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1,000 YEARS OF O'NOLAN HISTORY IN IRELAND & THE NEW WORLD: MICHAEL O'NOLAN, CO. GALWAY - 1473, (ESTIMATED BIRTH: 1410-1440) AND THE DESCENDANTS OF DONELL OGE O'NOLLOGHAN (O'NOLAN) & JULIAN FALLON OF GALWAY - 1500, DONELL OGE O'HOLOGHAN (O'NOLAN) OWNER OF QWAROWN BROWN (CARROWBROWNE) CASTLE - 1574, TOMHAS O'H-UALLACHAIN (THOMAS NOLAN) & AGNES MARTIN, BALLINROBE CASTLE, MAYO CO. IRELAND - PRIOR TO 1585 THOMAS NOLAN RESIDED AT THE CREVAGHE (CREAGH CASTLE) PURCHASING ENNISCRONE CASTLE IN CO. SLIGO AFTER 1597 DYING 18 JUNE 1628; JOHN NOLAN & FAMILY ATTACKED AND FORCEFULLY EVICTED FROM ENNISCRONE CASTLE, 1641-42; JOHN NOWLIN LIVING IN ISLE OF WIGHT CO. VIRGINIA, 1643; THOMAS NOLIN (NOLUN) OF JAMES CITY CO. VIRGINIA, 1717; WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND CO. VIRGINIA, 1740.

Ashokan Farewell (Flute & Harp).















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Name Variations: O’Nolan, Nolan, Noland, Nollan, Nolland, Nollane, Nollant, Nolen, Nollen, Nollend, Nollent, Nolin, Noling, Nollin, Nollind, Nolling, Nollint, Nolun, Nowlan, Nowland, Nowlen, Nowlin, Nowling, Nollyn, Nollynd, Knowlan, Knowland, Knowling.


FAMILY TREE DNA - NOLAN SURNAME PROJECT.

Add your NOLAN family (all variants) to the NOLAN Family Pedigree Forum at WFNForum.net: Registration and Login required to post.


For a list of documents in order by year, state, and country: O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) (NOLEN) Census, Deed, & Land Records, 195-1990.



Text Only File with Endnotes: 1,000 Years of O'NOLAN History.


Download: Microsoft Office Word Viewer 2003.



"O'NOLAN, clad in shining armour, low bending made obeisance to the puissant and high and mighty chief of all Erin and did him to wit of that which had befallen, how that the grave elders of the most obedient city, second of the realm, had met them in the tholsel, and there, after due prayers to the gods who dwell in ether supernal, had taken solemn counsel whereby they might, if so be it might be, bring once more into honour among mortal men the winged speech of the seadivided Gael.” (1)

James Joyce's Ulysses: Cyclops (U12.1183).


INTRODUCTION.

This forum presents a discussion of two distinct NOLAN lineages: Carlow Clan O’NOLAN of Haplogroup R1b1c7 and Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught of Haplogroup R1b1c10. According to the available Irish genealogies or pedigrees, these two distinct NOLAN lineages each descend from the ruling Ui Neill: O’Neill's of Ulster. Carlow Clan O'NOLAN matches exactly the Northwest Irish, R1b1c7, Niall of the Nine Hostages 12-marker haplotype (13, 25, 14, 11, 11, 13, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, and 29) as shown on Unique NOLAN Y-DNA Haplotypes.


Carlow Clan O'NOLAN R1b1c7 Unique 12-marker Haplotype:

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
ID #
13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 R1b1c7

Circa 115 C. E., Cu Corb, King of Leinster, granted seven Fotharts in Leinster to Eochaidh Finn Fuathairt, the Carlow NOLAN progenitor. Five were eventually absorbed back into the adjacent territories, but two withstood the test of time and survived as Fotharta Ui NUALLAIN (barony of Forth in Co. Carlow) and Fotharta an Chairn (barony of Forth in Co. Wexford). Niall Noigiallach (Niall of the Nine Hostages) ruled in fourth century Ireland dying circa 405 of the Common Era, therefore, a prior common ancestor fostered the resultant genetic string or haplotype of the Ui Neill and that of Carlow Clan O’NOLAN. NOLAN Y-DNA test results indicating a match with Niall of the Nine Hostages and the Ui Neill are indicative of these septs having an ancient (MRCA) most recent common ancestor: Cobhtach, Caol mBreagh, 69th Milesian Monarch of Ireland, eldest son of Ugaine Mor, 66th Milesian Monarch of Ireland.


O'NOLAN: The History of a People, 24.

Clan (Colgain) Colgan, from which O’HUALLACHAIN (NOLAN) descends, is recorded in Septs of the Ui Neill descending from Fearghal, High King of Ireland, dying 718 (Common Era) C. E. According to the available Irish genealogies or pedigrees, it is clear that each of these NOLAN lineages were septs of the Ui Neill, but they do not present the same Y-DNA haplogroup. R-M222 and R-U152 descend from a common R1b1c ancestor except that link occurred in the past making Niall Nóigiallach - Niall of the Nine Hostages and King Colla Uais distant relations.


The calculation by Dr. Ken Nordtvedt to the Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) for R-M222 (R1b1b2a1b5) (R1b1c7) (R1b1b2e) of 1740 years falls within a window of 112 years when considering the recorded death date of the year 157 for Conn Céad Cathach (Conn Cead-Catha) or Conn of the Hundred Battles, brother to EOCHA FIONN FOHART the ancestor of Carlow Clan (O'NOWLAN) O'NOLAN. The father of Conn of the Hundred Battles, Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar (Feidhlimedh Rechtmhar) (the Lawgiver) ruled Ireland in the years 111-119. Considering the accession date given by P. W. Joyce, in his Social History of Ancient Ireland (1913, reissued in 1968 by Benjamin Blom, Inc.), Volume I, pages 69–71, of the year 177 places the TMRCA calculation of 1740 years well within a one hundred year time span since Conn Céad Cathach (Conn Cead-Catha) ruled Ireland for thirty-four years leaving a fifty-eight year interval, which is well within the span of a lifetime. Thus, this intervening period of 58-112 years undoubtedly represents descendants of Eocha Fionn Fohart demonstrating the relatedness to Barony of Forth and Shangarry, Carlow Clan O’Nolan. Or, of further note, the calculation by Dr. Ken Nordtvedt of 1740 years for a TMRCA for R-M222 matches the reign of Carby Lifeachain (“the Liffey”) Cairbre Liffeachair from 268-284, great-great grandfather to Niall of the Nine Hostages.


R1b1b2a1b5 (R1b1c7) (R1b1b2e) or the Northwest Irish Haplogroup represents twenty percent of R1b in Ireland and has been calculated at 1740 years by Ken Nordtvedt, which corresponds roughly to the reign of Niall Noigiallach (Niall of the Nine Hostages) beginning in the year 379. Others, however, have estimated the age of R-M222 as “about 46% of the age of R1b and is most likely at least 3400 years old."


Previously, R-U152 acquired an estimate of approximately eighty-nine percent the age of R1b developing as a hunter-gatherer group in Europe representing a Celtic Central European Northern Alpine cluster with the age of its development ranging from 6,541 years to the end of the last ice age or 10,000-12,000 years.


The Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and English have a close affinity to the people of Galicia, the Basque region, and Spain. Historians place the Celtic invasions of the British Isles in the Iron Age. Modern geneticists, however, argue that DNA testing of the people from Celtic areas of Europe indicates that the migratory movement possibly began some 6,000 years in the past. The commonalities of the people of these areas appear more ancient than historians have predicted.


Evidence presented at Of the Nolans: Origins of the Irish and Scottish - Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata) - R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h*) (R1b1c10) - DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17: A Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) Ossory (Osraighe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata) Uladh Haplotype in Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland, 1600s is suggestive of an origin from the Central Italian Refugium, depending on its relative age, however, the Balkans Refugium cannot be discounted. The age estimate for R1b1b2h (R1b1c10) is from R1b1c10 aka S28 by John McEwan. Other age estimates for R1b1b2h are 3,080-4,500 years or 103-150 generations to the most recent common ancestor, which is not necessarily the age of the mutation for U152+ (R1b1b2a2g) only the estimated age to the most recent common ancestor. Ken Nordtvedt, has calculated a time to most recent common ancestor for U152 (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h*) (R1b1c10) that falls within the range for the volcanic destruction of the city and territory of Nola in ancient Italy circa 1800 and 1750 B. C. with a 3,780 year most recent common ancestor estimate for R-U152 and R-U106 stating that the MRCA for R-U152 is within range of that estimate and the MRCA for R-U106 occurs at the 3,270 year marker making the MRCA for it 500 years younger than R-U152.


In Ireland, "of the Nolans" is usually representative of the Co. Carlow Nolans. By the 17th century, these two Irish Clan names are interchangeable, but a new hypothesis is possible due to the ever-expanding knowledge of genetics. "Of the Nolans" could represent the people from the territory of Nola of ancient Italy. Two interesting facts regarding the Cippus Abellanus by M. Horatius Piscinus are that the border sanctuary between the towns of the territory of Nola was unusual and that it corresponds to southern Gaul and its Celtic tribes, and that the people of the territory of Nola were “Nolans” more than two thousand years ago.


The Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland, and the Milesian Legends: The Book of the Taking of Ireland recounts an origin of descent from the Scythian King Feinius Farsaid. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught, R1b1c10, according to Old Irish Kingdoms and Clans is a pre-Milesian Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe or Corca Loigde) sept; however, any speculation as to Irish arrival prior to the Iron Age is unproven.


Nolan Y-DNA cannot yet place R1b1c7 or R1b1c10 (R1b1b2h) into a specific wave of Celtic migration as shown by the myriad of Irish migration myths. Hence, we have two mythological origins for the Corca Loigde: Érainn or Goídel. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’Nolan: Connaught is of the Corca Laoidhe and that places it within the Érainn or Goidel, but pinpointing an arrival date prior to 2,500 years ago is not possible at this point. The Érainn (Fir Bolg) invaded Ireland long before the Goídel (Gaedil) or Milesians, however, it has become obvious that the differing redactions of the Milesian Legends and its use of double episodes based upon the Lebor Gabala Erren refer to the same migration of the Celtic people into Ireland: Érainn (Fir Bolg) and Goídel (Gaedil) or Milesians. O’Nolan: The History of a People by Fr. John O’Nolan and Art Kavanagh also puts Carlow Clan O’Nolan in descent of the Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland. It is possible to conclude that Carlow Clan O'Nolan, R1b1c7, and Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught, R1b1c10, are both of Milesian ancestry based on rs34276300+ (S116+) results.


DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 R1b1c10 385a-385b 11, 17 Modal Reference


This research also points to the Ulster Ireland counties of Donegal and Tyrone, which the Vennicnii and the Rhobogdii tribes anciently occupied. Obviously, R1b1c10 might also be an Ancient Uladh, Kingdom of Ulster haplotype. An early tribe of the Uladh (Province of Ulster) was the Dál Riada or Dál Riata, once referred to by Romans as “Scoti” or "Scotia" from which the name Scotland may have derived. One Irish genealogy of the ancient Dál Riata refers to the Clan of Úgaine Mor and Glass mac Nuadait Argatlám as the common ancestor between the Dál Riata and the people of Laigin (Leinster), Ulaid (Ulster), Ossairgi (Osraighe or Ossory), and the Síl Cuind. This mythical figure also known as Nuadu Argatlám, Nuadu of the Silver Hand or Nudd Airgetlam, King of the Tuatha De Danann, lost a hand in battle with the Fir Bolg or Belgae and every subsequent family in Ireland is reportedly descended from the race of Nuadu.


The Dál Riata of Ireland never was descended from the Ui Neill, but the Ui Neill and the Dál Riata did descend from an ancient common ancestor. The Irish pedigree of the Dál Riata was of the Érainn or Belgae. Modern DNA analysis confirms the existence of the King Colla Uais (Dalriadic) modal haplotype, and relatedness exists to the clan or tribe of the Ui Neill through R1b1c. Colla Uais seized Ulster, but in 327 C. E. (the fourth year of his reign) Muireadhach Tireach expelled King Colla Uais and three hundred of his followers to Scotland becoming the founding lineages for the Scottish Dalriadic kingdom. The major clans of Scotland descend from the Dál Riata of Ireland based on available DNA analysis, and the Niall or Northwest Irish R1b1c7 haplotype exists in Western Scotland. Thus, it is clear from modern genealogy and DNA testing that Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN: Connaught at R1b1c10 is a distinct ancient Irish clan or tribe.


Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught has the classification of Haplogroup R1b1c10 meaning that it falls within ten percent of the Western European male population. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN: Connaught appears to be in the King Colla Uais and R1bSTR43 cluster. The R1bSTR43 cluster identified as having originated in the British Isles some 2,000-3,000 years before the Common Era arrived in the British Isles probably from the Iberian Peninsula or Spain 7,000-10,000 years in the past. Stephen Colson suggests that one R1bSTR43 cluster may have spent a considerable amount of time in Ireland tracing some sub-clusters into Scotland and eventually England. A close match with the King Colla Uais (Dalriadic) modal haplotype is also suggestive of a close ancestral relationship for Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN: Connaught and Khaki Group 01 of the Windham Family DNA Project to the inhabitants of Ireland and Scotland.


A Ui Neill connection reportedly exists through Carby Lifeachain (“the Liffey”) father of Eochaidh Dubhlinn, grandfather of “the Three Collas,” and great-great grandfather to Niall of the Nine Hostages. The genealogy of the Sil Anmchadha of the Uí Maine records Colla Da Chrioch, brother to Colla Uais, as an ancestor of (O’HUALLACHAIN) UALLACHAN. The Úa Maine are also recorded as descending from Conn of the Hundred Battles, Óengus Dub, a grandson of Cathaír Mór, of the Ua Failge, and from Maine, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. The territory of the Ui Maine included parts of Kings Co. (Offaly). MUGRON of Clan (Colgain) Colgan, the ancestor of O'H-UALLACHAIN or HOOLAHAN, was reportedly born at Ballycowen, Kings, Co. (Offaly).


In Kingdom of Airghialla, Ulster Series, Background on the Three Collas, Contemporary historians record King Colla Uais as one of the three sons of the early Ulster ruler Niall Noigiallach who had three sons: Eogan, Conall, and Enda. The Irish Annals indicate he was the son of Eochaidh Doimhlen (Eochaid Duibhlein) and Aileach, the daughter of the King of Alba, Scotland. Yet, others prefer the alternate theory of Romanized Britons ascending the Irish throne. Though, there is no account of Romans in Ireland. Intertwined in this mystical era of Irish history are reality and myth, therefore, a true origin for the Three Collas is unclear.


Modern DNA analysis can determine that the (MRCA) most recent common ancestor for the paternal line of the O’Neil’s (13, 25, 14, and 11) and the “Three Collas” (13, 24, 14, and 10) probably occurred beyond 500 B. C. E. (Before Common Era). These Irish royal lineages may have been heavily intermarried but did not have a genetic paternal link for more than 2,500 years. The Irish genealogies, therefore, which relate to this aspect of the descent of Conn are not correct and probably have a degree of fabrication. King Colla Uais was not the son of the Ulster ruler Niall Noigiallach, but they do have an ancient common ancestor. The R1b1c signature does connect these people genealogically.


Aengus (the Prolific) Tuirmheach, 81st Monarch of Ireland, son of Eochaidh Foiltleathan, defeated and killed Fearghus, the powerful or brave, at Tara assuming the monarchy of Ireland having two sons: Fiacha Fermara, and Enna Aighneach. Fiacha Fermara is the progenitor for the Dalriadic and Alba Scottish Kings, and many of the succeeding Kings descend from Enna Aighneach.


There is ample evidence that the O HAONGHUSA [meaning descendant of Aonghus or Angus] (O'HENNESSY) [shared the lordship of Clann Cholgan with their kinsmen the O’HOLOHAN'S (O HUALLACHAIN)] in Co. Offaly, but there is also evidence of a sept of the Ui AENGHUSA in Munster. These two separate septs probably developed independently after the descendants of Aonghus, Aengus, or Angus split with some descendants moving into Munster and some into Co. Offaly. In any event, these two separate Irish septs are inextricably linked genealogically.


The Érainn, a group of Munster clans, occupied the Kingdom of (Ossory) Osraighe. In essence, Ossory was a buffer zone during the sixth through ninth centuries between the men of Munster (Munstermen) and the men of Leinster (Leinstermen). The Kingdom of (Ossory) Osraighe encompasses most of present day Co. Kilkenny in which Inse Ui hUallachan (the river meadow of O HOLAHAN) or O'HOLOHAN’S holm is located in the Barony of Shillelogher. After 1653, Inse Ui hUallachan, anglicized Inchyolaghan became Castleinch or Caislean-na-h-Ínse. Thus, the basis for naming this particular NOLAN clan Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN lies within these two septs of the descendants of Aonghus or Angus.


The 33 of 37 Y-DNA marker match between N-4 (Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught) R1b1c10 of the NOLAN DNA Surname Project and Kit #56134 from the WINDHAM Family DNA Project probably occurred between these two 1574 Galway castle owning families who were also Herenagh Families of Ulster Co. Donegal Ireland. An exact match of the first 20 markers (13, 24, 14, 10, 11, 17, 12, 12, 12, 14, 13, 30, 17, 9, 10, 11, 11, 25, 15, and 19) in the Y-DNA test of N-4 with RICHARD (O') HAGAN also gives credence to an Ulster relationship. A WINDHAM - NOLAN DNA comparison provided by JOHN B. WINDHAM details a 25 Y-DNA marker match between N-3 (Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught) and Kit # 18393 and a 61-62 of 67 Y-DNA marker match between Kit # 18393 and N-4. Incidentally, Kit # 18393 mismatches RICHARD O’HAGAN by one in a 20-marker comparison. Herenagh meaning land typically converted into donated church property. Yellow denotes haplotype differences.


Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN: Connaught R1b1c10 Unique 20-marker Haplotype Matches:

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 King Colla Uais
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 R1bSTR43

N-3 mismatches the King Colla Uais 20-marker haplotype at DYS #385b, 389-1, 389-2, and 458. N-4 mismatches the King Colla Uais 20-marker haplotype at DYS #385b, 389-1, and 458. N-30 (brother to N-4) mismatches the King Colla Uais 20-marker haplotype at DYS #385b, 389-1, 389-2, and 458. N-3, N-4, and N-30 mismatch the 20-marker haplotype of R1bSTR43 at DYS #385b, 389-1, and 389-2.

N-4 and N-30 are brothers of the same mother and father, but mutations at DYS #389-2 and 464c for N-4 with a genetic distance of two at the 25-marker level compared to N-30 leaves N-30 with a more precise genetic match with N-3 and 9ZZVM - Windham at the 25-marker level than with N-4.

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17 N-3 - Nolen
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 15 17 N-4 - Nolen R1b1c10
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17 N-30 - Nolen (brother to N-4)

The three below HAGAN DNA results from Y-Search have an exact 20-marker match with N-4 resulting in an ancient relationship prior to the introduction of surnames through parallel subclades of R-P312. N-3 and N-30 mismatch by one mutation at DYS 389-2. User ID # 5GGTH lists Carrickmore, Ulster, Ireland as country of origin.

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 5GGTH - Hagan
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 N2F3B - Hagan
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 YNXPB - Hagan

Three of the following WINDHAM/WYNDHAM Y-Search participants claim descent from England: JCBWN, P6D2Y, and QT7HT, however, mutations at DYS 389-2 for N-4 and the HAGAN surname at 30, N-3, N-30 and WINDHAM at 31 results in an ancient Irish relationship prior to the introduction of surnames through parallel subclades of R-P312.

DYS
393
DYS
390
DYS
19
DYS
391
DYS
385a
DYS
385b
DYS
426
DYS
388
DYS
439
DYS
389-1
DYS
392
DYS
389-2
DYS
458
DYS
459a
DYS
459b
DYS
455
DYS
454
DYS
447
DYS
437
DYS
448
DYS
449
DYS
464a
DYS
464b
DYS
464c
DYS
464d
ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 JCBWN - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 28 15 15 17 17 9ZZVM - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 P6D2Y - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 QT7HT - Windham
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 V43N7 - Windham

Genetic Distance
IDm
o
d
a
l
C
o
l
l
a

U
a
i
s

R
1
b
R
1
b
S
T
R
4
3
N
-
3

N
o
l
e
n
N
-
4

N
o
l
e
n
N
-
3
0

N
o
l
e
n
5
G
G
T
H

H
a
g
a
n
N
2
F
3
B

H
a
g
a
n
Y
N
X
P
B

H
a
g
a
n
J
C
B
W
N

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
9
Z
Z
V
M

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
P
6
D
2
Y

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
Q
T
7
H
T

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
V
4
3
N
7

W
i
n
d
h
a
m
1 modal 203301011100000
2 Colla_Uais_R1b 320234344433333
3 R1bSTR43 322032322233333
4 N-3_Nolen 033201011100000
5 N-4_Nolen 142120100011111
6 N-30_Nolen 033012011100000
7 5GGTH_Hagan 142101200011111
8 N2F3B_Hagan 142101020011111
9 YNXPB_Hagan 142101002011111
10 JCBWN_Windham 033010111200000
11 9ZZVM_Windham 033010111020000
12 P6D2Y_Windham 033010111002000
13 QT7HT_Windham 033010111000200
14 V43N7_Windham 033010111000020
Related Probably Related Possibly Related
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 12 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 25 Markers
FTDNA's Interpreting Genetic Distance for 37 Markers
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Values on the diagonal indicate number of markers tested
Genetic Distance Modal ID #
13 24 14 10 11 17 12 12 12 14 13 31 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 Modal Reference


The O’HAGAN (O hAgain in Irish, which was originally O hOgain) family also descends from the ruling Ui Neill, O’Neill's, of Ulster, and were hereditary stewards, sheriffs, and judges considered part of that sept. O'HAGAN’S stood with Hugh O'Neill, the last of the native Irish kings, in his rebellion against England. Hugh O'Neill, in the tradition of the times, took the remnants of his fortune and sailed to Spain. The O'HAGAN’S were not as fortunate, being totally dispossessed of lands and possessions in the plantations that followed Hugh O'Neill’s defeat.


The O’HAGAN'S (O hAgain), a sept of the Cineal Eoghain, are recorded as descendants of Fergus, son of Eoghan with the following families in Roger O'Ferrall's "Linea Antiqua": O'COLGAN, O'Branagan, O'HAGIN, O'Cahalan, O'Uarisg, O'Brelar, O'Hanin, O'Dovan, O'Losgny, O'Mellan, O'CONOLAN, O'Spellan, and O'Breonan. Fergus was also ancestor to the O'QUIN'S, as described in Background on the Northern Uí Neill. O'QUIN later spawned the family of WYNDHAM-QUINN. Included in the background of the Northern Ui Neill is evidence pertaining to the O'BOYLE, MAC SUIBHNE, and MACSWEENEY septs that became WYNDHAM of Co. Donegal. A History of the HOGAN, O'HOGAN, Ó HOGAIN Surname reflects a separate origin in Co. Cork as a sept of the Corca Laoidhe.


It is evident that not all Irish NOLAN’S descend from County Carlow. More than one NOLAN lineage developed in ancient Ireland prior to the introduction of surnames. The first name of the ancestor's father formed the basis of familial relationships. Hereditary surnames have a relatively recent origin. By 1400, for example, most every person in England had a surname. With the origination of surnames within the last millennia, therefore, it is not uncommon to find many different variants of the same clan using the same surname. Usually, genealogists are not interested in relatedness prior to the adoption of surnames, but depending on whether that clan separated and moved to different regions prior to the adoption of surnames researchers should expect to find more than one variant of the same clan using the same surname. The descendants of UALLACHAN of Clan (Colgain) Colgan, for example, became HUALLACHAN. In Ireland “H” often appears in front of a name beginning with a vowel which became O'HUALLACHAN meaning of UALLACHAN. In Gaelic O‘HUALLACHAN or O’HOULIHAN is genitive plural for "of the NOLAN’S". (2) DNA evidence posted at NOLAN DNA Project: Results conclusively supports the existence of more than one NOLAN lineage.


