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Of the Nolans (Nola)


Origins of the Irish and Scottish: Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata)

R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10) - DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17: A Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) Ossory (Osraighe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata) Uladh Haplotype in Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland, 1600s.
Send Me A Song - Lisa Kelly - Celtic Woman.















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Family Tree DNA - Nolan Surname Project

Kerchner's R1b1c10 (R-U152) Project

Irish Heritage DNA Project

Ireland Heritage Y-DNA Project - Public Database

Nolan I2a - DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 Research

Early Human Migration:

"Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three waves of migration, leading into Europe, the Americas and India." Modern humans migrated out of Africa into Central Asia before spreading both east and west into North America and Europe, says an international team of scientists who have used modern DNA analysis to trace ancient migrations. "Around 40-50,000 years ago, [approximately 2000 generations] Central Asia was full of tropical trees, a good place for hunting and fishing," said Nadira Yuldasheva of the Institute of Immunology at the Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. "Then, as desertification came in, some people moved west into Europe and some moved into Siberia, and on into North America." (A) Quote is from Sciforums.com Dr. Spencer Wells; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


23 November 2008 Update:


News:

On 23 December 2008, Kit #121942, Mamedaliyev, Kazakhstan (Kipchak Tribesman) of the R-P312 and Subclades Project tested R-U152+ (rs1236440) L2+ or R1b1b2a1b7c. Kazakhstan represents part of Scythia. Kipchaks descend from Turkic nomadic pastoralists of Central Asia to Eastern Europe. Central Asian (Scythian) influences are identifiable in China, Japan, Korea, and India.

Central Asia - Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan & Uzbekistan

Y-Search participant E5X7X with the surname of Anglin (O'hAngluinn) of the Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe or Loigde) announced on 8 November 2008 a test of R-L21+ on the R-P312 and Subclades Project Yahoo Group. R-L21 is a brother clade to R-U152 suggesting a common Celtic heritage within the Corca Laoidhe, which encompassed both of these subclades of R-P312 within its sept or clan. R-L21 identified, as of 11 November 2008, in two people with German ancestry, a sample labeled as Italian, and one person with French heritage. Also of significance to this research, R-M228.2 (rs9341273) links an R-U152 male from Northern Italy and an E1b1a7 (E-M191) African male previously reported as a Haplogroup B2 Pygmy from the Congo characterized as a communication error on DNA Forums: New SNP in U152+ rs9341273 = M228+.

The EthnoAncestry announcement on Easter 2008 defines SNP marker, S116 or rs34276300, characterized as a subgroup of R1b, which includes M222 (Northwest Irish - (R1b1c7) R1b1b2e) and S28, U152, R1b1c10 or R1b1b2h. This new subclade of R1b “has very interesting implications for the deep origins of the Irish” meaning R1b1b2e (R1b1c7) and R1b1b2h (R1b1c10) share a common ancient historical heritage. (B) Haplogroup R1b1b2a or R1b1c1, R1b1b2b or R1b1c2, R1b1b2h1 or R1b1c3, R1b1b2c or R1b1c4, R1b1b2h2 or R1b1c5, R1b1b2d or R1b1c6, R1b1b2e or R1b1c7, R1b1b2f or R1b1c8, R1b1b2h or R1b1c10, and roughly 90% of R1b1b2 or R1b1c* share an A+ at rs34276300.


INTRODUCTION

Working Draft of the Y Chromosome Tree Below R-M269 by Thomas Krahn

In June 2006, Bennett Greenspan, President of Family Tree DNA, of Houston, Texas hypothesized that DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 was uncommon for R1b males, and that Y-DNA results at those values would result in genetic relationships. Analysis of these values in R1b1b2 DYS #385a and 385b males suggests that 2006 hypothesis is valid within parallel subclades of R-P312 and those relationships for most R1b1b2 385a and 385b males at 11 and 17 result in a Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) Ossory (Osraighe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata) Uladh Haplotype in Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland, 1600s.

29 June 2006

“The 11,17 at 385a/b is not common for R1b males and is distinctive enough that it acts to tie them together."

"For example only 105 men in our entire database share an 11,17, which 882 share an 11,16 and 5445 share an 11,15, and 22704 has an 11,14 so you can see how rare it is…” (1)


24 July 2007

"The # is now 138, but our opt in matching system only approves that people who are an exact match or -1 (for 12) or -2 (for 25) can be shown to each other so I don’t have a legal permission to display, carte blanche, all of those samples for any research project, but I do think that a relationship at some level is highly likely." (2)


Prevailing evidence places the founding of R1b1b2 (R1b1c) DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 14. Generational mutations then occur in the Y-DNA values at DYS #385a and 385b to 11 and 15, 11 and 16, and 11 and 17. R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 17, therefore, probably mutated from 11 and 16. An R1b1c 11 and 17 male at DYS #385a and 385b can either inherit those values from an 11 and 17 male or inherit the mutation from an 11 and 16 male. Other mutation events may occur, however, genetic science cannot quantify non-observable random mutation events that move forward then backward or mutate more than one-step. The one-step mutation model is the simplest and most plausible mutation pattern for R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b.

Explained another way, the attached R1b1b2h (R1b1c10) DYS #385a and 385b Mutation Chart Example displays those R1b1b2 (R1b1c) DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 14 results that did not inherit the 11 and 15 mutation, and, therefore, have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 15. Those R1b1b2 results at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 15 that did not inherit the 11 and 16 mutation, and, therefore have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 16 are also shown. Each subsequent mutation event leaves some Y-DNA results at the lower marker level. Accordingly, those R1b1b2 results at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 16 that did not inherit the 11 and 17 mutation have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 17. And those R1b1b2 results at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 that did not inherit the 11 and 18 mutation have not mutated to the higher value of 11 and 18, and so on. That is not to say that these lower marker values will not eventually mutate to the higher marker values.

Evidence presented in this study of O’Hullachain (O’Nolan), O'Cobhthaigh (O'Coffey), and O'hAodha (O'Hea) or Egan at R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 17 supports the contention that these Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) surnames inherited these values or inherited the mutation from 11 and 16. Further analysis suggests this process also relates to R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 18. That is that an R1b1c 11 and 18 male either inherits those values or inherits the mutation from 11 and 17. Consequently, the R1b1c O’Driscoll at 11 and 18 in the O'Driscoll Erainn study either inherited those values or inherited the mutation from 11 and 17.

The ancestors of the R1b1c O’Driscoll at 11 and 18 must have then gone through this generational mutation process from 11 and 14, 11 and 15, 11 and 16, 11 and 17, to 11 and 18. R1b1c of 11 and 18 at DYS #385a and 385b, therefore, represents a direct lineage of its 11 and 14 ancestors. O’Driscoll was the ruling clan of the Corca Laoidhe. Surnames of the Corca Laoidhe, O’Hullachain (O’Nolan), O'Cobhthaigh (O'Coffey), and O'hAodha (O'Hea) or Egan, at R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17, therefore, exhibit a genetic relationship characterized as descendants of the ruling clan of the Corca Laoidhe, which has now mutated to 11 and 18.

Analysis of 17447, O'Driscoll, with the 20-marker modal of this research exhibits a genetic distance of two. A genetic distance of two also exists between 17447, O'Driscoll, DJN6U, Coffee, and R1bSTR43 meaning a probable relationship. 17447, O'Driscoll, is a genetic distance of one with 4NQV7, Fabbri, of Italy, at 11 and 18, three with S28, N-4, Nolen, R1b1c10, 5GGTH, Hagan, N2F3B, Hagan, YNXPB, Hagan, 60381, Windham, 61401, Windham, SKS4A, Jones, N8963, Zimmerman, and N25640, Zimmerman meaning a possible genetic relationship exists.

N2F3B, O'Hagan at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 has tested R-U152 negative. Kit #41097, O’Hagan, at the R-P312 and Subclades Project has tested R-L21 negative, therefore, this Hagan group at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 are probably part of an as yet unidentified downstream subclade of R-P312. Consider further mention of this O’Hagan, H-1, H-13, H-19, and H-34, of the Maryland and Ireland roots family from the Hagan DNA Project in the following text as a parallel subclade to R-U152 (rs1236440) within the larger haplogroup R-P312. Each of these parallel subclades within R-P312, though, have the same core origin and thus originate with the people from the territory of Nola (Nolans) in Central Italy or their ancestors depending on the relative age of R-P312.

17447, O'Driscoll, exhibits a possible relationship with the Italian and German results from this research suggesting a Central European (Germanic) origin for this unique population. Available data suggests that genetic relationships exist between N-4, R1b1c10 (R1b1b2h*) S28+ or U152 (Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught of Ireland) and other Corca Laoidhe septs at R1b1c DYS marker values 385a and 385b of 11 and 17. Data provided in this study also suggest genetic relationships between those R1b1c surnames at DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 17 and those R1b1c surnames at DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 18. These marker values are indicative of an Irish heritage for most participants of this study. These unique markers indicate Irish habitation for at least two millennia or more originating from central Europe, northern Spain or southern France prior to Irish migration. Analysis of R1b1b2h (R1b1c10) S28+ or U152+ at marker value DYS #492 at 14 further establishes a continental European origin for Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught and DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 17 from data provided at Kerchner's R1b1c10 (U152+) Project and Y-Search. Another key value for this group is DYS #448 at 19. Of all the participants’ 95170 Fore stands out as the lone DYS #448 at 20 compared to the Leinster Modal group at DYS #448 at 18.

European LGM Refugium

The results of this study indicate that R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1c10) (R1b1b2h*) S28+ or U152+, depending on its relative age, migrated from the Balkans or Central Italy after the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) spreading throughout Europe with R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 representing a direct mutational link to its 11 and 14 ancestors. If not from the Balkans or Central Italy, it migrated from the east (Scythia), to the Near East, Northwest Africa then to Central Italy remaining in the territory of Nola of ancient Italy until the Bronze Age when an eruption at Mount Vesuvius caused thousands of Nolans (people from the territory of Nola) to flee recorded in footprints preserved in the volcanic ash. Thousands of human and animal footprints in a common north-northwest migration suggest a rapid large-scale evacuation from the devastation zone. (C) Y-Search lists B92H6, Sangiacomo, R1b1b2h, at DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 17 and DYS #492 at 14 Country of Origin as Naples, Italy while Kerchner's R1b1b2h (U152+) Project: Southern Europe U152+ lists N48945, R1b1b2h, at DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 14 as having Italian heritage south of Naples in Salandra and Kit #88899, R1b1b2h, at DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 16 in Campobasso, Italy due north of Avellino. These R1b1b2h participants may indicate descendancy from the group of Nolans who attempted to resettle in the devastation zone and remain in the surrounding vicinity of the territory of Nola.

Naples and Nola Italy

DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 18


DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
DYS
460
DYS
GATA H4
DYS
YCA -- a
DYS
YCA -- b
DYS
456
DYS
607
DYS
576
DYS
570
DYS
CDY a
DYS
CDY b
DYS
442
DYS
438
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 18 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 11 12 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 40 12 12 17447 O'Driscoll Co. Cork, Ireland R1b1c
13 24 14 10 11 18 12 12 12 14 13 30 4NQV7 Fabbri - Italy R1b1
13 24 14 10 11 18 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 29 14 15 17 17 11 11 19 23 15 15 17 15 38 38 11 13 4CE7U Cover (Kober) - Pennsylvania, USA or Germany R1b
13 24 14 11 11 18 12 12 12 13 13 29 557SV Schorr - Ludwigsstadt, Germany

DYS #385a and 385b of 11 and 19


DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
DYS
460
DYS
GATA H4
DYS
YCA -- a
DYS
YCA -- b
DYS
456
DYS
607
DYS
576
DYS
570
DYS
CDY a
DYS
CDY b
DYS
442
DYS
438
DYS
531
DYS
578
DYS
395S1a
DYS
395S1b
DYS
590
DYS
537
DYS
641
DYS
472
DYS
406S1
DYS
511
DYS
425
DYS
413a
DYS
413b
DYS
557
DYS
594
DYS
436
DYS
490
DYS
534
DYS
450
DYS
444
DYS
481
DYS
520
DYS
446
DYS
617
DYS
568
DYS
487
DYS
572
DYS
640
DYS
492
DYS
565
ID #
13 24 14 11 11 19 12 12 12 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 14 15 17 18 11 11 19 23 15 15 17 16 39 40 12 13 12 12 13 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 23 23 16 10 12 12 14 8 22 20 12 11 13 11 11 14 11 DF7SK Corsi La Cavada, Santander, Spain - R1b1b2h
13 23 16 10 11 19 12 12 12 13 13 29 81807 Blair R1b1c - Ireland/Scotland

The O’Hullachain (O’Nolan), O'hAodha (O'Hea) or Egan, and O’hAgain, O’Hagan (Hagan) participants of this research exhibit definite relatedness in a 20-marker comparison. These surnames beginning with “O” are Irish septs of this unique haplotype. 44P3H Cameron and Rogers or MacRory are Dál Riada (Dál Riata) surnames. 81807 Blair at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 19 is also a Scottish surname from the Scotland DNA Project. DF7SK, Corsi from La Cavada, Santander, Spain at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 19 and DYS #492 at 14 supports a genetic relationship consistent with that of Irish Scythian Milesian ancestry.

An early tribe of the Uladh (Province of Ulster) was the Dál Riada or Dál Riata, once referred to by Romans as “Scoti” or "Scotia" from which the name Scotland may have derived. One Irish genealogy of the ancient Dál Riata refers to the Clan of Úgaine Mor and Glass mac Nuadait Argatlám as the common ancestor between the Dál Riata and the people of Laigin (Leinster), Ulaid (Ulster), Ossairgi (Osraighe or Ossory), and the Síl Cuind. This mythical figure also known as Nuadu Argatlám, Nuadu of the Silver Hand or Nudd Airgetlam, (R1b1c7) King of the Tuatha De Danann, lost a hand in battle with the Fir Bolg or Belgae (R1b1c10) and every subsequent family in Ireland is reportedly descended from the race of Nuadu.

Clan Úgaine Mor represents Irish R1b1c7. For instance, ancient Irish genealogies register Cobhtach, Caol mBreagh, the eldest son of Úgaine Mor, 66th Milesian Monarch of Ireland as the ancestor of the R1b1c7 O’Nuallains from Co. Carlow. The Clan of Úgaine Mor also represents the ancestral lineage of R1b1c7: Niall Nóigiallach - Niall of the Nine Hostages while King Colla Uais, Father of the Clans of Scotland, exiled from Ireland probably represents Haplogroup R1b1b2h* or R1b1c10.

29 March 2008

“I wanted to correct the fact that my family is 11/16 at DYS385. There is no 11/17 Leppard. That was to search for possible relatives at +/- 1 from my family's unusual 11/16. You already noted that they are progressively smaller from 11/14 so while we are not as rare as you are we are indeed rare and represent the ancestral value to your branch. That is unless there were multiple mutation events that jumped unrelated individuals to the same unusual value.”

“While there is no 11/17 Leppard now, there will be eventually as sooner or later someone in my family will migrate from 11/16 to 11/17. However, our family is S28- so we will never be R1b1c10.”

“Your ancestral was 11/16. Unless the same individual who got the S28+ mutation also got the 11/17 mutation, which is almost impossible, then you would have potential ancestors who were 11/16 with S28+ and even earlier ancestors with 11/16 and S28-. These last would have some descendants who mutated to 11/17 eventually and yet they would not be S28+.”

“I think most 11/16, 11/17, and 11/18 will be found in the same general branch of R1b1c but they may be found in separate parallel subclades of that branch.”

“I did find that the O'Sullivans and MacGillicuddy clans (which of course are related) were heavily weighted to 11/16 and 11/17 to a lesser extent meaning that there was a mutation from 16 to 17 in recent times in Ireland since the establishment of surnames. This to me suggests that 11/17 is a mutation in Ireland.” (3)


The below Windham participants represent kit numbers from Khaki Group 01 of the Windham Family DNA Project. N-3, N-4, and N-30 represent Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught. H-1, H-13, H-19, and H-34 of the Maryland and Ireland roots family represent the Hagan DNA Project. Kit number 1596 with the May surname is from Kerchner's R1b and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project. The Italian and German results are from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation and the Italy DNA Project. Montalbano represents Sicily. The other represented surnames are from Y-Search, Carpenter Cousins DNA Project, Rogers FamilyTree DNA Project, Parkins and Perkins Y-DNA Study, Roberts Surname DNA Project, Griggs FamilyTree DNA Website, May Family Reconstruction Website, Reed FamilyTree DNA Website, Scottish Clans DNA Project, Germany DNA Project, Clan Egan DNA Project, Ford Family Project Website, and Ireland Heritage Y-DNA Project - North Connaught.


Fertile Crescent

MIGRATION:


Scythia - Near East - Ancient Libya (Northwest Africa) - Central Italy - Central Europe - Spain - Ireland - Scotland - and Britain

Map of Eastern Mediterranean (from Black Sea to Lybia and Egypt)

Map of Ancient Greek World (Southern Italy, Greece and Asia Minor)


ANALYSIS:


R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10): M173+ M207+ M269+ M343+ P25+ P-312+ (rs34276300+) (S116+) U152+ (S28+) L2- L3- L4- M126- M153- M160- M18- M222- M37- M65- M73- P107- P66- SRY2627- U106- U198- S21- S26- S29-


R-U152+ or S28+ = (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) or R1b1c10 confirmed at FTDNA and EthnoAncestry

DYS 385a/b (Kittler) 17-11

Y-DNA Advanced Markers - FTDNA Panels 5-9: Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught

Blood Type: N-4 (Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan of the Nolan DNA Surname Project) AB+ (universal recipient)


R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10) S28+ or U152+: DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 Research Study Participants

R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10) S28+ or U152+: DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 Research Study Participant Text File


R-U152 (rs1236440) (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) or R1b1c10 DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 indicate a Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe), Ossory (Osraighe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata) Uladh Haplotype in Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland, during the 1600s. This represents an Irish heritage for most participants of this study. Y-DNA cannot yet place R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1c10) (R1b1b2h): DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 into a specific wave of Celtic migration as shown by the myriad of Irish migration myths. Hence, we have two mythological origins for the Corca Loigde: Érainn or Goídel. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught is of the Corca Laoidhe and that places it within the Érainn or Goidel, but pinpointing an arrival date prior to 2,500 years ago is not possible at this point. The Érainn (Fir Bolg) invaded Ireland long before the Goídel (Gaedil) or Milesians, however, it has become obvious that the differing redactions of the Milesian Legends and its use of double episodes based upon the Lebor Gabala Erren refer to the same migration of the Celtic people into Ireland: Érainn (Fir Bolg) and Goídel (Gaedil) or Milesians.

Lebor Gabala Erren - Overview

Lebor Gabala Erren - Genealogy

Other central European Y-DNA clusters of 385a and 385b at 11 and 17 exhibit relatedness to the Corca Laoidhe. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught of Ireland has a genetic history of Dystonia and, therefore, a central European common ancestor is probable.

Primary Torsion Dystonia: Overview
- eMedicine Specialties; Neurology; Movement and Neurodegenerative Diseases

A Few Select Faces of Early-Onset Childhood Dystonia

Medical and genetic research into Idiopathic Torsion Dystonia (ITD) suggests “that DYT7 is a common cause for ITD in [Germany] and central Europe, that many patients are descended from a common ancestor, and that the DYT7 gene maps to a 4.4-cM subregion of 18p." (4) The video of a handcuffed disabled man with Dystonia, John Dempsey, tasered by Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Kamloops, B. C., RCMP Watch, 10 March 2008, also supports the genealogical and genetic relatedness of the O'Diomasaighe (O'Dempsey) and O'Huallachain (O'Nolan) Irish septs as shown at History of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O‘Nolan: Connaught. Dunne (O’Doinn) (O’Doyne) is also an Irish surname. The Dunn Sept of County Laois & Kildare is a prominent branch of the Ui Failghe, (Ophaley or Offaly), which branched into the O’Diomasach (O’Dempsey) and O’Dunne. An article in the 16 June 2008 edition of the Detroit News focused on Jason Dunn and his battle with early-onset childhood dystonia, which links these three Irish septs genealogically and genetically: Clann Colgcan (Cholgaín) (Ua hUallachain), Clann Máellugra (O'Dempsey), and the Uí Riacáin (O'Dunne).

John Dempsey Tasered in Canada

Jason Dunn

A Day in the Life of Jason Dunn

Glenn Nolen in Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 24 October 1988, 2.

For most people, Dystonia is a Y-linked inherited genetic disorder. Other factors can contribute to the onset of Dystonia; however, its primary manifestation is through paternal inheritance. Essentially, Dystonia is Y-linked except for the X-linked DYT3 gene mutation. DYT16, located at 1·2 Mb at chromosome 2q31.2, may represent linkage between Dystonia and Parkinson’s through gene mutation PRKRA. Dystonia affects approximately 3,000 men, women, and children in Ireland and at least 300,000 North Americans due to the migration influx of genetically affected family members from all European Dystonia populations into North America. A marker for the La Tene Celtic culture of Central Europe as characterized by David Faux is R1b1c10 (U152+) or S28+, which corresponds to the conclusions of this study as per the 24 April 2006 discussion of R1b1c10 (S28) - Teutonic or Ancient Celt? R1b1c10 (R1b1b2h*) 385a and 385b at 11 and 17 are of the Belgae in Belgium or the Celts in Galicia of Central Europe prior to Irish migration circa 2,500 years ago.

R-U152 (R1b1c10) or S28+ is approximately eighty-nine percent the age of R1b developing as a Celtic cluster with the age of its development ranging from an estimated 6,541 years to the end of the last ice age or 10,000-12,000 years. This research indicates a Scythian origin for R-U152 DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 in Ireland. Certainty does not exist as to which wave of migration R-U152 DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 in Ireland belong.

This research does not discount the possibility of the La Tene Keltoi people from Alpine Europe migrating to Ireland. This unique haplotype may represent a Germanic Celtic migration several centuries before the Common Era and descendancy through the Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland. It is not of Viking origin or descended through the Norse Viking warrior, Aengaba of Norway, who was at the Battle of Moytura or the First Battle of Magh Turedh, as represented in the Celtic texts of Ireland. It is also not a Norman - French Tribes of Galway haplotype. Responsible research cannot discount, out of hand, the possibility of direct migration out of Central Europe.

