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NOLAN Y-DNA HAPLOGROUP I2a (I-P37.2) DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 and the FOMORIANS of IRISH MYTHOLOGY


Ashokan Farewell (Flute & Harp).
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Family Tree DNA - Nolan Surname Project

Y-Haplogroup I2a Project - I2a2-M423-Isles-D1

INTRODUCTION

Prevailing evidence places the founding of DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 14. Generational mutations then occur in the Y-DNA values at DYS #385a and 385b to 11 and 15, 11 and 16, and 11 and 17. DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 17, therefore, probably mutated from 11 and 16. An 11 and 17 male at DYS #385a and 385b can either inherit those values from an 11 and 17 male or inherit the mutation from an 11 and 16 male. Other mutation events may occur, however, genetic science cannot quantify non-observable random mutation events that move forward then backward or mutate more than one-step. The one-step mutation model is the simplest and most plausible mutation pattern for DYS #385a and 385b.

Explained another way, the attached DYS #385a and 385b Mutation Chart Example displays those DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 14 results that did not inherit the 11 and 15 mutation, and, therefore, have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 15. Those results at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 15 that did not inherit the 11 and 16 mutation, and, therefore have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 16 are also shown. Each subsequent mutation event leaves some Y-DNA results at the lower marker level. Accordingly, those results at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 16 that did not inherit the 11 and 17 mutation have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 17. And those results at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 that did not inherit the 11 and 18 mutation have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 18, and so on. That is not to say that these lower marker values will not eventually mutate to the higher marker values.

Dr. Ken Nordtvedt expressed an opinion in a series of e-mails on 5 May 2009 that faster STRs violate the simple mutation modeling rule, however, in a Multi-step mutation rate discussion on 28 March 2009 John F. Chandler recalled that in father-son studies “more than 90% of the Y mutations are 1-step.“ (1)

"But probably many STRs of all mutational speeds violate the simple mutation modeling rule. We just see the consequences from the fast mutators more quickly and robustly. Why? Because the mutations at the fast markers dominate our GD and variance scores for haplotype collections." (2)

"Right now we only have good enough data to "see" the modifications of the mutation model in faster mutating STRs. The fast markers utterly dominate the data; we have STRs differing by a factor 100 in our common haplotype packages. That means we see 100 times more examples of the fast mutations than the slowest ones, and an even more extreme ratio of observed two steps of fast marker mutations than slow marker mutations." (3)

Further illustration reveals the release of Coriell NA07022 full sequencing data by Complete Genomics. Thomas Krahn, of Family Tree DNA, “extracted the Y chromosome variations and added them to” Y Map, the Family Tree DNA Y Chromosome Browser. (4) Krahn determined “that this person belongs to hg I1* as it is currently defined.” (5) This lone male identified as Haplogroup I1* at DYS 385a and 385b of 13 and 15, therefore, must have had ancestors at 11 and 14, 11 and 15, and 12 and 15 or 11 and 14, 12 and 14, and 12 and 15 at DYS #385a and 385b. It is unlikely that a multi-step mutation event occurred from 11 and 14 to 13 and 14 at DYS 385a and 385b.

Dr. Ken Nordtvedt - Index of Haplogroup I

The Story of I1b1 (P37.2+) - Over 20,000 Years of I1b1 (P37.2+) Haplogroup

O’Nolan (I-P37.2) and O’Long (I-P37.2), "I2a-P37.2, which is the most common form in the Balkans and Sardinia", have a genetic relationship forming from either a southwest Co. Cork or western Co. Galway Ireland connection. (6) The genetic association with Ó Cathain and its variants suggest a west Connaught affiliation, but the substantial amount of O'Driscoll DNA of this haplogroup favors the below description of inter-marriage between an indigenous or established Irish haplogroup and the more recent Corca Láigde (Láoighe, Lóegdi or Luighe) intruders.