The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of N-3 and N-4 is HARDIN NOLEN of Lauderdale Co. Alabama who married CYNTHIA VICKERS on 15 May 1845 proving the existence of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN: Connaught through DNA and genealogical documentation. In fact, more NOLAN lineages developed after the Norman invasion due to the introduction of the English language. In Co. Fermanagh, O'HULTACHAIN, an obvious derivation of O‘HUALLACHAN, became anglicized as NOLAN. CORMAC O'HULTACHAIN, Erenach (Herenagh) of Achadh-Beithe, Aghavea, died 1532.


Similarly, the O‘HUALLACHAIN (NOLAN) landholding sept of the Connaught branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN is believed to have had herenagh property in Ulster Co. Donegal moving their influence further north from Co. Sligo. Perhaps a familial relationship existed between these two NOLAN herenagh property owning lineages, septs or clans of the Ui Colgain. With O'HULTACHAIN an obvious derivation of O‘HUALLACHAIN, it is possible that the JOHN NOWLIN of Isle of Wight Co. Virginia, 1643 represents one or both of these northern Ireland NOLAN lineages, septs or clans. A 17 January 2009 e-mail from WAYNE NOLAN of New Zealand lists the children of THOMAS NOLAN (O‘HUALLACHAIN) and AGNES MARTIN from Ballinrobe as having seven children: GREGORY, JOHN, CEACILLA, ANNIE, JAMES, THOMAS, and JOSEPH.


The Famille De NOLLENT (NOLIN) lineage comes from France but has a probable origin in Ireland. Two lineages derive from Haplogroup G and G2. They have arisen in Portugal and or Spain. In the last several millennia, members of Haplogroup G and G2 did gradually move into Europe through the normal migratory process or through invasion or capture. Tipperary Clan O’NOLAN may or may not have developed in conjunction with Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN with a split disseminating into Tipperary Clan O’NOLAN somewhere between the 5th and 12th century in Osraighe as noted on the NOLAN DNA Project: Discussion page and the History of Carlow Clan O'NOLAN and Tipperary Clan O'NOLAN page. The KNOWLAN (KNOLLIN) lineage derives from Exeter and Devon in southwest England and a different NOLAN lineage developed through Clan Cleland described at the bottom of page 1b of this forum: Other Research Avenues. The Haplogroup I1b lineage of the Balkan region may have entered Britain and Ireland through the influence of the Roman Empire. Haplogroup E3b and E3b3a represent two more distinct NOLAN lineages that have an estimated probable place of origin of Eastern Africa 22,000-25,000 B. C. E. (Before Common Era) being most frequent on the Mediterranean coast.


Edward MacLysaght, first Chief Herald of Ireland, writing several books on Irish family history and heraldry, in his book, Irish Families, would take exception to the use of the term “clan” to describe these “septs” or groups of O’NOLAN’S. He notes that Ireland did not have a true clan system like that which developed in Scotland; however, modern DNA evidence is separating the various septs or groups of O'NOLAN’S living in the same vicinity into distinguishable family groups, lineages or clans. An explanatory note concerning Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN is warranted at this point, there may or may not be at least three distinct genealogical branches or lineages of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught, Ossory, and Tipperary; 1. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN that moved into the Connacht counties of Galway and Mayo with the Barrett family in the 12th or early 13th century; 2. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN which stayed in Co. Kilkenny (Ossory) after the 12th century; and 3. Tipperary Clan O’NOLAN which may or may not have developed in conjunction with Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN with a split disseminating into Co. Tipperary Clan O’NOLAN somewhere between the 5th and 12th century in (Ossory) Osraighe. At present, the Connacht branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN is the only one that has attained the status of a distinct lineage due to a limited number of NOLAN surnamed DNA participants, and it is possibly the result of an illegitimate hereditary relationship, an adoption, or a branch of a family using a different surname.


The PIERCE NOWLAND (NOLAND) (O’HEWELANE) (O’WOLOGHAN) line of O'NOLAN'S has long been assumed to have descended from Carlow Clan O'NOLAN. New DNA evidence and genealogical information is altering that assumption. The families of N-8 and N-13 of the NOLAN DNA Surname Project or the family of N-31 may prove a descendancy from Co. Tipperary, Ireland and connect to the PIERCE NOWLAND (NOLAND) line that began traveling to the New World around the mid 17th century. These separate and distinct NOLAN lineages may or may not have developed in conjunction with Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN with a split disseminating into Co. Tipperary Clan O’NOLAN somewhere between the 5th and 12th century in (Osraighe) Ossory connecting to the ancestors of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN, the Corca Laighde.


N-31 is of the NOLAND surname and mismatches N-8 at DYS #389-1 and 389-2 at the 12-marker level. The DYS #389-2 at 31 value for N-31 matches N-3 and N-30 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught who are the only other two NOLAN Y-DNA results at 31 for DYS #389-2, and they are haplogroup R1b1c10. The DYS #389-2 at 31 value may represent an ancient relationship prior to the introduction of surnames between N-31, Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught, and Tipperary Clan O’NOLAN.


Certainly, a genetic distance of two with N-8 and three with N-3 and N-30 at the 12-marker level indicates that this NOLAND family does not match the Irish Type III or Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught within the timeframe of surname use, but it does not rule out an ancient connection between N-31, Irish Type III, or Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught. Matches of significance at Y-Search for N-31 are the exact 12-marker O'Bryne (Bryne) Co. Kilkenny result for RE7TY and PJY4B Breen of Ireland result. The match with RE7TY of Co. Kilkenny Ireland is precisely where this NOLAND haplotype should exist.


Twenty-first century DNA analysis is also separating Carlow Clan O’NOLAN into distinct lineages: Shangarry, Ballon-Rathoe, Ballykealey, and Kilbride. Shangarry is in the southern part of Co. Carlow and has been DNA defined with the ancient 12-marker haplotype of 13, 25, 14, 11, 11, 13, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, and 29. Ballon-Rathoe from the middle part of Co. Carlow, Ballykealey, and Kilbride have as yet not attained the status of a distinct lineage due to a limited number of NOLAN surnamed DNA participants. Certainly, in the future, with participation of more, NOLAN surnamed DNA participants, Ballon-Rathoe, Ballykealey, and Kilbride will attain separate and distinct Carlow NOLAN lineage status as will the Offaly - Kilkenny Ossory, and Tipperary Clan O’NOLAN. These separate and distinct O’NOLAN lineages will fail to meet a standard of recent relatedness within a time span for the modern use of surnames. Emerging DNA evidence suggests that relatedness for some of these O’NOLAN lineages goes beyond the time span for surname use to perhaps the 2nd century C. E. (Common Era).


Without question, Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN moved into the Connaught territory of the Uí Bróen and the Uí Cholgan, kinsmen of this Clan Colgcan sept, sometime after the Norman Invasion. The Connaught branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN may or may not be further subdivided into the Ulster lineages of Co. Donegal and Fermanagh. It is widely accepted that 150,000 or more Ulster Irish were residing in North America prior to the American Revolution. Charles A. Hanna estimated that figure as more than 333,000 in a two-volume work on the subject of The Scotch-Irish or the Scot in North Britain, North Ireland, and North America published in 1902.


In an attempt to bring forth all relevant data, N-3, N-4, and N-30 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught match participants of the WINDHAM Family DNA Project Khaki Group 01 at a high probability of 98.55-99.18% at the 24-generation range or 600 years. As a general rule, a 90% or more match of compared markers at the 25-marker level or beyond 23 of 25, 33 of 37, 61 of 67 is a probable genetic cousin with a different surnamed individual. This general rule does not apply to a limited 12-marker comparison. The WINDHAM Family DNA Project Khaki Group 01 claim descent from Norfolk, England and EDWARD WINDHAM of Isle of Wight Co. Virginia through the lineage of JOHN WYNDHAM who purchased Felbrigg Hall about the year 1450.


Though, a series of NOLAN families existed in England, as described on Part IV of this forum, there is no existing evidence supporting an English heritage for JOHN (NOLAN) NOWLIN of Isle of Wight Co. Virginia, 1643 except the WINDHAM Family DNA Project Khaki groups claim of English descent. The illegitimate child theory of English WINDHAM lore has merit in early Colonial Virginia, however, the illegitimate son of MARY WINDHAM as found in the 18 June 1677 and 4 August 1680 Accomack Co. records cannot explain all the various anomalies in WINDHAM genealogy. Evidence presented on Part II of this forum indicates an Irish connection between these two Herenagh Families of Co. Donegal represented in the Province of Connaught Ireland during the fifteenth and sixteenth century.


Edward MacLysaght established that the O'MULGEEGH, O'BOILE’S, O'BOYLE, MCSWYNE'S, MACSWEENEY, O'MULGEEHY, O MAOLGHAOITHE, MACSUIBHNE family of Clandaholka Parish Co. Donegal became WYNNE or WYNDHAM. By 1400, MACSUIBHNE of Connacht had secured a territorial enclave in Co. Sligo. And Mevaugh Parish where the NOLAN family was Herenagh property owners is adjacent to Clandaholka Parish Co. Donegal.


Atlas of Family Names in Ireland - McSweeney, McSwyne, McSwyny - 1659.

The lowest percentages of Iberian DNA influence in the British Isles or United Kingdom are found in Norfolk, England at 58-59% as presented in The Origins of the British (2006) by Stephen Oppenheimer. North Wales and western Ireland, on the other hand, have the highest recorded percentages of Iberian DNA influence: 93-96%. Thus, DNA evidence is in exact agreement with the conclusion that it is more probable that this NOLAN-WINDHAM family connection occurred in Ireland rather than England.


Of course, Col. J. P. NOLAN cautions readers in Galway Castle Owners, 1574 against accepting any surname in that article beginning with Mac: “it is doubtful whether MCSWYNE is an original surname or denotes BURKE.” (3) The grant of Ballinrobe Castle and estate to THOMAS NOLAN in 1607, as described in Notes on Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo and the Families of BURKE, NOLAN, Cuff, and Knox, therefore, could signify an illegitimate hereditary relationship between the BOURKE (BURKE, MCSWYNE, WYNDHAM) family and the Connaught branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN.


“At that period, in addition to the old castle at Ballinrobe attached to the McWilliamship, there also existed at Ballinrobe another castle of more recent date - hence called the "Newcastle" - which seems to have been the patrimonial property of another branch of the Mayo Bourkes - the descendants of "Shane na Termuin" (John Bourke of the Termon). In the list of 1574, "Richard McShane an Termon" is given as the owner of this Newcastle. I am inclined to think that both these castles at Ballinrobe were allotted or confirmed under the terms of the Composition of Mayo in 1585 to Sir Richard fitz Oliver Bourke, the then McWilliam Eighter. He died in December 1585, and the election of any new McWilliam was prohibited by the Queen's government. Sir Richard Bourke's son and heir William Bourke, on the 16th April 1586 obtained a grant by patent from Queen Elizabeth of the castle and manor of Ballyloughmask, and 13 quarters of land in Kilmaine Barony, but the castle and manor of Ballinrobe were not specifically comprised or included in this patent grant, and they seem to have been appropriated and retained as Crown property until the reign of King James I.


On 2 July 1607 THOMAS NOLAN, described as "of Ballinrobe" got a grant by patent from King James I "of the 4 quarters of Ballinrobe" and on the 20th August 1617 the same THOMAS NOLAN of Ballinrobe got a regrant by patent of the castle and manor of Ballinrobe, with 4 quarters. This THOMAS NOLAN had acted as sub-sheriff of the County of Mayo in 1583, and about that date probably had acquired by purchase or mortgage land at Creevagh from Walter McTibbot (Bourke) of Crioch. After obtaining the patent grants of Ballinrobe above referred to, (if not earlier), THOMAS NOLAN went into occupation of the Newcastle at Ballinrobe, for the old castle attached to the MacWilliamship had probably even then become ruinous: every vestige of it has long since disappeared. Mr. Hubert Knox considers that its site was on the east bank of the river Robe, about where the iron bridge now is, but on the high ground.” (4)


Though, at this point in time, that possibility of an illegitimate hereditary relationship is negligible. For instance, O'HUALLACHAIN (O'NOLAN), O'COBHTHAIGH (O'COFFEY), and O'HAODHA (O'HEA) or EGAN descend from the Corca Laoighdhe as do O'DRISCOLL. R1b1b2h (R1b1c10): DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 - A Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) and Ossory (Osraighe) Haplotype in Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland, 1600s details these Y-DNA haplotype matches, which do not support an illegitimate hereditary relationship of any kind. The high level genetic match of the O'MULGEEGH, O'BOILE’S, O'BOYLE, MCSWYNE'S, MACSWEENEY, O'MULGEEHY, O MAOLGHAOITHE, MACSUIBHNE family of Clandaholka Parish Co. Donegal who became WYNNE or WYNDHAM denotes a hereditary link to the Corca Laoighdhe and adoption of this surname by (O'HUALLACHAIN) O'NOLAN.