The Goidel (Gael or Féni) migrated to Ireland from northern Spain or southern France. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught did intermarry heavily into the Norman - French Tribes of Galway, however, this unique Corca Laoidhe haplotype predates that involvement. A French S28+ lineage has an oral family history of descendancy from a Germanic speaking population and a paternal family history of mild Dystonia. Dystonia may have an undiscovered founder effect in Central Europe or Germany, and the German and Italian results of this R1b1b2h* study may in fact be S28+ (U152+).

Research posted below and at History of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught places this Irish cluster within the Iverni (Érainn) or Goídel (Gael or Féni) tribes of Southwest Ireland possibly related to the Menapii recorded in Ptolemy's Map of Ireland. There is the possibility of it being a sub-group of the Fir Bolg, Érainn, or Belgae known as the Builg from around the city of Cork in Munster identical to the Iverni or Menapii, but most notably for Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught these specific markers reference the Osraighe Region of south-central Ireland. This research also points to the Ulster Ireland counties of Donegal and Tyrone, which the Vennicnii and the Rhobogdii tribes anciently occupied. Obviously, research places these unique markers in the Ancient Uladh, Kingdom of Ulster.

Yellow denotes this studies 20-marker modal haplotype at DYS #385a and 385b.


DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 R1b1c10 385a-385b 11, 17 Modal Reference


Prevailing evidence suggests the founding of R1b1c DYS# 385a and 385b at 11 and 14. That would mean that most R1b1c at DYS# 385a and 385b of 11 and 17 mutated from 11 and 16 or inherited an 11 and 17 at DYS# 385a and 385b. Thus, evidence presented below of O’Hullachain (O’Nolan) descending from the only O’Driscoll at 11 and 18 is consistent with a mutation pattern from 11 and 16 to 11 and 17 and then to 11 and 18.

In general, the relatively recent advent of surnames to characterize family groups is not useful in ancient tribal comparisons. Ireland, though, is unique in that it supports ancient paternalistic relationships that are useful in these comparisons. The below Genetic Distance and Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Generations) tables exhibit the ancient development of R1b1c10 DYS #385a and DYS #385b at 11 and 17. The unique 20-marker modal reference haplotype of these clusters undoubtedly represent a patrilineal lineage of the Gaul’s (Celt’s) residing in a broad area of Western Europe: Belgium, France, Germany, Northern Italy, parts of the Netherlands, and Western Switzerland.

Evidence suggests that Celtic origins spread across Europe from along the Danube, possibly named for the Celtic goddess Danu, through East-Central Europe, Southwest Germany and Gaul to Iberia and the Atlantic. The re-population of Europe after the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) occurred from the Balkans or Central Italian refugium.

This particular haplotype resembles R1bSTR43, King Colla Uais, and the Scottish (Dalriadic) modal haplotype or R1bSTR47. This patrilineal lineage may have originated in Asia Minor many thousands of years in the past recorded in Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Latin America. Three participants of the Geographical Heterogeneity of Y-chromosomal Lineages in Norway exhibit an 11 and 17 at 385a and 385b. These three Y-DNA tested participants from Northern Norway have results indicating a subgroup of P except R1a tested for the 92R7-mutation defining P and not SRY10831.2 defining R1a. Haplogroup R1a characterized as occurring 10,000 years (BP) before present or before 1950 developed, much later than R1b characterized as occurring 30,000 years BP. R1a does exhibit an ancient relationship to R1b, and thus these three participants are excluded until further testing definitively establishes R1b1c.

N-4 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught, represents Haplogroup R1b1c10. N-4, N-30, brother to N-4, and N-3 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught, H-1, H-13, H-19, and H-34 of the Maryland and Ireland roots family at the Hagan DNA Project, Y-Search participants: 5GGTH, N2F3B, and YNXPB, and the ten Windham results from the Windham Family DNA Project appear to resemble the King Colla Uais and R1bSTR43 cluster. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught, Khaki Group 01 of the Windham Family DNA Project, and presumably the Hagan Maryland and Irish roots family have the classification of Haplogroup R1b1c10 meaning they fall within ten percent of the western European male population and represent an Irish/Scottish branch of this haplogroup. The majority of R1b1c males are classified as R1b1c* and can thus be categorized as ht15 of Western Europe and ht35 of Eastern Europe and Asia. The R1bSTR43 cluster identified as having originated in the British Isles 6,675 years (Before Present) BP arrived in the British Isles probably from Central Europe via Central Italy.

A Brittonic Y-DNA Cluster (J. Clan Ewing, Vol. 13, No. 4, November 2007).

"Statistical analysis suggests that this cluster originated 6,675 (±1,059) years before present, which coincides with the beginning of the Neolithic Period in Britain. R1bSTR43 has wide-spread distribution throughout Europe and is not unique to the British Isles. The distribution of the R1bSTR43 cluster does not fit neatly into either Upper Paleolithic or Mesolithic theories of the settlement of the British Isles. R1bSTR43, along with R1bSTR32, R1bSTR35, R1bSTR42, R1bSTR44, R1bSTR45 and R1bSTR47-Scots, all fall into the grouping (see Figure 2) that has the highest haplotype frequency near the length of the Highland Boundary Fault of Scotland as revealed in Capelli." (5)

"Kevin Campbell considers OGAP4 to be the quintessential Scottish haplotype, while OGAP2 shows diffuse distribution with a slight affinity for Ireland. At face value, it appears that OGAP2 is not of Scottish origin." (6)

"Although R1bSTR43 has widespread distribution, it shows a strong affinity for Scotland when considering only the British Isles." (7)

Stephen Colson suggests that one R1bSTR43 cluster spent a considerable amount of time in Ireland. Consequently, 9KDAF or N-4 R1b1c10, 5GGTH Hagan, N2F3B Hagan, YNXPB Hagan, 60381 Windham, and 61401 Windham are a genetic distance of two from R1bSTR43 at the 20-marker level. 17447 O'Driscoll from which O’Huallachain (O’Nolan) descends is a genetic distance of two from R1bSTR43 at the 20-marker level, and S28 is a genetic distance of one from R1bSTR43 at the 20-marker level.

There appears to be only a 133-year difference in the age estimate of R1bSTR43 and R1b1c10: 4,668 BC - 4,535 BC = 133. The age estimate for R1b1b2h (R1b1c10) is from R1b1c10 aka S28 by John McEwan. Other age estimates for R1b1b2h are 3,080-4,500 years or 103-150 generations to the most recent common ancestor, which is not necessarily the age of the mutation for U152+ (R1b1b2a2g) only the estimated age to the most recent common ancestor.



The Vennicnii of Co. Donegal are an ancient pre-Ui-Neill resident of Ulster Ireland. The root word "Veni" of the Venicones of Scotland might refer to "feni" meaning Irish, and they might have traveled from Ireland to Scotland and or England. The origin of R1bSTR43 and R1b1c10, before migration to Ireland, would still be the Celtic tribes of Central Europe. The movement of these Celts could be responsible for the widespread distribution of R1bSTR43 and R1b1c10. A list of Celtic Tribes in Europe at the time of the Roman Empire include the following:



The genealogy of the Sil Anmchadha of the Uí Maine records Colla Da Chrioch, brother to Colla Uais, as an ancestor of (O’Huallachain) Uallachan of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught and Colla Da Chrioch is the suggested patriarch for many surnamed lineages or clans in Ireland. Celtic influence within the territory of the Cisalpine Gaul and the migration from Celtic areas of Central Europe into Northern Italy could explain the Italian results in this research, but other possibilities could factor into the results such as a Central Italian origin. The role of trade is and has always been a major influence for the movement of people around the world. Plus, the ancient territory of Belgica and Celtica bordered Germania and certainly, the Belgae and Celts intermixed with the Germanic people of that area. War has also played an important role in the movement of people throughout history.

Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (Author: [unknown]).

Annal FA 458.

914

"A great fleet of Norwegians landed at Port Láirge, and they plundered northern Osraige and brought great spoils and many cows and livestock to their ships." (8)

Y-Search participant FEZBW states Sicily as Country of Origin. Zimmerman is of 1691 Würtemberg Germany. Dittmar and Honroth are also of Germany and the remainder of the surnamed participants in this study are of an Irish heritage except perhaps Griggs and Perkins who may be English Protestants. The Nolan, Windham, and Hagan surnames represented at Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught are Ulster septs and the surnames of Cameron, Reed, and Brown are included in the Ulster Heritage DNA Project. A 28 October 2007 e-mail points out the Northwest Irish surname connections in the Faux R-U152 database of Martin, and (Doude) O'Dowd with (O'Huallachain) O'Nolan.

44P3H Cameron is a Dal Riada (Dal Riata) surname: Camshron (Cameron) as described in Tribes of the Érainn based on Clans, Families of Ireland, and Scotland: An Ethnography of the Gael A.D. 500 - 1750 by C. Thomas Cairney, Ph.D. And the Armstrong, Boyd, Bready, Browne, O’Hagan, Jones, Lieper, O’May, Perkins, Roger, M’Ready, M’Swine, (M’Swyne or Wyndham) and Redd surnames are included in the Co. Donegal Hearth Money Tax Record Rolls, 1663. Settlers in County Donegal circa 1613 include the surnames of Boyd, Brown, Ekyn or Egan, and Roger. Peter Fore II (Faure) born Manakintown, Virginia, 1719 is listed as an ancestor of Group 03 from the Ford Family Project Website while Peter Ford is listed in Irish Immigrants To 17th century Virginia, 1663. N-4 also has an exact 12-marker match, according to FTDNA, with the Eliasson or Allison/Ellison surname, which is part of the Scotland DNA Project.

The Glennon DNA Surname Project has two participants with an exact 12-marker match with DJN6U, Coffee. One Glennon participant is a 34 of 37-marker match with DJN6U, Coffee. Lennane is a recognized surname of the Glennon DNA Project. Hugh O'Lennan of Raymochy Parish is included in the Co. Donegal Hearth Money Tax Record Rolls, 1663. In addition, listed in the 1663 Co. Donegal Hearth Rolls is Kean O'Gara of Lackan while the Irish Heritage DNA Project also lists a handful of Ó Gadara (O'Gara) from Northwest Ireland and Co. Donegal at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 further establishing the Irish heritage of these unique markers.

Most of the surnames in this study intersect in Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland, and, therefore, this particular haplotype represents a Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland heritage for most participants. Some Ulster Irish families did move to Spain during the Ulster Plantations that followed the beginning of the seventeenth century, which could help explain the Spanish and Latin American results in this study.

"The Plantation of Ulster took place under the auspices of the British crown in the period from 1607 to about 1750, and was composed mostly of yeoman families who were re-settled to all of Ulster by various Planters who entered into contracts with the crown to bring them into Ulster. The scheme of the Plantation, as originally conceived by King James I and VI when he acceded to the English throne after the death of Queen Elizabeth I, was designed in part to suppress the Reiver families which had terrorized the Anglo-Scottish border for the preceding 600 years, and in part to subdue the native gaelic Irish already resident in Ulster, by planting the Reiver Families on lands confiscated from the former Irish landlords." (9)

Excluded from this study were the Cunniff R1b1c7 result, MM9UD, the only R1b1c6 result found to date listing Country of Origin as Guatemala and Spanish as the paternal line, the three subgroup of P except R1a participants tested for the 92R7-mutation defining P, the Arens surname from France and Luxembourg, and 7JCTE, Leppard, which does not represent a real Y-DNA sample. 7JCTE, Leppard is in fact a +1 research tool for DYS #385a and 385b posted at Y-Search. The 999DR Arens France listing has missing alleles and GWE8Q Arens Luxembourg has an errant allele. In addition, the 153 matches of DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 found in the YHRD - Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database worldwide population sample of 49,396 haplotypes in a set of 411 populations are not incorporated in this study due to a lack of genealogical data, but the geographic, population, and metapopulation data are listed below with DYS marker values for the North American, Latin American, and European population samples. Also excluded are N2F3B, O'Hagan and the Maryland and Ireland roots family from the Hagan DNA Project due to an R-U152 negative test result. This Hagan group at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 are probably part of an as yet unidentified downstream subclade of R-P312.


Y-Search


DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
DYS
460
DYS
GATA H4
DYS
YCA -- a
DYS
YCA -- b
DYS
456
DYS
607
DYS
576
DYS
570
DYS
CDY a
DYS
CDY b
DYS
442
DYS
438
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 13 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 17 17 MM9UD Sierra - R1b1c6
13 0 0 10 11 17 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 17 28 999DR Arens - France
13 23 13 10 11 17 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 17 28 15 16 17 17 11 11 19 23 14 12 13 13 11 12 23 11 GWE8Q Arens Reckange-sur-Mess, Luxembourg
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 13 13 29 7JCTE Leppard R1b1c*

Ireland Heritage Y-DNA Project - North Connaught


DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
DYS
460
DYS
GATA H4
DYS
YCA -- a
DYS
YCA -- b
DYS
456
DYS
607
DYS
576
DYS
570
DYS
CDY a
DYS
CDY b
DYS
442
DYS
438
ID #
13 25 14 11 11 17 12 12 11 13 14 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 27202 Cunniff - R1b1c7


Geographical Heterogeneity of Y-chromosomal Lineages in Norway


GHYCL P(xR1a) Northern Norway.


DYS# 393, 390, 19, 391, 385a, 385b, 426, 388, 439, 389-1, 392, 389-2.



P(xR1a)= P except R1a.


YHRD - Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database - Willuweit S, Roewer L, on behalf of the International Forensic Y Chromosome User Group (2007) Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): Update, Forensic Science International: Genetics 1(2) 83-87.


Geographic Search.


153 matches found in a worlwide population sample of 49,396 haplotypes in a set of 411 populations.


Forty-eight matches found in a European population sample of 25,745 haplotypes in a set of 196 populations.


DYS# 393, 390, 19, 391, 385a, 385b, 426, 388, 439, 389-1, 392, 389-2.



The forty-eight European YHRD results are listed as the following:



Total = Austria: 2, Denmark: 2, England-Wales: [Chinese] 2, France: 2, Germany: 7, Greece: 1, Hungary: 1, Italy: 9, Netherlands: 1, Northern Norway: 4, Northern Portugal: 1, Southern Portugal: 2, Poland: 4, Romania: 1, Russia: 2, Slovenia: 1, Spain: 3, United Kingdom: [Afro Caribbean] 2, [Indo-Pakistani] 1.


Eighty-five matches found in an Asian population sample of 11,388 haplotypes in a set of ninety-six populations.

Thirteen matches found in a Latin American population sample of 6,498 haplotypes in a set of fifty-five populations.


DYS# 393, 390, 19, 391, 385a, 385b, 426, 388, 439, 389-1, 392, 389-2.



Nine of the thirteen Latin American YHRD results have a European origin:



Five matches found in a North American population sample of 3,145 haplotypes in a set of thirty-seven populations.


DYS# 393, 390, 19, 391, 385a, 385b, 426, 388, 439, 389-1, 392, 389-2.



The five North American results are from the United States and categorized as two Asian Americans, one African American, one Hispanic American, and one European.



* DYS #426 and DYS #388 unreported. DYS #439 reported as values of -1 recorded in this study as 0.


Two matches found in an African population sample of 2,427 haplotypes in a set of twenty-two populations.


Population, Number, Metapopulation.



Population Search.


153 matches found in a worlwide population sample of 49,396 haplotypes in a set of 411 populations.


Sixty-four matches found in a Eurasian metapopulation of 33,928 haplotypes in a set of 269 populations.

Seventy-seven matches found in an East Asian metapopulation of 7,746 haplotypes in a set of fifty-six populations.

Three matches found in an African metapopulation of 3,087 haplotypes in a set of twenty-seven populations.

Nine matches found in admixed metapopulations of 2,999 haplotypes in a set of thirty-three populations.


Population, Number, Metapopulation.



The following forty-two European, Latin American, and North American results do exhibit relatedness to the participants in this study. The Latin American matches are undoubtedly of Iberian, Portuguese and Spanish heritage or a combination of Germanic migration after World War II. The European matches are most likely also Germanic having then moved into Eastern Europe: Poland and Russia.


DYS# 393, 390, 19, 391, 385a, 385b, 426, 388, 439, 389-1, 392, 389-2.



In an attempt to bring forth all relevant data, N-3, N-4, and N-30 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught match participants of the Windham Family DNA Project Khaki Group 01 at a high probability of 98.55-99.18% at the 24-generation range or 600 years. As a general rule, a 90% or more match of compared markers at the 25-marker level or beyond 23 of 25, 33 of 37, 61 of 67 is a probable genetic cousin with a different surnamed individual. This general rule does not apply to a limited 12-marker comparison. The Windham Family DNA Project Khaki Group 01 claim descent from Norfolk, England and Edward Windham of Isle of Wight Co. Virginia through the lineage of John Wyndham who purchased Felbrigg Hall about the year 1450.

Though, a series of Nolan families existed in England, as described on Part IV of this forum, there is no existing evidence supporting an English heritage for John (Nolan) Nowlin of Isle of Wight Co. Virginia, 1643 except the Windham Family DNA Project Khaki groups claim of English descent. The illegitimate child theory of English Windham lore has merit in early Colonial Virginia, however, the illegitimate son of Mary Windham as found in the 18 June 1677 and 4 August 1680 Accomack Co. records cannot explain all the various anomalies in Windham genealogy. Evidence presented on Part II of this forum indicates an Irish connection between these two Herenagh Families of Co. Donegal represented in the Province of Connaught Ireland during the fifteenth and sixteenth century.

NOLAN - WINDHAM
PROBABILITY & TIME TO MOST RECENT COMMON ANCESTOR.

98.55% Probability of a Shared Common Ancestor within 24 Generations:

94.97% Probability of a Shared Common Ancestor within 20 Generations:

2006 minus 1597* = 409 Years.

2006 minus 1643* = 363 Years.


* 1597 - Thomas Nolan purchased Enniscrone Castle Co. Sligo.

* 1643 - John Nowlin living in Isle of Wight Co. VA.


The 33 of 37 Y-DNA marker match between N-4 (Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught) of the Nolan DNA Surname Project and Kit #56134 from the Windham Family DNA Project probably occurred between these two 1574 Galway castle owning families who were also Herenagh Families of Ulster Co. Donegal Ireland. An exact match of the first 20 markers (13, 24, 14, 10, 11, 17, 12, 12, 12, 14, 13, 30, 17, 9, 10, 11, 11, 25, 15, and 19) in the Y-DNA test of N-4 with Richard (O') Hagan also gives credence to an Ulster relationship. Ó hOgáin is also a Corca Laoidhe surname. A Windham - Nolan DNA comparison provided by John B. Windham details a 25 Y-DNA marker match between N-3 (Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught) and Kit # 18393 and a 61-62 of 67 Y-DNA marker match between Kit # 18393 and N-4. Incidentally, Kit # 18393 mismatches Richard O’Hagan by one in a 20-marker comparison. Herenagh meaning land typically converted into donated church property.

In most circumstances when individuals of different surnames closely match at a limited number of 12 markers that match will disappear with increased marker testing. Mutation rate explains the disappearance of a close match in a limited 12-marker test. As an increased number of markers are tested and compared the possibility of more mutations exist, which increases the time span of the most recent common ancestor usually beyond the period for relatedness of the earliest known use of surnames: 40 generations or 1,000 years.

When exceptions to this disappearance of relatedness persist between different surnamed individuals at the higher level of a 37 or 67-marker match then an extramarital event, non-paternity event or adoption has typically occurred. Adoption of a different surname by a branch of one family and convergence are also a possibility. Convergence meaning the mutation of each families result into a DNA match.

The O’Hagan (O hAgain in Irish, which was originally O hOgain) family also descend from Ulster, and they were hereditary stewards, sheriffs, and judges considered part of the Ui Neill. O'Hagan’s stood with Hugh O'Neill, the last of the native Irish kings, in his rebellion against England. Hugh O'Neill, in the tradition of the times, took the remnants of his fortune and sailed to Spain. The O'Hagan’s were not as fortunate, being totally dispossessed of lands and possessions in the plantations that followed Hugh O'Neill’s defeat.



The O’Hagan's (O hAgain), a sept of the Cineal Eoghain, are recorded as descendants of Fergus, son of Eoghan with the following families in Roger O'Ferrall's "Linea Antiqua": O'Colgan, O'Branagan, O'Hagin, O'Cahalan, O'Uarisg, O'Brelar, O'Hanin, O'Dovan, O'Losgny, O'Mellan, O'Conolan, O'Spellan, and O'Breonan. Fergus was also ancestor to the O'Quin's, as described in Background on the Northern Uí Neill. O'Quin later spawned the family of Wyndham-Quinn. Included in the background of the Northern Ui Neill is evidence pertaining to the O'Boyle, Mac Suibhne, and MacSweeney septs that became Wyndham of Co. Donegal. A History of the Hogan, O'Hogan, Ó hOgáin Surname reflects a separate origin in Co. Cork as a sept of the Corca Laoidhe.


Yellow denotes haplotype differences.


Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught R1b1c10 Unique 20-marker Haplotype Matches:

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 King Colla Uais
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 R1bSTR43

N-3 mismatches the King Colla Uais 20-marker haplotype at DYS #385b, 389-1, 389-2, and 458. N-4 mismatches the King Colla Uais 20-marker haplotype at DYS #385b, 389-1, and 458. N-30 (brother to N-4) mismatches the King Colla Uais 20-marker haplotype at DYS #385b, 389-1, 389-2, and 458. N-3, N-4, and N-30 mismatch the 20-marker haplotype of R1bSTR43 at DYS #385b, 389-1, and 389-2.

N-4 and N-30 are brothers of the same mother and father, but mutations at DYS #389-2 and 464c for N-4 with a genetic distance of two at the 25-marker level compared to N-30 leaves N-30 with a more precise genetic match with N-3 and 9ZZVM - Windham at the 25-marker level than with N-4.