Fomhóire:

"The tribe of the Fomorians was on the scene long before any other races came to Ireland. However, the Fomors lived mainly in (by) the sea. The first outside race to invade Ireland was the race of Partholon; very little is known of them. After 300 years of struggle against the Fomors, the Partholons died of an epidemic. Next came the race of Nemed who also suffered from an epidemic. This time, though, some of them survived, only to be oppressed by the Fomors. Later came colonizers from Spain or Greece called the Fir Bolgs. They were actually three tribes; men of Domnu, men of Gaillion, and men of Bolg. They inter-married with the Fomors and held the country until the arrival of the Tuatha De Danann". (7)

Geoffrey Keating aka "Seathrún Céitinn reports a tradition that the Fomorians, led by Cíocal, had arrived two hundred years earlier and lived on fish and fowl until Partholon came, bringing the plough and oxen." (8) The Ó Cathain or Keane and O'Connor genetic match at the 20-marker level with the O'Long surname makes it "likely that it shares its probable linguistic origin with O Longaigh, deriving from long, 'ship', and therefore meaning 'seafarer'. O Longaigh arose in the south of the country, in Co. Cork." (9) "Ireland's oldest known boat, a canoe, is dated to about 5000 BC during the later Mesolithic period." (10) And "a seagoing dugout boat was found as a result of archaeological monitoring on a gas pipeline near Gormanstown in Co. Meath." (11)

Radiocarbon dates indicate early Irish were just visiting

Times Online

The Times

January 9, 2009

Norman Hammond,

Archaeology Correspondent

"Ireland’s first farmers settled the island later than some sites from Ulster have long suggested, but did so in a short period which may also have seen parallel migration into western England and Scotland. Radiocarbon dates indicate that sites from Co Kerry in the South West to Co Derry in Northern Ireland were all settled within the century after 3700BC.

The immigrants built rectangular timber houses up to a hundred square metres in area, cultivated cereals such as wheat and barley, used flint tools and made plain pottery bowls, Cormac McSparron notes in Archaeology Ireland.

They were not the first people in Ireland: Mesolithic fishers and gatherers lived in Kerry and Waterford, keeping cattle, and many years ago the site of Ballynagilly in Ulster yielded dates around 4000BC associated with what seems to have been a cattle-keeping settlement. Even earlier palaeolithic hunters may also have lived on the island (The Times, July 28, 2008).

Many of the radiocarbon dates obtained using older technology are not of “gold standard,” McSparron claims; only those run using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry), from short-lived plant species such as nuts rather than long-lived timbers, and from securely understood archaeological contexts are reliable. Only 18 of 66 Irish early Neolithic dates meet these criteria, but their pattern suggests a 95 per cent likelihood that all the sites were settled and then abandoned within 90 years, between 3715 and 3625BC. This matches data from peat bogs which suggest that land clearance did not begin until after 3850BC.

Sites of almost exactly the same age as the Irish ones are known from Llandegai in northwest Wales and from Lismore Fields in the West Midlands, and coeval structures are known from Claish and Balbridie in northern Scotland.

“It seems possible that settlers from the European mainland sailed up the Irish Sea and around the Atlantic coast, settling in a number of separate locations,” McSparron says. A “significant element of colonisation must have been involved” in the beginnings of settled agriculture in Ireland.

Why these houses ceased to be built after around 3600BC is a mystery, but possibly population growth led to the rise of larger settlements, and even to defended ones as competition for the best land developed." (12)

Archaeology Ireland 22 No. 3: 18-21.

Corca Láigde (Láoighe, Lóegdi or Luighe)

"Septs in the region included Ua Cobhthaigh (O'Cowhig, O'Coffey), Ua Dubhchonna (ODowney), Ua h-Etersceóil (O'Driscoll), Ua Fitheligh (O'Fehilly, O'Fealy), Ua Floinn (O'Flainn, O'Flynn), Ua h-Aonghasa (O'Hennessy) [& O'Nolan], Ua Laochdha (Leahy), Ua Laoghaire (O'Leary), Ua Longáin (O'Longan), O'Doheny, O'Doughan, O'Dunlea, O'Hea, O'Baire, O'Henegan, Kevane. In another source Corco Láigde was siad to be possessed by the O Driscolls, O Baires, O Learys, O Henegans, O Flains, O Cowhig, O Fihilla, O Deada, O Hea, O Kiervic, &c." (13) "The O'Driscolls were the ruling race." (14)

Other Corca Laoidhe Surnames:

Ó Angluinn, Ó Buadhaigh, Ó Cuilleáin, Ó Diubháin, Ó Dubhchonna, Ó Duinnín, Ó Dudbhchon, Ó Fithcheallaigh, Ó Floinn, Ó Gabháin, Óh Illigh or Hill, Ó Hourigan, Ó Liatháin, Ó Longaigh, Ó Mainichin, and Ó Sealbhaigh.

