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ADVENTURERS IN THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COMPANY

Chap.16 - From the Book The Massachusetts Bay Company and Its Predecessors
Some Short Biographical Sketches of the Adventurers


In the following list of Adventurers I have included the seven ministers, five sent out by the Company and two admitted as chaplains in London, although there is no evidence that they subscribed for stocks, yet they attended meetings; also several who left legacies in such form as to suggest subscriptions, but all such are marked with and the facts stated in the biographical sketch.

It is somewhat uncertain whether the sums given in Felt's second list are additional to those in the first or whether they represent deferred payments; the fact that two new names occur suggests that the former was the case.

Where the Adventurer is well known, e.g. Winthrop, Higginson, Dudley, I have omitted details, giving only notes connected with their subscription or the first mention of their presence at meetings of the Company, referring the reader to "the usual sources," i.e. books on early New England history, as Winthrop's History of New England, Hubbard, Savage's Dictionary, etc.

The "Impropriations Fund" mentioned several times was formed for the maintenance of Puritan Preachers in England, subscriptions thereto indicate interest in the Puritan movement and that a common meeting ground of members of the Company would have been at the board of the Feoffees for Impropriations.


ABBREVIATIONS

E. Signer of Endecott's Instructions, May, 1628
F. Felt's Annals of Salem, I, 508 May , 1628
FF. Felt's Annals of Salem, I, 509.
H. Haven's entries in Massachusetts Records omitted in Shurtleff. 30 March, 1629
Hub. Hubbard, History of New England, p. 123.
MR. Massachusetts Records, ed. Shurtleff.
Reg. New England Historic - Genealogical Register.

["John White" is my own- book on "John White, the Founder of Massachusetts."]


- ABRIE. Perhaps John Aubrey, of Cheapside, merchant, a subscriber to the Impropriations Fund.

THOMAS ADAMS of London, woollen-draper. Son of Thomas Adams of Wem, Salop, by Margaret, daughter of John Erpe of Shrewsbury. In 1647, when an alderman of London, he was sent to the Tower for treason to the Parliament. He married Anne, dau. Humfrey Mapled of Printon, Essex.

[He was probably the "cousin Thomas Adams the elder" mentioned in the will of Captain Adams in 1657.1
E. F. 501i; FF. 251i; MR. 5011

SAMUEL ALDERSEY, of Allhallows, Lombard Street, haberdasher. Son of John Aldersey of Aldersey, Cheshire, by Anne, sister of Sir Thomas Lowe, Alderman of London. He married first, Mary, dau. Philip Van Oyrle of Nornberg and Antwerp; second, Margaret, dau. Thomas Offspring and sister of Rev. Charles Offspring of St. Antholins, London, widow of William Kedward. [She remarried Sir John Melton.] Aldersey was a prominent Puritan who contributed to the Impropriations Fund in 1626 and was probably an active worker for St. Antholin's Feoffees as his brother-in-law, Charles Offspring, was rector of that Church. He was an early Adventurer and took active part in the Company's work.

By the marriages of his sisters and of his children he was closely connected with a number of persons interested in the settlement of New England. His sister Elizabeth married 1st., William Pitchford and 2nd Sir Thomas Coventry, the Lord Keeper. Alice married Thomas Moulson and her son Sir Thomas was the husband of Anne Ratcliffe, the patron saint of Radcliffe College. Her daughter Rebecca married Nicholas Raynton, famous as a London Puritan. Another sister of Samuel married Francis Webbe; Mary married Sir Thomas Knatchbull and Dorothy, as her second husband married Sir Henry Capel. Still another sister seems to have married Henry Parkhurst as his son, Sir Robert, mentions his aunt Aldersey and nearly all the married Aldersey sisters in his will in 1636. As William Spurstowe married Sir Robert's sister he was in a way connected with Aldersey, as were also the Byfields.

Aldersey had one son, John, and four daughters; Mary married Robert Crane of St. Giles, Cripplegate [see below], Anne married Robert Eyre of Salisbury, son of Robert Eyre one of the Feoffees for Impropriations; Elizabeth married Thomas Lee of Downhall; Margaret married Rev. Thomas Bletchingdon, Canon of Christ Church, Canterbury.

Aldersey's will was proved 13 July, 1633 [P. C. C. 61 Russel], by Robert Crane and his son John Aldersey. By it he left X20 to Mr. Davenport, the minister; he had witnessed this minister's signing of the Articles in 1628.

E. F. 501i; FF. 2511; H. 751i; MR. 5011

RICHARD ANDREWES, of London, haberdasher and an Alderman. Perhaps resided in Cheapside as Winthrop addressed a letter to him at "the Mermaid" there. He was closely associated with the Plymouth Plantation. For particulars see above, pp. 8, 99.

He contributed to the Impropriations Fund in 1625.

THOMAS ANDREWES, of London, leather-seller. Son of Robert Andrewes of Feltham, Midds. He was Sheriff of London in 1642 and as Lord Mayor in 1649 proclaimed the abolition of kingly government. He was one of the Plymouth Adventurers who sold out their interests to the Planters in 1626 and probably was the one of that name who married Damaris Cradock.

He was present at a Company meeting on 6 April, 1629.

MR. 2511

JOHN ARCHER
OR
HENRY ARCHER
These two are frequently confused--see note in "John White;" most probably this was Henry Archer who was incumbent of Allhallows, Lombard Street at this time. He was appointed Chaplain and admitted to the freedom of the Company on 20 November, 1629.

ANDREW ARNOLD. Possibly a member of the Somerset family two of whom emigrated to New England.

F. .501i; FF. 5011

WILLIAM BACKHOUSE, of Swallowfield, Berks. Son of Samuel Backhouse of that place, and born about 1593. He "became a most renowned chymist, Rosicrucian, and a great encourager of those that studied chymistry and astrology, especially Elias Ashmole, whom he adopted as his son." He was the author of several books. He died 30 May, 1662. [Wood's Athenae, 111, 576.]He was at a Company meeting on 5 April, 1629, and presented a number of books including an English Bible in folio of the last print; The Booke of Common Prayer [which it was boasted was never used] ; Calvin's Institutes and The French Country Farm. [H.]