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17 N-3 - Nolen
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 15 17 N-4 - Nolen
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17 N-30 - Nolen (brother to N-4)

The three below Hagan Y-DNA results from Y-Search have an exact 20-marker match with N-4 resulting in an ancient relationship prior to the introduction of surnames through parallel subclades of R-P312. N-3 and N-30 mismatch by one mutation at DYS 389-2. User ID #5GGTH lists Carrickmore, Ulster, Ireland as country of origin.

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 5GGTH - Hagan
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 N2F3B - Hagan
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 YNXPB - Hagan

Three of the following Windham/Wyndham Y-Search participants claim descent from England: JCBWN, P6D2Y, and QT7HT, however, mutations at DYS 389-2 for N-4 and the Hagan surname at 30, N-3, N-30 and Windham at 31 results in an ancient Irish relationship prior to the introduction of surnames through parallel subclades of R-P312.

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 JCBWN - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17 9ZZVM - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 P6D2Y - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 QT7HT - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 V43N7 - Windham

Genetic Distance
IDm
o
d
a
l
C
o
l
l
a

U
a
i
s

R
1
b
R
1
b
S
T
R
4
3
N
-
3

N
o
l
e
n
N
-
4

N
o
l
e
n
N
-
3
0

N
o
l
e
n
5
G
G
T
H

H
a
g
a
n
N
2
F
3
B

H
a
g
a
n
Y
N
X
P
B

H
a
g
a
n
J
C
B
W
N

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
9
Z
Z
V
M

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
P
6
D
2
Y

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
Q
T
7
H
T

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
V
4
3
N
7

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
1 modal 203301011100000
2 Colla_Uais_R1b 320234344433333
3 R1bSTR43 322032322233333
4 N-3_Nolen 033201011100000
5 N-4_Nolen 142120100011111
6 N-30_Nolen 033012011100000
7 5GGTH_Hagan 142101200011111
8 N2F3B_Hagan 142101020011111
9 YNXPB_Hagan 142101002011111
10 JCBWN_Windham 033010111200000
11 9ZZVM_Windham 033010111020000
12 P6D2Y_Windham 033010111002000
13 QT7HT_Windham 033010111000200
14 V43N7_Windham 033010111000020
Related Probably Related Possibly Related
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 12 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 25 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 37 Markers
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Values on the diagonal indicate number of markers tested
Genetic Distance Modal ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 Modal Reference


The below Genetic Distance Table for the 20-marker comparison clearly shows that all participants of the study have some degree of ancient relatedness prior to the use of surnames with Honroth of Germany the smallest number of matches with a possible relationship to the Italian Brach-Loieta and Grandi surname. The easiest way to look at the relationship prior to the advent of surnames is through the color code. Every participant or line has at least one color code being green, yellow, or pinkish red. Honroth of Germany has two pinkish red or possible relationship matches.

With more participants, a clearer picture of cluster relatedness will emerge, but for now, there appear to be several groupings of individuals related to each other. In the below Genetic Distance Table at the 20-marker level, a grouping or cluster is clearly visible from the Nolen surname down to the Vaughan surname with the next fifteen participants having a possible relationship with N-4 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught and the Hagan surname. The next cluster of participants is becoming visible at the table center beginning with the Rodgers surname down to the Roberts surname. And a third cluster or color coded square has formed at bottom right.

Certainly, to be sure, genetic transference occurred between the Co. Donegal Native Irish, Hagan, Nolan, Windham (MacSuibhne, McSwyne, and MacSwine), families and the newly arrived Scottish and English Protestants during the Ulster Plantations, however, most of the surnames in this study have a King Colla Uais (Clan Colla) or Scottish (Dalriadic) origin: MacRory or Rogers of Clan Colla and MacBradaigh or MacBrady of the Dalriada. The questions are at what ancient point did some of these Co. Donegal families meet genetically and where?

For example, Kit #35429 R1b1c from the Italy DNA Project has a 100% probability of a match with R1bSTR43 within a 1,680 year time span and a 100% probability of a genetic match with N-4 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught within a time span of 1,860 years on the beyond 20-marker comparison. Research places Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught within the Irish Kingdom of Osraighe (Ossory) during this historical period. And the following description of a flourishing Osraighe kingdom in the second century of the Common Era could help explain the genetic match together with a flow of people and trade circa the year 140.

“The ancient Kingdom of Osraige, whose first king was Aengus Osrithe, flourished in the second century of the Christian era. In the fifth century the neighbouring tribe of the Deisi, aided by the Corca Laighde, conquered South Ossory, and for over a century, the Corca Laighde chiefs ruled in place of the dispossessed Ossory chiefs. Early in the seventh century the ancient chiefs recovered much of their lost possessions, the foreigners were overcome, and the descendants of Aengus ruled once more. One of the greatest was Carroll, prominent in the ninth century and distinguished in the Danish wars.” (10)


Co. Kilkenny, Ireland: History & Timeline of Events.

100 A. D. - The Osraighe, a group of Munster people known as the Erainn, establish a semi-independent state within the territory of Laigin (Leinster) in the present County Kilkenny. “Kilkenny County forms much of what was known as the kingdom of Ossory. Kilkenny became one of the counties of Leinster in 1210.” (11)

460 A. D. - The neighbouring tribe of the Deisi [R-L21] [Erainn], [from Waterford], aided by the Corca Laighde, [from Cork], conquer South Ossory, and for over a century, the Corca-Laighde chiefs rule in place of the dispossessed Ossory chiefs.


The above timeline of events for Co. Kilkenny supports the existence of this genetic match through the movement of people and trade. Taken in consideration with the fact that Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan has a recorded merchant history in Galway Ireland the genetic match with Kit #35429 from the Italy DNA Project is plausible.


1473 - “23. Monuments and Inscriptions. 1. “The tomb of the ancient family of O'Nolan, of Loughboy, [Co. Kilkenny] is situate in the centre of the [Franciscan Friary] churchyard [in Galway] and bears the following inscription: - "This tomb was first erected in the year of Our Lord 1394, by the O'Nolan's of Loughboy, and is now rebuilt and ornamented by Michael O'Nolan, merchant Galway, one of the representatives of said family." (12) A terrible conflagration took place in Galway in June 1473, by which the town was nearly destroyed.

“There is much debate as to the periods of Celtic invasion and more and more the research in both linguistics and archeology continue to push the dates of Celtic occupation further and further back. The Celts and peoples that existed before pre-Celtic times traded with Ireland along the mid Atlantic trade routes for millennia and the Celtic invasions themselves are believed to have occurred along both the mid-Atlantic route and across the English channel.” (13)

To conclude the analysis, most participants at R1b1c DYS# 385a and 385b at 11 and 17 exhibit ancient relatedness and have a Celtic or Irish heritage. This theory based on the results from this study indicate that R1b1c DYS# 385a and 385b at 11 and 16 exhibits an ancient Celtic Irish relationship to R1b1c DYS# 385a and 385b at 11 and 17. Therefore, the relatedness of R1b1c DYS# 385a and 385b at 11 and 17 and R1b1c DYS# 385a and 385b at 11 and 18 is possible and included in R1b1c10 (R1b1b2h) DYS #385a and 385b Mutation Chart Example for evaluation.


FTDNA Mutation Rate.

For instance, O'Huallachain (O'Nolan), O'Cobhthaigh (O'Coffey), and O'hAodha (O'Hea) or Egan descend from the Corca Laoighdhe as do O'Driscoll. And below is the only R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 18 in the O'Driscoll Erainn study.


Corca Laoighdhe [Corca Laidhe: Descendants of Lugaid son of Ith].



The above information is from Tribes of the Érainn - Based on Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland: An Ethnography of the Gael A. D. 500 - 1750, by C. Thomas Cairney, Ph.D.


Yellow denotes mismatches with this studies 20-marker modal haplotype at DYS #385b and 447.


DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
DYS
460
DYS
GATA H4
DYS
YCA -- a
DYS
YCA -- b
DYS
456
DYS
607
DYS
576
DYS
570
DYS
CDY a
DYS
CDY b
DYS
442
DYS
438
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 18 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 11 12 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 40 12 12 17447 Ciaran O'Driscoll R1b1c


A 2006 Genealogy-DNA-L Archives forum posting by David Wilson explains that under the Kittler testing method DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 is almost certainly assured a recording at 17 and 11 and DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 18 is almost certainly assured a recording at 18 and 11. DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 14 are most common. Under the Kittler method, this common modal is 14 and 11.

“There are two ways to look at the 385a, b marker values. The basic tests can identify multiple copies of a marker and count the repeats in each, but cannot tell exactly where on the chromosome each copy lies. The convention is to report these unsorted markers in ascending order. Thus, you will see 14, 15, 16, 17 for DYS464a through d, and -- as in your case -- 11, 14 for 385a and b.

But there are some special tests that will let you distinguish copies of some markers, and 385 is one such marker. When you use a test developed by Ralf Kittler, it is possible to isolate each copy of DYS385. That allows you to report the marker values specifically rather than by convention. Almost every R1b individual who has been tested shows the higher value in 385a* (the asterisk indicates testing by Kittler convention) and the lower value in 385b*. Thus it is almost certain that your 385 values, if evaluated by the Kittler process, would be 14, 11.

Don't assume this means your values have been incorrectly or incompletely reported. DNA comparisons rely on consistency. It is better to have everyone working with unsorted copies reported in low-high order than to have some people working with unsorted copies and others working with results produced by refinement tests. That would be a sure way to come to the false conclusion that two haplotypes differ significantly when they are in fact identical.

To get back to the original underlying question, the values 11, 14 at 385 are modal (that is, the most common) for R1b. But if you evaluate under the Kittler protocol, the modal values are 14, 11.

As another poster pointed out, there is one known example of Kittler results in an R1b individual that were low-high. This is an anomaly." (14)


EVIDENCE:


Old Irish-Gaelic Surnames: A Supplement to Ireland's History in Maps.
Corca Laoighdhe.
Irish Name Index.
MCLAUGHLIN’S OF DONEGAL.

“A sept could receive its herenagh lands in one of two ways. The position was an inherited one, but if the appointed herenagh sept died out, a new sept was chosen to take its place. Or a landholding sept could donate its lands to the church, receiving them back as "herenagh" lands, exempt from despoliation in times of war, in return acting as the lay official of the church, responsible for the repair and maintenance of the church. The herenagh families also paid an annual rent to the church, of livestock and produce. Because herenagh land was traditionally spared by marauding armies, many septs in the Inishowen peninsula, including the McLaughlin’s, donated their lands to the church to protect their livestock and possessions from the armies of the O'Donnell’s and the O'Neill’s.” (15)


THE HERENAGH FAMILIES OF DONEGAL.


“Clandaholka Parish.


O'Mulgeegh; the O'Boile’s; the McSwyne’s; O'Mulgeehy - O Maolghaoithe - according to McLysaght, now Wynne or Wyndham; O'Boyle - O Baoilaigh; MacSweeney - Mac Suibhne.



Mevaugh Parish.


The sept of the O'Nolan’s; O'Nolan - O Nuallain.” (16)


PATENT ROLLS OF JAMES I: INQUISITION AT LIFFORD, 1609.

“Clandaholka Parish.


Herenagh O'Mulgeegh; the O'Boile’s; the McSwyne’s; or freeholds: Clandaholka parish, containing 9 ballibetaghs whereof the herenagh O'Mulgeegh has 1 qr., who pays to the bishop of Raphoe 13s 4d Ir. rent, and 1l 13s 4d Ir. pension out of the bishop's thirds of the tithes, the bishop hass 1/3 qr. called Marfaugh, anciently inhabited by the sept of the O'Boile’s, for which 4s rent is paid, the McSwyne’s paid them a cosherie of 4 madders of butter and 8 madders of meal, whereof nothing has been paid in the time of the present bishop, about 3 miles from the church is a ruined chapel with 7 gorts of free land called Clonveg, the tenants of which paid 2s 4d yearly to the parson of Clondaholka in this parish, the parson, vicar, tithes and repairs are as in Faughan parish, the parson and vicar pay 8s Ir. proxies to the bishop and have 4 gorts of glebe between them, there are also 2 qrs. belonging to the late abbey of BallymcSwyne Odie besides Doe castle, the tithes and spirituallities of which are divided between the parishes of Clondaholka and Kilmacrenan;


Mevaugh Parish.


Herenagh the sept of the O'Nolan’s; or freeholds: Mevaugh parish, containing 5 baalibetaghs, of which 1 qr. are church land enjoyed by the sept of the O'Nolan’s, as herenaghs, who pay to the bishop of Raphoe 13s 4d Ir. and 1l Ir. pension out of the bishop's third of the tithes, the parson, vicar, tithes and repairs are as in Faughan parish, the parson and vicar pay 3s proxies each to the bishop, and have 2 gorts of glebe land between them, in this parish are 6 gorts of free land called Kinelargie, the proprietors of which paid 2s yearly to the official of Raphoe, there is also a chapel with 1/2 qr. of land called Druin which belonged to the Franciscan friars of Kilmacrenan who received 13s yearly out of it, the McSwyne’s challenged a cosherie of 4 meathers of butter and 8 meathers of meal from it;” (17)

Mac Suibhne were gallowglass (gallóglaigh) Scottish hired mercenaries to the Kings of Ireland beginning in the fourteenth century. Edward MacLysaght established that the O'Mulgeegh, O'Boile’s, O'Boyle, McSwyne's, MacSweeney, O'Mulgeehy, O Maolghaoithe, MacSuibhne family of Clandaholka Parish Co. Donegal became Wynne or Wyndham. By 1400, MacSuibhne of Connacht had secured a territorial enclave in Co. Sligo. And Mevaugh Parish where the Nolan family was Herenagh property owners is adjacent to Clandaholka Parish Co. Donegal. In Co. Fermanagh, O'Hultachain, an obvious derivation of O‘Huallachan, became anglicized as Nolan. Cormac O'Hultachain, Erenach (Herenagh) of Achadh-Beithe, Aghavea, died 1532.

Similarly, the O‘Huallachain (Nolan) landholding sept of the Connaught branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan is believed to have had herenagh property in Ulster Co. Donegal moving their influence further north from Co. Sligo. Perhaps a familial relationship existed between these two Nolan herenagh property owning lineages, septs or clans of the Ui Colgain.


Map of Co. Donegal.


Atlas of Family Names in Ireland - McSweeney, McSwyne, McSwyny - 1659.

Donegal Sources.

1558 - The Reign of Queen Elizabeth Begins;

1588 - The Surrender of the Gaelic Lords in Donegal (Lands re-granted);

1600 - The English Establish military base in Derry.


State Papers 1601: Donegal Land Leases.

James Vaughan - Skyoge, Tommoge, Shiggaden, 58 years, Part of Lisfannon.

John Vaughan - Garrowreagh, Carnysannock, 53 years, Mascemetan, Coskeine, Magherenycarr, Bonemayne, Croslomore, Cristocoyle.

Henry Vaughan - Castle of Buncrana, Tullyarvill, 51 years, with Duntarson, Ballyeenery, Slydran, Monewory, Arderaman with Colecorvran, Ballymagan, Graugheagh with Meendacailiagh, Ludden, Trillick, Aughacally, Tullydush.


Lands Grants in the Precinct of Liffer Barony of Raphoe and County of Donegal, 1608.

William Wilson, Esq. possessed 2,000 acres in Co. Donegal called Aghagalla. His son was Sir John Wilson dying in the year 1936. Sir John Wilson left a daughter, Anne, dying 1939. Andrew Wilson, a brother of Sir John Wilson next owned the property.


Settlers in County Donegal circa 1613.



Irish Immigrants To 17th century Virginia.


Donegal Hearth Money Rolls: 1663.


Boyds of Ballymacool Family Crest.

"The majority of County Donegal surnames are Gaelic in origin." (18) Clann Mac Aodhagáin: The MacEgan, Egan, Eagan, Eagen and Keegan Families represent the William Ekyn of Magharymore in Settlers in County Donegal circa 1613. Andrew Browne of that list is also of Magharymore.

In the Co. Donegal Hearth Money Rolls in the Parish of Kilmacrenan is Edmund O'Hagan of Carownesale. The above Andrew Leaper and Ellis m'Swine are in Augnish Parish. Allex Redd of Ballyar and James Gregg are in the same hearth in the Parish of Tullaghferne. Rich Perkins signed the Hearth Money Roll for Conwall, Kilmacrenan Barony, in which David Rodger, William Rodger of Gortlee, and James Rodger live. And the Co. Donegal Ballymacool Boyd’s descend from the Earls of Kilmarnock Scotland.



Surnames of the Finn Valley.

“Brady / Bradley:

These names are among the 60 most common names in Ireland and come from the gaelic name, "Macbradaigh". A large Breffni clan, they controlled a large area of land in County Cavan. Members of the clan to make a name for themselves were a Thomas Brady who served as aa General in the Austrian army and, Brendan Brady, a Governor of Da/Matia. Local members of the Brady clan helped to build the new St. Patrick's Church at Crossroads in 1875 and in the late 1920's and early !(30's, four Brady brothers were players for the famed Red Hugh's Gaelic football team in the Valley.

Browne:

This name is among the 40 most common in Ireland and comes from three clans that can be of English, Scottish or Norman origin. It is the 15th most common name in Ulster and dates back to the 12th century when they became one of the tribes of Galway. The Irish Browne descends from the Norman, Le Bruns, meaning brown hair. The English branch of the family had their most famous son in John Brown whose body lies a mouldering in the clay, etc.”

“Greer-Grier / MacGrier / Gregg:

Of Scottish origin these names come from the clan chiefs, McGregor, of Argyllshire, Scotland. In the middle of the 16th. Century, a member of the clan arrived in Ireland and settled in Co. Tyrone. One of the clan was founder of the Tenants League in 1850 and another was the inventor of Gregg shorthand in 1867. The name is very common in Ulster.”

“Quinn:

Found in every County in Ireland, this is the 20th most common name in Ireland, but more of the name are to be found in Donegal, Tyrone and Monaghan than anywhere else. The clan are the descendants of Fergus who was the son of Eoghan, son of the 5th century Niall of the Nine Hostages. With the O'Hagan's of Armagh, the Quinn's were the fighting vanguards of the O'Neills and acted as quartermasters for supplies in both peace and war. The name is Gaelic, "O'Coinne", is taken from Coinne, a Grandson of Fergus of the clan Feargusa.

Reid:

Reid is the name most commonly found in Donegal, Tyrone, Armagh, Antrim and Down. The clan are descendants of the Gaelic clan, "O'Maoilderig" from the Glens of Antrim who were known as the Red Warriors. In medieval times the clan name was Reed which came from the word, "Red" meaning a person with red hair or ruddy complexion. In Scotland, the Gaelic name of the clan, "Mac Ian Ruaidh", (son of Red John) was changed in latter years to Reid.”

“Sweeney:

This name is the 60th most common in Ireland and is very popular in Ulster as well as being found in Connaught and Munster. Of Scottish origin, the Sweeney's descended from a mixture of the Irish Dalriadic Gaels and Norsemen. The first of the clan came to Ireland in 1267 and settled in Fanad, Co. Donegal, where they used the Gaelic name, "MacSuibhne". From the 14th to the 17th century, the Sweeney's played an important part with the O'Donnell's in the history of Ulster. Many of them were distinguished soldiers in the Irish brigades on the Continent. The Irish and Scottish Sweeney's are distantly related.” (19)

Source: The above map and quoted material are from the Finn Valley Online @ http://www.finnvalley.ie/home.html and the Book of Ulster Surnames by Robert Bell, Queen's University, Belfast.


A Sample of Irish Family Names.

"Boyd - Origins in Ulster: Early Plantation c 1615.

The Boyds descend from Robert Stewart one of two Norman brothers who founded the Royal Stuart dynasty in Scotland. Robert was known as Robert “buidhe” (Fair-haired Robert) i.e. Robert Boyd.

Related to the Montgomery’s they arrived in Ulster from Kilmarnock when Sir Thomas Boyd of Bedlay was granted 1500 acres of Seine in the Barony of Strabane Co Tyrone." (20)

"Ford or Forde - Origins: Early Anglo Irish or post plantation.

The name in Ireland is common in Galway, Cork, Mayo, and Dublin but less so in Ulster. In England and Scotland the name sprang up in many places independently as it denoted “one who lived by a ford or river crossing.”

Englishmen of the name began appearing in Ireland from the 14th century and one Forde family of Devonshire managed to become substantial landlords in Meath. Some in Tyrone may descend from such families or from later post plantation families. Forde has been widely used in the Anglicization of several native Irish families including Mac Giolla na Naomh which in Tyrone became Ford, Agnew, Gildernew and even Macaneave." (21)

Lennan (and variants): Origin of name, early references and non-Irish.

"Lennane or Linane is one Irish family that has also changed into Lennon. They were of Corcaha Laoidhe, situated near Glandor Harbour." (22)

History of the Hogan, O'Hogan, Ó hOgáin Surname.

"In addition, significant numbers are to be found in Cork, where it is thought that the name may have had a separate origin, in the south-west of that county. Ó hOgáin is recorded as the name of one of the minor families of the Corca Laoidhe tribal grouping." (23)

O'Gaibhin (Gavin/Gavan)

Other Corca Laoidhe Surnames:

Ó Angluinn, Ó Buadhaigh, Ó Cuilleáin, Ó Diubháin, Ó Dubhchonna, Ó Duinnín, Ó Dudbhchon, Ó Fithcheallaigh, Ó Floinn, Ó Gabháin, Óh Illigh or Hill, Ó Hourigan, Ó Liatháin, Ó Mainichin, and Ó Sealbhaigh.


RESULTS:


R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10): DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 20-marker comparison:

R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10): DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 20-marker comparison with YHRD European, Latin American, and North American Results:

R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10): DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 beyond 20-marker comparison:


CONCLUSION:


Available data suggests that R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10) DYS marker values at 385a and 385b of 11 and 17 are indicative of an Irish heritage for most participants of this study through the movement of the Belgae, Érainn or Goídel.

This study of R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1c10) deals with 385a and 385b at 11 and 17. With the Kittler method, those values are 17 and 11 since most R1bs tested have had the higher value at 385a. N-4, 9KDAF, and N-30, 8FKCD, are Kittler tested at DYS 385a and 385b at 17 and 11. The modal or greatest number of R1bs is at 11 and 14 or 14 and 11 with the Kittler method.

