Early Human Migration
"Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three waves of migration, leading into Europe, the Americas and India." Modern humans migrated out of Africa into Central Asia before spreading both east and west into North America and Europe, says an international team of scientists who have used modern DNA analysis to trace ancient migrations. "Around 40-50,000 years ago, [approximately 2000 generations] Central Asia was full of tropical trees, a good place for hunting and fishing," said Nadira Yuldasheva of the Institute of Immunology at the Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. "Then, as desertification came in, some people moved west into Europe and some moved into Siberia, [India] and on into North [and South] America." Quote from Sciforums.com. Dr. Spencer Wells; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and English have a close affinity to the people of Galicia, the Basque region, and Spain. Historians place the Celtic invasions of the British Isles in the Iron Age. Modern geneticists, however, argue that DNA testing of the people from Celtic areas of Europe indicates that the migratory movement possibly began some 6,000 years in the past.
A Baltic or Central Italian most likely origin for R-U152 (R1b1c10) ties into the Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland. The Milesian Legends: The Book of the Taking of Ireland recounts an origin of descent from the Scythian King Feinius Farsaid. The commonalities of the people of these areas appear more ancient than historians have predicted.
R1b1b2a1b5b (R-M222) (R1b1c7) (R1b1b2e) or the Northwest Irish Haplogroup, IMH and R1bSTR19Irish represents twenty percent of R1b in Ireland and has been calculated at 1740 years by Ken Nordtvedt, which corresponds roughly to the reign of Niall Noigiallach (Niall of the Nine Hostages) beginning in the year 379. Others, however, have estimated the age of R-M222 as “about 46% of the age of R1b and is most likely at least 3400 years old."
The calculation by Dr. Ken Nordtvedt to the Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) for R-M222 (R1b1b2a1b5b) (R1b1c7) (R1b1b2e) of 1740 years falls within a window of 112 years when considering the recorded death date of the year 157 for Conn Céad Cathach (Conn Cead-Catha) or Conn of the Hundred Battles, brother to Eocha Fionn Fohart the ancestor of Carlow Clan (O'Nowlan) O'Nolan. The father of Conn of the Hundred Battles, Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar (Feidhlimedh Rechtmhar) (the Lawgiver) ruled Ireland in the years 111-119. Considering the accession date given by P. W. Joyce, in his Social History of Ancient Ireland (1913, reissued in 1968 by Benjamin Blom, Inc.), Volume I, pages 69–71, of the year 177 places the TMRCA calculation of 1740 years well within a one hundred year time span since Conn Céad Cathach (Conn Cead-Catha) ruled Ireland for thirty-four years leaving a fifty-eight year interval, which is well within the span of a lifetime. Thus, this intervening period of 58-112 years undoubtedly represents descendants of Eocha Fionn Fohart demonstrating the relatedness to Barony of Forth and Shangarry, Carlow Clan O’Nolan. Or, of further note, the calculation by Dr. Ken Nordtvedt of 1740 years for a TMRCA for R-M222 matches the reign of Carby Lifeachain (“the Liffey”) Cairbre Liffeachair from 268-284, great-great grandfather to Niall of the Nine Hostages.
Evidence presented at Of the Nolans (Nola): Origins of the Irish and Scottish - Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata) - R1b1b2h* (R1b1c10) - DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17: A Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe) Ossory (Osraighe) and Dál Riada (Dál Riata) Uladh Haplotype in Co. Donegal, Ulster, Ireland, 1600s is suggestive of an origin from the Central Italian Refugium, depending on its relative age, however, the Balkans Refugium cannot be discounted.
"Y DNA matches with others of different surnames are most likely a result of being related prior to the adoption of surnames." These different surname matches usually occur within the 12 marker test, because "the time frame for relatedness for 12 markers is much longer than the time frame for 37 and 67 markers."
"For Y DNA test results, matches with other Surnames can occur. These matches are the result of one of the following events: 1. You share a common ancestor before the establishment of surnames; 2. Convergence: where both participant's result mutated and now match; 3. An adoption; 4. An extramarital event; and 5. A branch of the family adopted a different surname.