H. 251i

DANIEL BALLARD. He was at a Company meeting on 17 April, 1629; in 1645 he was associated with John White, probably the Counsellor, as receiving money from Sir Richard Saltonstall., apparently in connexion with the Quo Warranto.

F. 501i; FF. 1511; MR. 251i

SIR NATHANIEL BARNARDISTON, of Ketton, Suffolk, knt. Winthrop mentions his intention to become an Adventurer in 1630 [1, p. 355]. By his will, proved 28 September, 1653 [P. C. C. 376 Brent. (Reg. 48, 379)] he left a legacy for the bringing up of [Indian ?] children in the College of New England.

- BATEMAN.
As "Mr. Bateman" he was at a meeting on 29 September, 1629. He may have been the Robert Bateman who was interested in the Virginia Company [See Alexander Browne's Genesis of the United States, p. 8261, and who was Chamberlain of London. This seems the more likely because his wife was Joan Munser from Weymouth so he may have known John White of Dorchester.

RICHARD BELLINGHAM.
An original Associate of the Patentees but took no active part, apparently, while the Company held Courts in England; he emigrated in 1634. See usual sources.

F. 501i

- BILSON.
As "Mr. Bilson" he was at a meeting on 21 May, 1629. Possibly he may have been the same as William Balston who emigrated.

JOHN BOWLES.
Possibly John Bolles of St. James, Clerkenwell, Middx., Esq., in whose will, proved 9 May, 1666 [P. C. C. 71 Mico. (Reg. 46, 836)], mention is made of his brother Joseph in New England.

H. 2511

JOB BRADSHAWE. Son of Joseph Bradshaw of Westminster, brewer, who contested that constituency in 1628 with Sir Robert Pye. Job was at a meeting on 20 October, 1629.

F. 501i; FF. 5011

JOSEPH BRADSHAWE, brother of the above.
His widow Elizabeth in her will, proved 27 April, 1658 [P. C. C. 137 Wootton], mentions his brothers Job and Abraham and his sons Joseph, Benjamin and John Joseph being then out of England. He was at a meeting on 28 July, 1629. His will was proved 4 January, 1632/3 [P. C, C. 5 Russell].

F. 501i; FF. 5011

Simon BRADSTREET. See usual sources.
At a meeting on 23 March, 1629/30.

SIR WILLIAM BRERETON, knt. [of Malpas Hall, Cheshire.]
He was somewhat famous as a traveller in the Low Countries; he was a member of Parliament and is said to have been one of the judges of Charles 1. He obtained a grant of land in Massachusetts from John Gorges and tried to induce the Company to give him an equivalent holding in their company; they refused, suggesting he might become an Adventurer in the usual way. Apparently he did so before 10 February, 1629/30, as on that day reference is made to 600 acres he was to have "by virtue of his Adventure in the Common Stock." [MR. 1, pp. 28, 68]

FRANCIS BRIDGES, of Clapham, Surrey. In his will proved 23 June, 1642 [P. C. C. 80 Cambell (Reg. 45, 162)], he left 501i to the College in New England and 20li towards clothing the poor there so it seems possible he subscribed 501i to one of the Stocks. He was a cousin of Rev. Charles Offspring of St. Antholins and mentions Mr. Pemberton. He was one of the Feoffees for Impropriations.

FRANCIS BRIGHT
, one of the ministers sent out by the Company. Son of Edward Bright of London; of New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1622. For further particulars see pp. 32-37.

JOHN BROWNE, of Roxwell, Essex, probably grandson of John Browne of Fidelers in Writtle, through one of his sons, Sir Henry, John, Charles or Edward, who were all living in 1612 [Essex Visitation.] For further information see above and in "John White."

KELLAM BROWNE, of Roxwell, Essex, probably a brother of the above. He signed the Cambridge Agreement [see p. 74] but did not emigrate. He married at St. Mary Aldermary, Mrs. Philip Filder of St. Saviours, Southwark. His will was proved 15 February, 1657/8 [P. C. C. 105 Wootton].

SAMUEL BROWNE, brother of John Browne above; see same sources.

BURNELL. Possibly Thomas Burnell, of London, citizen and clothworker, son of John Burnell of Great Stanmore, Middx., for we find: (1) that the latter appointed as an over seer of his will, proved 23 January, 1622 [P. C. C. 7 Swann. (Reg. 46, 1551)], "the Right Worshipful and my especial kind friend Sir Thomas Coventry, knight," that is the Lord Keeper, who was brother-in-law to both this Burnell and to Samuel Aldersey; (2) that Thomas in his will, proved 2 October, 1666 [P. C. C. 150, May (Reg. 38, 419)], mentions his nephew John Morley in New England, and (3) that his widow, Hester, in her will, proved 15 October, 1664, [P. C. C. 109 Bruce (Reg. 48, 273)], mentions her cousins: John Crowther, Lucy, wife of Clement Manistey, and [James] Yonge; so many names associated with the Company, taken with other references above, suggest that Thomas Burnell was the Adventurer.

RICHARD BUSHROD, of Dorchester, Dorset, haberdasher.

For an account of this Adventurer see "John White." F. 50li

MRS. A. C. [OR MR.]
It is just possible that this was Anne Clement, widow of John Clement of Shenfield, Essex, mentioned in a letter from Augustine Clement, an emigrant, as his sister-inlaw, in 1638. He mentions a Mr. John Bateman, minister of Ockendon, who might be the - Bateman above. In Felt's list the name is Mr. A. C.; in Haven's it is Mrs. A. C.

F. 501i; FF. 5011; H. 25li

JOSEPH CARON, of London. His name occurs in a list of members of the Skinners Company in 1641, "his dwelling unknown." He may have been a kinsman of Sir Noel de Caron, ambassador from the Netherlands, who died at Lambeth in 1624.