According to FTDNA, there is no difference in the mutation rate between 385a and 385b. 385a in this R1b1c study is stable or in Kittler, the stable value would be 385b.

FTDNA does record one 11 and 18 or 18 and 11 with Kittler claiming Prussia as Country of Origin and my 11 and 17 or 17 and 11 study under Kittler does have a Germanic element. The existence of DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 reflects a probable common ancestral lineage arriving at 11 and 17 from DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 14 based on a Continental cluster moving into Ireland from Germany and Central Europe.

The below Muster Roll for County Donegal includes the surnames of Elliot, Kirk, Watt, and English who match G547U Elliott R1b1c10: DYS# 385a and 385b at 11 and 14. G547U Elliott is not part of this study, but the Y-Search listing for this individual suggests the possibility of an Irish heritage. The Ferguson surname common in Ireland and Scotland has a rich Ulster heritage. Thus, Kit #101133 of the Fergus(s)on DNA Project: Haplogroup R1b - U152 suggests an Irish association with this research.


The Muster Roll of the County of Donnagall, 1630.

Barony de Rapho.

Barony de Boylagh and Bannagh.

Barony de Eneshone.


These last forty-two, 64-105, Y-Search, Scotland DNA Project, Kerchner's R1b1b2h (U152+) Project, Ireland Heritage Y-DNA Project, Cox DNA Study, and Willis Surname DNA Database results are included as other Irish, Scottish, and Spanish R1b1b2h listed in R1b1b2h* (R1b1c10) S28+ or U152+: Irish Research Study Participant Text File members on the below 20-marker comparison tables. They do not present marker values of 11 and 17 at DYS #385a and 385b, but do fit with the conclusion of an Ulster; Northern Irish heritage for R1b1b2h. G547U Elliott R1b1b2h has a 100% probability for relatedness within 60 generations or 1,800 years with R1bSTR43, N-4 or 9KDAF, S28, and the Hagan surname at the 20-marker level. And there is a 100% probability for relatedness between G547U Elliott, R1b1c10, 26721 Rogers, G8SEA Redd, 72RDQ Griggs, and 62830 Roberts at 46 generations or 1,380 years.

27TDA Donachy (Donnachie), R1b1c10, as of 16 April 2008, has a 100% probability for relatedness within 32 generations with King Colla Uais, Father of the Clans, N-4 or 9KDAF, and the Hagan surname at the 20-marker level. 27TDA, Donachy, or 96227 Donnachie, has a 66 of 68-marker match with 60645, McDonough, in the Ireland Heritage Y-DNA Project. Duhallow, northwest Co. Cork, was the seat of the McDonough-McCarthy branch of the McCarthys. Donnachaidh is also a registered surname of the Scotland DNA Project. McGill, of Clan Makgill and the McGills, 2626, Davidson, of Davidson/Davison/Davisson Research: DNA Study Project - Project Results and Analysis, and K2437, Morrison, Clan Morrison Society: Morrison DNA Project, Campbell, Eliott, Fergusson, and Robertson are registered surnames with the Scotland DNA Project most likely descending from the Dál Riada or Dál Riata, an early tribe of the Uladh Province of Ulster. Mac Cuille or Mac Giolla Chuille (Cooley), Cooley Mountains, Ó hAodha (Hayes or O'Hea), Mac Ruidhri (MacCrary or MacCreary), Mac an Fhilidh (MacNeilly or Neely), Ó Coigligh (Quigley), Mac an Choilgh (MacQuilly or Cox), and Mac Suibhne (Sweeney or MacSweeny) are Old Irish-Gaelic Surnames.

115359, Nagle, in Kerchner's R1b1b2h (U152+) Project and the R1b1b2 rs34276300+ Project might represent a Co. Cork Irish heritage. The Annals of the Four Masters lists Mac an Oglaoich in Annal M1362. (O) Gallagher (Ó Gallchobhair) is of the Tir Chonaill (Cenel Conaill) in Co. Donegal. 41076 and 110342 descend from Richard William Willis of Co. Mayo listed in the Willis Surname DNA Database under Sligo Co. Ireland. And the Landers of Youghal, Co. Cork may descend from (Mac) Gillanders or Mac Giolla Aindréis (devotee of St Andrew) while the Riall, O Ragaill, O Raogail surname is a derivative of O'Reilly found in Co. Cork.

My-Coat-of-Arms.com - Names - Surnames in Irish
Baird Surname

Darby Name Meaning and History

* In the below tables the following have a prediction of R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2h) (R1b1b2a2g) by FTDNA.

Predicted R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2h):

TABLES:

Genetic Distance: Includes Other Irish, Scottish, and Spanish R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2h)

Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Generations): Includes Other Irish, Scottish, and Spanish R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2h)

An interesting article on Dystonia: The Genetics of Primary Dystonias and Related Disorders by Andrea H. Németh of The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK, published in the Oxford Journals, Medicine, Brain, Volume 125, Number 4, Pp. 695-721, April 2002, details families of Australia, Italy, Germany, Lithuania or Byelorussia, and a Scottish, Welsh, or German family with inherited Dystonia. One founder mutation has been uncovered circa 1650 in an Ashkenazi Jewish population. Many Irish were transported to Australia, and R1b1c 385a and 385b at 11 and 17 is found in Italy and Germany. Other factors can cause Dystonia, but its primary manifestation is through paternal inheritance. GENATLAS: Gene Database does have TOR1A (DYT1) early-onset Dystonia listed as Y-linked. DYT7 is also Y-linked.

Dystonia exists in Spain and occurs to a lesser extent in the Puerto Rican and Black population: Dystonia in Spain and Dystonia in the black and Puerto Rican population. It is possible that the prevalence of Dystonia in the Ashkenazi Jewish communities of Northern and Central Europe, founded by Middle Eastern migration, and the prevalence of Dystonia in Ireland intersected with the Galatians and Celts of central Anatolia, which today is in modern Turkey. As of 14 April 2008, there were five confirmed R1b1c10 (R1b1b2h*) members, from four separate clusters, in the Jewish R1b Project. European Jewish ancestry does include some Western Slavic and Central Asian Khazar heritage. Some researchers in this field believe that the early Khazar Turkic tribes, a diverse group, once held a predominant trait of red hair before the Mongol conquests.

Two DNA Forums.org postings explain the results of this study as follows:

1. "I took the haplotypes listed in your project, and added 90 random R1b1c haplotypes from Y-Search. I ran them all through Phylip, and produced the attached UPGMA tree. I labeled the 43 folks from your project with the IDs from your web page.

I labeled the random R1b1c with labels 001 - 090. The UPGMA tree places the most closely related haplotypes near to each other. By examining the tree, you can test your hypothesis that all the 11, 17 folks in your project share a more recent common ancestor than the MRCA for all of R1b1c7. The evidence does not support that hypothesis. There are at least five large independent clusters of 11, 17 plus a handful of singletons. Overall, I count probably nine independent ancestries among the 11, 17 folks…

The first cluster (red in the chart) contains the Egan, Hagan, Roberts, Grandi, Brach etc. surnames. This appears to be a large, diverse (therefore old) cluster. This looks like a Continental group to me.

The second cluster (light blue) contains Montalbano and Lepperd. This cluster contains two outliers, so support for this being a true cluster is actually weak.

The third cluster (green) contains Roberts, Perkins, and Sierra: R1b1c6, possibly.

The fourth cluster (turquoise) contains Zimmerman, Brady, Jones, Dittmar, May etc. This appears to be a Germanic group.

The fifth cluster (dark blue) contains Nolan, Windham, Cameron, etc. This is a less diverse group, therefore probably younger…" (24)

2. “If we start with the premise the founder of R1b1c had DYS385=11, 14 (which is what the evidence points to), the inference would be that the vast majority of extant lineages with 11, 17 mutated from 11, 16 and not 11, 18. Even the lineages that came directly to 11, 17 from 11, 18 probably passed through the 11, 17 state at some point in history…

Imagine the history of R1b1c. In generation 1, 100% of the population had 11, 14. In generation 2, that is 99.8%. In generation 250, it is only 60%.

In generation 1, 0% of the population had 11, 17. In generation 100, it is 0.02%. In generation 250, it is 0.20%.

Every generation, some percentage (p) experience a mutation. About 0.5*p mutate up, and 0.5*p mutate down. Repeat that over enough people and enough generations and some percentage of the population will end up at any given allele state.” (25)

As explained in the introduction, however, the ancestors of the R1b1c O’Driscoll at 11 and 18 probably went through this generational mutation process using the one-step mutation model from 11 and 14, 11 and 15, 11 and 16, 11 and 17, to 11 and 18. R1b1c of 11 and 18 at DYS #385a and 385b, therefore, represents a direct lineage of its 11 and 14 ancestors. There may be exceptions to the one-step mutation process. 81807 Blair at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 19 might be a multi-step mutation or this Dalriadic Y-DNA sample has mutated beyond the Corca Laoidhe meaning it has had more time or generations in which to mutate. Accordingly, DF7SK, Corsi from Spain, R1b1b2h, at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 19 might also have made a multi-step mutational jump, but Spanish R1b1b2h at these higher marker values is consistent with the Lebor Gabala Erren and the Milesian Legends of Ireland.

Scientific medical and genetic evidence presented in Leube et al., 1997a, b suggested a founder effect for DYT7. The founder effect for Dystonia may be very ancient within R1b1c, thus, explaining the failure of replication in the larger Klein study of 1998.

"Analysis of other patients with adult-onset focal dystonia [DYT7] from north-western Germany and Central Europe revealed similar haplotypes to the original family, suggesting a founder effect (Leube et al., 1997a, b) but these data have not been confirmed (Klein et al., 1998c)." (26)

A posting on The Proto-Indo-Europeans and Y-Haplogroup R forum at Family Tree DNA concludes that the presence of R1bSTR47 in Southern Poland may in fact exhibit a migration pattern of R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 14 from Continental Europe, which therefore correlates to this studies conclusion on the migration pattern of R1b1c DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17.

“In addition, even older strains of R1b1c such as the famous R1bSTR47Scots may have migrated from the Continent within the last 3000 years. The most obvious hint of this is that a rural southern Pole (YX8BS in Y-Search) is rather close to the Scots subclade, but not close enough to be a recent immigrant in the other direction. Further investigation is needed, but the final conclusion may very well be that R1bSTR47Scots must have stopped in southern Poland, within the last 3000 years, on its way to Scotland…” (27)


Genealogy-DNA-L Archives

"Historically most of the migrations of Central European Celts has been south (documented from about 400 BC) from Gaul, Bavaria and Baden to Cisalpine Italy." (28)


Lippert DNA Project

Though, OGAP2 is widespread in the British Isles with an Irish affinity. “The actual data suggests it does have a defined region. It is clearly found at highest incidence in Ireland followed by the Isle of Man and then by North England, Northern Isles, Grampian, Hebrides, and Argyll. These last four are in Scotland. According to the corresponding regional map, this suggests a territory stretching from Ireland across the Isles into Argyll forming a swath into Grampian. The presence in North England would seem to be a likely offshoot of the Isle of Man concentration just as the Northern Isles was a likely offshoot of the Hebrides concentration. The largest concentration being in Ireland followed by nearby Isle of Man would seem to indicate that the haplotype originated there.” (29)



Tribes of the Érainn - Based on Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland: An Ethnography of the Gael A. D. 500 - 1750, by C. Thomas Cairney, Ph.D.


CHAPTER VII: THE ÉRAINN.

"The Érainn were the second of the Celtic groups to come to Ireland, as discussed in Chapter II. They arrived from the Continent between 500 and 100 B. C., and established their La Tène culture throughout the island as a military aristocracy possessing superior iron weapons technology. They were akin to the Belgae of Southwest Britain, and were generally known as the Ulaid in the North, and as the Erainn or Desi in the South, although all the tribes of this ethnic group were known ultimately to be Erainn. The great Erainnian population groups of around A. D. 600, such as the Muscraige of Munster, gave rise in the Middle Ages to the independently branched tribal groups that follow:" (30)


Corca Laoighdhe [Corca Laidhe: Descendants of Lugaid son of Ith].



The above information is from Tribes of the Érainn - Based on Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland: An Ethnography of the Gael A. D. 500 - 1750, by C. Thomas Cairney, Ph.D.


ANCESTRAL QUEST: CELTIC INVASIONS OF IRELAND, BY PATRICK LAVIN.

The "Erainn (also known as Menapii, Bolgi, Belgae and Firbolgs) by annalists and historians, arrived after 500 B. C. They called their new home Eueriio, which would later evolve through the old Irish Eriu to Eire, and from Eire to Ireland. Claudius Ptolemy's map of ancient Ireland shows branches of the Erainn widely dispersed throughout the island, but with strongest connection in the areas around Cork and Kerry where they first settled. These tribes, more frequently called the Firbolgs, were, according to historian J. Rhys (1890), a seafaring people who wore breeches, wielded improved weapons and traced their origins to the goddess Bolg. Norman Mongan, in his well-researched book, Menapia Quest (1995), traces their origin to the Menappi, a confederation of Belgae Celts from north Gaul and the area now known as Belgium. Among the several tribes he identifies, were the Dal Riada of west Antrim and the Dal Fiatach of east Ulster. Both of these tribes, he believes, were granted Gaelic ancestry and thereafter identified only as Gaodhail (the last of the ancient Celtic invaders). Mongon suggests that many Firbolgs survived into early historic times as "tributary" tribes." (31) The above quote is from Ancestral Quest: Celtic Invasions of Ireland, by Patrick Lavin.


CULLEN SURNAME ORIGINS PART III: O'CULLEN OF MUNSTER COMPILED BY JIM CULLEN.

"The Corca Laoighdhe (Loigde, Loighdhe, Luighe) ... was an important early clan that ruled in Munster before the rise of the Eoghanact dynasty. They were of the Lugadian race from Lugaidh, son of Ith, an uncle of Milesius, and held their territory in Carbery in the west of County Cork. They are said to be the descendants of Lughaidh Laidhe (or Loigde), 22nd in descent from Ithe, uncle of Milesius. Lugaidhe MacCon, the grandson of Lughaidh Laidhe, was the 113th Monarch of Ireland from 195 A. D. to 225 A. D. The territory of the Corca Laoighdhe was approximately the diocese of Ross in southwest County Cork but they were later pushed further south [and east into present day Co. Kilkenny] with the rise of the Eoghanachta. The Corca Laoighdhe were likely from the stock of the Erainn people who arrived in Ireland about the 5th century B. C. Also known as the Menapii or Bolgi (Belgae, Firbolgs), the name of the Erainn people survived as the Old Irish Eriu, which then became Eire, the modern Irish form of the name of Ireland. The ruling sept of the Corca Laoighdhe was O'Driscoll while some other related septs were O'Coffey, O'Dinneen, O'Driscoll, O'Flynn, O'Fihelly, O'Hea, O'Hennessy, [O’Holohan, (O'Huallachain)], and O'Leary.

An early genealogy of the Corca Laoighdhe is cited as: Luigdech Loigde (for whom the Corca Laoighdhe is named), the son of Dairi [Doimtig] no Sirchrechtaig, the son of Sidebuilg, the son of Fir Suilne, the son of Tecmanrach, the son of Loga, the son of Eithlenn, the son of Luigdech, the son of Bregaind. Some of the early mentions of the Corca Laoighdhe in the Annals are: Flann Foirtrea, Lord of Corco Laigde, who died in 746; Maelbracha, son of Breslen, lord of Corca Loighdhe in the year 800; Bruadar, son of Dunlang, lord of Corca Loighdhe in the year 860; in 893 there is a note on the mortal wounding of the three sons of Duibhghilla, son of Bruadar (above), in the territory of the Deisi; and in 944 Finn, the son of Mutain, Lord of Corco Laighdhi was slain.” (32) The above quote is from Cullen Surname Origins Part III: O'Cullen of Munster Compiled by Jim Cullen.



O'H-UALLACHAIN.

"An early Clan Colgcan (Ua hUallachain) genealogy (Rawlinson): Mac Tíre Úa h-Uallacháin m. Cuiléoin m. Conchobuir m. Meic Thíre m. h-Uallacháin m. Fogartaich m. Cumascaig m. Colgcan m. Mugróin m. Flaind Dá Chongal m. Díumasaich m. Forannáin m. Congaile m. Máel h-Umai m. Cathail [m. Éogain] m. Bruidge m. Nath Í m. Rosa Failgi m. Cathaír Máir." (33) The above quote is from The Tribes of Laigen: Leinster Series - Clan Colgan.

An early tribe of the Uladh (Province of Ulster) was the Dál Riada or Dál Riata, once referred to by Romans as “Scoti” or "Scotia" from which the name Scotland may have derived. One Irish genealogy of the ancient Dál Riata refers to the Clan of Úgaine Mor and Glass mac Nuadait Argatlám as the common ancestor between the Dál Riata and the people of Laigin (Leinster), Ulaid (Ulster), Ossairgi (Osraighe or Ossory), and the Síl Cuind. This mythical figure also known as Nuadu Argatlám, Nuadu of the Silver Hand or Nudd Airgetlam, King of the Tuatha De Danann, lost a hand in battle with the Fir Bolg or Belgae and every subsequent family in Ireland is reportedly descended from the race of Nuadu.

The Dál Riata of Ireland never were descended from the Ui Neill. The Irish pedigree of the Dál Riata was of the Érainn or Belgae: Érainn-Cianacht. Modern DNA analysis confirms the existence of the King Colla Uais (Dalriadic) modal haplotype, and it is of a totally different clan or tribe than that of the Ui Neill. Colla Uais seized Ulster, but in 327 C. E. (the fourth year of his reign) Muireadhach Tireach expelled King Colla Uais and three hundred of his followers to Scotland becoming the founding lineages for the Scottish Dalriadic kingdom. The major Scottish Clans descend from the Dál Riata of Ireland based on available DNA analysis, and the Niall or Northwest Irish R1b1c7 haplotype exists in Western Scotland. Thus, it is clear from modern genealogy and DNA testing that Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught at R-U152 (R1b1c10) is a distinct ancient Irish clan or tribe.

MacDonald Genetic Project
IMPORTANT DALRIADIC ANCESTRAL GENETIC SIGNATURE IDENTIFIED ©
February 24, 2004

"The Clan Donald USA Genetic Project has identified the genetic signature of Colla Uais, father of Dalriada. Clan Donald has historically considered itself as a branch of Clan Colla and as children of Conn. Colla was High King of Ireland who seized Ulster and then took his followers to Scotland around 325AD. Colla’s descendants Fergus, Loarn and Angus (sons of Erc) were the principal foundation lines reestablishing the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada around 465AD. Colla was believed a great great great grandson of Conn of the Hundred Battles, High King of Ireland circa 150AD.

A predicted six mutation spread within approximately 1500 years has identified MacDonalds (MacDonnells) descended from the kindred of Colla in both the Irish and Scottish branches of Clan Donald. Not all Clan Donalds are descended from Colla but the identification of this signature is a major advance which supports the accuracy of ancient Irish and Scottish oral histories and genealogies.

Project Director, Mark MacDonald, stated: “We have built on the data of existing genetic projects including the MacGregors, gaelic Livingstones, and Campbells to reach a common goal: understanding the genealogy and history of the Scottish highlands and its historic link to Ireland. I believe the Y-chromosome DNA signature of Colla is:

We have identified this signature and expected close mutations throughout the highlands and islands and also in Clan Colla from Ireland. We invite existing genetic projects and genetic researchers for descendants of Colla and for other Ulster and Connacht lines to join with us in joint research to further explore this significant finding. Clan Donald’s database may be confidentially examined by prospective joint research participants. In the meantime, Clan Donald hopes that publication of this genetic signature will assist other Scottish and Irish studies in understanding their data.”

Scottish and Irish clans historically descended from Colla Uais include: (a) Scotland: MacDonald, MacGregor, MacGillivray, MacEachern, MacMillian, MacKinnon, MacQuarrie, Campbell, MacPhee, MacInnes; (b) Ireland: Maguire, MacMahon, MacManus, Agnew, Alexander, Boylan, Cassidy (who were chiefs of Coole), Connolly (chiefs in Fermanagh), Duffy, Hale, Hanratty (anglicized Enright), Keenan of Fermanagh, Leahy in Galway, MacCabe of Monaghan and Caven, MacCann of Clan brassil, MacEvoy, MacVeagh, MacVeigh (anglicized form of MacUais) in West Meath, Magee in Down and Antrim, MacKenna in Monaghan, MacOscar (anglicized MacCusker), MacTully, and MacGrath in Fermanagh, MacNeny (anglicized Bird), MacRory (anglicized Rogers), MacSheehy, Madden, Norton, O’Carroll, O’Flanagan, O’Hanlon, O’Hart in Tara, and MacQuillan in Antrim.

Mark E. MacDonald Director Genetic Project and National Historian for Clan Donald USA" (34)


Unique Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught R1b1c10 Y-DNA Haplotype:


A close match with the King Colla Uais (Dalriadic) modal haplotype is also suggestive of a close ancestral relationship for Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught and Khaki Group 01 of the Windham Family DNA Project to the inhabitants of Ireland and Scotland. Other scenarios for the DNA relationship between these families are consistent with a Connaught or Ulster Ireland connection.

The Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and English have a close affinity to the people of Galicia, the Basque region, and Spain. The Ashkenazi also migrated into Northern and Central Europe. Historians place the Celtic invasions of the British Isles in the Iron Age. Modern geneticists, however, argue that DNA testing of the people from Celtic areas of Europe indicates that the migratory movement possibly began some 6,000 years in the past. The commonalities of the people of these areas appear more ancient than historians have predicted.

The above evidence supports R1bSTR43 being in the British Isles and probably Scotland and or Ireland. Beaugrand, XZ497, R1b1c10 from France also matches into R1bSTR43. 9KDAF or N-4 R1b1c10 is a genetic distance of two at the 20-marker level from R1bSTR43.



New Hypothesis on the origins of the Khazars: The Khazars and the Scythians.