Ireland Heritage Y-DNA Project - Public Database

Corca Laoighdhe: O'Driscoll Erainn DNA

"Tradition informs us, that previously to the arrival of Henry II, Galway was but an inconsiderable fishing village, under the protection of an Irish dune or fortress, and that it was then called Ballinshruane, or the town of the little streams;" (15)

O'Kane Genealogy:

"It is believed they came from the west of Ireland, having been displaced by Anglo-Norman invaders in the 1170s. Moving north through Ulster, the Ó Catháins, in turn, drove out the O'Connors from the latter's lands around Glengiven (Dungiven) and established their overlordship for the next four centuries." (16)

Ó Cathain - Keane - Co Galway (or Thomond) - Uí Fiachra Aidne

Tribes of Galway

O'Connor

The following three 20-marker comparison tables indicate a genetic relationship to the Pre-Norman Kingdoms, Territories, Dynastic Surnames, and Lesser Dynastic Surnames of Ireland circa 1100 AD listed below:


Conchobhair - (O) Connor - Co Offaly - descent from Cathaoir Mor


Nolan Haplogroup I2a - 20-marker Genetic Distance Comparison Table

Nolan Haplogroup I2a - 20-marker Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Generations) Table

Nolan Haplogroup I2a - 20-marker Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years) Table


Nolan I2a - FTDNA Configuration - DNA Results Comparison
ID D
Y
S
3
9
3
D
Y
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3
9
0
D
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1
9
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3
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3
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4
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3
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3
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9
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3
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3
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9
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2
D
Y
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4
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Y
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9
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D
Y
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9
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D
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4
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5
D
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D
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4
4
7
D
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4
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G
A
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4
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0
C
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Y
a
C
D
Y
b
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4
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4
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5
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1
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3
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1
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0
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6
4
1
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4
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2
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6
S
1
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Y
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5
1
1
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2
5
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Y
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4
1
3
a
D
Y
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Y
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5
5
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Y
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5
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Y
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4
3
6
D
Y
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4
9
0
D
Y
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5
3
4
D
Y
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4
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0
D
Y
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4
4
4
D
Y
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4
8
1
D
Y
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0
D
Y
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4
4
6
D
Y
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6
1
7
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Y
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5
6
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D
Y
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4
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Y
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5
7
2
D
Y
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6
4
0
D
Y
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4
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D
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5
6
5
1 modal 132516101117111310141131178101111251520291212141410102121171320193636121011815167111081310122223151012121581121201312101310111211
2 9966_Long_I2a 132516101116111310141131
3 10352_Long_I2a 132516101117111310141131
4 10353_Long_I2a 132516101117111310141131
5 13794_Long_I2a 132516101117111310141131
6 33959_Long_I2a 132516101117111310141131
7 9707_Long_I2a 132516101117111310141131178101111251520291212141410102121161320193636121011815167111081310122223151012121581121201312101210111211
8 135167_Long_I2a 1325161011171113101411311781011112515203012121414101021211613201936361210
9 18620_Long_I2a 1325161011171113101411311781011112515203012121414101021211613202036361210
10 N-24_I2a 132516101117111311141131178101111251520291212141410102121171319193636121011815167111081310122223151012121581121201312101210111211
11 N-25_I2a 132516101117111310141131178101111251520291212141410102121171319193636121011815167111081310122123151012121581121201312101210111211
12 FGAU6_Flowers 132516101117111310141131
13 116008_O'Connor_Galway_Ireland_I2a2 1324151111151113101411311781011112515203012121414101021211613201937391210
14 N42089_Durant_Norfolk_Eng_I2a 132615111116111311141131188101111251520291212141410102121161420203537121011815167111081210122123161012121581122201312101310111211
15 N24484_Long_I2a 132515111118111311141130188101111251520291212141410102121171419203437121011815167111081210122123171012121581122201312101310111211
16 94551_Driscoll_I2a 1325151112171113111411311881011122414203012141415101019211713171935361210
17 61687_Paul_I2a2 132416111217111311131130188101112241420311214141610101921171318193636121011815167111081311122222171012121581224201312101310111211
Distance from reference: Zero One Two Three+