E. F. 501i; FF. 15li; H. 25li; MR. 25li

CLARK.
He is simply "Mr. Clark" in the list of subscribers on 17 June, 1629, and the same day he was appointed one of the eight auditors as "Mr. Clarke." These are the only instances found of the occurrences of his name. There was an Edward Clarke related to the Woodgate family [see below] but there is no means of identifying this Mr. Clark. MR. 25H

WILLIAM CODDINGTON. See usual sources.
He was present on 23 March, 1629/30.

WILLIAM COLIBRON, of Brentwood, Essex. He emigrated with Winthrop. He was present 27 April, 1629. Pope, Pioneers of Massachusetts, says his receipt for 20 stock is dated 8 May, 1629. On 26 May, 1658 he was granted 300 acres "where he can find it in refference to twenty-five pounds by him formerly paid into ye common stock." [MR. IV, 336.]

SAMUEL COLE.
He emigrated with Winthrop. He was granted 400 acres in 1653 "in satisfaction of fifty pounds adventured in the common stock 23 years since." [MR. 111, 147.]

EDWARD COOK, of London, apothecary. Son of Richard Cook of Dunmow, Essex. His second son, Robert, was granted 800 acres "where he can find it without prejudice to any plantation" for his father's 100li adventured in the joint stock. [MR. 1, 307.] Before 23 October, 1650, he re-granted this to Harvard College. [MR. 111, 296.1

MR. 2511

CHRISTOPHER COULSON.
He was present on 2 March, 1628/9, and, with John Pocock, was elected Assistant in place of Endecott and Browne on 13 May, 1629. [MR. 1, 29, 40.] In 1660 his nephew Francis Johnson applied for a grant of land on account of Coulson's subscription but being unable to produce proof that it had been paid Johnson was refused. [MR. IV, 429.]

MATTHEW CRADOCK, of London, skinner. Son of Matthew Cradock of Stafford by Dorothy Greenham and brother of Samuel Cradock of Thiselton, Rutland. He married 1st, Damaris, daughter of Richard Wyn of Shrewsbury, by whom he had Damaris, who married Thomas Andrewes [See above.] 2nd, Rebecca, dau. Thomas Jordan of London, merchant, by whom he had a son Matthew living in 1634, who probably died before his father as he is not mentioned in the latter's will and his mother Rebecca made no claim to Cradock's estate on her son's behalf. There were many other Matthew Cradocks but this one probably died young. Governor Cradock was a member for Staffordshire in several Parliaments. In his will, proved 4 June, 1641 [P. C. C. 81 Evelyn] we read: "As for my outward estate wherewith God of his goodness hath endowed me, I have ever accounted myselfe but a steward thereof, and therfor humblie intreat the Almightie to make me for to demeane myselfe in the disposing thereof as that I might through his mercie in the merits of Christ bee alwayes prepared to give a comfortable accompt of my stewardshipp." He left legacies to: St. Peter the Poor in Broad Street; to St. Swithin "where I now dwell;" to his wife Rebecca and her children; to her a house in London and another in Romford, Essex, she to have during her natural life half of his estate in New England; if she marry, her husband to give bond and enjoy it during her life; the other half to his daughter Damaris. His widow married Richard Glover and after his death Benjamin Whicheote, son of Christopher and brother of Charles Whichcote [See below]. She appears to have been a widow when Cradock married her as he speaks of her children. For the claims made by her and her husbands, see p. 97.

By his marriage with Damaris Wyn Cradock was connected with the Spurstowes, Alderseys, Parkhursts, Oldfields, Moulsons, etc.

E. F. 5011; FF. 25li; MR. 150li; Hub. 100li

present 15 October, 1629. By his will proved 6 January, 1641 [P. C. C. 2. Cambell (Reg. 45, 161)] he desired to be buried in the church of Aldermanbury of which John Stoughton was minister, and he gave "towards the erecting of a free schoole in New England if anie such work be done, that the company doeth owe me, which is in true right fiftie pounds towards that work, which 1 value at nothing and yet I am content to give tenn poundes more towards a free school there to educate youth, if anie such thing be done." He mentions his friend Daniel Hodson. [See below.]

F. 50li; FF.. 1511; H. 25li

GEORGE FOXCROFT
, of London, merchant. Son of Richard Foxcroft, of Cambridge, by Alice Hodson. In a list of members of the Fishmongers Company in 1641 he appears as "merchant of Coleman Street," so he was a parishioner of John Davenport. He was an Associate and Assistant in the Charter and one of the gentlemen in England to whom letters were to be written in 1634. In 1644 permission was granted to take planks, etc., from Foxcroft's estate to pay a debt due by his agent. [MR. 11, 75.1

F. 50li; H. 25li

JOHN GLOVER In Felt's list John Glover occurs and in
OR Haven's Joas occurs. Possibly both

JOSSE GLOVER were subscribers. Josse was the eldest son of Roger Glover and John, a younger son of the same, was a "Petter" Barrister of Lincoln's Inn and married Jane, daughter of Francis Dorrington; there was also a John Glover, of London, merchant.

For Josse see usual sources.
JOHN: F. 5011; FF. 25li
JOAO: H. 2511

THOMAS GOFFE, of London, merchant. Athough appointed Deputy Governor by the Charter there is no evidence that prior to the issue of the Patent he was an Adventurer. He was appointed on a committee 5 March, 1628/9. He was one of the Plymouth Adventurers who sold out to the Planters in 1626. About 1630 he was nearly bankrupt and was pressing for payment of monies due to him. Winthrop instructed his son on 31 August, 1680, not to pay Goffe anything but to require money due; if he refused his bond was to be put in suit. [1, 376.] Humfry laboured to quiet Goffe,----"Though there be a spirit in me that (upon my sufferings from him more than anie) lusts otherwise, yet I dare not give way to it. I have parted with his house . . . much adoo I have to carry myself towards him (being ever vindicating the plantation from his & other mens charges) as to keepe anie faire quarter. I will not trouble you to relate such shrewde collections as bee gathereth from seeing how much adoe your friends & agents here have to supply your present necessities; what (saith he) should I have done or would they (meaning the plantation) if more cattle had come alive, or I had gone on with my Irish voyage; bee saith they seek evasions, not so much because hee hath not performed his part, as because they are not able to make good theirs. Otherwhiles hee will speake and hope all good of and from the plantation; but I wish there may not bee anie occasion given from whence bee or anie may blemish our godly purposes." [Winthrop Papers, 1, 15.1 In 1639 his son Samuel Goffe petitioned the Court for a "competent parcel of ground as well for your petitioners present employment as for his father's benefit." [Lechford, Note Book, f. 49.] There is no record that the petition was granted or even received.