"The Scythians are the common ancestors of the Indo-European people - including the people of Ireland, where according to the traditions of the Lebor Gabala Erren (Book of the Taking of Ireland), the Irish originated in Scythia and were descendants of a King Feinius Farsaid, a King of Scythia. For more on this check Irish mythology - the legendary descent of the Irish Clans." (35)

“Herodotus wrote extensively on the Scythians - the common ancestors of most of Indo-European peoples. He noted that this was the name they used to call themselves and that it translates in Greek as Nomads, or "wanderers". This is almost a direct proof that the tribes he describes under the common name of "Scythians" were proto-Slav peoples and that the name was derived from the Slav word "skitati" meaning "wander", "roam" (and thence the derivative word "skiti" - wanderers). Herodotus roughly outlined the territory inhabited by "Scythians": from the German mountains (Schwarzwald) in the west to the Black sea in the east and from the Baltic region in the North to the Mediterranean in the south. This was more or less half the known world at his times. What were the peoples that inhabited the world beyond these boundaries Herodotus did not say. (This was revealed and proven only now, in the 20th century AD, by the archeological findings in West China, Xin-jiang Province, in Mongol-Bouryatia, around lake Baikal, and in the vast lands between the Altai and Hindu Kush mountains. There archeologists excavated scores of mummies of Indo-European race, some of them as old as 5000 years and resembling very closely the peoples abiding the Atlantic coast roughly at the same time. Unfortunately Dr. Tzenov died in 1952). A number of the ancient authors often called the "Scythians" "K(C)eltoscythians", too. Among the "keltoscythian" peoples they mentioned "Gog", "Magog", "Geti", "Masageti", "Cimmerians", etc. (Today's historians regard the "Scythians" as a long extinct people, of whom only legends and some artifacts are left. However, ancient Skitians' gene stock is as alive today as it was 5 or 10 thousand years ago, being passed through Thracians, Illyrians, Dacians, etc., etc., into the present day Slav nations all over Central, Southeast and East Europe, and possibly into some other, unexpected ethnic group.)” (36)

“What West-European historians (and most of East-European ones as well) call The Great Migration of Peoples in the early Middle Ages - between 4th and 7th AD - implying that huge masses of people from the depth of Asia, predominantly of Turkic origin, rushed into Europe and turned everything on their way into ruins, is to a very large extent dramatic fiction, myth, fabrication. What actually took place in the above period (and even as early as by the end of the 3rd century AD) was the dislocation and transposition of the different Scythian (Skitian if we would prefer the correct form) peoples within their vast European range. This tremendous movement of human masses was due to a large extent to overpopulation of their traditional home territories where the life supporting resources have become more or less exhausted.” (37)

“It is very possible that when Kozars/Khazars started leaving their homeland because of the overpopulation, they moved in more than one direction: i.e. while part of them went south, crossed the Danube and entered Mysia and Thracia, where they mixed with their kinsmen there, another part may had moved eastwards towards the plains between the Black and Caspian seas and mixed with the Skitians inhabiting those lands, may be as far south as the Caucasus Mountains. Probably it was in this way that the tale of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria was born. It is possible that some of them may have been converted to Judaism by the mountain Jews from Caucasus, but the notion that almost the whole of the contemporary Jewry, particularly the Jews from Russia, Poland, the Baltic States - the East Europe in general - originated from the Kozars/Khazars is right away improbable. Jews of definitely Semitic origin have lived in Bulgaria for at least 1000 years. They arrive here in greater numbers after they were driven away from Spain by the end of 15th century AD. Most of the Ashkenazim Jews settled in Bulgaria by the end of 19th century AD, when the country was already liberated from the Otoman rule, but no doubt there were many who had come to live here while the country was still within the Otoman Empire.” (38)


The Milesian Legends: The Book of the Taking of Ireland.

"According to the traditions of the Lebor Gabala Erren (Book of the Taking of Ireland), the Irish originated in Scythia and were descendants of a King Feinius Farsaid, a King of Scythia. This Feinius Farsaid and his son, Nel, went into Asia to work on the Tower of Nimrod (Tower of Babel in biblical history) and were present at the subsequent dispersal of the races after the destruction of the tower. Feinius and his son, both learned in the new languages which resulted from the dispersal, returned to Scythia where Feinius opened a great school of languages on the Scythian plain." (39)


The following is an assessment of The Y-Chromosomal Marker S28 / U152 and its Link to the Central European La Tene Celts: A Preliminary Hypothesis. I agree with these first two assessments except that there might be an Eastern European or Baltic component for the Celts “who emerged from an Alpine European homeland”. (40)

"The hypothesis under consideration is that all who are S28 positive (thus placed in the phylogenetic haplogroup R1b1c10 /R1b1b2h) are living descendants of these ancient Celtic people who emerged from an Alpine European homeland during the last half of the first millennium BC (roughly 500 BC ..." (41)

"The premise of the present work is that despite the vicissitudes of time and events in the 2500-year interval, evidence can be found of their survival today via an examination of the present-day Y-chromosome population structure of Europe." (42)

Agree:

"This whole area is very controversial and there does not seem to be a way to obtain agreement at this point. It is telling that no one can say with any degree of certainty whether S28 first appeared in the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, or Neolithic ..." (43)

Disagree:

"However, there is as yet insufficient evidence to challenge the view that the populations of western and central Europe are descendants of those who emerged from the Last Glacial Maximum from the Franco – Cantabrian refugium." (44)

Agree:

"The same principle, and cautions, can be applied to the Y-DNA evidence which assumes, without the support of ancient DNA evidence, that certain populations such as the Basques (who speak a non Indo-European language, are representatives of archaic autochronous populations who have resided in the same area since Paleolithic times." (45)

"She considers the influences to be not only Cimmerian but also Scythian (more recent nomadic "intruders", originally from Central Asia, with a long and rich history). Rankin (1996) continues this theme, speaking of the evidence, that Celtic peoples owe their origin to a specifically eastern warrior culture imposing itself upon an Eastern European culture of the Urnfield, Lausatian type, and introducing the lordly habit of tumulus burial (p. 33)." (46)

"It is now recognized that some of the Thracian tribes may have been Celtic." (47)

Agree: The Spanish and French R1b1c10 had migration possibilities into Ireland and the British Isles.

"It is possible that some of the Celtiberians, believed to have emigrated from the east in the 8th or 7th Centuries BC are R1b1c10, and if so, the numbers of Spaniards who are S28+ could be much larger than anticipated. It is not expected, if the S28+ in Spain is via La Tene migrations, that this haplogroup will make up more than 10% of the R1b1c in that country." (48)

"Large numbers of La Tene people left France to migrate at the beginning of the 5th Century [BC]." (49)

Disagree:

"There is nothing that would suggest that these Scythians were R1b1c10, and much that would contradict any assertion to this effect." (50)

Ireland:

This research does not include Irish R1b1c10.

Disagree: there are always other possibilities (French and Spanish R1b1c10 migration into the British Isles).

"In the opinion of the present author all of these can be attributed to the known presence of English, Viking and Norman invaders." (51)

Low estimation:

R1b1c10 of 5% in the Irish population is relatively low when considering the totality of R1b1c in Ireland.

Agree:

"Ireland has the largest R1b1c population, reaching the saturation point along the west coast. Ireland is over 90% R1b1c." (52)

Scotland:

Disagree:

"What is expected, however, is a relatively large M222-R1b1c7 input," (53)

Scandinavia:

Agree:

"The possible movement of La Tene peoples into Northern Scandinavia is not noted by the very few references to this area by Classical writers". (54)

High prediction:

"If this data is representative of the country as a whole, then Northern Jutland should have perhaps 50% R1b1c10." (55)

Greece:

Agree:

"Unless R1b1c10 originated in the east, then it would seem reasonable to expect that less than 10% of Greek R1b1c will be R1b1c10." (56)

Conclusion:

Disagree:

"The movements were somewhat chaotic, and included expansions to the Jutland Peninsula and southern Norway," (57)

The Celts

"The term Celtic is primarily a linguistic one, denoting one group of Indo-European languages. But we can transfer the name to the people who spoke them. Already before 500 B.C. the Celts had emerged as a recognisable people in an area comprising Bavaria, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary and Bohemia. Archaeologists have found valuable remains of this early Celtic civilisation at Hallstatt in Upper Austria and of somewhat later Celtic culture at La Tene in Switzerland. They spread over much of France and part of northern Italy in the sixth century before Christ, invaded northern Spain in the fifth century, sacked Rome at the end of the fourth century and got a footing in Greece and Asia Minor in the third century. The Greeks called them Keltoi and the Romans Galli.

Before they were finally overthrown by the Romans, they had left their name on Gaul, on Galatia in Asia Minor and Galicia in Spain; individual Celtic tribes had given names to Belgium, Bohemia and Aquitaine, to Bologna and Treves, Paris, Arras and Rennes. The greatest of the Celtic gods, Lugh, had been commemorated in the names of Lyon in France, Leon in Spain and Leyden in Holland, not to mention London and Louth. Many of the river names of Europe are Celtic ñ the Rhine itself and its tributaries from the east, the Main, the Lahn and the Ruhr, also the Isar and the Inn in Bavaria. So also are scores of place-names in Central Europe with the elements bri (a hill), mag (a plain), dun (a fort) and so on." (58)

15 April 2008

“My family is positive for the S116 mutation.”

“I favor the Milesian theory, by the way, via the Scythians.” (59)

To conclude, it is also this authors opinion, based on the above research, that R1b1b2h* (R1b1c10) DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 represents Irish Scythian Milesian ancestry. For further information, please read, the variant texts from the Lebor Gabala Erren, which mentions an ancient relationship with Crete, Greece, Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia. R-M269 is common in Sardinia averaging approximately one-fifth of the population with at least, one known R-U152 tested individual. There are two R-U152 (R1b1b2h) tested individuals in the Sicily DNA-Genealogy Project suggesting Italian antiquity for R-M269 (R1b1b2) and some of its downstream subclades.

The Classical Mediterranean, its Prehistoric Past and the Formation of Europe by R. Ross Holloway

The Sicilian historian, Diodorus Siculus, writing in Greek, recorded the Ausonian people (Ausones) as arriving in Sicily from the Italian mainland circa 1270 B. C. with their territory denoting all of Italy. There is one R-U152 individual of Greek descent reported 12 October 2006 on Genealogy-DNA-L-Archives. Cumae, to the northwest of Naples, in Campania, is an ancient Greek colony, and archaeological evidence exhibits human presence in the Province of Avellino, Campania, Italy since the Late Stone Age (Upper Paleolithic), 45,000-20,000 years ago. The American Institute of Southern Italian Studies (AISIS) provides a good outline of Italian pre-history and known R1b1b2h are in the file R-U152 in Greece, Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, and Spain.

American Institute of Southern Italian Studies (AISIS): Prehistory to 501 B. C.

20000(c) - Earliest evidence of modern humans (Homo sapiens) on Sicily.

8000(c) - Earth’s climate warms as the last Ice Age comes to an end.

5000(c) - Cultivation of wheat spreads to the Italian peninsula.

3500(c) - Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. A Bronze Age settlement on the site of Pompeii is destroyed at this time by ash-fall from Mt. Vesuvius. Initial excavations done in 2005 have revealed remains of burnt wood and emmer wheat. Settlement at the site may have existed at a far earlier Neolithic period as well.

3500(c) - Bronze Age development in settlements near the future Neapolis/Naples.

3050(c) - The Gaudo Culture flourishes in Campania. Most of the evidence for this Chalcolithic culture comes from its necropoli consisting of chamber tombs cut into soft rock. These tombs were used for multiple burials and included grave goods of pottery and flint and copper blades.

2800(c) - Copper Age spreads through the Italian mainland (to 1800 BC).

2500(c) - Bronze in use throughout Sicily.

1780(c) - Eruption of Vesuvius destroys settlements 15 km to the NW of the volcano. Evidence found at excavations at Nola indicates that the inhabitants there were able to flee from the disaster in time. (60)

In the interest of fairness, readers may also delve into the different versions of Irish Scythian ancestry and the redactions to the Milesian Legends. The Érainn (Fir Bolg) invaded Ireland long before the Goídel (Gaedil) or Milesians, however, it has become obvious that the differing redactions of the Milesian Legends and its use of double episodes based upon the Lebor Gabala Erren refer to the same migration of the Celtic people into Ireland: Érainn (Fir Bolg) and Goídel (Gaedil) or Milesians; whether they be of Greek origin, as discussed below, or Scythian. The Érainn were given “Gaelic ancestry and thereafter identified only as Gaodhail (the last of the ancient Celtic invaders).” (61)

The Trojan Legends

“It should now be apparent that the Irish Milesian legends had their origins in a Trojan legend common amongst all Romanized tribes of Britain and Gaul. The Romans themselves claimed a descent from the Trojans; and their subject tribes in Britain, Gaul and Germany borrowed their origin tales for their own national histories. The Milesian legends are not historical documents but romantic fiction composed by the Irish bards. Feinius farsaid did not exist; nor did Nel. The Gaedil did not originate in Scythia and go to Egypt and then Spain prior to invading Ireland. King Milesius did not exist, nor did his son Heremon, Heber and Ir. But doubts linger in some quarters, especially in light of recent DNA findings that link the Basque populations of northern Spain to the indigenous peoples of Britain and Ireland. Some insist this DNA research somehow validates the Milesian legends, at least the part bringing them from Spain to Ireland.” (62)

Corroboration of the movement of the Belgae to Ireland is in the following statement of 20 April 2008 based on DYS #492 at 14 in Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught.

“The "hotspot" is clearly a band through southern Germany to Belgium via Luxembourg. The percentage of DYS 492=14 is over 50% in these areas.” (63)

This research also appears to corroborate the fourth division of Ireland as described by Geoffrey Keating in The History of Ireland shown on the below copyrighted illustration from Ireland's History in Maps. Consequently, DF7SK, Corsi from Spain, R1b1b2h, at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 19 and DYS #492 at 14 corresponds to the migration pattern discussed in the Lebor Gabala Erren and the Milesian Legends of Ireland.



The R1b1b2h* Celtic research of this study submitted to the Journal of Genetic Genealogy on 10 February 2008 did not conform to Stephen Oppenheimer’s Celtic conclusions and a suggestion was made that it be omitted.

15 February 2008

“If you are going to mention the possible LaTene connection, I don’t believe that you can just state it as though everyone accepts it…”

“Especially since many of our readers will be familiar with Stephen Oppenheimer’s book, in which he disputes the LaTene connection to the Celts …”

“It might be best not to mention it, but maybe your theory needs a Central European origin in order for your dystonia evidence to play a role (?).” (64)

Of course, as new information becomes available new theories arise. Dr. Kenneth L. Nordtvedt's calculation, with the aid of Jim Cullen, of a time to most recent common ancestor for R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h*) (R1b1c10) falls within the range for the volcanic destruction of the city and territory of Nola circa 1800-1750 B. C.

The Catastrophe of Avellino 3780 years ago

19 May 2008

"Taking some S21 and S28 databases from others which hopefully are reliably pure haplogroup collections, I stripped them down to 67 marker ones, leaving 130 "S21" and 80 "S28" haplotypes. So from other information we have about the structure of the tree downstream of M269, there seems to have been an explosion of that tree into a number of different surviving branch lines about 3780 years ago.

I get an age back to the common MRCA for S21 and S28 to be 3780 years. The S28 MRCA is almost immediately after that event, while the S21 MRCA does not occur until about 500 years later, 3270 years ago." (65)

In Ireland, O'Huallachain meaning "of the Nolans" is usually representative of the Co. Carlow Nolans. By the 17th century, these two Irish Clan names are interchangeable, but a new hypothesis is possible due to the ever-expanding knowledge of genetics. "Of the Nolans" could represent the people from the territory of Nola of ancient Italy. “Nola was one of the most ancient cities of Campania, variously said to have been founded by the Ausones, the Chalcidians and the Etruscans.” (66)


A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America
Move Over, Pompeii

Volume 55 Number 2, March/April 2002, by Jarrett A. Lobell

One of the world's best-preserved Bronze Age villages has been found at Nola, a few miles from Vesuvius, during routine tests before construction of a shopping center. A catastrophic eruption of the volcano, known to have taken place between 1800 and 1750 B.C., left this "Prehistoric Pompeii" in a state of remarkable preservation.

For more than 250 years, archaeologists have been working around the Bay of Naples to uncover the lives of the inhabitants of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and the surrounding towns and villas buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79. But near the city of Nola, archaeologists found the homes and possessions of the region's much earlier residents. Although much of the structure of the prehistoric huts was destroyed by the eruption, falling ash and volcanic mud hardened to create a kind of mold of the village in reverse, much like the casts of the victims of Vesuvius' more famous eruption. In addition to the remains of actual huts, which go far beyond the usual post holes, director Giuseppe Vecchio and his team have also excavated a rich array of finds that reveal much about domestic life at the time. Since Nola is only 7.5 miles from the volcano, people probably did not have time to pack before the eruption, and left behind cooking utensils, drinking cups, hunting tools, a hat decorated with wild boars' teeth, and a pot waiting to be fired in the kiln. Evidence for their diet has also been found, including pig, sheep, and cow bones, pots full of grain, and a pen, elevated six feet off the ground and filled with the bones of pregnant goats. So far no human remains have been found at Nola--only several footprints preserved in the mud--but scholars believe the skeletons of a Bronze Age man and woman discovered nearby about five years ago may be associated with the prehistoric eruption as well. Excavation is ongoing, with plans to reconstruct the village at a nearby museum and perhaps open the site to tourists.

© 2002 by the Archaeological Institute of America. (67)

The Avellino Eruption (3,800 years).
Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius - Footprints of thousands of Nolans (people from the territory of Nola) recorded in the ash deposit of the Avellino eruption provide evidence of mass exodus from the region.

Two key quotes of interest in the Cippus Abellanus by M. Horatius Piscinus are "The Sanctuary of Hercules predates the Samnites, and even the arrival of the Greeks. It was unusual in Italy that such a sanctuary lay on the border between two towns. Such border sanctuaries were known however among the Celtic tribes of southern Gaul. Originally the sanctuary was probably a site attributed to some earlier hero of the Calcides. When the Greeks arrived, and they explained its location by attributing it to Hercules,” and “In 327 B.C.E., 2000 Nolans and 4000 Sanniti were sent to capture Neapolis and Palepoli.” (68) The first quote of interest suggests an association with “the Celtic tribes of southern Gaul”, and the second quote of interest refers to the people of the territory of Nola as “Nolans” more than two thousand years ago. (69)

"Archaeological remains at Nola date back to the Bronze Age. The city of Nola was originally founded as Hyria, in 801 B.C.E. composed of Greeks and Calcidesi, a pre-Italic, Ausonian people. Later it was taken over by Etruscans as they expanded from the seacoast into the Campanian hinterlands." (70)

"There is a similarity in the foundation rite described for this sanctuary at Avellino, performed by Hercules, and the founding rites of Rome by Romulus described by Livy. Supposedly the foundation rite was introduced to Rome from Etruria, but the allusion to a similar rite in Campania dating to a much earlier period than Romans, Samnites, or Etruscans would have been present, suggests that such rites were derived from a much earlier period and was more widespread than previously thought." (71)

This research concurs with the “autochthonous theory, that the core element of the Etruscans, who spoke the Etruscan language, were of "the earth itself"; that is, on location for so long that they appeared to be the original or native inhabitants.” (72) A New York Times article from 3 April 2007 gives credence to a near Eastern origin proclaiming DNA Boosts Herodotus’ Account of Etruscans as Migrants to Italy.

"After an 18-year famine in Lydia, Herodotus reports, the king dispatched half the population to look for a better life elsewhere. Under the leadership of his son Tyrrhenus, [Tyrrhenian or Etruscan ancestor] the emigrating Lydians built ships, loaded all the stores they needed, and sailed from Smyrna (now the Turkish port of Izmir) until reaching Umbria in Italy." (73)

"Three new and independent sources of genetic data all point to the conclusion that Etruscan culture was imported to Italy from somewhere in the Near East." (74)

Old Croghan Man, found in a bog at Croghan Hill north of Daingean, Co. Offaly Ireland, placed on a tribal boundary is a similar cultural phenomenon to the border sanctuaries of the Nolans in ancient Italy. Thus, this is not a new theory only corroboration of the Keltoscythian migration to ancient Italy, Central Europe, Spain, and Ireland.

“Archaeologist Ned Kelly, [head of antiquities at the National Museum of Ireland] has found that 40 bog bodies were buried on tribal borders or boundaries.

"My belief is that these burials are offerings to the gods of fertility by kings, to ensure a successful reign," says Ned. "And that bodies are placed in the borders surrounding royal land or on tribal boundaries to ensure a good yield of corn and milk.” (75)

“Virgil’s mention of rustic rites of Ceres blessing the fields by an ambularia (Georgic I.338-350), the rite mentioned in the Cippus Abellanus where by the sanctuary is circuited can be seen as another example of an ambularia. Among the petroglyphs of Val Camonica, at Dos Cui, there is a plowing scene dating to the end of the Neolithic and transition into the Chalcolithic. The scene depicts a man plowing behind a team of horses, but to one side is seen a woman with upraised arms in a sign of adoration that can be recognized as such from other scenes in the region. Rather than a scene of everyday life, her presence suggests that this may be a representation of a religious rite. If that is the case then the foundation rite found among diverse people in Italy, and perhaps the ambularia as well, may extend back to the period of the introduction of the plow. At any rate the similarity between the ambularia and foundation rites among Umbrians, Oscans, Latins, and Etruscans cannot be attributed to any one of these peoples, and the fact that the same rites are associated with a sanctuary of the pre-Italic Calcidesi suggests there is a much earlier level that was common among the traditions of diverse peoples in Archaic Italy.” (76)

The Three Dimensional Laser Scanner System: The New Frontier for Surveying. Case History: The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy), The Ancient Theatre of Taormina (Italy), The Prehistoric Site of Nola (Naples-Italy).