“Based upon documented genealogy since the early 1600s it is quite evident that the De Burgo (De Bergh, Burgho, Bourke, Burke, etc.) and Nolan families were closely allied, intermarrying with one another. The marriage, in the 1600s, of Catherine Nolan, granddaughter of Thomas of Ballinrobe and daughter of John of Inniscrone, to Walter Bourke (????-1715), Major General of the Athlone Regiment of Foot and later a Count in France, is a clear testament to this fact. This special relationship between the two families may however have already started as early as 1394. This is suggested by the fact that when the Nolans of Galway City first erected a tomb to their Loughboy ancestors, they erected it in a Franciscan Friary founded by the De Burgo family.” (5)


Common practice in those days was for powerful men, Norman De Burgo (BOURKE) or (BURKE) family, to produce offspring with many different surnamed females introducing DNA diversity into the clan structure. Thus, it would not have been unusual for the different septs, families, or clans of the BOURKE’S (BURKE’S) to use the prominent surname of MCSWYNE (MCSWINE) which became (WINDHAM) WYNDHAM, as described by Edward MacLysaght, to have produced offspring with various females of other Irish clans. Or for Richard McShane an Termon, owner of the Newcastle at Ballinrobe in 1574, to have genetic ties to the O’Neil’s through Clan McShane of Donegal Co. Ulster.


A Y-CHROMOSOME SIGNATURE OF HEGEMONY IN GAELIC IRELAND.

Laoise T. Moore,1,* Brian McEvoy,1,* Eleanor Cape,1 Katharine Simms,2 and Daniel G. Bradley1.

1Smurfit Institute of Genetics and 2School of Histories and Humanities, Trinity College, Dublin.


“Also, whereas medieval Ireland was Christian, earlier marriage customs persisted and allowed divorce and concubinage. One feature of these customs was that illegitimate sons were claimed and had rights protected by law (Jaski 2000). As in other polygynous societies, the siring of offspring was related to power and prestige (Betzig 1995). For example, Lord Turlough O’Donnell (d. 1423) had 18 sons with 10 different women and counted 59 grandsons in the male line (Connolly 2002).” (6)


“The residual diversity in the Uý´ Ne´ill sample is probably the cumulative consequence of non- paternity events and the induction into the clan structure of unrelated males.” (7)


Another genealogical scenario, described below, does have a high probability of interaction between a NOLAN Galway merchant family of the Connaught branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN and the English WYNDHAM or WINDHAM family. Namely, that the KNOWLAN (KNOLLIN) lineage from Exeter and Devon in southwest England derived from the NOLAN Galway merchants of the Connaught branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN sometime in the thirteenth or fourteenth century, which fits into the 24-generation or 600 year range of a 98.55-99.18% high probability DNA match between N-3, N-4, and N-30 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught and the WINDHAM Family DNA Project Khaki Group 01 participants.


FAMILLE DE NOLLENT.


Armoiries - d'argent à trois roses de gueules 2 et 1 et une fleur de lys en abîme.
Translation: Armorial bearings - of money or silver with three pinks of mouths 2 and 1 and one flower of lily in abyss.

One plausible explanation for the NOLIN (NOLLENT) lineage from France and the KNOWLAN (KNOLLIN) lineage from Exeter and Devon in southwest England may have a connection to Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught through the Norman controlled city of Galway, Ireland. Members of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught were some of the earliest Irish merchants in Galway. They intermarried with the Normans dispersing among the population. Inclusion of d'argent "of money" or "of silver" in the armorial bearings of the NOLLENT lineage from France denotes that they were also of a merchant class. Incidentally, the MARTYN family was established in Devon and Exeter in England as early as the Norman Conquest as noted in the Visitation of the County of Devon, 1620 authored by Vivian, John Lambrick and published by Henry S. Eland, Exeter, 1895. The intermarriage of the MARTYN and NOLAN families in Galway may have occurred very early in the thirteenth century, which in turn may have given rise to the KNOWLAN (KNOLLIN) lineage from Exeter and Devon in southwest England.


Professor Louis M. Cullen of Trinity College, Dublin, in his book, Galway Merchants in the Outside World, 1650-1800, cites specific examples of Galway merchant families settling abroad: Butler, Kirwan, and Bodkin. Cullen states that not very many Galway merchant families settled permanently abroad in relation to the merchants of Waterford, but perhaps the NOLAN Galway merchants settled abroad at an earlier time period which resulted in the NOLIN (NOLLENT) lineage from France and the KNOWLAN (KNOLLIN) lineage from Exeter and Devon in southwest England.


31 July 2006.


"In the context of heraldry the use of "argent" means silver. In French, argent can be used to mean money but not in the context of heraldry. You may be right in theorizing that the NOLLENT family is related to the Galway NOLANS from the 1300-1400s as Rouen in Normandy and on the Seine river was a major trade city in the Middle Ages. The NOLLENTS (living closer to the mouth of the Seine) could very well have been involved in trade and come there from Ireland." (8)

IRISH ANCESTORS - COUNTY GALWAY (GAILLIMH).

“One area over which the Normans gained decisive control was Galway city. After the building of the town walls around 1270, a strong trading and seafaring tradition developed, which saw Galway merchants travelling as far afield as Spain and the West Indies.” (9)


These Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN: Connaught merchants interacted in a positive manner, possibly as under-tenants,* of the Normans perhaps as early as the late twelfth century in Co. Kilkenny, and they could also help explain the existence of Captain DON DIEGO NOLANE in the service of Spain, 1660; and Captain DON JUAN NOLAN in the service of Spain, 1663. Adjutant NICOLAS NOLAN and Captain JAMES NOLAN were part of an Irish Infantry regiment commanded by Colonel George Cusacq from 1658-62. On 21 September 1662, the pension and service of Adjutant NICOLAS NOLAN was transferred to the company of Spanish Infantry commanded by Colonel Antonio Hurtado, however, the possibility of a NOLAN family in Spain prior to that time still exists. Nevertheless, it is likely that these soldiers were descendants of the fighting men of Carlow Clan O’NOLAN. At least from 1586, the Irish served in the Spanish army. Estimates range from 40,000 Irish serving in the regiments of Spain by the year 1650 growing to a 120,000 in later years.


* Under-tenant meaning a tenant holding land from the main landholder, tenant-in-chief, or Lord holding land granted directly from the king.


Another possibility for the family DE NOLLENT of France, as stated by Roger NOWLAN in NOLAN Families of Canada, would be the recruitment of Irish for the crusades. ISAMBART DE NOLLENT, Norman knight, lived during the thirteenth century. His paternal ancestors may have been of Irish descent. Further genealogical research and DNA evidence may one day prove that relationship.


Or to be as accurate as possible, these NOLAN lineages could support an ancient Celtic connection. The Belgae made their way into Gaul, which consists in the modern world of Britain, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands; Iberia (Spain and Portugal). Historians describe these Britannic Celts, Érainn, spreading their La Tène culture in the British Isles before moving into Ireland circa 500 B. C. E. Trinity College geneticists from Dublin, Ireland estimate the migration may have occurred much earlier 4,000-1,000 B. C. E. claiming that the Celtic people of Ireland and Scotland have a commonality with the people of Portugal and Spain. This 2004 Trinity College genetic study revealed kinships between the Celts of Ireland and Scotland, the people of Galicia, an ancient association of Celtic tribes residing above the banks of the Douro River in the Iberian Peninsula, and the non-Celtic Basque region. The Gaul’s conquered parts of Asia Minor and the term Gaul refers to an ancient name given the territory south and west of the Rhine, west of the Alps, and north of the Pyrenees. These ancient Celtic associations, though, could be representative of Ken Nordtvedt's calculation of a time to most recent common ancestor for U152 (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h*) (R1b1c10) that falls within the range for the volcanic destruction of the city and territory of Nola in ancient Italy circa 1800 and 1750 B. C. with a 3,780 year most recent common ancestor estimate for R-U152 and R-U106 stating that the MRCA for R-U152 is within range of that estimate and the MRCA for R-U106 occurs at the 3,270 year marker making the MRCA for it 500 years younger than R-U152.



The article, We are not Celts at all but Galician’s, discussing this study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics concluded that the Iberian peninsula was the probable focal point of this migration to Ireland 4,000-1,000 B. C. E., that genetically the Irish, Scots, Welsh, and the Cornish people have similar genetics with the Basque people of the western Pyrenees, and that they are of probable descent from an ancient culture residing on the Atlantic coast citing that the English had a closer genetic relationship with the interior Germanic population thereby establishing a close link to the European continent. Though, we cannot discount the Balkan and Central Italian refugium as a probable focal point of this migration.


This Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) is associated with Haplogroup R1b, and it is most frequent among men in Western Europe characterized by the following marker alleles:

A mutation in either direction would be AMH 1.15+ referred to as the Atlantic Modal Cluster reaching high frequency in the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula. In Portugal, for instance, it reaches 33%. The "1" in "1.15+" refers to Haplogroup 1 (the old nomenclature, equivalent to R1b). The "15" is an arbitrary catalog number of that particular haplotype and the "+" means the collection of all haplotypes that are within one-step of that haplotype.


National Geographic - Genographic Project - Haplogroup R1b Population Route Map.

R1b1c10 Ancestral History of N-4 (NOLAN DNA Surname Project) provided by the National Geographic - Genographic Project.


Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades

Most individuals of Haplogroup R1b will be R1b1 and most individuals of Haplogroup R1b1 will be R1b1b2. R1b1b2 is by far the most common subclade of R1b1 due to the fact that it encompasses such a large percentage of western European males. Thus, the search continues to define subclades of R1b1b2.

International Society of Genetic Genealogy: Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree

And of course, there are African-American NOLAN lineages due to the impact of slavery in America. Some of these African-American NOLAN descendants can undoubtedly trace their ancestry to the above-mentioned lineages through DNA. At least eleven million Africans were enslaved in the Americas. Most, if not all, slaves transported to North America were captured in the Western or West Central portion of that continent. Though, by the year 2006, less than one in ten are able to track their heritage, past that point, to an individual African tribal location due to the tremendous genetic diversity of that region. The sale in 1619 of twenty Africans transported to Virginia by a Dutch ship heralded that era into American history.


To conclude this introductory segment, the O‘HUALLACHAIN (NOLAN) landholding sept of the Connaught branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN is believed to have had herenagh property in Ulster Co. Donegal moving their influence further north from Co. Sligo, but it is also a possibility that the JOHN NOWLIN of Isle of Wight Co. Virginia, 1643 represents another separate and distinct sept of the Ui Cholgan with genealogical references to the Uí Briuin of Connacht kinsmen with the Uí Néill. Genetic ties to the O’HAGAN and WYNDHAM surnames establish an Ulster connection. The date of the genetic transfer between O‘HUALLACHAIN (NOLAN) and MAC SUIBHNE (MACSWEENEY) WYNDHAM occurred within a time frame of 24-generations and could be the results of interaction with MAC SUIBHNE Connacht after the year 1400. O’HAGAN genetic ties occurred earlier and could be the result of the Corca Laighde rule in Osraighe. A brief introduction of early human migration and Celtic origins begins this discussion. The rest of this forum is devoted to the history and genealogy of Carlow Clan O’NOLAN R1b1c7 and Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught R1b1c10 descending from patronymic names based on the first name of the ancestor's father.


CLANS.