MR. 50li

JOHN GOODWIN, of East Bergholt, Suffolk, clothier.
By his will, proved 19 June, 1638 [P- C. C. 111, Lee (Reg. 50, 273)] he left fifty pounds to Matthew Cradock, merchant, of London, to be paid over to the governor of New England to be employed for the benefit of the Plantation. He mentions John Burges, brotherin-law of John White, the Rogers family of Dedham and his kinsmen the Woodgates. [See below.] The sum for the Plantation is the usual subscription so he may have been an Adventurer.

ANNE HARVEY.
In 1640 Thomas Browne, of Sudbury, Mass., was granted 200 acres for Anne Harvey's 25li adventure [MR. 1, 307] and in 1649 William Browne made a claim on account of 25li put in the joint stock by his aunt, Mrs. Anne Harvey. [MR. 111, 155.1

GEORGE HARWOOD, of London, haberdasher. Son of William Harwood, of Thurlby, Lanes., by Elizabeth Greenham and brother of Sir Edward Harwood, Colonel in the Low Countries, a famous soldier and also a contributor to the Impropriations Fund. George Harwood was treasurer of the New England Company and afterwards of the Massachusetts Bay Company; he was also treasurer of the "Common Stock," established on the eve of Winthrop's departure, for voluntary contributions, a charitable fund. He was among the gentlemen to be written to in 1634 and he was asked to render his account in 1638.

E. F. 50li; FF. 50li; MR. 5011

THOMAS HEWSON, of London, merchant.
His name occurs as Huson and Hughesson; the latter form misled Alexander Young to apply a reference to Thomas' son to the son of Francis Higginson, who was only thirteen while John Hughesson had already received a good education. Huchinson, in his list of the signers of Endecott's instructions, gives him as George in error for Thomas. He supplied 120 flitches of bacon and 120 gallons of sweet oil on 9 March, 1628/9, probably for the ships sailing in April.

[John Hewson, who supplied shoes and known later as the Cobbler Peer [see Carlyle's Cromwell], is supposed to have been his brother.]

Winthrop mentions the arrival of "Mr. Hewson's ship" in a letter of 14 August, 1630; perhaps this was the same shipowner, called Hewes by Hubbard, whose men disputed the possession of Cape Ann with Miles Standish. E. F. 50li; FF. 15li

FRANCIS HIGGINSON. See usual sources.

JOSEPH HILLS
, of Maldon, Essex, woollen-draper.

In a deposition in 1639 he swore that "he came to New England as an undertaker in the ship called the Susan and Ellen, of London, in 1635. [Lechford, Note Book, f. 91 ] ; undertaker is here used for an Adventurer who emigrated in person. In 1656 he was granted 500 acres "in consideration of an adventure of thirty-three pounds and several services to the country." [MR. IV, 2711

(MR. 111, 415 gives the sum as 83li 6s 8d.) These figures suggest that he had subscribed 10011 to the Joint Stock which was drawn down to one-third.

DANIEL HODSON, of London, clothier. Son of William Hodson, of Newcastle, by Emma, daughter of Thomas Kerrey, of Newbury, Berks. [Daniel's brother Thomas was Chancellor of York Cathedral.] Daniel married 1st, Katherine, dau. Edward Saunders, of Bricksworth, Northants., 2nd, Agnes or Anne, dau. Ralph Josselyn, of Roxwell, Essex, widow of Samuel Hutt; at the time of his second marriage he is described as Daniel Hudson, of Epping, Essex, clothier. She was a cousin of John Josselyn, who wrote on New England. [Reg. 71, p. 80.]

F. 5011; H. 25li

ATHERTON HOUGH
, of Boston, Lincs., gentleman, a parishioner of John Cotton, with whom he emigrated in 1633. See usual sources. In 1641 he was granted 400 acres for his 50li adventure.

WILLIAM HUBBARD, father of the historian. See usual sources.

Hub. 50li

JOHN HUMFRY. See biographical sketch in Essex Institute Historical Collections LXV, 293.

E. F. 50li; H. 25li

THOMAS HUTCHINS.
An Associate and an Assistant in the Charter. He was present 10 March, 1628/9.

F. 50li; H. 25li; MR. 2511

EDWARD IRONSIDE.
Perhaps he was one of that name who was of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, incorporated at Oxford 13 July, 1624, and of Lincoln's Inn, 1627. He was licensed by the Privy Council to travel in 1626. He was present 29 August, 1629.

H. 25li

SIR BRIAN J:ANSON, of London, knt. [?grocer.] Son of Brian J:Anson by Anne, dau. Robert Lee, of Beaconsfield, Bucks. [The father was 74 in 1633.] He married Mary, dau. Henry Breres, of Lancashire, His brother John married Thomasine Oldfield, sister of Joseph Oldfield [see below], and of the other Oldfields connected with New England. He was appointed an Assistant in place of Nathaniel Wright at the meeting at Southampton on 18 March, 1629/30. [MR. 1, 69.] Winthrop writes 22 March, 1629/30: "There is newly come into our company, and sworn an assistant, one Sir Brian Janson, of London, as he hath given 50li to our common stock, and 50li to the joint stock." [History, 1, p. 867.]

ISAAC JOHNSON. See usual sources.
Am Associate and an Assistant in the Charter. In 1650, 4200 acres were granted to his executors for his 400li adventure in the Common Stock. [MR. 111, 189.1 He is said to have adventured 600li [Haven, lxvii] so he may have had 200li in the other stocks. In 1657, 3200 acres were to be laid out for his executors when they had paid 10li due to the country treasurer. [MR. 111, 435.1 F. 100li; FF. 25li

ROBERT KEANE, OR KAYNE, merchant tailor. See usual sources as he was famous in "the great sow case." He was a Plymouth Adventurer who sold out to the Planters. He was one of the gentlemen to be written to in 1634 and he emigrated in 1635. He had 400 acres granted to him in 1639 [MR. 1, 262] so had probably adventured 100li.