Dr. Ken Nordtvedt describes the S116/S21 MRCA as follows:

“In an extremely short time a sequence of events occurred about 3800 years ago:

“I found an age for the interclade MRCA for S21+ and S116+ to be about 3800 years. This MRCA would be an ancestor to both the S21+ and the S116+ events as well as the MRCAs for the separate clades.” (78)


Population Bottlenecks and Pleistocene Human Evolution

Toba Catastrophe Theory

Another curious genetic irregularity that links Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught to the Milesian legends and the Lebor Gabala Erren is the description of "white marks" on the knees of Eber Glunfhind son of Lamfhind. (79) Vitiligo is a chronic genetic skin disorder resulting in pigmentation loss affecting approximately one to two percent of the population. Vitiligo affects men, women, children and all races of man suggesting a population bottleneck before the Y-Tree exploded 4,000-5,000 years ago. "Put another way, the entire human race is an example of inbreeding.” (80) One study found several mutations in the NALP1 gene. NALP1 “is on chromosome 17 located at 17p13, on a cascade that regulates inflammation and cell death, including myeloid and lymphoid cells, which are white cells that are part of the immune response. NALP1 is expressed at high levels in T cells and Langerhan's cells, white cells that are involved in skin autoimmunity.

Among the inflammatory products of NALP1 are caspase 1 and caspase 5, which activate the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Interleukin-1β is expressed at high levels in patients with vitiligo.” (81) CASP5 (caspase 5), according to GENATLAS: Gene Database, is a Y-linked "apoptosis-related cysteine protease" located at 11q22.2-q22.3. (82) A 2002 study of VTLG, Vitiligo, Gene map locus 6p21.3, found “a major dominant gene and the existence of strong environmental effects acting on the recessive genotype. The penetrance and risk estimations discriminated 2 sets of vitiligo patients: those with early onset of vitiligo cosegregating with a dominant mode of inheritance without environmental effects, and those with late onset of vitiligo cosegregating with the recessive genotype and being influenced by environmental effects.” (83)

Vitiligo in the Nigerian African: a study of 351 patients in Benin City, Nigeria

The genetics of generalized vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases

“Thereafter they settled in the Macotic Marshes, and there a son was born to Lamfhind, Eber Glunfhind: [white marks which were on his knees]. He it is who was chieftain after his father.” (84)

It is that Brath who came out of the Marshes along the Torrian Sea to Crete and to Sicily. They reached Spain thereafter. They took Spain by force.” (85)

The three Spanish battles mentioned in the Lebor Gabala Erren clearly reference the (Tuscans) Etruscans of Central Italy, Langobardi (Lombards) Germany, and the Barchu or Basque population of Spain and France. The birthplace of Eber Glunfhind in the settlement within the marshes is representative of Ancient Libya or Northwest Africa. “The Celtic conception of the realm of death differed altogether from that of the Greeks and Romans.” (86) “Here the Celts followed North African or Asiatic conceptions,” which "resembled that of Egyptian religion.” (87)

The Labu, Libu, or Rebu tribe, from which the name Libya is derived, “appears in many Egyptian texts, such as the inscriptions on the temple at Medinet Habu.” (88) One theory holds “that the Libu originated in the Balkans,” close to Scythia, which supports the conclusions of this research. (89) Moreover, DNA Tribes scores for some R-U152 (R1b1b2h) participants indicate a strong Italian and Greek European connection with a worldwide Berber match, discussed at R1b1c10 and Autosomal Markers, corroborating the validity of this research. The Egyptian Ribu and the Greek Libu describe the same Celtic sea people most likely meaning tribes of the North from the fabled Rhipaean Mountains (Urals) north of the then known world.

Herodotus World Map circa 450 B. C.

“The Labu are characterized by a number of features when they are depicted in Egyptian reliefs, such as fair skin, red hair, and blue eyes. They also wore ornamental cloaks, had one lock of hair, and were tattooed on their arms and legs. Some of these characteristics the Labu also shared with the Meshwesh, but unlike the Meshwesh the Labu wore kilts instead of loincloths and were uncircumcised (Gardiner 1968: 122).” (90)

Lybian drawn by Ancient Egyptians: depictions usually represented Lybians as bearded with dark pigmentation, but occasionally with blue eyes and fair hair.

"They advanced in their battalion with venom, southward past the Rhipaean headlands; the progeny of Gaedel, with purity, they landed at the Marshes.

A glorious son was born there to Lamfhind son of Agnomain; Eber Glunfhind, pure the gryphon, the curl-haired grandfather of Febri.

The family of Gaedel, the brisk and white, were three hundred years in that land: they dwelt there thenceforward, until Brath the victorious came.

Brath, the noble son of Faithful Death came to Crete, to Sicily, the crew of four ships of a safe sailing, right-hand to Europe, on to Spain." (91)

Ancient Libyans as depicted by the Ancient Egyptians

Eber may be the root word for Hebrew used in conjunction with Eber Scot in the Lebor Gabala Erren upon departure from Egypt. Habiru (Ha biru) or Apiru or pr.w, meaning Hebrew, the sons of Eber, the name given by Egyptian and other sources from around 2,000 B. C. refers to this Celto-Scythian or Proto-Celtic migration of sea people, which to date, has not been recognized by scholars who have failed to equate the Sea People of antiquity with the Proto-Celts. Though, sometimes the Celtic North African Berber theory receives a mention as in Who Were the Celts by Kevin Duffy, Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2000, 81. Smith’s Bible Dictionary and Easton’s Bible Dictionary places the Ashkenaz tribe in Asia Minor or the Black Sea region of Scythia. Crete is the largest Greek Island and Sicily is “the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.” (92) The Torrian Sea is representative of the Mediterranean, but in modernity delineates the Tyrrhenian Sea off Etruria (Central Italy). And the gryphon (griffin) was a symbol common to the Scythians.

The Gryphon Pages

Ancient Gryphon

It is the opinion of this researcher that the Scythian gryphon (griffin) legends and depictions represent the first characterization of the disabled in modern man. Compare the tilted head position of people with early-onset Dystonia with that of the Griffon Vulture or birds in general. The ever-present movement of birds is representative of Dystonic movements in the upper and lower limbs.

The Griffon Vulture

   
Australasian Gannet             Glenn Allen Nolen

The Great Sphinx of Giza: An Introduction by Allen Winston

The Egyptian God, Hu By Catherine C. Harris

Undoubtedly, the Great Sphinx of Giza mirrors the Scythian gryphon, and it might have once possessed the head and/or wings of a gryphon. The similarities between the Scythian gryphon and Egyptian sphinx temple guardians is quite realistic when one considers the antiquity of the Celto-Scythian and Egyptian relationship, discussed in the Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland and the Lebor Gabala Erren, which coincides with the older dating of the water erosion theory proposed by Robert M. Schoch. The African ancestral features, observed and reported through the centuries, of the Great Sphinx of Giza attests to its construction prior to racial classification and pigmentation change in man.

Schoch "is best known for his argument that the Great Sphinx of Giza is much older than conventionally thought and that possibly some kind of catastrophe has wiped out other evidence of a significantly older civilization. In 1991, Schoch redated the famous monument to 7000–5000 BC, based on his assertion that its erosion was due mainly to the effects of water, rather than wind and sand, and also based on seismic studies around the base of the Sphinx and elsewhere on the plateau." (93) The Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland and the Lebor Gabala Erren, without any doubt, support the research of Professor Schoch.

DYT1 mutations amongst adult primary dystonia patients in Singapore with review of literature comparing East and West

"The frequency of DYT1 mutation amongst Asians (1.0%) was comparable to the West (1.56%) ..." (94)

Community Survey of Primary Dystonia in the City of Kolkata, India

Multiple founder effects in Japanese families with primary torsion dystonia harboring the GAG deletion in the TOR1A (DYT1) gene

Research released in 2005 by Gregory Cochran and Jason Hardy, of the University of Utah, pertains to the development of Dystonia and intelligence in man. At that time, it was controversial since they focused on one specific subset of the entire Dystonia population: Dystonia in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. They concluded that it was the “result of natural selection for enhanced intellectual ability.” (95) In 2003, Neil Risch, a prominent geneticist, “proposed a different genetic mechanism known as a founder effect” for the prevalence of Dystonia in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. (96) These are interesting and controversial conclusions when focused on one specific subset of the entire Dystonia population, however, in the broader context for development of intelligence in the entire human race it is entirely plausible that a founder effect or natural selection for the genes that cause Dystonia played a prominent role. A population bottleneck or founder effect seems more likely to this researcher.

This researcher does not have the knowledge to know when intelligence or dystonia arose in modern man or even if there is a causal link. One can only estimate that intelligence played a pivotal role in the survival of man. A geneticist, David B. Goldstein, has studied cognition in man, all races, determining “that he can find no common genetic variants that affect intelligence. His view is that intelligence was developed early in human evolutionary history and was then standardized.” (97)

An event that might have produced a founder effect in modern humans once out of Africa was the Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption. Natural environmental catastrophe or disease outbreak occurrences help explain the relatively young age of R1b. Dr. Anatole Klyosov states: "what we see on the above trees/branches and in Europe - only young cut-offs, in Europe no more than 4200-4600 years old, in Asia no more than 1300-2600 years old." (98)

The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption

Campi Flegrei

He continues, "All it means that the "links" between these cut-offs had vanished. They had vanished in Asia, they had vanished in Europe. Some of their descendants, though, survived, and that is what we see as those cut-offs. Archaeologists see their remnants, of those vanished R1b's, but DNA genealogy does not. Well, it does, but only as those cut-offs.” (99)

British Tribes - Ptolemy's Map

The Amesbury Archer

Stonehenge was built in 2,300BC and may have been a healing center

WalesOnline.co.uk
23 October 2008
Champion Child of Courage [Tomos Martin and Dystonia]

Breoghan (Brigus) son of Brath

"Under his direction a colony was sent to Britain. They settled in the territory known as the counties of York, Lancaster, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland. These colonist became known as the Brigantes, who later were formidable opponents for the Romans at the time of their invasion of Britian." (100)

Historic Counties (Britain)

Indo-European Languages - Centum Branch

Indo-European Origin

“The very name of Nola, the “New” presupposes an earlier city with another name. Noucria is termed a Tyrrhenian city by Philistus, and coined money with the inscription Nuvkrinum Alajaternum, which reminds one of the Oscan Aljaterni (the Albii, or “White” ?), who also appear in Latium, in the region of the Hernici, and in the Sabine territory.” (101) Proof of the diagnosis for early-onset childhood dystonia and early-onset childhood vitiligo in N-4 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught is below. "An in-frame 3 bp deletion in the torsinA gene resulting in the loss of a glutamate residue at position 302 or 303 (torsinA E) is the major cause for early-onset torsion dystonia (DYT1)." (102)

Novel TOR1A mutation p.Arg288Gln in early-onset dystonia (DYT1)

"Background: The three-nucleotide deletion, GAG (within the gene TOR1A), is the only proven cause of childhood-onset dystonia (DYT1). A potentially pathogenic role of additional sequence changes within TOR1A has not been conclusively shown.

Methods: DNA sequencing of exon 5 of TOR1A in a patient with DYT1.

Results: Detection of sequence change c.863G>A in exon 5 of TOR1A in the patient. The G>A transition results in an exchange of an arginine for glutamine (p.Arg288Gln) in subdomain 5 of TOR1A. Several findings point to a potentially pathogenic role of the sequence change in the patient: The base change is absent in 1000 control chromosomes; an Arg at position 288 of TOR1A has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, indicating an important role of Arg288 in TOR1A function; functional studies demonstrate enlarged perinuclear space in HEK293 cells overexpressing TOR1A with the p.Arg288Gln mutation. The same morphological changes are observed in cells overexpressing the common GAG TOR1A mutation but not in cells overexpressing wild-type TOR1A.

Conclusions: The sequence change described here may be a novel pathogenic mutation of TOR1A in DYT1." (103)


Santa and Glenn Allen Nolen

Glenn Nolen in Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 24 October 1988.

Glenn Nolen in Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 24 October 1988, 2.

Boston Chelsea Naval Hospital

Clinical Record - Narrative Summary

“The patient was a 10 year old Caucasian male who was described by his parents as being very healthy …” (104)

“On 8 August 1967 the patient limped down the stairs holding his right foot in inversion with planter flexion with no history of trauma or no complaints of muscle cramps or pain.” (105)

“There was patchy viteligo over both anterior fibula, much more so over the left than the right. There were patchy areas of pigmentation over both knees and left buttock.” (106)

“The patient was presented to Dr. Raymond Adams at the Mass. General Hospital who concurred with the diagnosis of dystonia musculorum deformans stating that it was a classic example of another case.” (107)

“The patient was also presented to Dr. Fitzpatrick of the Mass. General Hospital (dermatologist) who felt that the skin lesions represented true vitiligo.” (108)

2 October 1969

Stanley Stellar, M.D.

"He underwent a left cryothalamectomy here at St. Barnabus Hospital on 3 March 1969 with an excellent result and has shown progressive improvement ever since then. Before the operation he was unable to walk or stand alone and since then he has been able to walk, getting around quite well and also even has been riding his bicycle." (109)

"Our neurological examination showed a considerable improvement on the right side with no change on the left side." (110)

Glenn Allen Nolen, St. Barnabus Medical Record, 2 October 1969, 2.

Turning White: A Memoir of Change - Written by WJBK Fox 2 Detroit Reporter Lee Thomas

Turning White: A Video Documentary - Lee Thomas shares his mental & physical battle with vitiligo

Insidermedicine in 60 - March 17, 2008 - YouTube

Vitiligo Rates Higher in Isolated Region

(March 17, 2008 - Insidermedicine)

"From Romania - An isolated population from the mountainous Northern regions of Romania may provide a genetic clue to the development of vitiligo, a skin disorder causing loss of pigment. In a study of over 1600 residents from this area, where inbreeding is common, the rate of vitiligo was noted to be 20 times that of neighboring regions." (111)

Which way 'out of Africa'?
New evidence provides an alternative route 'out of Africa' for early humans

Out of Africa via Libya and not the Nile?

Lastly, genetic genealogy delves into discussions of race, ethnicity, and religious cultural ties. We all have our own unique ethnic, religious, and cultural identities, but it is of paramount importance to remember that we are all remarkably the same genetically.

Rare African DNA Discovered in White British Males

Study provides first genetic evidence of long-lived African presence within Britain

Africans in Yorkshire? The deepest-rooting clade of the Y phylogeny within an English genealogy

"Our findings represent the first genetic evidence of Africans among 'indigenous' British, and emphasize the complexity of human migration history ..." (112)

East African Medical Journal
Dystonia: case series of twenty two patients

"Setting: Outpatient clinics of the authors, the Nairobi Hospital and the Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: A cohort of twenty two consecutive patients of indigenous Kenyan origin, seen by the authors between 1996 and January 2005 were described. This study was carried out to describe characteristics of 22 patients.

Results: Males comprised of 15 (68.2%) of the cases. Late onset dystonia was found in 12 (54.5%) cases. Over half of the patients had focal dystonia and only 13.6% had generalized dystonia, all of whom were of early onset variety." (113)

Dystonia Association South Africa

Africa is also home to Haplogroup R as exhibited in Figure 2 of Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes in the European Journal of Human Genetics. Research suggests this is a migration in antiquity back to Africa from Asia, which supports this research, the validity of the Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland and the Lebor Gabala Erren resembling the Celtic back migrations into Africa. M-335 is in Cameroon and Turkey. There are a “significant proportion of R1b1* (P25+ M269-) samples in Northern Cameroon.” (114)

A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes

“Though African haplogroup R chromosomes are generally quite rare, R-P25* (R1b1*) chromosomes are found at remarkably high frequencies in northern Cameroon (60.7–94.7%), [27] especially among the Ouldeme of Northern Cameroon in west central Africa, aging at least 4,100 years. [28] R1*-M173 are also observed in the Bantu of southern Cameroon (14.3%), Oman (10.7%), Egypt (6.8%), and the Hutu (1.4%). Whereas the R1*-M173 undifferentiated lineage is present in all four populations, the two downstream mutations, M17 (R1a1) and M269 (R1b1b2, formerly R1b1c or R1b3), are confined to Egypt and Oman.” (115)

When European skin became white

"A new report on the evolution of a gene for skin color suggests that Europeans lightened up quite recently, perhaps only 6,000 to 12,000 years ago. This contradicts a long-standing hypothesis that modern humans in Europe grew paler about 40,000 years ago, as soon as they migrated into northern latitudes. Under darker skies, pale skin absorbs more sunlight than dark skin, allowing ultraviolet rays to produce more vitamin D for bone growth and calcium absorption. "The [evolution of] light skin occurred long after the arrival of modern humans in Europe," molecular anthropologist Heather Norton of the University of Arizona, Tucson, said in her talk," (116) which correlates to a 2007 study of Lactase Persistence in Eurasia, also discussed here, concluding that the T-13910 (H98) Lactase Persistence allele had its highest frequency in Ural or populations from the Caucasus. The T-13910 Lactase Persistence allele “is modal in northern Europe. That is, its frequency is the highest there. This is no surprise as LCT has some of the strongest signatures of selection within the genomes of Europeans studied so far (the longest "haplotype block"). But, do note that the LP conferring allele is found throughout western Eurasia, and even into northern Africa.” (117)

There are “other SNPs associated with LP in the Middle East and Africa, but these were at separate locations near LCT.” (118) “H98 is a variant that is found through Eurasia and into northern Africa. It seems to have emerged within the last 10,000 years and swept across Eurasia more recently” implying “a genetic revolution 5 to 10 thousand years ago, and likely closer to 5.” (119-20) From the Eurasian “steppe the adaptive rays shot outward, south and east to India, to the most distant west in Europe, and even arcing across the western fringe of Africa and across the Sinai.” (121)

T-13910 Lactase Persistence in Selected Populations

The Land of Punt - Cradle of the Egyptian Race

Ancient African History: The Land of Punt

“Campus Cyrunt, near the Red Sea” given by the Egyptian Pharaoh with his daughter in marriage to the Celto-Scythian Niul may denote the Land of Punt. (122) The “Ancient Egyptian texts are consistent in connecting the location of Punt with the Red Sea, but scholars have not agreed upon its precise location. Modern academic consensus places Punt in the area of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, or the southeastern Beja lands of Sudan. The most likely location of Punt, according to Kenneth Kitchen, is Eritrea, northern Ethiopia and east-north-east Sudan.” (123) Interestingly, “Ethiopian Jews are said by certain modern Israeli speculators to be descended from the tribe of Dan,” who some biblical scholars contend are descendants of the Sea People (Proto-Celts) of antiquity. (124) Obvious similarities exist between the imported Egyptian God Bes from Punt and Irish fairy tales. Bes “resembles gods found in central and southern Africa.” (125) Another similarity worth mentioning is between the Egyptian God of speech or language, Hu, and Niul, Celto-Scythian educator of language.

The Wonderful Land of Punt

"Slavery has been a feature of human societies since antiquity, but the scale of the Atlantic slave trade was unprecedented. This African diaspora was the result of the enslavement in the Americas of probably ~11 million people, and at least 2 million more died during the middle passage. The traders spread from northwestern Africa around the Atlantic coast, reaching Angola by the 17th century and Mozambique by the 19th. Historical records suggest that western Africa contributed ~8 million people, west-central Africa (from Cameroon down to Angola) ~4 million, and Mozambique/Madagascar in the southeast ~1 million more, ..." (126)

“Let it be remembered that in the early Middle Ages Celts from Ireland were the most notable explorers, the most notable pioneers of religion, science, and speculative thought in Europe. [For instance, Pelagius in the fifth century; Columba, Columbanus, and St. Gall in the sixth; Fridolin, named Viator, "the Trayeller," and Fursa in the seventh; Virgilius (Feargal) of Salzburg, who had to answer at Rome for teaching the sphericity of the earth, in the eighth; Dicuil, "the Geographer;" and Johannes Scotus Erigena - the master mind of his epoch - in the ninth.] Modern investigators have traced their foot-prints of light over half the heathen continent, and the schools of Ireland were thronged with foreign pupils who could get learning nowhere else.” (127)

EPILOGUE:

Our family is proud of its role in history and the development of man. We are all part of one very large extended family. We have been blessed, each and every one of us: man, woman, and child, with the ability to think for ourselves, provide as best we can for our immediate families, and be a productive part of our overall world-wide community or family of man. Through this cooperation of a global family, despite noticeable conflicts and war, man has for better or worse dominated our landscape and thrived. We hope the future holds great accomplishments and brings our global family together in harmony and peace, which has eluded us throughout the countless centuries of our beloved ancestors.

Individually we can live, survive, and dream but as the family of man we have the capacity to make each and every one of those dreams come to fruition. Our small part in this extended family chronicle is but one story of the multitude that deserves mentioning. We encourage all our global family members to participate in the same manner by posting their family history online. We are all individuals, each with private lives to lead, but we are also related and the World Wide Web affords us the opportunity to catch up on family matters in a global manner. We look forward to reading your part of this global family chronicle on the World Wide Web.

The study of modern humans must incorporate the diseases of man. Not to do so is pure folly. Man is not a pure pristine species. We are flawed and diseased. We are who we are. We love whom we love.

Lastly, I will address ethical considerations of this research. It is totally appropriate for anyone with a disability or inherited genetic disorder to delve into the vast amount of public information available in our global society in order to gain further knowledge of ones disability or inherited genetic disorder. In medicine, a good family history is important to understanding and solving complicated issues. This research is no different than a good oral family history, albeit on a much larger scale. Please read the following for a more complete discussion.

Genetics Home Reference: Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions
Inheriting Genetic Conditions
Inheritance patterns and understanding risk

ADDITIONAL ONLINE CELTIC INFORMATION:

Appendix I - Ireland's History in Maps

Appendix II - Irish Texts Archive

Appendix III - Mysterious World of Ireland

Appendix IV - Irish Kings

Appendix V - Celt (Corpus of Electronic Texts): The Online Resource for Irish history, literature and politics

A. Celt (Corpus of Electronic Texts): Published Texts

B. Celt (Corpus of Electronic Texts): Irish Texts - Historical, Legal, Genealogical

Appendix VI - Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race

A. Seanchaí

1. A Conversation With Pauline Wiessner: Where Gifts and Stories Are Crucial to Survival

2. How storytelling and cooking helped humans evolve

Appendix VII - Declaration of Arbroath, 1320

Appendix VIII - Scythians/Sacae

MYTHOLOGICAL TRIBES OF THE NORTH:

Appendix IX - Arimaspi

Appendix X - Hyperborea

Appendix XI - Issedones

LANGUAGE:

Appendix XII - English - a German dialect?