Dr. Ken Nordtvedt: 5 May 2009 e-mail

"Does the Driscoll have 12 at 454 and 19 at YCAIIa? That's Isles A1 [I2a2-M423-Isles-A1]. I have DuBois, Long, Nolan, Dixon in the D1 [I2a2-M423-Isles-D1] with high 385b, but most of D1 is 12-16 at 385." (17)


Nolan I2a - Genetic Distance
IDm
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a
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9
9
6
6

L
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I
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3
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5

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a
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6

F
l
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8

O
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C
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G
a
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a
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I
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I
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D
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P
a
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I
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a
2
1 modal 6710000223330815151318
2 9966_Long_I2a 112111111121144556
3 10352_Long_I2a 011200000010045545
4 10353_Long_I2a 010120000010045545
5 13794_Long_I2a 010012000010045545
6 33959_Long_I2a 010001200010045545
7 9707_Long_I2a 2100006712330715171420
8 135167_Long_I2a 2100001371430611131314
9 18620_Long_I2a 3100002137540710121415
10 N-24_I2a 32111134567211016141218
11 N-25_I2a 3100003342670916141320
12 FGAU6_Flowers 010000000101245545
13 116008_O'Connor_Galway_Ireland_I2a2 8444447671094379121416
14 N42089_Durant_Norfolk_Eng_I2a 15455551511101616596771424
15 N24484_Long_I2a 155555517131214145127671423
16 94551_Driscoll_I2a 135444414131412134141414377
17 61687_Paul_I2a2 186555520141518205162423767
Related Probably Related Possibly Related
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 12 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 25 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 37 Markers
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Values on the diagonal indicate number of markers tested


Nolan I2a - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Generations)
IDm
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9
6
6

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3
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I
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7

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I
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4

I
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2
5

I
2
a
F
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A
U
6

F
l
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8

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C
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G
a
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a
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I
r
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8
9

D
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E
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I
2
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2
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4
8
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L
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I
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4
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1

D
r
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1
6
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P
a
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I
2
a
2
1 modal 6718777757107772433334240
2 9966_Long_I2a 1812181818181818183118185959777797
3 10352_Long_I2a 7181277777718775977775977
4 10353_Long_I2a 7187127777718775977775977
5 13794_Long_I2a 7187712777718775977775977
6 33959_Long_I2a 7187771277718775977775977
7 9707_Long_I2a 518777767477772133374645
8 135167_Long_I2a 71877774374121071835424246
9 18620_Long_I2a 101877777437151272131384650
10 N-24_I2a 7311818181871215675183135303840
11 N-25_I2a 71877777101256772835304245
12 FGAU6_Flowers 7187777777187125977775977
13 116008_O'Connor_Galway_Ireland_I2a2 2459595959592118213128593728384655
14 N42089_Durant_Norfolk_Eng_I2a 3359777777773335313535772867154656
15 N24484_Long_I2a 3377777777773742383030773815674653
16 94551_Driscoll_I2a 4277595959594642463842594646463721
17 61687_Paul_I2a2 4097777777774546504045775556532167
0-9 Generations 10-19 Generations 20-29 Generations 30-39 Generations
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Average mutation rate varies: 0.0040 to 0.0054, from FTDNA derived rates
- Values on the diagonal indicate number of markers tested
- Probability is 50% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated

Nolan I2a - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
IDm
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2
1 modal 6754021021021021015021030021021021072099099012601200
2 9966_Long_I2a 5401254054054054054054054093054054017701770231023102910
3 10352_Long_I2a 2105401221021021021021021054021021017702310231017702310
4 10353_Long_I2a 2105402101221021021021021054021021017702310231017702310
5 13794_Long_I2a 2105402102101221021021021054021021017702310231017702310
6 33959_Long_I2a 2105402102102101221021021054021021017702310231017702310
7 9707_Long_I2a 15054021021021021067120210210210210630990111013801350
8 135167_Long_I2a 210540210210210210120371203603002105401050126012601380
9 18620_Long_I2a 30054021021021021021012037450360210630930114013801500
10 N-24_I2a 21093054054054054021036045067150540930105090011401200
11 N-25_I2a 21054021021021021021030036015067210840105090012601350
12 FGAU6_Flowers 2105402102102102102102102105402101217702310231017702310
13 116008_O'Connor_Galway_Ireland_I2a2 72017701770177017701770630540630930840177037840114013801650
14 N42089_Durant_Norfolk_Eng_I2a 9901770231023102310231099010509301050105023108406745013801680
15 N24484_Long_I2a 99023102310231023102310111012601140900900231011404506713801590
16 94551_Driscoll_I2a 12602310177017701770177013801260138011401260177013801380138037630
17 61687_Paul_I2a2 12002910231023102310231013501380150012001350231016501680159063067
0-270 Years 300-570 Years 600-870 Years 900-1170 Years
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Average mutation rate varies: 0.0040 to 0.0054, from FTDNA derived rates
- Values on the diagonal indicate number of markers tested
- Probability is 50% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
- Average generaton: 30 years

Further Reading Material:

1. Early Isles Farmers

Here came the I2a2-Isles (P37.2+ M423+) and maybe some I2* ?

Then who were the earlier birds who just hunted and fished? (18)

2. Hg I Clade Ages

3. Celtic-Dinarics?

4. I2b1 Modal Haplotypes

M423-Isles-B is the oldest clade with most continental membership. There's a decent chance Isles-C was founded in the British Isles themselves by a founder whose ancestors were part of an earlier arrival of the Isles-B folks. (20)

5. I2a2-Isles Clades Divide Again

6. I2a2-Isles Clades Divide Again, 2

Haplogroup I "spent the LGM in various southern refuges, probably mostly the Balkans or the Danube basin. When I find relatively old clades of haplogroup I almost exclusively found in the British Isles at the opposite corner of Europe, that seems significant, so I use "Isles" as nickname and reminder of its special geographic characteristic. One thing it suggests is that several clades of haplogroup I repopulated the British Isles substantially before the Roman era." (21)

7. Southern Italy - Italia (Land of young cattle)

8. Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5b3: A Distant Echo of the Epipaleolithic in Italy and the Legacy of the Early Sardinians

"Here we show, through phylogeographic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation performed at the highest level of molecular resolution (52 entire mitochondrial genomes), that the most likely homeland for U5b3a haplogroup present at a very low frequency across Europe was the Italian Peninsula. In contrast to mtDNA haplogroups that expanded from other refugia, the Holocene expansion of haplogroup U5b3 toward the North was restricted by the Alps and occurred only along the Mediterranean coasts, mainly toward nearby Provence (southern France). From there, 7,000-9,000 years ago, a subclade of this haplogroup moved to Sardinia, possibly as a result of the obsidian trade that linked the two regions, leaving a distinctive signature in the modern people of the island. This scenario strikingly matches the age, distribution, and postulated geographic source of a Sardinian Y chromosome haplogroup (I2a2-M26), a paradigmatic case in the European context of a founder event marking both female and male lineages." (22)

9. American Institute of Southern Italian Studies (AISIS) - History of Southern Italy Prehistory to 501 BC

10. L157 (rs17222657 - derived under I1 and R-U152)

11. Y-DNA Haplogroup I, Digest, Vol 4, Issue 347

"Confluence? Do you mean TMRCA?

Given the margin of error on these things I see no reason to change the approximate 4000 years ago as the TMRCA for I1 as a whole." (23)

29 June 2009

12. rs13447374 WalkTheY Results?

13. "But maybe haplogroup I started to split up in Europe 35,000 years ago ?" (24)

14. Aurignacian - Lionheaded Figurine (Lion Man) and the Fomhóire: gods of night, death, and cold (mis-shapen people)?

Conclusion:

The Fomor or Fomorians do not necessarily equate to Haplogroup I. More specifically the name should be relative to the ancestors of people at 11 and 17 (DYS 385a and 385b). The reference to gods of night, death, and cold, undoubtedly, to this researcher, recalls one of either two events: the development of fire, which allowed modern human culture to flourish and dominate our landscape or the advent of new technologies providing insulation from the cold through warmer clothing that allowed inhabitants to withstand a harsh European environment.