FRANCIS KIRBY.
He is mentioned as a brother of Mr. Downing. He corresponded with John Winthrop, Jr., advising him on the selection of beaver skins and acted as agent, forwarding goods in payment. He was one of the gentlemen to be written to in 1634.

THOMAS LEVERETT, of Boston, Lincs., father of Captain John Leverett; the latter was granted an island off Nahant in 1652, "his father putting in money into the common stock in the beginning of this plantation, for which he never had any consideration." [MR. 111, 293.] Thomas Leverett was associated with Beauchamp in the "Ashley Grant." See Bradford's Letter Book, p. 72.

ROGER LUDLOWE. See usual sources.
There is no record of his subscription; he went out with the Westcountrymen, sailing from Plymouth, and became prominent as an Assistant and Deputy Governor. He was sworn assistant in the room of Samuel Sharpe 10 February, 1629/30.

JOHN MALBON, ironworker, "be having skill in iron works and willing to put 2511 in stocke, it should be accepted as 50l1." [MR. 1, 28.] It is not certain that be did subscribe this 25li.

NATHANIEL MANESTY [OR MANESTRY].
There was a John Manesty, goldsmith, of St. Vedasts, Foster Lane, whose will was proved in 1613 [P. C. C. 74 Capell] and who is mentioned in the will of Thomas Palmer [P. C. C. 47 Low], who married Sara, daughter of Vincent Norrington; her sister Anne married Joshua Winthrop. [Reg. 53, 20.1

Hester Burnell mentions her cousin Lucy, wife of Clement Manistey in her will. [See above.]

There was a Henry Manstie, of Christ Church, London, vintner, will proved 1619 [P. C. C. 115 Dorset], and Elizabeth Mamstey, of St. Botolphs, Bishopsgate, will proved 1625 [P. C. C. 90 Clarke].

ABRAHAM MELLOWS.
Pope, Pioneers of Massachusetts, says he invested 50li in the company about 1630. He was granted 200 acres in 1638. [MR. 1, 240.]

THOMAS MARSH, of London.
For his adventure of 33li 6s 8d he was to have land 11 according to the proportion agreed on for such adventure," in 1645. One of that name of Allhallows, Lombard Street, citizen and girdler, had his will proved by his son John, 10 December, 1645. [P. C. C. 34 Rivers.] There was a Thomas, son of Robert Marsh, of London, grocer, living in 1634. [London Visitation.]

PETER MILBURNE, master of the lrbella, of St. Dunstans, London. "Mr. Milbourne" took an eighth share in that ship but may not have been an Adventurer, taking it perhaps because he was to be its master.

MATTHIAS NICHOLLS, minister, was in charge of the "Poor's Portion" when John White preached to the Westcountry emigrants at Plymouth in 1630. In his will, proved 10 October, 1631 [P. C. C. 107 St. John], he writes: "Likewise I give unto the Common Stock for New England, towards the advancement of the plantation, the sum of thirteen pounds." This looks like a subscription of 50li drawn down to onethird. He was a member of the Dorchester Company so was likely to have money in the Joint Stock. For further particulars see "John White."

INCREASE: NOWELL. See usual sources,
He was an Associate and an Assistant in the Patent. He was granted 500 acres in 1638. [MR. 1, 262.]

E. F. 50li; FF. 25li; MR. 25li

PHILIP NYE, minister, a prominent divine who later became a leading Independent.

He was admitted to the freedom of the Company 25 November, 1628, on his appointment as chaplain but probably never subscribed.

JOSEPH OLDFIELD, son of Roger Oldfield by Thomasine, daughter of John Moore. Of his sisters, Rebecca married John Gearing, one of the Feoffees for Impropriations; Sarah married Josse Glover, see above, and Thomasine married John J:Anson' see his brother above. Joseph Oldfield subscribed to the Impropriations Fund.

F. 50li; FF. 25li

ABRAHAM PALMER, of London, merchant.
Perhaps related to John Palmer, of London, mercer, who in 1632 left a legacy to the Feoffees for Impropriations. Abraham Palmer emigrated in 1629; he was associated with Elias Stileman as one who was to administer the oath to Endecott. [Haven, Additional Entries.] He was granted 200 acres in 1638. [MR. 1, 240.] He went to Barbadoes where he died in 1653.

E. F. 50li; FF. 2511

PAYNTER.
As "Mr. Paynter" he is mentioned as a benefactor; he may have been related to the Thomas Paynter who was on the first Coroner's Jury in 1630, probably an early settler before Winthrop. [MR. 1, 78.] He seems to have been frequently in trouble with the authorities because of his religious views.

HERBERT PELHAM, gentleman. Son of Herbert Pelham, of Compton Valence by Penelope, dau. Thomas, Lord de la Warre, born about 1600. The elder Herbert was halfbrother of Elizabeth Pelham, second wife of John Humfry; of Anne, wife of Rev. Edward Clarke, of Fordington, Dorset, and of Thomas Pelham, who married a daughter of Robert Eyre. [For particulars of these relatives and their connexion with the Dorchester Company see "John White."] The younger Herbert married first, in 1626, Jemima, dau. Thomas Waldegrave, of Buers, Suffolk (in the marriage licence he is styled "of Boston, Lines.") He emigrated to New England where he married Elizabeth, widow of Roger Harlekenden. He returned to England about 1649 and was buried at Buers in 1674. His sister Penelope married Richard Bellingham. (See above.) Four hundred acres were granted to him in 1648 for his 50li adventured in the Common Stock [MR. 111, 138] and he took over the interests of his father-inlaw, Thomas Waldegrave. He was present 30 April, 1629.