"English is a substratally Celticized (and thereby indirectly Semiticized), superstratally Romanized Low German dialect" (128)

Prof. em. Theo Vennemann, Ph.D.
Rotary Club Munich International
Hilton Hotel Am Tucherpark
7 November 2005

Appendix XIII - Indo-European: Celtic Crossings lecture

TMRCA:

Appendix XIV - R1b Origins (Vincent Vizachero)

A. R1b Origins (Tim Janzen Summary)

R1b1 and ht35:

Appendix XV - Vincent Vizachero - Index of R1b1

“The "old theory" is that R-M269 entered Europe sometime around 25-30 kya ago, survived the LGM in the Franco-Cantabrian refugium, and expanded to repopulate Europe immediately thereafter.

The "new theory" is that R-M269 entered Europe during the Neolithic era (i.e. sometime after 8 kya ago).” (129)

A. R-ht35 (M269+ P312- U106-) DNA Project

B. ht35 Project Analysis

Appendix XVI - Dr. Ken Nordtvedt

“The interclade variance age for the node for the R1a/R1b common ancestor comes out about 15 or 16 thousand years. So all subsequent splitting in R1b must be more recent than that age.

By comparison, the main branches of Y haplogroup I European clades --- I1, I2a, I2b... --- using the same node age estimate technique have their common ancestor over 20,000 years ago.” (130)

A. More Realistic TMRCA Calculations

B. Ages of Genetic Adam and Eve

Appendix XVII - Dr. Anatole Klyosov

Klyosov, Anatole. DNA Genealogy, Mutation Rates, and Some Historical Evidences Written in Y-Chromosome. Nature Precedings (2008)

6 January 2009

“So, please do not quote population geneticists as a highest authority in the field of DNA genealogy. They have done a marvelous job earlier, and now they have to learn a thing or two to be abreast with the progress in the area.” (131)

DISEASE:

Appendix XVIII - Dystonia Medical Research Foundation

Appendix XIX - Dystonia Fact Sheet

Appendix XX - Inherited dystonia Update - Japan

"Among idiopathic dystonia, inherited dystonia whose causative gene or linkage has been clarified are named as DYT1 to DYT15." (132)

Appendix XXI - Dystonia - Is it inherited?

"Dystonia that develops in childhood is often inherited through one or more affected genes.

Most primary segmental or generalised dystonia is inherited in a dominant manner, which means that if a parent has this type of dystonia, there is a 50% chance of passing the dystonia gene to each child.

However, not everyone who inherits the gene develops dystonia, a phenomenon known as reduced penetrance.

Dystonia which develops in adults may also be inherited.

This is often difficult to identify, since other family members may have only a mild form of the illness. They may have never sought medical advice or perhaps their dystonia was misdiagnosed." (133)

Appendix XXII - Vitiligo

"The original protein and sequence is highly conserved in evolution, and found in humans, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, and bush baby, which means that it's an important protein and an alteration is likely to be harmful." (134)

A. Not Written in Black and White: American National Identity and the Curious Color Transformation of Henry Moss by Kariann A. Yokota

B. Vitiligo in history: Henry Moss

C. Vitiligo and Albinism

Appendix XXIII - Genetic Alliance - Family Health History: Resources

mtDNA:

Appendix XXIV - PubMed abstract: mtDNA in Italy

Appendix XXV - The Complex and Diversified Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Berber Populations

Y-DNA - R-M269:

Appendix XXVI - R-M269 (Italy DNA Project) and Italian 23andMe Participant Analysis by Vincent Vizachero, 16 December 2008

"The basic breakdown is:

Among the 24 P312+ folks:

So, in the end, at most 2 of the 46 Italians can be L21+ (and one of those is SRY2627+). The numbers will probably always be small for [R-L21 in] Italy, since P312+ U152- itself is fairly uncommon." (135)

6 June 2009

A. 23andME Update

7 June 2009

B. L157 (rs17222657 - derived under I1 and R-U152)

8 June 2009

C. 23andMe SNPs Update - L157 (rs17222657) R-U152 private SNP?

Appendix XXVII - SW Asia and Near East R-M269?

Bashkirs and Ural Region

"In the last year or so word has come out of Russia from the university at Ufa in Bashkortostan of the work of Khusnutdinova and Yunusbaev and others among the Bashkirs that reveals that the Bashkirs of the Volga-Ural region have a high frequency of R-M269. Overall the average is 50%, and in some places it is as high as 82%.” (136)

NOLA:

Appendix XXVIII - Nola: a Campanian hinterland town

A. Ancient Bronze Age Village

B. Apennine culture

Appendix XXIX - Who was who in Roman times: Nolans, Nola, Nolan

A. The History of Rome by Titus Livius: Books Nine to Twenty-Six, 1868

Appendix XXX - The Three Dimensional Laser Scanner System: The New Frontier for Surveying. Case History: The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy), The Ancient Theatre of Taormina (Italy), The Prehistoric Site of Nola (Naples-Italy)

CULTURE:

Appendix XXXI - Kurgan, the Kurgan Culture, and the Kurgan Hypothesis

Map of Indo European migrations ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan model










"My estimate based on the interclade variance between populations of the two is that the joint MRCA for R1a and R1b lived about 16,000 years ago. The snps we have today which tag the two separate lines occurred at unknown times more recently." (137)

"I think it would be better if we simply acknowledged that haplogroups, ethnic groups, and language groups are three different (and separate) classification schemes.

Any theory requiring a 1:1 correspondence among these different groups is bound to be wrong." (138)

LOST KINGDOM OF THE NILE:

Appendix XXXII - Emmanuel Prunaux, "Voyage au pays des pharaons noirs" (Travel to the land of the black pharaohs) -- pictures, chronology and notes on Nubian history

Appendix XXXIII - Scholars Race to Recover a Lost Kingdom on the Nile

Appendix XXXIV - In the Land of the Black Pharaohs

Appendix XXXV - The Reality of Ancient African Societies

Appendix XXXVI - An African Kingdom Challenges Egypt

Appendix XXXVII - Meluhha and The Meluhhaites or Puntites of East Africa

HUMAN GENOME RESEARCH:

Appendix XXXVIII - Whole-genome patterns of common DNA variation in three human populations

A. The first Korean genome sequence and analysis: Full genome sequencing for a socio-ethnic group

Appendix XXXIX - DNA-Variation Analysis Via SNPs: Big Predictions Predicted

"One of the dreams of genome analysis is personalized medicine; given an insight into the details of a patient’s DNA, a doctor could prescribe a specific and maximally effective therapy. Another is what might be called personalized prediction. From the DNA, it would be possible to divine just what diseases might lie in the future, and take steps to avoid them. Both came a little closer to reality with the publication in February 2005 of the paper that has stormed to the #1 spot in the Biology Top Ten.

A team from Perlegen Sciences Inc., of Mountain View, California, working with computer scientists associated with the University of California, has sequenced more than 1.58 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 71 individual Americans of African, European, or Han Chinese descent. SNPs are like spelling mistakes or, less prejudicially, variants in the DNA, where a single code letter differs between two individuals. Perhaps some 10 million SNPs have been identified and sequenced to date, but most have been explored in just a few individuals. The Perlegen team, led by David Cox, homed in on a subset of SNPs that were widely represented in their sample populations.

The International Haplotype Map (HapMap) Project has already published a similar picture of human genetic diversity based on fewer SNPs but more people. About 157,000 SNPs from nine people had been looked at by both HapMap and Perlegen. The company compared the two and showed that both datasets were extremely accurate, 99.6% identical. This is both important and reassuring, because the data are being used to associate specific genomes with disease patterns, and inaccurate sequences can easily throw researchers off the scent.

The vast majority of the SNPs were present in all three populations, which suggests that they have been around since before humans emerged from Africa. Some, about 18%, were so-called private SNPs, present in only one of the three, and the vast majority of those (75%) were in the African-American population. This, along with the greater variability of SNPs in African-Americans, lends further weight to the argument that all human populations originated in Africa.

A crucial feature of the Perlegen data is that the SNPs have been bundled together into bins, in which the presence of one SNP is highly correlated with the presence of other particular SNPs. Correlation of this sort, where two different SNPs are found together in an individual more often than expected, is known as linkage disequilibrium. It occurs because when a mutation arises it tends to carry flanking DNA sequences with it as it spreads through the population. Recombination, which shuffles the genome, breaks the links between neighboring sequences and reduces linkage disequilibrium. Blocks of linked SNPs might be evidence of evolution at work because selection will tend to keep sequences intact. Cox’s team found that SNPs in regions that coded for genes were more variable among the three populations than those in non-gene regions, and the same held true for coding SNPs compared to non-coding SNPs. This suggests that local selection is helping to maintain the pattern of SNPs. There was no similar evidence for the private SNPs, so probably there are no major evolutionary differences among the three populations.

Perlegen’s results have been publicly available to all at a company web site, no doubt accounting at least in part for the paper’s popularity. Researchers can reasonably quickly evaluate hypotheses linking diseases and genome patterns. In addition, the vast number of SNPs, and the correlations among them, means it is possible to start disentangling the connections and causal pathways underlying complex diseases with a poorly understood but obviously important genetic component. Knowing about a single genetic risk factor is not much use when it comes to tailoring either treatment or prevention. Being able to see most of the genetic factors associated with either the response to a particular therapy or, further in the future, with preventative measures, could enable personalized approaches without knowing in detail how the genetic differences lead to different outcomes." (139)

Appendix XL - Perlegen Human Genome Resources

PEOPLING OF INDIA:

Appendix XLI - India (regional) DNA Project (incl. Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan)

A. History of Gujarat

B. Gujjars

C. The Indus Civilization

D. Indus Valley Civilization

E. Vedic period

F. Vedas

PEOPLING OF EUROPE:

Appendix XLII - The Peopling of Europe

A. “Ancient Irish culture, religion, law and language contain numerous very archaic Indo-Europeanisms that are found almost nowhere else but Vedic India.” (140)

B. Lake Issyk Kul - Kyrgyzstan

27 December 2007

C. Remains of ancient civilization discovered on the bottom of a lake

D. Lake Issyk Kul Legends

"Other legends say that four drowned cities lie at the bottom of the lake. Substantial archaeological finds indicating the presence of an advanced civilization in ancient times have been made in shallow waters of the lake." (141)

PALEOANTHROPOLOGY, GENETICS, and EVOLUTION:

John Hawks Weblog

Appendix XLIII - P. T. Barnum’s gorilla

Appendix XLIV - Did humans face extinction 70,000 years ago?

"As you can see, these data allow a direct test of the hypothesis of a 70,000-year-old bottleneck in Africa, and they refute the hypothesis. The new data allow a powerful model of ancient African population size to be built, one that comes together with archaeological data to give us a really interesting picture of the early evolution of "modern" humans. The model can be tested with new, massive sets of information from single nucleotide polymorphisms, as well as a more detailed chronology of late MSA sites." (142)

Appendix XLV - Alloparenting after Hrdy

"Breeding adults" generally refers to the effective population size, which would have been several millions immediately before the Neolithic. Genetically, humans were relatively inbred at times before around 150,000 years ago in Africa, and less elsewhere, with an effective size on the order of 10,000 individuals. But that doesn't mean there weren't large populations competing for resources. If 10,000 people became our ancestors, we still are left with the archaeological evidence for occupation of much of the Old World. A plausible scenario is that many small groups of humans were in fact competing intensively, and many of them failed to persist over the long term. In other words, a small effective size is hardly evidence of no ancient competition or warfare. It may be the result of intense competition leading to many local extinctions.

But that doesn't detract from Hrdy's hypothesis, that selection in ancient humans caused extension of the mother-infant dynamic, with prosocial behavior resulting as a side effect." (143)

27 June 2009

Appendix XLVI - Aurignacian happy hours

A. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany

B. Flutes Offer Clues to Stone-Age Music

"At least 35,000 years ago, in the depths of the last ice age, the sound of music filled a cave in what is now southwestern Germany, the same place and time early Homo sapiens were also carving the oldest known examples of figurative art in the world.

Music and sculpture — expressions of artistic creativity, it seems — were emerging in tandem among some of the first modern humans when they began spreading through Europe or soon thereafter." (144)

"The most significant of the new artifacts, the archaeologists said, was a flute made from a hollow bone from a griffon vulture; griffon skeletons are often found in these caves." (145)

C. Hohler Fels bei Schelklingen

DNA Tribes: News & Updates

Appendix XLVII - DNA Tribes Digest for February 28, 2009: Genetic Relationships in Africa

A. Siwa - Oasis Extraordinary

Dienekes' Anthropology Blog

Appendix XLVIII - Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages

16 April 2009

"A remarkable finding of our study is the substantial number of individuals belonging to haplogroup R1b1* (5.2%). Surprisingly, it has been previously observed in northern Cameroon (40%) at high frequencies (Cruciani et al. 2002), and at lower frequencies in southern Cameroon (1.12%) (Cruciani et al. 2002), Oman (1%), Egypt (2%), Hutu from Rwanda (1%) (Luis et al. 2004). The presence of this lineage in Africa has been claimed to be a genetic signature of a possible backflow migration from west Asia into Africa (Cruciani et al. 2002). Here we observe R1b1* in 12 Bantu agriculturalist populations (ranging from 2% to 20%) and in two Pygmy individuals." (146)

INDEX OF HAPLOGROUP I:

Appendix XLIX - Faster STRs violate the simple mutation modeling rule?

Dr. Ken Nordtvedt expressed an opinion in a series of e-mails on 5 May 2009 that faster STRs violate the simple mutation modeling rule, however, in a Multi-step mutation rate discussion on 28 March 2009 John F. Chandler recalled that in father-son studies “more than 90% of the Y mutations are 1-step.“ (147)

"But probably many STRs of all mutational speeds violate the simple mutation modeling rule. We just see the consequences from the fast mutators more quickly and robustly. Why? Because the mutations at the fast markers dominate our GD and variance scores for haplotype collections." (148)

"Right now we only have good enough data to "see" the modifications of the mutation model in faster mutating STRs. The fast markers utterly dominate the data; we have STRs differing by a factor 100 in our common haplotype packages. That means we see 100 times more examples of the fast mutations than the slowest ones, and an even more extreme ratio of observed two steps of fast marker mutations than slow marker mutations." (149)

29 June 2009

Appendix L - rs13447374 WalkTheY Results?

IRANIAN MYTHOLOGY:

Appendix LI - Iranian Mythology - CAIS (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies)

ANCIENT AFRICAN HISTORY - THE LAND OF PUNT:

Appendix LII - Queen of Punt Syndrome

Appendix LIII - Paleolithic Age: Queen of Punt Diseased or Steatopygia African Woman?

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SKIN COLORATION:

Appendix LIV - Skin Reflectance of Selected World Populations

MEDICAL RESEARCH:

Appendix LV - Dystonia and Vitiligo Research, 2008-09

1. Decreased activity of basal ganglia is the main cause of abnormal muscle constrictions in dystonia

2. Primate models of dystonia

3. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

4. Primary Torsion Dystonia: Overview - eMedicine Specialties; Neurology; Movement and Neurodegenerative Diseases

"Many cases of early primary torsion dystonia, especially those among non-Jewish populations, are not due to the TOR1A GAG deletion in DYT1. The DYT6 locus was identified by means of linkage analysis in 15 affected members from 2 Swiss Mennonite families (Almasy, 1997).

A genomewide search for primary torsion dystonia in a large family from central Italy in whom 11 members were definitely affected revealed a novel locus, namely, DYT13 (Valente, 2001)." (150)

"However, continuing to use primary torsion dystonia to classify a group of dystonias as a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of movement disorders is justifiable because dystonia is the primary and sole abnormality attributable to the condition, and degeneration on pathologic examination is not clearly established." (151)

5. Alex Anisimov of Chemkent, Kazakhstan risks deep brain surgery to regain muscle control from Dystonia - Boston Globe: 25 November 2007

6. DYT1 mutation in Korean primary dystonia patients

7. A common 3-bp deletion in the DYT1 gene in Russian families with early-onset torsion dystonia

8. NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital Neuroscience - Dystonia

"Dystonia affects all races and ethnic groups." (152)

9. "Hoffmann, R., Valencia, A. A gene network for navigating the literature. Nature Genetics 36, 664 (2004)"

Information Hyperlinked over Proteins (iHOP): TOR1A torsin family 1, member A (torsin A)

10. "Hoffmann, R., Valencia, A. A gene network for navigating the literature. Nature Genetics 36, 664 (2004)"

Information Hyperlinked over Proteins (iHOP): NLRP1 NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1

11. "Hoffmann, R., Valencia, A. A gene network for navigating the literature. Nature Genetics 36, 664 (2004)"

Information Hyperlinked over Proteins (iHOP): VTLG - Vitiligo

12. Genetic variations in NALP1 are associated with generalized vitiligo in a Romanian population

"Generalized vitiligo is a common, multifactorial, polygenic disease in which autoimmune loss of melanocytes results in depigmented spots of skin, overlying hair, and mucous membranes. In Caucasian families from the United States of America and United Kingdom, susceptibility to generalized vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases is genetically associated with variants of NALP1, encoding NACHT leucine-rich repeat protein 1. Here, we describe a population-based case-control association analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed through the NALP1 region in Caucasian generalized vitiligo patients and controls from Romania. This study confirms genetic association of generalized vitiligo with variation in NALP1, which contains at least two independent risk signals, one tagged by SNP rs6502867 and another tagged by SNPs rs2670660 and rs8182352. Individuals carrying high-risk alleles of both rs6502867 and rs2670660 had an odds ratio of 4.20 compared with individuals carrying a high-risk allele from only one signal. These findings support the involvement of NALP1 in predisposition to generalized vitiligo." (153)

13. PTPN22 is genetically associated with risk of generalized vitiligo, but CTLA4 is not

"The PTPN22 1858T allele of SNP rs2476601 is significantly associated both with generalized vitiligo and with an expanded autoimmunity phenotype." (154)

14. A Genomewide Screen for Generalized Vitiligo: Confirmation of AIS1 on Chromosome 1p31 and Evidence for Additional Susceptibility Loci

15. NALP1 in Vitiligo-Associated Multiple Autoimmune Disease

"Overall, the marker most significantly associated with disease was rs4790797, but it could not be distinguished from rs12150220 and rs2670660 in the logistic-regression analysis (Table 5 in the Supplementary Appendix)." (155)

16. Dystonia: Related & Differential Disorders

"What is the difference between essential tremor and dystonia tremor?

Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. It is usually inherited. The tremor is not present when someone is relaxed but becomes evident when a body part assumes a posture or undertakes a specific action. The tremor is generally rhythmic and can vary from being only subtle to very severe and debilitating. The tremor affects the hands and arms and may affect the head and the voice.

Dystonic tremors are quite variable in their presentation and on some occasions can look like essential tremor. They are, however, seldom seen in isolation and usually are associated with dystonic body postures. The tremors are also sometimes somewhat more irregular than what is seen with essential tremor. Because essential tremor and dystonia tremor may look the same and both can be genetic, researchers have investigated whether patients with essential tremor might carry an abnormality in the DYT1 gene that is associated with early onset genetic dystonia. This has been found not to be the case although the actual gene for essential tremor has not been identified." (156)

17. (rs9652490) SNPwatch: Study Identifies Genetic Variant Associated With Risk For Essential Tremor

18. Variant in the sequence of the LINGO1 gene confers risk of essential tremor

19. Historical Neurology - Samuel Adams’ tremor

20. THAP1 gene and DYT6: Genetic Research Leads to New Discovery in Understanding Rare Neurological Disorder

21. Hinduja [Hospital, Mumbai] Corrects Movement Disorder With DBS

Ramu Sachdev (right)

28 years old (name changed)

22. New insights on therapy with vitamin D analogs targeting the intracellular pathways that control repigmentation in human vitiligo

23. Special Report: A Life Changing Event [Leon Espenshade (German: variant of the name Espenscheidt) and Dystonia]

24. High-throughput mutational analysis of TOR1A in primary dystonia

25. Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Vol. 23, Issue 1, March 2008, 38-43; DYT1 Mutations Amongst Early Onset Primary Dystonia Patients in China

26. Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 450, Issue 2, 30 January 2009, 117-121; DYT1 mutations in early onset primary torsion dystonia and Parkinson disease patients in Chinese populations

27. Paddy Doyle: A personal video diary illustrating the effects of Generalised Dystonia

Paddy Doyle: Biography: "Paddy Doyle was born in County Wexford, Ireland, in 1951 and now lives in County Longford." (157)

Paddy Doyle: Medical History: "When I was eight years of age I was sent to hospital with what doctors described as "a troublesome foot"." (158)

Paddy Doyle: Who Am I?: "It now transpires that my biological father only died a few years ago and that the man Paddy Doyle, who hanged himself in 1955 was not my father." (159)

"Rare condition could hold proof to Paddy's real identity.

Paddy Doyle is a native Wexford man born at the County Hospital in 1951 who lived for the first four years of his life in a small cottage in Ballymore, Killinick which still stands and is occupied by new owners.

A black and white photograph from the early 1950's shows him being wheeled in a pushchair by his mother. It is the kind of picture you'll see in every Irish family album.

The small Wexford boy's life was to take a tragic turn less than two years later when his mother, Lil, died of breast cancer. Six weeks later, his 'father' Paddy, hung himself in the haggard at the back of the house.

It is likely that the boy witnessed the hanging and was found several hours after the estimated time of death, wandering around in a distressed state.

During his childhood, Paddy Doyle was haunted by dreams and images of a man hanging but didn't know why. He was 35 years old and married with children himself when, through his own exhaustive research, he discovered who his parents were.

