committee of Management, Reverend Dr Samuel Hinds, Bishop of Norwich, for the Mid-Canterbury river. The township south of the river naturally adopted the name, though it might have been otherwise had the suggestion of a scandal that prompted Bishop Hinds' sudden resignation, in 1857, been more widely known.
Pilgrims and Early Settlers Association (1923-present)
For current information visit:
Canterbury Pilgrims and Early Settlers Assoc. website
Mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Rangiora, North Canterbury, NZ
There is a misconception that to be a member, you need to have had ancestors who arrived on the first four ships. Membership criteria is two fold. To be a member you need to have had ancestors who arrived or lived in Canterbury prior to 31st Oct. 1876. (This is the date that The Canterbury Provincial Council was abolished and Canterbury came under control from Wellington Government). But if that scenario doesn't apply, people are welcome to apply as Associate members on the condition that they support and promote the Association.
"The Pilgrims Gazette" a newsletter goes out to members every two months with articles on life / events etc. back in that early part of our history along with reports of visits made and events pending. This seems to be received very well and enables those members who are not able to attend meetings to keep in touch.
Unfortunately we do not have the resources for genealogical research. Any material of that nature that we collected in the early years of our formation was gifted to the Canterbury museum in the 1950's. We have never charged a fee for any of the odd small requests we have had but that may change if we get inundated with requests. We welcome enquiries and will do our best to help where we can. We have a copy of the passenger lists of those early ships but the lists are not as accurate as we would like and have been that way since the ships arrived. Neil Withell (former President) Posted Jan. 19 2000
In the nine months from the beginning of the emigration of the settlers sixteen ships were dispatched by the Canterbury Association, carrying in round numbers, 2,000 people. In September, 1851 the "Lyttelton Times" estimated the population at about 3000. Reference: 'White Wings Vol. II' by Sir Henry Brett.
Otago Witness 5 February 1853
Mr and Mrs Godley and family left Canterbury on Dec. 23rd in the "Hasheny" for Sydney, from whence they will proceed to England.
Illustrated London News August 3rd 1850 engraving
Dancing on the main deck of the ship Randolph during a farewell banquet held prior to the vessel's departure for Lyttelton, Canterbury, N.Z. 250 middle-class emigrants set sail for Canterbury but before departure a breakfast banquet took place, with bishops, aristocrats and notables of the day in attendance.
The Farwell Breakfast to the Canterbury Colonists. (see Timeframes)
The above was found on page 77 in A Pilgrim of the Nineteenth Century : or, A sketch in the early days of Canterbury, New Zealand / by M.H.A.B. Printed for the author by Cassell and Company, Limited, Ludgate Hill, London in 1893. The book is about the "Castle Eden" and early Canterbury. Image courtesy of Winsome, a "Castle Eden" researcher.
PUBLIC BREAKFAST OF THE CANTERBURY ASSOCIATION. [From the "Britannia," August 2.]
New Zealander, 21 December 1850, Page 2
A dejeuner given on Tuesday by the members of the Canterbury Association to their departing colonist, on board the Randolph, one of four ships taken up for conveying the first body of emigrants lo their new home in the acquired district of Canterbury, in the colony of New Zealand. By public meeting and advertisements the Canterbury Society has already made known the objects for which it has become associated. It has how armed at that point of practical utility that it has engaged four ships. to convey about 800 emigrants, to the country of their adoption in the course of next month. These ships are now lying in the East India Import Dock. They are about 800 tons each. Two of them, the Randolph and Cressy, belong to Mr. Dunbar, The third, the Sir George Seymour, is the property of Messrs. Somes, and the fourth is the Charlotte Jane, owned by Thompson and Co. These ships are now being prepared for the reception of the Canterbury emigrants. They are remarkably fine vessels, of large dimensions, spacious and lofty decks, well found in everything, and as well adapted for the service as any vessels belonging to the port of London. The accommodations for the labourers, &c, are being fitted up on the Government plan, the single men forward and the single women aft ; but the labourers being comparatively few, small cabins for families are being run up on one clear side of the well ventilated main deck. The ships are not yet completed, but will be in all respects ready to sail fur their destination by the last week in August. The four ships were dressed in good style with a profusion of colours of all nations and the deck* of the Randolph were fitted up and decorated with great taste, Captain Reeves, the officer who ably superintended the fittings of the ships for the New Zealand Company, having been intrusted with these arrangements. The dejeuner was served on the main deck of the Randolph, about 300 were accommodated, and the handsome entertainment was provided by Messrs. Bathe and Breach, of the London Tavern. The band of the Coldstream Guards was stationed on the upper deck, and most agreeably enhanced the enjoyment of the interesting festivities by their performances.
On the removal of the cloth a series of toasts was proposed in succession. "The Queen, and the loyal attachment of the colonists," was drunk with enthusiasm ; "Prince Albert and the Royal family" followed, when the noble chairman Lord Lyttelton was cheered for an observation to the effect that it might not be a presumptuous or visionary hope that he had formed of a special and personal connexion, at some future time, between the fortunes of the colony, not the mere 2,600,000 acres of the Canterbury settlement, but the vast empire of Australasia and the Royal family of Great Britain.
The Chairman next gave "The Church and the Bishop-Designate of Lyttelton," and dwelt upon the principles of their association with reference to the prominence of the Church in its every action, and the advantages they hoped to derive from the pastoral services of Mr. Jackson, explaining the reason of his unavoidable absence on that occasion, and expressing his regret that circumstance! over which they had no control had prevented the rev. gentleman from being consecrated for his high office until they had received a communication from the Bishop of New Zealand on the subject. The latter prelate's powers were so extensive that it was necessary to obtain the formal sanction of his lordship to the appointment of Mr. Jackson; and although this delay would unfortunately prevent Mr. Jackson from proceeding with the first colonials, the sentiments and withes of the Bishop of New Zealand were so well known to be in favour of Mr. Jackson's appointment, that there wig not the slightest doubt of Mr. Jackson's proceeding to the Canterbury settlement as soon at the requisite sanction had been received.