- PEMBERTON. James Pemberton claimed Pemberton's Island and proved in 1652 by the evidence of ancient inhabitants or Planters about the Bay that it had been granted to him above 24 years ago [MR. 111, 291]; that is, it was granted in or before 1628 so he came before, or with, Endecott. In a petition of 1640 he states that he had been at Charlestown but had been granted land 11 on Mystic side." He may have been of the same family as Rev. John Pemberton to whom Lyford wrote of the doings at Plymouth and of Paul Pemberton who left by will in 1625 "my twenty pounds adventured into New England unto the Company [Plymouth Adventurers?] to be employed by them towards the foundation of a church, if ever God give them a settled peace there." [ P. C. C. 100 Clarke (Reg. 49, 248.) ]

WILLIAM PERKINS, of London, merchant tailor.

His son, Rev. William Perkins, who emigrated in 1681 and settled at Roxbury, was in 1641 granted 400 acres "for his father's 50li." [MR. 1, 838.]

RICHARD PERRY, of London, merchant tailor. Son of [Richard] Perry, of St. Petrocks, Exeter. He was an Associate and Assistant in the Charter and frequently attended meetings. He was a prominent Puritan, and a subscriber to the Impropriations Fund. His will was proved 11 January, 1649/50. [P. C. C. 9 Pembroke.] Richard Perry, junior, in 1639 was to be paid 27li long since due, there having been "trouble about it" [MR. I, 270]; perhaps he was the son of the above.

E. F. 50li; FF. 2511; H. 25li; MR. 2511

HUGH PETER, minister. See usual sources.
He was present 11 May, 1629.

E. F. 50li; FF. 25li; H. 2511

GEORGE PHILLIPS, minister, of Boxford, Suffolk. See usual sources. He signed the "Humble Request;" probably he was employed by the Company and did not subscribe as an Adventurer.

JOHN POCOCK, of London, woollen-draper. Possibly son of William Peacock, of London, merchant. He was with Coulson chosen Assistant vice Endecott and Browne, 13 May, 1629. He had been an Adventurer in the Plymouth Plantation and was associated with Shirley in a claim for goods supplied to the Massachusetts Bay Company; "his fifty pounds" was to be paid to his agent in corn in 1648. [MR. 11, 262.] Lechford mentions a debt due to him in 1640. He may have been the John Pococke of Ham Hills, Thatcham, Bucks., whose will was proved 28 January, 1657/8. [P. C. C. 51 Wootton.] H. 25li

THOMAS PULISTON, of London, draper. Son of John Puliston, of Wallington, Flint, by Jane Perry [perhaps sister of Richard, above]. He married Martha, dau. John Doughty, of Bristol, alderman. He was present 11 May, 1629.

WILLIAM PYNCHEON. See usual sources.
He was an Associate and Assistant in the Charter; present 13 May, 1629. A receipt for his subscription of 25li is dated 29 August, 1629; possibly it was a second instalment.

JOHN REVELL, of London, fishmonger.

He was present 28 July, 1629; chosen an Assistant 29 October, 1629, and an Undertaker 10 December, 1629. He went to New England with Winthrop but returned immediately. He was the only "undertaker" included in the list of gentlemen to be written to in 1634. In a list of members of the Fishmongers Company of 1641 he is said to be resident in St. Nicholas Coleabbey; his membership of that company suggests that he was the "brother-in-law, Mr. John Revell, i.e., half- brother, who is mentioned by Michael Revell, fishmonger of St. Mary Magdalen, Fish Street, in his will proved 8 June, 1659. [P. C. C. 331 Pell.] He was a Plymouth Adventurer.

SIR HENRY ROSEWELL
, of Ford Abbey, knt.
He heads the list of Patentees. For an account of him see "John White."

EDWARD ROSSITER, of Combe St. Nicholas, gentleman.
He was chosen an Assistant 20 October, 1629. He was chief of the contingent of Westcountrymen who sailed from Plymouth in 1630. He died 29 November, 1630. For further particulars see "John White."

OWEN ROWE,
of London, silk-merchant, or haberdasher, of Allsaints, Honey Lane. He was present 23 March, 1628/. See usual sources.

H. 2511

SIR RICHARD SALTONSTALL, knt. See usual sources.
He was an Associate, Assistant and an Undertaker. He was granted 1000 acres in 1637/8 [MR. 1, 222], and many other acres at different dates. 8200 acres were due "for his adventure" in 1645. [MR. 11, 132.] He died 7 December, 1672. Haven states that he was the last surviving Patentee.

F. 100li; FF. 25li; MR. 100li

SAMUEL SHARPE, of Trinity Lane, London, merchant.
He acted as agent for Cradock and for the New England Company. He was appointed a member of Endecott's Council in April, 1630. He was chosen an Assistant 20 October, 1629, but as he was not present to take the oath Roger Ludlowe was appointed in his stead. Pope, Pioneers of Massachusetts, says he sailed with Endecott, but he was obviously in London as late as 10 March, 1628/9 and in October, 1629. [ M R. 1, 34, 68.]

THOMAS SHARPE, of London, leather-seller; Warden of the Company of Leathersellers in 1641. He was present 3 March, 1628/9 and was chosen Assistant 20 October, 1629. He emigrated with Winthrop but returned, after disasters, in March, 1631. [Dudley's Letter.]

SAMUEL SKELTON, minister. See usual sources.

He was sent out by the Company and probably never subscribed.

JOHN SMYTH.
Possibly the famous Captain John Semith or he may have been "Mr. Smyth," accountant, who attended a Court on 20 November, 1629.

FF. 2li+ 25li

THOMAS SOUTHCOTE,
of Mohuns Ottery, Devon, gent.
One of the original Patentees. For particulars see "John White."

JOHN SPENSER, possibly of London. His brother Thomas Spenser of Westminster, in his will dated 22 June, 1648 [P. C. C. Essex 124], refers to his land in New England and bequeathes to his wife and children the wages and liveries due for his "ordinary place of the Guard and Service unto the King's Majesty." [New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 44, 390.] See reference to John Spenser, p. 107 above.