Now he believes his conclusions were incorrect and that Paddy Doyle, the man who committed suicide, was not, in fact, his biological father. He is appealing for anyone who may have information about his true origins to come forward and help him." (160)

28. Mutations in THAP1 (DYT6) and generalised dystonia with prominent spasmodic dysphonia: a genetic screening study, The Lancet Neurology, Volume 8, Issue 5, Pages 447 - 452, May 2009

29. Aberrant Notch signaling: A potential pathomechanism of vitiligo, Medical Hypotheses Vol. 73, Issue 1, 70-72 (July 2009)

30. Lack of genetic association of promoter and structural variants of mannan-binding lectin (MBL2) gene with susceptibility to generalized vitiligo

"Objective: The aim of this study was to explore whether MBL2 structural and promoter polymorphisms are associated with generalized vitiligo in Gujarat where the prevalence of vitiligo is alarmingly high." (161)

"Conclusions: Our results suggest that the well-documented structural and promoter polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene may not be associated with generalized vitiligo in the Gujarat population." (162)

31. Dogra S, Kanwar AJ. Narrow band UVB phototherapy in dermatology. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2004;70:205-9

"The first report of the use of 'phototherapy' in the treatment of skin disorders dates from 1400 BC from India when patients with vitiligo were given certain plant extracts (whose active ingredients included psoralens) and then exposed to the sun.[1]" (163)

[1] Fitzpatrick TB, Pathak MA. Historical aspects of methoxsalen and other furocoumarins. J Invest Dermatol 1959;31:229-31

32. Commentary:

Non-medical studies of modern humans equate to exclusion and discrimination of our common evolutionary heritage.

Glenn Allen Nolen

8 July 2009

End of Study

Addendum:

23 August 2009

Evolutionary Continuity of Autosomal Dominant Inheritance between Haplogroups


1,000 YEARS OF O'NOLAN HISTORY IN IRELAND & THE NEW WORLD: MICHAEL O'NOLAN, COUNTY GALWAY - 1473, (ESTIMATED BIRTH: 1410-1440) AND THE DESCENDANTS OF DONELL OGE O'NOLLOGHAN (O'NOLAN) & JULIAN FALLON OF GALWAY - 1500, DONELL OGE O’HOLOGHAN (O’NOLAN) OWNER OF QWAROWN BROWN (CARROWBROWNE) CASTLE - 1574, TOMHAS O'H-UALLACHAIN (THOMAS NOLAN) & AGNES MARTIN, BALLINROBE CASTLE, MAYO COUNTY IRELAND - PRIOR TO 1585 THOMAS NOLAN RESIDED AT "THE CREVAGHE" (CREAGH CASTLE) PURCHASING ENNISCRONE CASTLE IN COUNTY SLIGO AFTER 1597 DYING 18 JUNE 1628; JOHN NOLAN & FAMILY ATTACKED AND FORCEFULLY EVICTED FROM ENNISCRONE CASTLE, 1641-42; JOHN NOWLIN LIVING IN ISLE OF WIGHT COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1643; THOMAS NOLIN (NOLUN) OF JAMES CITY COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1717; WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1740.


Part I. HISTORY OF CARLOW CLAN O'NOLAN AND TIPPERARY CLAN O'NOLAN.


Part II. HISTORY OF OFFALY - KILKENNY CLAN O'NOLAN: CONNAUGHT.


Part III. DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1740 & ALBEMARLE COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1744.


Part IV. O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: IRELAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE.


Part V. O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: ALABAMA, ARKANSAS, FLORIDA, NEW HAMPSHIRE, OKLAHOMA, & TEXAS.


Part VII. NOLAN Y-DNA HAPLOGROUP I2a DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 and the FOMORIANS of IRISH MYTHOLOGY.


NOTES.

A. From the BBC: DNA analysis tracks Silk Road forbears, Sciforums.com @ http://www.sciforums.com/showthread.php?threadid=3781, Dr. Spencer Wells; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

B. EthnoAncestry announcement, Easter 2008.

C. The Catastrophe of Avellino 3780 years ago (La Catastrofe di Avellino) September 30, 2007 @ http://www.areavesuvio.org/modules.php?artid=34&name=Sections&sop=viewarticle or http://web.archive.org/web/20070930043810/www.areavesuvio.org/modules.php?name=Sections&sop=viewarticle&artid=34.

1. Bennett Greenspan e-mail, 29 June 2006.

2. Ibid, 24 July 2007.

3. Dale Leppard e-mail, 29 March 2008.

4. Dystonia 7, Torsion; DYT7 @ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=602124.

5. Steven R. Colson. A Brittonic Y-DNA Cluster (J. Clan Ewing, Vol. 13, No. 4, November 2007, 56) @ http://www.clanewing.org/DNA_Project/Y-DNA.html.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid, 57.

8. Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (Author: [unknown]) @ http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100017/text023.html.

9. Donegal Bay & Fermanagh Project @ https://www.familytreedna.com/surname_join.aspx?code=D38199&special=True.

10. Old Irish Kingdoms: A Supplement to Ireland History In Maps @ http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/ihm/ireclans.htm.

11. Ibid.

12. Hardiman’s History of Galway, James Hardiman, The History of the Town and County of the Town of Galway, From the Earliest Period to the Present Time (Galway: Connacht Tribune) Reprint, 1926, 277.

13. Book Review by Hallstatt Prince on 24 May 2005, "Ancient Ireland: Life before the Celts" @ http://www.amazon.com/Ancient-Ireland-Life-before-Celts/dp/0312218818.

14. Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2006-02/1140095910.

15. McLaughlin’s of Donegal @ http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~mallorybrody/Eire/Ulster/clanhist.htm.

16. The Herenagh Families of Donegal @ http://members.aol.com/Lochlan6/herenagh.htm.

17. Patent Rolls of James I: Inquisition at Lifford, 1609 @ http://www.ulsterancestry.com/ua-free-Inquistion_at_Lifford.html.

18. History of Donegal Surnames @ http://www.donegaltown.ie/Site_Article_View.aspx?article_id=5&tscategory_id=23,

19. Finn Valley Online @ http://www.finnvalley.ie/home.html and the Book of Ulster Surnames by Robert Bell, Queen's University, Belfast.

20. A Sample of Irish Family Names @ http://ulsterancestry.com/irish-surnames.htm.

21. Ibid.

22. Lennan (and variants): Origin of name, early references and non-Irish @ http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~lennan/len002.htm.

23. History of the Hogan, O'Hogan, Ó hOgáin Surname @ http://www.hoganclan.info/Family/Main/history.htm.

24. DNA Forums.org posting @ http://dna-forums.org/index.php?showtopic=1319&st=40&start=40.

25. Ibid.

26. The Genetics of Primary Dystonias and Related Disorders, Andrea H. Németh, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford Journals, Medicine, Brain, Volume 125, Number 4, Pp. 695-721, April 2002 @ http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/125/4/695.

27. The Proto-Indo-Europeans and Y-Haplogroup R Forum @ https://www.familytreedna.com/forum/printthread.php?t=2890&page=2&pp=40.

28. David Faux, 16 July 2007, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2007-07/1184610375.

29. Lippert DNA Project @ http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Lippert/.

30. Cullen Surname Origins Part III: O’Cullen of Munster compiled by Jim Cullen @ http://www.lrbcg.com/jtcullen/CullHis3.htm.

31. Ancestral Quest: Celtic Invasions of Ireland @ http://www.leitrim-roscommon.com/plavin/lavin.html.

32. Cullen Surname Origins Part III: O’Cullen of Munster compiled by Jim Cullen @ http://members.bex.net/jtcullen515/CullHis3.htm, moved from old site @ http://www.lrbcg.com/jtcullen/CullHis3.htm.

33. The Tribes of Laigen - Leinster Series @ http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/ihm/leinst2.htm.

34. MacDonald Genetic Project Press Release, February 24, 2004 @ http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macdonald_genetic.htm.

35. New Hypothesis on the origins of the Khazars: The Khazars and the Scythians @ http://www.fantompowa.net/Flame/khazar_history.htm.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid.

39. The Book of the Taking of Ireland: Irish mythology - the legendary descent of the Irish Clans @ http://members.aol.com/lochlan2/legends.htm.

40-57. The Y-Chromosomal Marker S28 / U152 and its Link to the Central European La Tene Celts: A Preliminary Hypothesis @ http://www.davidkfaux.org/LaTene_Celt_R1b1c10.pdf.

58. The Celts @ http://www.irelandseye.com/irish/people/settlers/celts1.shtm.

59. Dale Leppard e-mail, 15 April 2008.

60. American Institute of Southern Italian Studies (AISIS): Prehistory to 501 B. C. @ http://www.researchitaly.us/historyofsouthernitaly/prehistoryto501bc.html.

61. Ancestral Quest: Celtic Invasions of Ireland @ http://www.leitrim-roscommon.com/plavin/lavin.html.

62. The Trojan Legends @ http://members.aol.com/lochlan6/mlegend6.htm.

63. David Faux, 20 April 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-04/1208711130.

64. Whit Athey, Editor, Journal of Genetic Genealogy, e-mail 15 February 2008.

65. Ken Nordtvedt, 19 May 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-05/1211221129.

66. Nola: Province of Napoli, Region Campania, Italy @ http://www.italyworldclub.com/campania/napoli/nola.htm.

67. Move Over, Pompeii, Archaeological Institute of America, Volume 55 Number 2, March/April 2002, Jarrett A. Lobell @ http://www.archaeology.org/0203/newsbriefs/bronzeage.html.

68. Cippus Abellanus by M. Horatius Piscinus @ http://home.scarlet.be/mauk.haemers/collegium_religionis/cipab.htm.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid.

71. Ibid.

72. Etruscan Civilization @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscans.

73. New York Times, Science, Nicholas Wade, April 3, 2007, 1 @ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/03/science/03etruscan.html?_r=2&pagewanted=1&ref=science&oref=slogin.

74. Ibid, 2.

75. Reported by The Mirror, January 2006 @ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/tm_objectid=16556771&method=full&siteid=94762&headline=mudered-2-500-years-ago--name_page.html.

76. Cippus Abellanus by M. Horatius Piscinus @ http://home.scarlet.be/mauk.haemers/collegium_religionis/cipab.htm.

77. Ken Nordtvedt, 20 May 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/genealogy-dna/2008-05/1211325721.

78. Ken Nordtvedt, 22 June 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-06/1214189014.

79. Lebor Gabála Érenn, The Book of Invasions, The Book of Leinster Redaction @ http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/celtic/ctexts/lebor1.html#1.

80. Lawrence Mayka, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-08/1218447142.

81. Vitiligo @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitiligo.

82. CASP5 @ http://www.dsi.univ-paris5.fr/genatlas/fiche1.php?symbol=CASP5.

83. Vitiligo, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM, @ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=193200.

84. Lebor Gabála Érenn, The Book of Invasions, The Book of Leinster Redaction @ http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/celtic/ctexts/lebor1.html#1.

85. Ibid.

86. Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race - Chapter II: The Religion of the Celts @ http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/mlcr/mlcr02.htm.

87. Ibid.

88. The Sea Peoples and the Philistines on the Web - The Labu - Kristy Greefkes @ https://www.courses.psu.edu/cams/cams400w_aek11/www/labu.htm.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid.

91. Lebor Gabála Érenn, The Book of Invasions, The Book of Leinster Redaction @ http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/celtic/ctexts/lebor1.html#1.

92. Sicily @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicily.

93. Wikipedia, Robert M. Schoch @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_M._Schoch.

94. DYT1 mutations amongst adult primary dystonia patients in Singapore with review of literature comparing East and West, Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Volume 247, Issue 1, Pages 35 - 37, R. Jamora, E. Tan, C. Liu, P. Kathirvel, J. Burgunder, L. Tan @ http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022510X06001316.

95. New York Times, Science, 3 June 2005, Researchers Say Intelligence and Diseases May Be Linked in Ashkenazic Genes @ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/03/science/03gene.html?ex=1275451200&en=efcc603583e17b54&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss.

96. Ibid.

97. Scientist at Work - David B. Goldstein: A Dissenting Voice as the Genome Is Sifted to Fight Disease, NY Times, Science, 15 September 2008, 2 @ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/16/science/16prof.html?_r=1&ref=science&oref=slogin.

98. Anatole Klyosov, 24 September 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-09/1222293106.

99. Ibid.

100. Ancient Milesius Ancestry: Ancestors of Milesius of Spain @ http://crossedbrushstudio.com/windowsintoourpast/Vol1/milesius.htm.

101. Ancient Italy: Historical and Geographical Investigations in Central Italy, Magna Graecia, Sicily, and Sardinia, Ettore Pais, Translation: C. Densmore Curtis, University of Chicago Press, 1908, 178.

102. Dystonia-associated mutations cause premature degradation of torsinA protein and cell-type-specific mislocalization to the nuclear envelope, Lisa M. Giles, Jue Chen, Lian Li and Lih-Shen Chin*, Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Human Molecular Genetics, June 14, 2008 @ http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/17/17/2712.

103. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2008; 79: 1327-1330, Published Online: 13 May 2008. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2008.148270 @ http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/79/12/1327.

104. Boston Chelsea Naval Hospital Clinical Record, 18 November 1967, 1.

105. Ibid.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid, 2.

109. St. Barnabus Hospital Medical Record, 2 October 1969.

110. Ibid.

111. Vitiligo Rates Higher in Isolated Region, Insidermedicine, 17 March 2008 @ http://www.insidermedicine.ca/Archives/Genes_Found_That_Lower_Cholesterol_Vitiligo_Rates_Higher_in_Isolated_Region_Genes_Predict_Bariatric_Success_-_Today_on_Insidermedicine_in_60__2291.aspx.

112. Africans in Yorkshire?, European Journal of Human Genetics (2007) 15, 288–293. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201771; published online 24 January 2007 @ http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n3/abs/5201771a.html.

113. East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(9) 2005: 463-467 @ http://www.ajol.info/viewarticle.php?id=24573.

114. Gareth Henson, R1b1* in Africa, GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives, 28 July 2005 @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2005-07/1122585251.

115. Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA).

116. Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: April, 2008 - Skin color evolution in Europeans and Social skin color vs Disease in Puerto Ricans @ http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2008_04_01_archive.html.

117. Gene Expression: Lactase Persistence in Eurasia @ http://scienceblogs.com/gnxp/2007/08/lactase_persistance_in_eurasia.php.

118. Ibid.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid.

122. Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation By John O'Hart @ http://www.araltas.com/features/milesius.html.

123. Land of Punt @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_of_Punt.

124. Beta Israel @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_Israel.

125. The Gods of Ancient Egypt -- Bes @ http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/bes.htm.

126. The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade, Am J Hum Genet. 2004 March; 74(3): 454–465 @ http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182259.

127. Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race - Chapter II: The Religion of the Celts @ http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/mlcr/mlcr02.htm.

128. Prof. em. Theo Vennemann, Ph.D., Rotary Club Munich International Hilton Hotel Am Tucherpark, 7 November 2005 @ http://www.rotary-munich.de/2005-2006/theo-vennemann.pdf.

129. Vincent Vizachero, 28 November 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-11/1227883689.

130. Ken Nordtvedt, 28 November 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-11/1227886668.

131. Anatole Klyosov, 6 January 2009, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2009-01/1231273721.

132. Clinical Neurology, Vol. 44; No. 11; Page. 929-931 (2004), Science Links Japan - Inherited Dystonia Update @ http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/200503/000020050304A0905065.php.

133. BBC News: Health - Medical Notes - Dystonia, 25 June 2007 @ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/medical_notes/6237440.stm.

134. Vitiligo @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitiligo.

135. Vincent Vizachero, 16 December 2008, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2008-12/1229435935.

136. Richard Stevens, World Families Network Forum, R1b1b2, SW Asia and Near East R-M269? 4 February 2009 @ http://www.worldfamilies.net/forum/index.php?topic=8484.0.

137. Ken Nordtvedt, 14 January 2009, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2009-01/1231966906.

138. Vincent Vizachero, 17 January 2009, Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2009-01/1232193574.

139. Science Watch, May/June 2006, Vol. 17, No. 3 @ http://www.sciencewatch.com/may-june2006/sw_may-june2006_page8.htm.

140. Richard Stevens, 30 May 2009, The Origin of L21 (Some Thoughts), FTDNA Forums @ http://forums.familytreedna.com/showthread.php?t=14012.

141. Lake Issyk Kul @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Issyk_Kul#The_Legend_of_its_Creation.

142. John Hawks Weblog - Paleoanthropology, Genetics, and Evolution, Did humans face extinction 70,000 years ago? Friday, May 2, 2008, 5:22 pm @ http://johnhawks.net/weblog/reviews/genetics/mtdna_migrations/sub-saharan-africa-population-size-behar-2008.html.

143. Ibid, Alloparenting after Hrdy @ http://johnhawks.net/node/1894.

144. New York Times, Science, Flutes Offer Clues to Stone-Age Music, John Noble Wilford, June 24, 2009 @ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/25/science/25flute.html?_r=2&partner=rss&emc=rss.

145. Ibid.

146. Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages, Molecular Biology and Evolution, doi:10.1093/molbev/msp069 or Paternal traces of Bantu expansion + African R1b1 mystery, April 16, 2009 @ http://dienekes.blogspot.com.

147. Multi-step mutation rates, John Chandler, 28 March 2009 Genealogy-DNA-L Archives @ http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/genealogy-dna/2009-03/1238296568.

148. Dr. Ken Nordtvedt 5 May 2009 e-mail.

149. Ibid.

150. Primary Torsion Dystonia: Overview - eMedicine Specialties; Neurology; Movement and Neurodegenerative Diseases @ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1150643-overview.

151. Ibid.

152. New York-Presbyterian Hospital Neuroscience - Dystonia @ http://wo-pub2.med.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/WebObjects/PublicA.woa/2/wa/viewHContent?website=nyp+neuro&contentID=7814&wosid=tiGMdnmusV4OLhh3c0GLGg.

153. Jin Y, Birlea SA, Fain PR, Spritz RA. Genetic variations in NALP1 are associated with generalized vitiligo in a Romanian population. Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2007) 127, 2558–2562. @ http://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/pm/12487510.html?nr=3&pmid=17637824.

154. LaBerge GS, Bennett DC, Fain PR, Spritz RA. PTPN22 is genetically associated with risk of generalized vitiligo, but CTLA4 is not. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 Jul;128(7):1757-62. Epub 2008 Jan 17 @ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18200060?dopt=Abstract.

155. New England Journal of Medicine. NALP1 in Vitiligo-Associated Multiple Autoimmune Disease. Ying Jin, M.D., Ph.D., Christina M. Mailloux, B.S., Katherine Gowan, B.S., Sheri L. Riccardi, B.S., Greggory LaBerge, M.S., Dorothy C. Bennett, Ph.D., Pamela R. Fain, Ph.D., and Richard A. Spritz, M.D., Volume 356: 1216-1225. 22 March 2007. No. 12 @ http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/356/12/1216.

156. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) - Related & Differential Disorders @ http://www.dystonia-foundation.org/pages/related___differential_disorders/95.php.

157. Paddy Doyle: Biography @ http://www.paddydoyle.com/biography.html.

158. Paddy Doyle: Medical History @ http://www.paddydoyle.com/medicalhistory.html.

159. Paddy Doyle: Who Am I? @ http://www.paddydoyle.com/whoami.html.

160. Ibid.

161. British Journal of Dermatology, 2009 April 16, Lack of genetic association of promoter and structural variants of mannan-binding lectin (MBL2) gene with susceptibility to generalized vitiligo @ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122327066/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0.

162. Ibid.

163. Dogra S, Kanwar AJ. Narrow band UVB phototherapy in dermatology. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 2004 [cited 2009 Jun 7];70:205-9. Available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?2004/70/4/205/12355.


Here are my websites:










       




DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1740 & ALBEMARLE COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1744.

O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: IRELAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE, ALABAMA, ARKANSAS & TEXAS.

TOWNSHIPS OF CARLOW COUNTY, IRELAND.

BENNER, GOTTHARDT, HAGELGANS, & LORENZ GENEALOGY.

POETRY OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

FAMILY PHOTOS OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN MOBLEY OF SOUTH RIVER PARISH, ANN ARUNDEL COUNTY, MARYLAND, 1687.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN M. (MAC) HORTON: GEORGIA, 1827.

BLUE MOUNTAIN DAM, AR: CEMETERY RELOCATION RECORDS.

DESCENDANTS OF CHRISTIAN ADAM BARTH AND CATHERINE WUNDERLICK.

WEB PAGES OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

BISHOP GENEALOGY.


Here are some of my favorite websites:


ONLINE SHORT STORY BY EDWARD EVERETT HALE (1822–1909): THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY. THE HARVARD CLASSICS SHELF OF FICTION, 1917.

CENSUS OF CARLOW COUNTY IRELAND, 1659.

NOLANDS OF AMERICA.

EARLY HISTORY OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE.

1860 CENSUS WILLIAMSON CO. TN.

1880 CENSUS YELL CO. AR.

MOBLEY CEMETERY, YELL CO. AR.

CEMETERY RECORDS OF YELL CO. AR.

DESCENDANTS OF PIERCE NOWLAND (NOLAND)- VERY LARGE DOCUMENT: BE PATIENT.

THE NICOLAUS HEINRICH CRIST ACCOUNT BOOK - NICOLAUS HEINRICH CRIST (1716-1783) & ANA CATHERIN NOWLIN (1720-1783).

NOWLIN GENEALOGY.

UNITED STATES MIGRATION PATTERNS FROM 1660.

HAVANA ARKANSAS CITY CEMETERY.

HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT ALABAMA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY C. S. A.

11TH ALABAMA CAVALRY REGIMENT, CSA, ALABAMA.

NOLENSVILLE, TN

SUGAR GROVE CEMETERY, LOGAN COUNTY ARKANSAS.

ISBELL GENEALOGY.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN ISBELL.

IRELAND'S HISTORY IN MAPS.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN NOWLAN (NOWLIN).

ASHOKAN FAREWELL (HARPSONG), SONG DURATION: 3:08.

MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE CELTIC RACE.

IRISH MAGIC AND TUATH DE DANAANS.

NOLAN FAMILIES OF THE WORLD.

IRISH SEPT AND CLAN PAGES.

ULSTER HERITAGE MAGAZINE.

WHO WAS WHO IN ROMAN TIMES: NOLANS, NOLA, NOLAN.

ULSTER HERITAGE.com.



E-MAIL GLENN ALLEN NOLEN @ ganolen@gmail.com.