The Rev. Mr. Sewell, of Oxford, returned thanks for the last toast iv a speech highly eulogistic of the bishop designate for his learning and piety. He felt assured, from the range of his venerable friend's abilities, lie was well adapted for the great and glorious mission to which he bad devoted himself and his future life and he knew his desire was to cultivate and develop the highest powers of the mind, whilst, at the same time, he could descend to the instruction of his flock in the lowest occupations of every day life. In fact, as he (the bishop designate) had himself avowed, it was his intention to teach the colonists to write Greek iambics, whilst he would also instruct them in the most difficult operation of farning � viz , that of breeding sheep. The rev. gentleman exhorted the Canterbury colonists to divest themselves of the ambition of rivalry, and to emulate each other in offices of brotherhood and holy love, and to look up to heaven as their home and their place of re-union.
The Chairman next gave "The Army and Navy," with which he coupled the name of Nelson.
Lord Nelson protested (as he said he always did) against being galled upon to acknowledge that toast, for if he were once to answer to it he would never be able to show at a public dinner. He expressed his warmest and deepest sympathy in. behalf of the Canterbury Association.
The Bishop of Norwich then, in an eloquent speech, proposed "Health and Success to the departing colonists." His lordship contrasted the character of the colonists proceeding upon this heroic enterprise with that of former colonists. He said he was present, twelve years ago, it a similar entertainment given at Plymouth to the New Zealand colonists on their departure in five vessels, but he believed there was not a single English clergyman with that body, nor was there a Christian minister to receive them on their arrival. He congratulated the present association on the part of England's Church, and they would carry with them the Church's blessing and the Church's prayers.
Lord Wharncliffe returned thanks� not on behalf of himself, for there were imperative ties which hound him to the mother country ; but on behalf of a son, who formed one of the Canterbury colonists.
Mr. Simeon proposed The Health of John Robert Godley, the founder of the Canterbury Association, in a speech replete with the strongest expressions of friendship for that gentleman, and confidence in his ability to carry out the work which he projected and Mr. Ferguson, one of the colonists, in returning thanks proposed The Health of Lord Lyttelton.
The noble Chairman, in returning thanks, alluded to the great honour which had been paid to him in perpetuating bin services in calling the principal town of the Canterbury distinct after his family name, and assured the colonists of his best and continuous energies in their behalf. Lord John Manners proposed the last toast�" Success to Canterbury," and the proceedings shortly afterwards terminated.
Re-launching the Seadrift story
11 October 2006
A treasured childhood storybook captures the spirit of the high seas and the penmanship of one of Canterbury's founders, writes Christopher Moore. It is one of Canterbury's first children's books started in 1851; the story of a small sailing boat launched on the shores of Lyttelton Harbour. Seadrift is the tale of the adventures of a cutter, built and sailed in colonial New Zealand, written and illustrated with a series of watercolours by James Edward FitzGerald � colonist, politician, editor and founder of The Press. Pages from this literary link to Canterbury's colonial past will be shown in Christ Church Cathedral from Friday, October 13 to October 20 (9am to 5pm). The sole copy, written for a small Victorian boy, John Arthur Godley (known as Arthur), son of Canterbury's first superintendent, John Robert Godley, became a family treasure, handed down the generations. In 2000, the family gifted the book to the John Robert Godley Memorial Trust and Seadrift returned to its place of birth. In 2007, a limited edition will be published, complete with reproductions of FitzGerald's watercolours, to raise funds for choral scholarships at Christ Church Cathedral. FitzGerald, a close friend of the Godleys, spent hours sketching sailing ships for young Arthur and he promised to create a book for the boy, whose family left for England in 1852. In 1858, the book arrived in England as a Christmas present for 11-year-old Arthur.
"Seven years ago in the drawing room at Lyttelton I began and promised to finish the accompanying book. I daresay that you have long since forgotten this promise and ceased to feel any interest in a subject then your principal source of amusement," FitzGerald wrote in his dedication. "The performance here now is very lame for a hand for years dimmed to the pencil cannot readily if ever recover its cunning. Such as it is to receive it, this Christmas time, in testimony of very lasting affection for you and yours from your old friend and artist James Edward FitzGerald."
Seadrift incorporates maritime details, absorbed by FitzGerald during the three-month voyage to New Zealand, into a adventure story with the ingredients to grab a young boy's attention � storms, attacks, mystery and exploration. Arthur, later Lord Kilbracken, treasured Seadrift as a reminder of the place where he spent his early childhood. "Seadrift became one of Arthur's most treasured mementoes of those years of his early childhood," Christopher John Godley, fourth Baron Kilbracken of Killegar, says. "Arthur returned to England with his parents in early 1853, so he had sailed around the world before the age of six! In 1871, he married Sarina James, daughter of Canterbury Association member Sir Walter James and later first Lord Northbourne."
David McPhail has written essays to accompany the limited edition of Seadrift. The book, says McPhail, is a rare record of the artistic talents of one of Canterbury's most influential leaders. "But FitzGerald's book is unusual for two other reasons. There were hardly any illustrations in New Zealand books for children until the late 19th century and these were limited to one or two plates. There is nothing like the number or complexity of FitzGerald's illustrations. "In this sense, the book is exceptional. The unfolding of the story is also remarkable. It is, in the true sense of the expression, a page-turner where the story hangs unfinished until the page is turned � highly unusual in Victorian story books."