WILLIAM SPURSTOWE, of London, mercer. Son of Thomas Spurstowe, of Shrewsbury, by his wife Katherine. He married Damaris, dau. Henry Parkhurst, of Guildford, mercer, by Alice, dau. James Hills, and sister of Sir Robert Parkhurst; by this marriage he became closely connected with the Aldersey, Moulson, Coventry, Webb, Byfield, Cradock and other Puritan and New England families.

As a member of his congregation he witnessed John Davenport's signature to the "Articles." By his will, proved 20 December, 1644 [P. C. C. 26 Twisse (Reg. 52, 158)], he desired to be buried in St. Stephens, Coleman Street, "where I now dwell, by the corpse of my dear wife," and left legacies to St. Chads, Shrewsbury, and to poor scholars of Catherine Hall, Cambridge. He may have been the member for Shrewsbury in the Parliament of 1640. His son, William Spurstowe, was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and was a D.D. from Catherine Hall; he was a member of the Assembly of Divines and served on the "Committee for Religion" with Century White. In 1637 he was rector of Great Hampden, Bucks., and became a chaplain in the Parliamentary Army.

THOMAS STEEVENS, of London, armourer.
Possibly be was related to Thomas Stevens, ironmonger, who emigrated in 1635.

E. F. 50li; FF. 5011 ELIAS STILEMAN.

He is presumed to have been an Adventurer as he was authorized, with Abraham Palmer, to administer the oath to Endecott. [Haven, Additional Entries, 30b.]

RICHARD TUFFNEALE, Of St. Olaves, Southwark, brewer. Son of Richard Tuffneale, He was a member of Parliament for Clapham and for Southwark; he married Elizabeth, dau. and heir of William Humphries, esq., and had a son, John Tuffneale, of London (knight). Richard's will was proved 1 September, 1640. [P. C. C. 125 Coventry.]

F. 50li; H. 501i

SAMUEL VASSALL, of London, draper. Son of John Vassall, of Ratcliff, of Stepney and of Eastwood, near Roxwell, Essex, by his second wife, born 5 June, 1588. He was an Associate and Assistant in the Charter. See usual sources. He died in 1667.

1-1. 50li

WILLIAM VASSALL, brother of the above, born 27 August, 1582. He was an Associate and Assistant in the Charter. He emigrated to New England in 1628 but returned in the Lyon in 1630. He went again to New England in 1635 and agitated against the autocratic methods of government. He returned to England in 1646 in order to petition Parliament for the liberty of English subjects. About 1650 he removed to Barbadoes where he died in 1655. For the rest see usual sources.

JOHN VENN, of London, merchant tailor. Son of Simon Venn, alias Fen, Lydiard St. Lawrence, Somers., by Maude Lawrence; bapt. 8 April, 1568. He was engaged in the silk and wool trade in the West of England and was Warden of the Merchant Tailors Company in 1641. He was "captain sergeant major" in the Artillery Company and took an active part in the Civil War; he was one of the Regicides and is said to have plundered St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and to have refused to allow a service to be held when Charles I was buried. [See Whichcote below.]

He was an Associate and Assistant in the Charter. In 1644 his son, Thomas Venn, was granted land in regard of his father's money adventured in the Common Stock. [MR. 111, 8.]

E. F. 50li; FF. 2511; H. 5011

THOMAS WADE, of Northampton.
His son Jonathan emigrated in 1632 and in 1649 petitioned for land in respect of "60li formerly disbursed by Thomas Wade for his use in the Country Stocke, for the furtherance of this plantation." [MR. 111, 154.1 This was at first denied but afterwards granted. In 1652 he had 400 acres "with respect to fifty pounds by him formerly disbursed for the use and behoof of the Country," [MR. 111, 2711, and confirmed because of his "disbursing of 50li for the good of this colony at the first." [MR. IV, 90.]

THOMAS WALDEGRAVE, of Buers, Suffolk. Son of Thomas Waldegrave by his wife Elizabeth, dau. Robert Gurdon, of Assington. He married Margaret, dau. John Holinstead, of Halstead, Essex, and their daughter Jemima married Herbert Pelham [see above], who took over his father-in-law's adventure in the Company and in 1648 received 500 acres for the 501i Waldegrave had adventured. Waldegrave and Pelham were on a committee appointed 30 April, 1629, to frame the oath for EndeCott. [MR. 1, 39.]

HENRY WALLER, of London.
He was on a Committee 5 March, 1628/9; with one of the Vassalls he objected to having his subscriptions to the Joint Stock drawn down to one-third (see p. 91).

Rev. George Hughes, a noted Puritan divine, then preacher at Allhallows' Bread Street, preached his funeral sermon on 81 October, 1631; this was printed as "The Saints Losse and Lamentation;" in it Waller is described as "the Worshipfull Captaine Henry Waller, the worthy Commander of the Renowned Martial Band of the Honorable City of London, exercising Armes in the Artillery Gardens,"

NATHANIEL WARD, Minister. See Usual sources.

He was employed by the Company so probably did not subscribe.

WARREN.
He was present as "Mr. Warren" on 27 April, 1629. There was a Thomas Warren, of London, merchant tailor, son of Edward Warren, of Waterstaff [?], Devon, by Margaret, dau. Ambrose Searle, of Godford, Awliscombe, of which latter place John Maverick was vicar, and there was a Thomas Warren whose daughter Mary married John Younge, probably of St. Margarets, Southwold, Suffolk, minister, who emigrated to, New England, and there was a Richard Warren, of Fordington, Dorset, whose daughter Joan married Ralph Sprague and with him emigrated in 1628. [See "John White."]

GEORGE: WAY, of Dorchester, Dorset , glover.
He was a member of the Dorchester Company; for full particulars see "John White."

F. 5011

FRANCIS WEBBE.
He was present 2 April, 1629, and was interested in establishing a mill near Salem; John White recommended this task to the Company. He married a sister of Samuel Aldersey. He is mentioned in the will of Margaret Hill, of Banbury, Oxon., in 1656, in which place John White's sister Elizabeth Allen also resided. Pope, Pioneers of Massachusetts, says he was granted 200 acres on 28 September, 1640.