Carlow Clan O’NOLAN descends from NUALAN or NUALLAIN of EOCHA FIONN FOHART the brother of CONN CEAD-CATHA or Conn of the Hundred Battles. EOCHA FIONN FOHART was ancestor of Carlow Clan (O'NOWLAN) O'NOLAN. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught descends from UALLACHAN or NUALLAIN of MUGRON of Clan Colgan. MUGRON of Clan Colgan has been suggested, in the below discussion, as a descendant of LUGAIDHE MACCON, the grandson of LUGHAIDH LAIDHE, the son of AONGHUS* son of EOCHAIDH FIONN FOHART ancestor of Carlow Clan (O'NOWLAN) O'NOLAN. A more detailed ancestor tree of UALLACHAN or NUALLAIN of Clan Colgan can be found at: Human Family Project - 1339. MUGRON of Clan Colgan, the ancestor of O'H-UALLACHAIN or HOOLAHAN, was reportedly born at Ballycowen, Kings, Co. (Offaly).


* This is not corroborated by an early genealogy of the Corca Laoighdhe cited below. AONGHUS is reported to have led expelled tribes, some settling in Munster, back into Ireland from South Wales which might explain the relationship and the confusion over his role in Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN.


Although, it is a possibility the birth information is indication of Gaelic ancestry bestowed upon invading Celts. A “distinct sept of O'Hennessy [and O'H-UALLACHAIN] was of Corca Laoidhe, located near Ross Bay in South-west Cork.” (10) This invading Celtic tribe first settled in Co. Cork and Kerry. It is, therefore, a possibility that the descendants of MUGRON, described in this forum, were of Cork not Offaly and that the Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught is actually Cork - Kilkenny Clan O’NOLAN: Connaught. The above quote is from Laois & Offaly Surnames.


“About 737 the Osraighe are noted to have raided and devastated two territories to their north, Cinel Fiachach and Dealbhna [Ethra], located in the southern portion of Co. Meath and northern section of Co. Offaly.” (11) MUGRON or other members of Clan Colgain may have become Lords of Offaly at that time, but were most probably inextricably linked to the clan or sept of O'H-UALLACHAIN recorded in the Genealach Sil n-Anmchada from The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, commonly called O'Kelly's Country, who became Cuolahan. The above quote is from the History of Osraighe: The Roots of County Kilkenny.


THE TRIBES AND CUSTOMS OF HY-MANY.

“Uallachan, mac Flaind, mic Flandchada, mic Innrachtaig, mic Mailiduin, mic Donngaili, mic Anmchaid, mic Eogain Buac. Is o'n Uallachan sin Meg Uallachain, 93 .i. sein-riga na n-Anmchadach.” (12)


The ancient genealogy of Clan Colgan (Colgain) - UA HUALLACHAIN, and Fothairt Fea - (Carlow) O'NOLAN offer proof of two separate and distinct clans of Ireland.


The two e-mails below from ROGER NOWLAN, Secretary of the NOLAN Clan Association, on 12 and 13 December 2005 describe an ancient genealogical link between Clan Colgan (Colgain) - UA HUALLACHAIN, and Fothairt Fea - (Carlow) O’NOLAN. The information cannot be discounted, as a possible reason for NOLAN'S to have originated in (Osraighe) Kilkenny. The Corca Dhuibhne and Corca Laoighdhe were brethren tribes of the Érainn (Belgae from Belgium). The Corca Dhuibhne, according to the below paragraph from The History of Ireland, ruled over the descendants of FIACHAIDH SUIGHDHE, brother to CONN CEADCHATHACH of the Hundred Battles and EOCHAIDH FIONN, when they were in Munster. AONGHUS son of EOCHAIDH FIONN (Carlow Nolan ancestor) son of FEIDHLIMIDH REACHTMHAR was reportedly the leader of the Offaly - Kilkenny NOLAN ancestors at that time.


"These three sons of Fiachaidh Suighdhe divided that territory between them into three parts; and they are called the descendants of Oilill Earann, and the Earna. However, they are not the Earna, but the descendants of Conaire son of Mogh Lamha it is these that were styled the Earna. It is Corc Duibhne son of Cairbre Musc who was chief over the descendants of Fiachaidh Suighdhe who came to Munster; and it was these descendants that were called the Deise; and Aonghus son of Eochaidh Fionn son of Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar was their leader when coming to Munster, and with him were the three sons of Fiachaidh Suighdhe, namely, Rossa, Eoghan, and Aonghus.” (13)


The e-mails are presented on this forum in the interest of allowing the reader to review all the evidence and form his or her own independent evaluation as to whether Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN: Connaught and Carlow Clan O'NOLAN constitute different and distinct clans of Ireland. As discussed above, in Ireland, "of the Nolans" is usually representative of the Co. Carlow Nolans. By the 17th century, these two Irish Clan names are interchangeable, but a new hypothesis is possible due to the ever-expanding knowledge of genetics. "Of the Nolans" could represent the people from the territory of Nola of ancient Italy.


12 December 2005.


“Have begun my analysis of the information provided. In particular you quote from the book "O'Nolan - The History of a People" whose writing and publication was done by the Nolan Clan as a Millennium project in Ireland. I have a copy of the book and I believe that I have uncovered in it a link between your Nolan branch and the Nolan’s of County Carlow. Chapter 4, although written in a sometimes convoluted way and most likely an unedited version. I believe that what you see is father Nolan's unedited version as written in the early 1900’s.


Here are the main points of interest found in Chapter 4 of the book of what I believe is written in Chapter 4 (and last part of Chapter 3) which relates to the O'Hoolahan/O'Nolan sept.


1. Feidlimidh (anglicized Phelim) Reachtmhar married to Baine, daughter of Scal the King of Finland, Sweden and Denmark had three sons:



2. Some historians believe that Eochaidh was the first born and that when Conn, through battle won for himself the kingship of Ireland, the other two brothers sought by all sorts of means to win the kingship for Eoachidh, the firstborn. One action, which created lasting bad blood between the brothers, was the killing of two of Conn's sons, Conla and Crionan, by Eochaidh and Fiachaidh. Eochaidh was also supposedly involved in arranging the murder of Conn.


3. After Conn's death at the battle of Moylena (A. D. 157) when also his two sons mentioned earlier were killed, a third son named Art assumed the Kingship of Ireland (A. D. 165-195) and banished his uncles Eochaidh and Fiachaidh from Tara.


4. Prior to this battle, during the reign of Feidlimidh Reachtmhar, Eochaidh had obtained lands in perpetuity for he and his descendants in Leinster. This meant that Eochaidh had a place to go but Fiachaidh does not seem to have been as fortunate.


5. Fiachaidh's sons, Rossa, Aonghus Gaoibuaibhttheach and Eoghan, were driven into Leinster by Cormac, son of Art, son of Conn. After staying in Leinster for a year, the brothers moved on to Ossory but now accompanied by Aonghus, son of Eochaidh (Carlow Nolan ancestor) as their leader. In Ossory, the three sons met up with their kinswoman, Sadbh, daughter of Conn, who was married to Oilill Olom. Oilill gave the party that part of Deise Teamhrach, which was in Munster. Fiachaidh's three sons divided this territory into three parts and in historical documents they are falsely referred to as the descendants of Oilill Earan and the Earna.


6. Aonghus' sons Corc, Lugad, and Crumath ruled over "Fothart Airbreach" (also known as Bri-eli) but he also had at last one other son Cormac.


On page 42 of the Nolan book one line of descent of Aonghus is given as:



From the information you supplied I have that the Hoolahan’s are descended from Luchaidh, high king from 195 to 225 AD, son of Con or "Maccon", son of Luchaidh Laidhe. This particular Luchaidh is mentioned in the Nolan book on page 48 (chapter 5). Here we read that it was Lioghairne of the Long Cheeks (leacanfada) son of Aonghus son of Eochaidh who killed Art, son of Conn.


On page 48 of the Nolan book the family connection is stated as follows: "Lugadh Lagha, the brother of Oilill, but related to Maccon [i.e. The son of Con i.e. "Maccon" named Luchaidh who became king], by his mother, and Ligurn of the Fotharta [i.e. the son of Aonghus son of Eochaidh] whom Art had banished."


The killing of Art by Ligurn is described on the same page as follows: "Incensed at the expulsion of his family, Lioghaire [i.e. Ligurn] joined the forces of Maccon against his relative Art, and had the killing of him with his own hand, at Turloch Airt. The name is still preserved, between Moyseola and Kilconnan, near Athenry." (14)


13 December 2005.


“With regards to the existence of a separate sept for the Offaly-Kilkenny Nolan’s I believe that you are right in stating that it does constitute a different one than the Carlow Nolan’s. There is no argument there even if there would be a remote family connection as I suggest. I say that because the first ancestors for many of the current-day Irish families do not go as far back as circa 100 A. D. A good example is the O'Brien family with Brian Boru as an ancestor or even the Kavanagh’s who are a sub-branch of the MacMurrough’s dating back to around 1200.


With regards to the Nolan Clan family association, as apparent from the draft new clan objectives (relayed in an earlier Email), I am comfortable with researching the roots of all septs with the common surname of Nolan or any of its variants i.e. Offaly-Kilkenny Nolan’s, Knollin’s from Devon, Newland’s from Scotland, Nolin’s and Nollent’s from France, Carlow Nolan’s, etc. I applaud your enthusiasm in researching the Offaly-Kilkenny sept. Keep it up!” (15)


FAMILIES IN IRELAND FROM THE 11th TO THE END OF THE 16th CENTURY.

According to A Topographical and Historical Map of Ancient Ireland, compiled by Philip MacDermott, M.D., the following were the names of the principal families in Ireland, of Irish, Anglo-Norman, and Anglo-Irish origin, from the eleventh to the end of the sixteenth century.



THE ANCIENT KINGDOM OF CONNAUGHT.


5. O'FALLAMHAIN or O'FALLON were chiefs of Clan Uadach, a district in the barony of Athlone, in the county Roscommon, comprising the parishes of Cam and Dysart, and had a castle at Miltown. The O'FALLON'S were originally chiefs in Westmeath, near Athlone.


29. * O'HULLACHAIN or O'HOOLAGHAN, sometimes anglicised "O'COOLAGHAN" and MACCOOLAGHAN, chiefs of Siol Anmchadha.


* “This name is now always anglicised Cuolahan, though in the old records relating to the property of this family, in the reign of James I., it is more correctly made McCouleghan. In O'Dugan's topographical poem, this family is called O' h-Uallacháin, and styled chiefs of Sil Anmchadha; but it appears from other authorities that the 'Mac' is the more usual prefix. The present head of this family is Henry Cuolahan, Esq., of Cogran House, in the parish of Lusmagh, on the east side of the Shannon, in the King's County, which parish originally formed a part of the territory of Sil-Anmchadha, of which this family were chieftains before the O'Maddens.” (16) This quote is from The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, commonly called O'Kelly's Country (Author: [unknown]), p.40 (section 1).


THE COLAHAN PEDIGREE.

"John O'Donovan's edition (1843) of The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many (p. 41) sheds light on the ancestry of the Cuolahans associated with the parish of Lusmagh, east of the Shannon in County Offaly, which formed part of the territory of Siol Anmchadha where they were chieftains before the O'Maddens who, in turn, became chiefs of all Hy-Many, commonly called O'Kelly's country. O'Donovan's map of Hy-Many shows 'Baile Mhac Uallachain' (Ballymacoolahan) lying about half-way between Clonmacnoise and Portumna, just below Banagher and across from 'Eaglais Mhilic' and points to their association with that neighborhood. In his elaborate note on the pedigree of Mac Uallachain (pp. 183-186) O'Donovan quotes a quatrain relating the valour and venomous-weaponed chief of a family called 'O'h-Uallachain' in the Topographical poem of O'Dugan (who died in 1372). (1) Early notices in the Irish Annals refer to the involvement of this family in conflicts and battles but after the 'English Invasion' they had 'lost the dignity of chieftains' and, therefore, disappeared from history, although the tradition still remained that they were anciently Irish chieftains." (17) An interesting thing to note is that descendants of Mac Uallachain are represented in Galway, as are descendants of the O‘H UALLACHAIN (NOLAN) clan or sept from Co. Kilkenny. The above quote is from the Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, JGAHS Vol. LIV (2002), Ó Cearbhaill, Diarmuid: The Colahans—a remarkable Galway family. Snadh na Sean, 121.