Glenn Allen Nolen

24 July 2009

End of Study

Addendum:

23 August 2009

Evolutionary Continuity of Autosomal Dominant Inheritance between Haplogroups

1,000 YEARS OF O'NOLAN HISTORY IN IRELAND & THE NEW WORLD: MICHAEL O'NOLAN, COUNTY GALWAY - 1473, (ESTIMATED BIRTH: 1410-1440) AND THE DESCENDANTS OF DONELL OGE O'NOLLOGHAN (O'NOLAN) & JULIAN FALLON OF GALWAY - 1500, DONELL OGE O’HOLOGHAN (O’NOLAN) OWNER OF QWAROWN BROWN (CARROWBROWNE) CASTLE - 1574, TOMHAS O'H-UALLACHAIN (THOMAS NOLAN) & AGNES MARTIN, BALLINROBE CASTLE, MAYO COUNTY IRELAND - PRIOR TO 1585 THOMAS NOLAN RESIDED AT "THE CREVAGHE" (CREAGH CASTLE) PURCHASING ENNISCRONE CASTLE IN COUNTY SLIGO AFTER 1597 DYING 18 JUNE 1628; JOHN NOLAN & FAMILY ATTACKED AND FORCEFULLY EVICTED FROM ENNISCRONE CASTLE, 1641-42; JOHN NOWLIN LIVING IN ISLE OF WIGHT COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1643; THOMAS NOLIN (NOLUN) OF JAMES CITY COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1717; WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1740.


Part I. HISTORY OF CARLOW CLAN O'NOLAN AND TIPPERARY CLAN O'NOLAN.


Part II. HISTORY OF OFFALY - KILKENNY CLAN O'NOLAN: CONNAUGHT.


Part III. DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1740 & ALBEMARLE COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1744.


Part IV. O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: IRELAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE.


Part V. O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: ALABAMA, ARKANSAS, FLORIDA, NEW HAMPSHIRE, OKLAHOMA, & TEXAS.


Part VI. OF THE NOLANS (NOLA): ORIGINS OF THE IRISH AND SCOTTISH - CORCA LUIGHE (CORCA LAOIDHE) AND DAL RIADA (DAL RIATA) - (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h*) (R1b1c10) - DYS #385a AND 385b AT 11 AND 17 - A CORCA LUIGHE (CORCA LAOIDHE) OSSORY (OSRAIGHE) AND DAL RIADA (DAL RIATA) ULADH HAPLOTYPE IN CO. DONEGAL, ULSTER, IRELAND, 1600s.

Notes:

1. Multi-step mutation rates, 28 March 2009, John Chandler @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/genealogy-dna/2009-03/1238296568.

2. Dr. Ken Nordtvedt: 5 May 2009 e-mail.

3. Ibid.

4. Thomas Krahn, 21 May 2009, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2009-05/1242888613.

5. Ibid.

6. ISOGG, Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades @ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpI09.html.

7. Ireland's History in Maps - Celtic Ireland - The Myths of Time @ http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlkik/ihm/ire000.htm.

8. Fomorians @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fomorians.

9. Irish Names K-L @ http://homepage.eircom.net/~kthomas/names7.htm.

10. Ireland's History in Maps - PreHistory + PaleoGeography + Archaeology: Ancient Ireland @ http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlkik/ihm/ancient.htm.

11. Archaeological Survey of Ireland and Archive @ http://www.environ.ie/en/Heritage/Archaeology-NationalMonumentsService/ArchaeologicalSurveyofIrelandandArchive/.

12. Radiocarbon dates indicate early Irish were just visiting, Times Online, The Times, January 9, 2009, Archaeology Ireland 22 No. 3: 18-21 @ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/court_and_social/article5477636.ece.

13. Ireland's History in Maps - Tribes & Territories of Mumhan: Munster Series @ http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlkik/ihm/munster.htm.

14. Ireland's History - Old Irish Kingdoms and Clans @ http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlkik/ihm/ireclan2.htm.

15. Hardiman's History of Galway, Chapter 1: The origin and signification of the name of Galway @ http://www.galway.net/galwayguide/history/hardiman/chapter1/origin_of_name.html.