[Hutchinson says Thomas Webbe signed Endecott's Instructions but this is doubtless a slip for Francis.]

E. F. 5011

NICHOLAS WEST.
He signed the Cambridge Agreement but there is no evidence that he emigrated as agreed.

SIMON WHETCOMBE, of London and Sherborne, woollen merchant. He was probably a member of the Dorchester Company in place of his brother Robert. He was one of the original Patentees. For particulars see "John White."

F. 60li; FF. 25li; H. 80; MR. 25li

CHARLES WHICHCOTE, of London. Son of Christopher Whichcote, Esq., by Elizabeth, dau. Edward Fox. His sister Elizabeth married George Foxcroft [see above] and his brother Richard married Judith, sister of George Foxcroft. His brother Benjamin married Rebecca, widow of Matthew Cradock and of Richard Glover.

It is said that Colonel Charles Whicheote as Governor of Windsor Castle, refused to allow the Prayer Book to be used at the burial of Charles I-"the Common Prayer Book was put down and he would not suffer it to be used where he commanded." [See above John Venn.]

F. 50li; H. 5011

EDMUND WHITE, of St. Lawrence Jewry, Esq. [? haberdasher.] He was a member of the Haberdashers Company, had a brother John, of Patrickborne, knt., and held property in Powick, Wores. His will was proved 19 February, 1632/3. [P. C. C. 14 Russell (Reg. 48, 135.)] Possibly he was the father of James White, a wealthy merchant of Boston, Mass.

JOHN WHITE, Utter Barrister, of Lincolns Inn.
He was present 19 October, 1629. For particulars see "John White," where the reasons for distinguishing him from his name-sake are given.

JOHN WHITE, minister, of Dorchester, Dorset. For full particulars see "John White."

E. 5011

RICHARD WHITE:.
Possibly Richard White, master, of the Peter of Waymouth.

MR. 2511

DANIEL WINCH.
Probably son of Daniel Winch, of St. Mildreds Poultry, grocer, who was buried in that church 19 March, 1624/5 [his will P. C. C. St. Cleere], and of Sibill. Winch who contributed to the Impropriations Fund in 1631. She was buried in St. Mildreds 2 November, 1631. Her son Robert Winch proved her will. [P. C. C. 117 St. John.] This Robert married a granddaughter of Roger Oldfield; Thomasine (Oldfield) J: Anson mentions him in her will as the husband of her niece and leaves legacies to their children Daniel and Rebecca. This marriage connected the Winches with the Glovers, Winthrops and others (See above.) Robert was a silkman of Cheapside and is mentioned with Vassall as a member of the Drapers Company in the will of Samuel Penoyer in 1652. [Reg. 45, 157.] He was most probably brother of Daniel the Adventurer.

H. 2511

JOHN WINTHROP. See usual sources.
Mentioned as on a Committee 19 September, 1629. His 20011 in Joint Stock had not been fully paid up on 5 April, 1630. [History, 1, p. 371.]

WOODGATE.
"Mr. Woodgate" was present 28 July, 1629. John Goodwin (see above) married Elizabeth Woodgates~ of East Bergholt, who had brothers Thomas and John living in 1625.

NATHANIEL WRIGHT, of London, merchant. Perhaps son of John Wright, of Romford, Essex.
He was an Associate and Assistant in the Charter; was present 2 March, 1628/9. Haven points out that he is not to be confused with Dr. Nathaniel Wright, physician to Oliver Cromwell, who also prescribed for his friend John Winthrop and was a friend of Israel Stoughton. [See above, p. 125.] These two Nathaniels were probably related.

H. 25li

SIR JOHN YONGE, of Colyton, knt.
An original Patentee. For particulars see "John White."

JAMES YOUNG, of London, merchant. Perhaps son of James Young, of Bristol, merchant; both were living in 1633. He was an Undertaker, appointed 10 December, 1629.

RICHARD YOUNG, of London, haberdasher. Probably son of Henry Young, of Poulton-cum-Seacombe, Cheshire, by Margery, dau. Robert Gill. He was present 6 April, 1629. He contributed to the Impropriations Fund in 1625. John Tod on 10 May, 1648, was granted 100 acres in consideration of the adventure of Mr. Richard Young [MR. 11, 246.]

Attention is called to the close family connexion between many of the Adventurers and the common interest they possessed; five inter-related groups can be formed, the same name occurring in more than one, and as in many cases they prove to have been acquainted before the Company was established, it may well be considered a "close corporation" of relatives and friends.

The titles adopted below are somewhat arbitrarily chosen but they will serve.

THE FAMILIES GROUP
. By marriage were related:
Aldersey, Thomas Andrewes, Burnell, Crane, Crowther, Flyer, Foxcroft, Glover, J:Anson, Manisty, Oldfield, Spurstowe, Webbe, Winch, Whichcote, James Young. To these may be added others who were either emigrants or closely associated with the Company: Byfield, the Lord Keeper Coventry, Eyre, Hubbard, Moulson, Offspring, Parkhurst, Ratcliffe, Rogers, Wyn. Perhaps there was a cousinship between Harwood, son of Elizabeth Greenham and Cradock, son of Dorothy Greenham.

THE: ROXWELL GROUP: The three Brownes, Flyer, Hodson, Pelham, Pyncheon, Vassalls, Waldegrave-to these may be added Eliot, Josselyn and Josias, brother of John White.

THE IMPROPRIATIONS GROUP: ? Aubrey, Aldersey, Eyre, Richard Andrewes, Davenport, Davis, Foord, Harwood, Oldfield, Perry, Richard Younge, with Bridges, Gearing and Offspring.

THE DORCHESTER GROUP: Bushrod, Darbie, Humfry, Nichols, Pelham, Southcote, Way, Whetcombe, White, Sir John Yonge.

THE EASTERN COUNTIES GROUP: Bellingham, Coddington,
Downing, Dudley, Fiennes, Hough, Hubbard, Humfry, Johnson, Kirby, Nowell, Pelham, Winthrop and all the Earl of Lincoln connexion.

Other groups may be formed by the reader himself such as the Merchant Group, and the rest.