The O'H-UALLACHAIN sept or clan also branched into the O’HOULIHAN’S who "were originally chiefs in County Clare, where their arms and their proximity to Aidhne suggest a clan affiliation with the O’SHAUGHNESSY’S (both the O’SHAUGHNESSY'S and the O’HEYNE’S had important medieval branches settled in just over the Clare border in Limerick). The O’HOULIHAN’S were in any case pushed by Cromwell into Connaught, though; some were dispersed southward to County Cork, where they adopted the form “HOLLAND," by which name they are still known. In Roscommon and Mayo the name became NUALLACHAIN, and was Anglicized as NOLAN." (18) The above quote is from the Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland, Chapter IX: The Gaels, 96-97.


EARLY HUMAN MIGRATION.

"Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three waves of migration, leading into Europe, the Americas and India." Modern humans migrated out of Africa into Central Asia before spreading both east and west into North America and Europe, says an international team of scientists who have used modern DNA analysis to trace ancient migrations. "Around 40-50,000 years ago, [approximately 2000 generations] Central Asia was full of tropical trees, a good place for hunting and fishing," said Nadira Yuldasheva of the Institute of Immunology at the Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. "Then, as desertification came in, some people moved west into Europe and some moved into Siberia, [India] and on into North [and South] America." (19) Quote from Sciforums.com. Dr. Spencer Wells; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


CELTIC ORIGINS.

"The people known as the Celts are thought to have originated in central Europe, to the east of the Rhine in the areas now part of southern Germany, Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. From around 3,400 years ago, these proto-Celtic people expanded across the Continent, and eventually inhabited a large portion of central, western, and northwestern Europe. During the Classical period of Greece and Rome, Celtic culture was predominant to the north of the Alps. Even today, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Cornwall, Cambria and Brittany are basically Celtic in character. Despite the changes that time has brought, the influence of Celtic traditions [are] still fundamental." (20) The above quote is from "The Sacred World of the Celts" by Nigel Pennick at Celtic Origins & History.


"The Celts were a southern European people of Indo-Aryan origin who first surfaced in Bohemia and traveled west in search of the home of the sun. Science has recently established their basic blood group as 'O', in keeping with their modern descendants, which designates them as a separate race from the aboriginals of the southern Indian subcontinent, where the 'B' blood group predominates.


History tells us that there were two main Celtic groups, one of which is referred to as the 'lowland Celts' who hailed from the region of the Danube. These people left their native pastures around 1200 B. C. and slowly made their way across Europe, founding the lake dwellings in Switzerland, the Danube valley and Ireland. They were skilled in the use of metals and worked in gold, tin and bronze. Unlike the more familiar Celtic strain these people were an agriculturally oriented race, being herdsmen, tillers and artificers who burned rather than buried their dead. They blended peacefully with the megalithic people, among whom they settled, contributing powerfully to the religion, art, and customs they encountered as they slowly spread westward. Their religious beliefs also differed from the next group, being predominately matriarchal.


The second group, often referred to as the 'true' Celts, followed closely behind their lowland cousins, making their first appearance on the left bank of the Rhine at the commencement of the sixth century B. C. These people, who came from the mountainous regions of the Balkans and Carpathians, were a military aristocracy. Reputed to love fighting for the sake of it they were frequently to be found among the mercenaries of the great armies of those early times. They had a distinct class system, the observance of which constituted one of their major racial features. These were the warlike Celts of ancient history who sacked Rome and Delphi, eventually marching victoriously across much of Europe and the British Isles.


But in spite of their martial inclinations they were also known for their qualities of chivalry, courage and dauntless bravery, their more aggressive tendencies being balanced out by a great sensitivity to music, poetry and philosophy. Unlike the lowland Celts these people buried their dead, and their elaborate religious rituals held in honor of Lugh are well recounted in the pages of the recorded past." (21) The above quote is from "Practical Celtic Magic" by Murry Hope at Celtic Origins & History.


During the "days of primitive warfare the Irish warriors put their trust in the plashed woods and open moorland, while the Norman barons depended upon stout fortresses and strong Castles. These they erected at convenient places as soon as they had secured a footing, and, planting a garrison within, used them as safe retreats from attack, and secure bases from which to sally forth for aggression." (22) The town lands of Castleinch or Inchyolaghan, in the Barony of Shillelogher, Co. Kilkenny and Loughboy in Co. Kilkenny were undoubtedly the ancestral home of the O'H-UALLACHAIN (NOLAN) sept from the Corca Laidhe, Clan Colgain group who descended from MUGRON of Co. Offaly. Thus sometime after the Norman invasion, probably in the late twelfth century, the Barrett's built Castleinch: Caislean-na-h-Ínse or Inse Ui Uallachán, O' Holohan's holm in the Barony of Shillelogher. This family of Barrett's originally settled in Co. Cork, but quickly moved into other areas including Co. Mayo and Galway by the 1230's. The Castle at Castleinch was later taken over by the McCarthy's according to the following web page: Town Lands. In the 1640’s, the Papal Nuncio, Rinuccini is by tradition supposed to have lodged there on his way to attend the Confederation of Kilkenny. The site of the Castle was to the west of the Castleinch graveyard and has long since been demolished. The above quote is from O'NOLAN: The History of a People, 79.


HISTORICAL TIMELINE - CO. KILKENNY.


"The land around each castle was then arranged into estates so as to raise revenue, those estates were like small kingdoms. The lord of the “manor estate” was a law into himself, having the civil, judicial and military power into his own hand.” (23) The above quote is from Long Ago in Ireland.


KNIGHTS' FEES IN COUNTY KILKENNY: 13th & 14th CENTURY.

THE DE CLARE PURPARTY (1247): TENANT'S NAME, FEES, PLACE, NAME, PROBABLE LOCATION.


"In the twelfth century, Earl William Marshal granted the parish of Castleinch to the Anglo-Norman De Valle (or Wall) family." (24) John de Valle (Wall) paid half a knights fee at Castleinch in 1247. It is not known when, but at some point after the Norman invasion this O'H-UALLACHAIN (NOLAN) sept moved to Co. Galway (Ui-Maine or Hy-Maine), probably as feudal tenants of the Barrett's. An educated guess would have this O'H-UALLACHAIN (NOLAN) sept moving into Co. Galway, as feudal tenants of the Barrett’s, at least by the year 1236-37, or in the late twelfth century before Co. Kilkenny became one of the counties of Leinster in 1210 if they were not feudal tenants, but this family could have moved from Leinster as late as 1394 after DONNELL O'NOLAN submitted to Richard II. The above quote is from the Cuffe Family Message Board at Ancestry.com: The Cuffes of Desart Court, 1583-1679, Author: Turtle Bunbury.


*Hy-Many Map.
Click Images to Enlarge.

* It is interesting to note on the above map that the septs of the Ui Colgain are settled in western Connacht in the territory of the Ui Briuin Seola. "Following the coming of the Normans beginning in the 13th century, a portion of ancient Ui Maine later became known as the district of Clanricarde, named for a branch of the BURKE family. This included much of the baronies of Loughrea, Kiltartan, Clare, Dunkellin, Athenry and Leitrim, in Co. Galway, according to O'Donovan." (25) This quote is also from (Ui-Maine or Hy-Maine).


“What followed in Ireland of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries was a change from acquiring lordship over men to colonizing land. The founding of borough towns, castles and churches; the importing of tenants; and the increase in agriculture and commerce were among the changes brought on by the Cambro-Normans following the Invasion.” (26) The above quote is from Ireland in the 12th Century.


The BARRETT family became lords of Moyne alias Tirawley, Co. Mayo after the 12th century and essentially adopted Gaelic culture becoming (Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis) more Irish than the Irish themselves. “The Norman intermarried with the Irish, in all things he became Irish but one: He was a feudal lord, owning all the land, everyone else being tenants, contrary to the Brehon laws that guaranteed to everybody a God given right to possess some land from which no rent could be raised.” (27) Historical texts that give an account of the O'NOLAN'S moving to Galway during the reign of King Henry VI or in 1444-45 are in error. The above quote is from Long Ago in Ireland.


THE HISTORY OF THE TOWN AND COUNTY OF GALWAY FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME By James Hardiman, Esq.

CHAPTER I.

THE ORIGIN AND SIGNIFICATION OF THE NAME OF GALWAY.

"Besides the names already enumerated, there are many other families, who, though not similarly distinguished, were equally ancient and respectable, as well from length of residence in the town, as through alliance with the other inhabitants, by whom they were gradually affiliated, and finally considered, without any distinction, as members of the same body. Of these families, the principal were, BARRETT [e3] Bermingham, BURKE, Butler, Crean, FALLON, Lambert, NOLAN, [f3] Port, QUIN and Tully. The Coleman family [g3] is also recorded, at an early period; and particular mention is made of Edmond Coleman, from whom one of the Blake family, is said to have acquired the ancient castle and estate of Menlo?. The name of Craddock occurs early in the fifteenth century, the Moores, [h3] Beggs, Sempers [h3] and Tierneys, were also old natives of Galway; and many of the descendants of these different families, still reside in the town and its vicinity." (28)




“15. As far back as our national records extend, the sept of the BARRETS was numerous and opulent, in Connaught; and chiefly in the baronies of Errus and Tyrawley, in the county of Mayo. They frequently occur in various ancient documents during the reign of Henry III. and for centuries after that period, and were the most powerful of the numerous clans in that district, viz, the BOURKES, Linnots, Clanpadins, Cusacks, Carownes, Clandonnells, and others.” (29) The above two quotes are from Hardiman’s History of Galway, James Hardiman, The History of the Town and County of the Town of Galway, From the Earliest Period to the Present Time, (Galway: Connacht Tribune) Reprint, 1926, 22-23.


In 1317, Robert Bruce “laid siege to Kilkenny and demolished its castle, rooting out on his path every vestige of English power” in his effort to liberate Ireland. (30) Castleinch, or Inchyolaghan, in the parish of Castleinch, 4 km southwest of Kilkenny City may have been damaged at that time. In 1355, a son of Reimund de Valle is still listed as paying half a knights fee at Castleinch. The brethren of this O'H-UALLACHAIN (NOLAN) sept “O’Madden of Hy-Many alone of all the Irish chieftains remained faithful to the Earl of Ulster during the Scottish invasion. The Earl, to reward his fidelity, allowed one third of his province to be subject to O’Madden, that no English stewart should be over his Gaels, and that his stewarts should be over the English of the entire territory, both towns and castles. O‘Madden and his blood were also declared noble as the Earl and his blood.” (31) The above two quotes are from O'NOLAN: The History of a People, 97.


“Not all the O’NOLAN’S ‘misbehaved’ [according to Fr. John NOLAN & Art Kavanagh authors of O'NOLAN: The History of a People.] THOMAS NOLAN, of Galway, whose descendants owned huge areas of land in the west in the next two centuries, was corresponding with the Lord Deputy about the activities of the BURKE'S and O’Flaherty’s in 1589. In 1585, the O’NOLAN of Galway was one of 67 signatories from Connaught who surrendered their Irish names and customs of inheritance and received their castles and lands by patent to them and their heirs in English succession.” (32) The treaty of Limerick did allow those descendants of THOMAS NOLAN (O'H-UALLACHAIN) who remained in Ireland to keep a good portion of their land. It was negotiated by Patrick Sarsfield and allowed Catholic landowners, who could prove they were not actively supporting James II during the war that began in 1641, to keep their holdings. The above quote is from O'NOLAN: The History of a People, 198.


The O'NOLAN'S of Co. Carlow, on the other hand, fought valiantly with Robert Bruce and the Scots giving "him all the assistance in their power." (33) The educated guess above makes sense when considering that the BARRETT'S and NOLAN'S were principal families of Galway listed by James Hardiman. The burial tomb of the ancient family of Connaught Offaly - Kilkenny O'NOLAN'S was situated in the center of the Franciscan Friary Churchyard in Galway, 1394 and that THOMAS NOLAN (TOMHAS O'H-UALLACHAIN) became one of the first English Tavern keepers in Connaught. The above quote is from O'NOLAN: The History of a People, 97.