16. O'Kane Genealogy @ http://www.ocathain.com/.

17. Dr. Ken Nordtvedt: 5 May 2009 e-mail.

18. Ken Nordtvedt, 11 January 2009, Y-DNA Haplogroup I, Early Isles Farmers @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/y-dna-haplogroup-i/2009-01/1231690708.

19. Ibid, 16 May 2008, Y-DNA Haplogroup I, Hg I Clade Ages @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/y-dna-haplogroup-i/2008-05/1210960712.

20. Ibid, 23 February 2009, Y-DNA Haplogroup I, I2b1 Modal Haplotypes @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/y-dna-haplogroup-i/2009-02/1235419580.

21. Ibid, 4 April 2009, Y-DNA Haplogroup I, I2a2-Isles Clades Divide Again @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/y-dna-haplogroup-i/2009-04/1238870602.

22. Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5b3: A Distant Echo of the Epipaleolithic in Italy and the Legacy of the Early Sardinians, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 04 June 2009 @ http://www.cell.com/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297%2809%2900202-X.

23. Ken Nordtvedt, 23 June 2009, Y-DNA Haplogroup I, Digest, Vol 4, Issue 347 @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/Y-DNA-HAPLOGROUP-I/2009-06/1245771571.

24. Ken Nordtvedt, 17 July 2009, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/genealogy-dna/2009-07/1247885944.

Here are my websites:










       




DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1740 & ALBEMARLE COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1744.

O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: IRELAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE, ALABAMA, ARKANSAS & TEXAS.

TOWNSHIPS OF CARLOW COUNTY, IRELAND.

BENNER, GOTTHARDT, HAGELGANS, & LORENZ GENEALOGY.

POETRY OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

FAMILY PHOTOS OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN MOBLEY OF SOUTH RIVER PARISH, ANN ARUNDEL COUNTY, MARYLAND, 1687.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN M. (MAC) HORTON: GEORGIA, 1827.

BLUE MOUNTAIN DAM, AR: CEMETERY RELOCATION RECORDS.

DESCENDANTS OF CHRISTIAN ADAM BARTH AND CATHERINE WUNDERLICK.

WEB PAGES OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

BISHOP GENEALOGY.


Here are some of my favorite websites:


ONLINE SHORT STORY BY EDWARD EVERETT HALE (1822–1909): THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY. THE HARVARD CLASSICS SHELF OF FICTION, 1917.

CENSUS OF CARLOW COUNTY IRELAND, 1659.

NOLANDS OF AMERICA.

EARLY HISTORY OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE.

1860 CENSUS WILLIAMSON CO. TN.

1880 CENSUS YELL CO. AR.

MOBLEY CEMETERY, YELL CO. AR.

CEMETERY RECORDS OF YELL CO. AR.

DESCENDANTS OF PIERCE NOWLAND (NOLAND)- VERY LARGE DOCUMENT: BE PATIENT.

THE NICOLAUS HEINRICH CRIST ACCOUNT BOOK - NICOLAUS HEINRICH CRIST (1716-1783) & ANA CATHERIN NOWLIN (1720-1783).

NOWLIN GENEALOGY.

UNITED STATES MIGRATION PATTERNS FROM 1660.

HAVANA ARKANSAS CITY CEMETERY.

HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT ALABAMA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY C. S. A.

11TH ALABAMA CAVALRY REGIMENT, CSA, ALABAMA.

NOLENSVILLE, TN

SUGAR GROVE CEMETERY, LOGAN COUNTY ARKANSAS.

ISBELL GENEALOGY.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN ISBELL.

IRELAND'S HISTORY IN MAPS.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN NOWLAN (NOWLIN).

ASHOKAN FAREWELL (HARPSONG), SONG DURATION: 3:08.

MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE CELTIC RACE.

IRISH MAGIC AND TUATH DE DANAANS.

NOLAN FAMILIES OF THE WORLD.

IRISH SEPT AND CLAN PAGES.

ULSTER HERITAGE MAGAZINE.

WHO WAS WHO IN ROMAN TIMES: NOLANS, NOLA, NOLAN.

ULSTER HERITAGE.com.



E-MAIL GLENN ALLEN NOLEN @ ganolen@gmail.com.