The Galway burial tomb of the ancient family of O'NOLAN of Loughboy is rebuilt and ornamented by MICHAEL O'NOLAN in 1473. DONELL OGE O'NOLLOGHAN (O'NOLAN) is mentioned as a goldsmith of Galway in 1500. And DONELL OGE O'HOLOGHAN was the owner of Qwarown Browne Castle in the barony of Moycullen Co. Galway, 1574. The barony of Moycullen is adjacent to the barony of Kilmain Co. Mayo where THOMAS NOLAN (TOMHAS O'H-UALLACHAIN) resided in 1583. MICHAEL O'NOLAN and DONELL OGE O'NOLLOGHAN (O'NOLAN) (O'HOLOGHAN) may be the great grandfather and father of (TOMHAS O'H-UALLACHAIN) THOMAS NOLAN. MICHAEL O'NOLAN is the earliest known documented named ancestor of the Galway, Mayo branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'NOLAN. DOMNALL H-UA H-UALLACHAN or DOMNALL UA H-UALLACHAN, Archbishop of Munster, is, however, according to The Annals of Ulster & The Annals of the Four Masters: 1182 the earliest known documented individual of this surname. The Human Family Project, on the other hand, represents MACTIRE, CONNOR, and CUILEANN O’H-UALLACHAIN as the first known individuals of this surname.


EPISCOPAL SUCCESSION LISTS ~ DIOCESE OF CORK, CLOYNE AND ROSS.

BISHOPS OF ROSS.


COUNTY KILKENNY, IRELAND: HISTORY & TIMELINE OF EVENTS.


* The above quote is from Old Irish Kingdoms: A Supplement to Ireland History in Maps.



“The Siol Ui Luachra, i.e. the descendants of Luachair, would seem to have given name to Shillelogher cantred (later a barony)” in Co. Kilkenny. (35) The above timeline of events for Co. Kilkenny, therefore, supports my contention that this family of NOLAN'S descended from the O'H-UALLACHAIN sept living at Castleinch or Inchyolaghan in County Kilkenny prior to Strongbow (RICHARD DE CLARE) and the Anglo-Norman invasion. THOMAS NOLAN (TOMHAS O'H-UALLACHAIN) of Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo, Ireland appears to have descended from this small sept of O'NUALLAIN belonging to the Corca Laidhe group that originally settled in County Cork and Kerry. These events also fit with the marriage of LANDABARIA, daughter of CATHAIR MAR, 109th Monarch of Ireland, who married CONN-CEADCATHE or Conn of the Hundred Battles, 110th Monarch of Ireland, who's brother EOCHA FIONN FOHART was ancestor of O'NOWLAN, the lord or prince of the "Foharta" in the Baronies of Forth in the counties of Wexford and Carlow. The above quote is from Ossory to the County of Kilkenny Ireland.


There is mention of TADEUM OHWOLAGHAN* in a statement by Oliver Cantwell, Bishop of Ossory, in 1510. And the 1659 census for the Barony of Shillelogher, Co. Kilkenny included: HOLOGHON, 05; NOLAN, 11. It is a reasonable assumption that the 1510 TADEUM OHWOLAGHAN, the five HOLOGHON'S and eleven NOLAN'S in the 1659 census for the Barony of Shillelogher, Co. Kilkenny were not descended from the Carlow NOLAN clan. No doubt these individuals were cousins of the Co. Galway O’H-UALLACHAIN (HOLOGHON) (NOLAN) family that moved from Shilleloger Barony, as mentioned above, either in the late twelfth century, early thirteenth century or in 1394.


* This information was extracted from the Tenth Report, Appendix, Part V. The Manuscripts of the Marquis of Ormonde, the Earl of Fingall, the Corporations of Waterford, Galway, &c., Historical Manuscripts Commission, (York., London., United Kingdom) HMSO, 1885, 264.


Surnames were not widely introduced in Ireland until the reign of Brian Boru around the year 1,000 C. E. Irish genealogical research prior to that date needs an understanding of clan affiliations. Following the research, this sept of O'NOLAN moved north from Kilkenny to Mayo and Galway never being part of the Carlow NOLAN clan. Below is a discussion of the history of the O'NOLAN clans from Co. Carlow and Offaly - Kilkenny: Connaught.


O'H-UALLACHAIN (NOLAN).


*O'H-UALLACHAIN (NOLAN) CASTLES OF IRELAND.

* Excluding Ballybanagher (Ballabanagher) Castle, which was not acquired until 1661 by PATRICK NOLAN, twenty years after JOHN NOLAN and family, fled Enniscrone Castle for the New World, 1641-42. It is quite probable that this PATRICK NOLAN was a descendant of THOMAS NOLAN (O'H-UALLACHAIN) since a MICHAEL NOLAN, Esq., was reportedly of Ballybanagher on 28 February 1865.


“The NOLAN’S of Ballabanagher, Co. Galway were involved in quite a considerable number of land dealings during the [eighteenth] century beginning with THOMAS NOLAN. It would appear during this memorial dated 1730 that there was a dispute between THOMAS NOLAN (637) and Arthur French over £300 rents due to NOLAN for lands. NOLAN himself had mortgaged lands to a man called John Vesey, the Archdeacon of Kilfenora for £1000. The lands in question were the Castle, lands and town of Ballabanagher. (638) The following year THOMAS sold lands including Carrownecrossy and Ballabanagher to George Staunton of Dublin. He sold him twenty messauges, 20 cottages, ten lofts, 10 gardens, 150 acres of land, 50 acres meadow, 150 acres pasture, 40 acres of furze and heath, 40 acres of wood, 30 acres of moor and marsh and the castle and town of Ballabanagher and other lands in Galway. (639)


Later in the century THOMAS’S sons JOHN, BRABAZON, and ANTHONY NOLAN was involved in numerous land deals. Land was sold in Galway and Mayo in 1752 for over £4000. They sold land in Mayo for £1039 in the late 1770’s and again in 1780 more land was sold in Mayo for £700.” (36)


“637. He seems to have been a stepson of RICHARD BURKE of Ballabanagher.

638. In the Nine Years War the NOLAN’S defended the castle against the BURKE'S and the Flaherty's to the number of 500 or 600 who tried to rescue a son of EDMOND BURKE who was being held hostage there. As a result the boy was to be hanged but was spared by the entreaties of his grandfather, WILLIAM BURKE, of Shrule. One of the Galway NOLAN’S-THADY-was in the pay of the government and was a ‘pursuivant’ or state messenger who in 1596 was ordered to bring certain persons to Dublin. Bingham, the Governor of Munster, ordered the Mayor and Sheriff of Galway to assist THADY in his duties. The NOLAN’S survived the Nine Years War, the Rebellion of 1641, Cromwell and the Williamites, which in itself was testimony of their sagacity and tenacity…

639. Memorial no. 47021.” (37) The above two quotes are from O'NOLAN: The History of a People, 291.


On the other hand, the Shangarry, Carlow Co. PATRICK NOLAN who was dispossessed and forced to take lands in Connaught in the seventeenth century can be ruled out as the possible owner of Ballybanagher (Ballabanagher) Castle, 1661. In 1574, Ballybanagher (Ballabanagher) Castle was the property of Thomas Ballagh as listed in the Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, JGAHS Vol. I (1900–1901), No. II, Nolan, J. P.: Galway Castles and Owners in 1574, 117.


The Strafford Inquisition of Co. Mayo (R. I. A. MS 24 E 15) offers further evidence of NOLAN (O'H-UALLACHAIN) castle ownership or partial ownership in the following castles: Twoskert, Newcastle, Castlanekelly, Cloonelaghin, and Clonkerry.


THE STRAFFORD INQUISITION OF CO. MAYO (R. I. A. MS 24 E 15).

HALF BARONY OF ERRIS.

P. 44.


"EDMOND BARRETT was seized and possessed of the castle, bawn, barbican, and cartrons of Twoskert; and that for £49 st. he conveyed the same to Thibbott oge mc Gibbon and his heirs in mortgage; and that afterwards, sealed 6 November 1616, the said EDMOND did make a deed purporting a feoffment to said Tibbott oge of the premises to the use of the said Tibbott and SARAH BARRETT, his then wife, and the heirs male of their 2 bodies to be begotten; and that the said Tibbott died and the said SARAH him survived and is yet living; and that Moyler mc Tibbott mc Gibbon is eldest son and heir of the said Tibbott; and that JONACK BOURCK is the eldest son of the said Tibbott begotten on the body of the said SARAH; and that the said JONACK made a deed purporting a feoffment of the said 6 cartrons to JOHN NOLAN in consideration of £90 st. paid and to be paid for this and other lands, which deed bears date 11 December 1633, since which time the said JOHN hath possessed the said lands." (3) (38)


(3). "EDMOND BARRETT is not listed, but JOHN NOLAN is in Harleian MS 2048, f. 456." (39)


BARONY OF KILMANE.

P. 65-67.


"GREGORY NOLAN, of Ballinrobe, esq.-the qr of Canane; the qr of Rathard; the qr of Knocknekelly and Newcastle; the qr of Carrowmore; the qr of Carrownamcaher alias the Friars qr, and 3 mills; the qr of Carrowknockroe; the qr of Cregmore the last day of June 1625 until 15 May 1628, at which time he did mortgage the same unto Jasper ffrench, of Gallway, merchant, for £550 st.-.


[91] Said GREGORY NOLAN-the manor and town of Ballinrobe; the qr of Cornery; the qr of Carrownaleckie, parcels of the said manor; the qr Knocklehard; the qr of Rathcarrin and a mill; the qr of Lessinusky; 1 moiety of the qr of Killkiranwoghter; the qr of Monyvanus; the qr of Carrowcorrinveagh; the 1 moiety of the castle, town, bawn, and barbican of Cryagh; the moiety of the cartron, whereon the castle standeth, called Toneattie; the qr of Carrowgortenchoyle, alias Knocknekellae; the old ruined castle called Castlanekelly; the 1 moiety of the cartron called Laghtivally; the old ruined chapel of Killcrawn, together with 1 parcel of land thereunto belonging called Killinleagh; the old ruined chapel called Murone, alias St. John's of Jerusalem with the appurtenances; the 1 moiety and 1/2 part of the other moiety of the castle, bawn, barbican and commons of Cryuagh; the qr called Cahernegrey; the 1/2 cartron called Cahernemoe; the 1/2 cartron called Toerekearna; the 1/2 cartron called Gortnegreadogie; the cartron called [91V] Derris in BallymcGibbon; and 1 cartron in the qr of Aghinish." (40)


"Said GREGORY did, in the year 1623 aforesaid, purchase of Phelim mc Ruddery 1/2 cartron in the qr of Cloonelaghin, together with 1/2 part of the castle thereof." (41)


"[92V] Aforesaid GREGORIE NOLAN did, on 10 April 1633, convey unto his brother THOMAS NOWLAN (1) and his heirs the Castle-town and lands of Clonkerry, in reversion after the death of [      ]; with 3 qrs thereunto belonging, viz. 3 cartrons in the qr of Knockglasse; 1/2 qr in the qr of Knockredmond; and the qr of Knocknagullsy; item the qr of Carrowenclogher; the 1/2 qr of Rathredmond; 1 cartron in the qr of Knockglasse; the qr of Kilterone; and 1 cartron in the qr of LismcNicholas." (42)


(1) "THOMAS NOLAN is listed in Harleian MS 2048, f. 459." (43)


P. 74.


"... Out of the 3 qrs in Crivagh, except GREGORY NOLAN'S part thereof…” (44)


P. 75.


"JOHN NOLAN, esq. did, on 1 October 1626, purchase of Redmond oge mc Henry mc Redmond 1/12 part of the castle and bawn of Creevagh; the moiety of the qr of Knockancoill; and the moiety of the 1/2 qr Lecarrowmonydasse, in consideration that the said JOHN had passed an estate for life back unto the said Redmond without rent." (45)


BRITISH MUSEUM HARLEIAN MS 2048 1587, circa 1608–1634.

Refoliated manuscript:


Renumbered Folio 229r.

Land owners in the half-barony of Erris, Co. Mayo:

Renumbered Folio 232r.

Land owners in the barony of Kilmaine, Co. Mayo:

Renumbered Folio 234r.

The following in the Barony of Kilmaine have lands in other Baronies:

Renumbered Folio 379r.

Killglasse.



O'H-UALLACHAIN (NOLAN) LIST OF GENERATIONS FROM 1473:


* Number three and four on the descendancy list may be the same individual and there may be omissions.

t Number five on the above list had seven children with wife AGNES MARTIN according to a 17 January 2009 e-mail from WAYNE NOLAN of New Zealand: GREGORY, JOHN, CEACILLA, ANNIE, JAMES, THOMAS, and JOSEPH.


"The Corca Laoighdhe (Loigde, Loighdhe, Luighe) ... was an important early clan that ruled in Munster before the rise of the Eoghanact dynasty. They were of the Lugadian race from Lugaidh, son of Ith, an uncle of Milesius, and held their territory in Carbery in the west of County Cork. They are said to be the descendants of Lughaidh Laidhe (or Loigde), 22nd in descent from Ithe, uncle of Milesius. Lugaidhe MacCon, the grandson of Lughaidh Laidhe, was the 113th Monarch of Ireland from 195 A. D. to 225 A. D. The territory of the Corca Laoighdhe was approximately the diocese of Ross in southwest County Cork but they were later pushed further south [and east into present day Co. Kilkenny] with the rise of the Eoghanachta. The Corca Laoighdhe were likely from the stock of the Erainn people who arrived in Ireland about the 5th century B. C. Also known as the Menapii or Bolgi (Belgae, Firbolgs), the name of the Erainn people survived as the Old Irish Eriu, which then became Eire, the modern Irish form of the name of Ireland. The ruling sept of the Corca Laoighdhe was O'Driscoll while some other related septs were O'Coffey, O'Dinneen, O'Driscoll, O'Flynn, O'Fihelly, O'Hea, O'Hennessy, [O’HOLOHAN, (O'HUALLACHAIN)], and O'Leary.


An early genealogy of the Corca Laoighdhe is cited as: Luigdech Loigde (for whom the Corca Laoighdhe is named), the son of Dairi [Doimtig] no Sirchrechtaig, the son of Sidebuilg, the son of Fir Suilne, the son of Tecmanrach, the son of Loga, the son of Eithlenn, the son of Luigdech, the son of Bregaind. Some of the early mentions of the Corca Laoighdhe in the Annals are: Flann Foirtrea, Lord of Corco Laigde, who died in 746; Maelbracha, son of Breslen, lord of Corca Loighdhe in the year 800; Bruadar, son of Dunlang, lord of Corca Loighdhe in the year 860; in 893 there is a note on the mortal wounding of the three sons of Duibhghilla, son of Bruadar (above), in the territory of the Deisi; and in 944 Finn, the son of Mutain, Lord of Corco Laighdhi was slain.” (46) The above quote is from Cullen Surname Origins Part III: O'Cullen of Munster Compiled by Jim Cullen.


"An early Clan Colgcan (Ua hUallachain) genealogy (Rawlinson): Mac Tíre Úa h-Uallacháin m. Cuiléoin m. Conchobuir m. Meic Thíre m. h-Uallacháin m. Fogartaich m. Cumascaig m. Colgcan m. Mugróin m. Flaind Dá Chongal m. Díumasaich m. Forannáin m. Congaile m. Máel h-Umai m. Cathail [m. Éogain] m. Bruidge m. Nath Í m. Rosa Failgi m. Cathaír Máir." (47) The above quote is from The Tribes of Laigen: Leinster Series - Clan Colgan.


O'NOLAN: THE HISTORY OF A PEOPLE.

Part I. HISTORY OF CARLOW CLAN O'NOLAN AND TIPPERARY CLAN O'NOLAN.


Part II. HISTORY OF OFFALY - KILKENNY CLAN O'NOLAN: CONNAUGHT.


Part III. DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1740 & ALBEMARLE COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1744.


Part IV. O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: IRELAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE.


Part V. O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: ALABAMA, ARKANSAS, FLORIDA, NEW HAMPSHIRE, OKLAHOMA, & TEXAS.


Part VI. OF THE NOLANS (NOLA): ORIGINS OF THE IRISH AND SCOTTISH - CORCA LUIGHE (CORCA LAOIDHE) AND DAL RIADA (DAL RIATA) - R-U152 (R1b1b2a1b4) (R1b1b2a1b7) (R1b1b2a2g) (R1b1b2h*) (R1b1c10) - DYS #385a AND 385b AT 11 AND 17 - A CORCA LUIGHE (CORCA LAOIDHE) OSSORY (OSRAIGHE) AND DAL RIADA (DAL RIATA) ULADH HAPLOTYPE IN CO. DONEGAL, ULSTER, IRELAND, 1600s.


Part VII. NOLAN Y-DNA HAPLOGROUP I2a DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 and the FOMORIANS of IRISH MYTHOLOGY.


NOTES.

1. James Joyce's Ulysses: Cyclops (U12.1183).

2. Meaning of Common Irish Names @ http://britam.org/genealogy/celts.htm.

3. Galway Castle Owners, 1574, 109.

4. Notes on Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo and the Families of Burke, Nolan, Cuff, and Knox, 541.

5. Galway’s First Nolan Family - An Overview, The Nolan, Newsletter of the O’Nolan Clan Family Association, March 2009, Issue 19, 4.

6. Y-Chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland, Laoise T. Moore,1,* Brian McEvoy,1,* Eleanor Cape,1 Katharine Simms,2 and Daniel G. Bradley1, 1Smurfit Institute of Genetics and 2School of Histories and Humanities, Trinity College, Dublin, American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 78, February 2006, 3.

7. Ibid, 4.

8. Roger Nowlan, Secretary of the Nolan Clan Association, e-mail 31 July 2006.

9. Irish Ancestors - County Galway (Gaillimh) @ http://scripts.ireland.com/ancestor/browse/counties/connacht/index_ga.htm.

10. Irish Midlands Ancestry - More Laois & Offaly Surnames G-H @ http://www.irishmidlandsancestry.com/content/family_history/surnames/minorsepts_g-h.htm.

11. History Series #1 - The History of Osraighe: The Roots of County Kilkenny @ http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/history/ossory.htm.

12. The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, commonly called O’Kelly’s Country, Author: unknown, ed. John O'Donovan, compiled by Beatrix Färber and Benjamin Hazard, Publication: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland -- http://www.ucc.ie/celt (2004) @ http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G105007.html, 40.

13. Corpus of Electronic Texts, The History of Ireland (Book I-II) (Author: Geoffrey Keating) Section 44, Part 54 @ http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100054/text054.html, 314-315.

14. Roger Nowlan, Secretary of the Nolan Clan Association, e-mail 12 December 2005.

15. Ibid, 13 December 2005.

16. The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, commonly called O'Kelly's Country (Author: [Unknown]), 40 (Section 1), Footnote 93.

17. Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, JGAHS Vol. LIV (2002), Ó Cearbhaill, Diarmuid: The Colahans—a remarkable Galway family. Snadh na Sean, 121.

18. Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland, IX. The Gaels, 96-7 @ http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/cairney/96.htm and http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/cairney/97.htm.

19. From the BBC: DNA analysis tracks Silk Road forbears, Sciforums.com @ http://www.sciforums.com/showthread.php?threadid=3781.

20. Nigel Pennick, The Sacred World of the Celts @ Celtic History; Briefly… @ http://www.joellessacredgrove.com/Celtic/history.html.

21. Murray Hope, Practical Celtic Magic @ Celtic History; Briefly… @ http://www.joellessacredgrove.com/Celtic/history.html.

22. Rev. John Nolan and Art Kavanagh, O’Nolan: The History of a People, Nolan Clan Association, 2000, 79.

23. Long Ago in Ireland @ http://www.lawrencetown.com/longago.htm.

24. Cuffe Family Message Board @ Ancestry.com: The Cuffes of Desart Court, 1583-1679, Author: Turtle Bunbury.

25. Ireland’s History in Maps - Ui Maine of Connacht @ http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/ihm/uimaine.htm.

26. Ireland in the 12th Cenury @ http://www.parle.co.uk/genealogy/early_ireland.htm.

27. Long Ago in Ireland.

28. Hardiman’s History of Galway, James Hardiman, The History of the Town and County of the Town of Galway, From the Earliest Period to the Present Time, (Galway: Connacht Tribune) Reprint, 1926, 22-23.

29. Ibid.

30. O’Nolan: The History of a People, 97.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid, 198.

33. Ibid, 97.

34. Old Irish Kingdoms and Clans @ http://members.aol.com/hgurski3/ireclans.htm.

35. History Series #2 - From Ossory to the County of Kilkenny Ireland @ http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/kmedeval.htm.

36. O’Nolan: The History of a People, 291.

37. Ibid.

38. The Strafford Inquisition of Co. Mayo (R. I. A. MS 24 E 15), 44.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid, 65-67.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid, 74.

45. Ibid, 75.

46. Cullen Surname Origins Part III: O’Cullen of Munster compiled by Jim Cullen @ http://members.bex.net/jtcullen515/CullHis3.htm, moved from old site @ http://www.lrbcg.com/jtcullen/CullHis3.htm.

47. The Tribes of Laigen - Leinster Series @ http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/ihm/leinst2.htm.


Here are my websites:










       




DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM NOWLAND (NOLAND) (NOWLIN) OF GOOCHLAND COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1740 & ALBEMARLE COUNTY VIRGINIA, 1744.

O'NOLAN (NOWLAND) (NOLAND) (NOWLEN) (NOWLIN) (NOLUN) (NOLIN) (NOWLING) (NOLEN) CENSUS, DEED, LAND, MARRIAGE, & OBITUARY RECORDS, 195-1990: IRELAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE, ALABAMA, ARKANSAS & TEXAS.

TOWNSHIPS OF CARLOW COUNTY, IRELAND.

BENNER, GOTTHARDT, HAGELGANS, & LORENZ GENEALOGY.

POETRY OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

FAMILY PHOTOS OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN MOBLEY OF SOUTH RIVER PARISH, ANN ARUNDEL COUNTY, MARYLAND, 1687.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN M. (MAC) HORTON: GEORGIA, 1827.

BLUE MOUNTAIN DAM, AR: CEMETERY RELOCATION RECORDS.

DESCENDANTS OF CHRISTIAN ADAM BARTH AND CATHERINE WUNDERLICK.

WEB PAGES OF GLENN ALLEN NOLEN.

BISHOP GENEALOGY.


Here are some of my favorite websites:


ONLINE SHORT STORY BY EDWARD EVERETT HALE (1822–1909): THE MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY. THE HARVARD CLASSICS SHELF OF FICTION, 1917.

CENSUS OF CARLOW COUNTY IRELAND, 1659.

NOLANDS OF AMERICA.

EARLY HISTORY OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE.

1860 CENSUS WILLIAMSON CO. TN.

1880 CENSUS YELL CO. AR.

MOBLEY CEMETERY, YELL CO. AR.

CEMETERY RECORDS OF YELL CO. AR.

DESCENDANTS OF PIERCE NOWLAND (NOLAND)- VERY LARGE DOCUMENT: BE PATIENT.

THE NICOLAUS HEINRICH CRIST ACCOUNT BOOK - NICOLAUS HEINRICH CRIST (1716-1783) & ANA CATHERIN NOWLIN (1720-1783).

NOWLIN GENEALOGY.

UNITED STATES MIGRATION PATTERNS FROM 1660.

HAVANA ARKANSAS CITY CEMETERY.

HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT ALABAMA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY C. S. A.

11TH ALABAMA CAVALRY REGIMENT, CSA, ALABAMA.

NOLENSVILLE, TN

SUGAR GROVE CEMETERY, LOGAN COUNTY ARKANSAS.

ISBELL GENEALOGY.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN ISBELL.

IRELAND'S HISTORY IN MAPS.

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN NOWLAN (NOWLIN).

ASHOKAN FAREWELL (HARPSONG), SONG DURATION: 3:08.

MYTHS AND LEGENDS OF THE CELTIC RACE.

IRISH MAGIC AND TUATH DE DANAANS.

NOLAN FAMILIES OF THE WORLD.

IRISH SEPT AND CLAN PAGES.

KERCHNER'S R1b1c10 (U152+) PROJECT

WHO WAS WHO IN ROMAN TIMES: NOLANS, NOLA, NOLAN.



E-MAIL GLENN ALLEN NOLEN @ ganolen@gmail.com.