Matches with other surnames are typically more prevalent with those who are Haplogroup R1b. Most likely, when you match some one with a different surname, you share a common ancestor before the establishment of surnames or convergence occurred."
Could your family be related to a 5th century warlord, Niall of the Nine Hostages?
*Nolan Y-DNA test results indicating a match with Niall of the Nine Hostages and the Ui Neill are indicative of these septs having an ancient (MRCA) most recent common ancestor: Cobhtach, Caol mBreagh, eldest son of Ugaine Mor, 66th. Milesian Monarch of Ireland.
O'Nolan: The History of a People, 2.
"By right of their descent from Cobhtach, Caol mBreagh, eldest son of Ugaine Mor, 66th. Milesian Monarch of Ireland, A. M. 4567, the O'Nolan's are the senior Sept of the Heremonian line in Leinster. The O'Neils and O'Donnels of the North and the O'Connors of the West trace their genealogical line to Cobhtach, but all Leinster septs, O'Nolan excepted, derive their descent from Laeghaire Lorc, second son of Ugaine Mor."
Could your family be related to King Colla Uais - Father of the Clans?
Could your family be related to Somerled of Argyll - The Norse Scot foe of the Vikings?
16 April 2010
23 July 2010
"It is now pretty clear that L176.1 is a "Somerled" SNP: that is, it is likely that this whole line is L176.1+, most certainly back to the year 1300 and probably older. It seems to be synonymous to R1a with YCAII = 19,21 and DYS459 = 8,10;"
25 October 2010
L176.1 is, as far as I know, indeed "private" to what amounts to the Clan Donald and other people who could reasonably be thought of as McDonald bastards from 500 years ago. It clearly is not found in Scandinavia. All the Scandinavians I have gotten to test are negative. That said, however, it is a very large "private" set of people. It probably is the dominant set of R1a1 in the highlands of Scotland.
It could of course have originated before some Viking brought it to Scotland, but have died out in Scandinavia, or could have occurred in Scotland. We know now that it occurred before 1190, and probably well before 1100."
18 February 2010
“The books [2 volumes] deal with the Nolan connections to both the McMurrough/Kavanagh sept and in fighting with same, and the alliances formed with the O’Byrne chiefs.”
Variant spellings: Smith, Hughes, Nolan, Dees, Cunningham
Lineage I - Shangarry, Carlow Clan O'Nolan
Primary: Nolan Y-DNA test results indicating a match with Niall of the Nine Hostages and the Ui Neill are indicative of these septs having an ancient (MRCA) most recent common ancestor: Cobhtach, Caol mBreagh, 69th Milesian Monarch of Ireland, eldest son of Ugaine Mor, 66th Milesian Monarch of Ireland. The families of N-5, N-6, N-7, N-11, N-16, N-22, N-29, N-36, N-46, and N-55 share a common ancestor through Carlow Clan O'Nolan. N-1, N-6, N-11, N-16, N-21, N-22, N-26, N-36, N-46, and N-55 match the same 12-marker haplotype of 13, 25, 14, 11, 11, 13, 12, 12, 12, 13, 14, and 29. This ancient 12-marker haplotype represents Carlow Clan O'Nolan. N-5, N-7, N-18, and N-29 mismatch by one mutation from the thoroughly researched Shangarry, Carlow Clan O'Nolan 12-marker haplotype lineage and it is, therefore, evident that N-1, N-18, N-21, and N-26 have an ancient connection to Shangarry, Carlow Clan O'Nolan representing the second and third branch of Carlow Clan O'Nolan.
N-11 matched either 35 or 36 of 37 markers giving a genetic distance of one or two. A tight familial relationship is present with a genetic distance of one. Very few people achieve that close level of a DNA match. N-5 and N-7 show a genetic distance of two meaning that they are probably related to N-6. The Family Tree DNA page Interpreting Genetic Distance - 25 Markers explains that they "share the same surname (or a variant) with another male and you mismatch by two 'point' ... from the 25 markers we tested. For most closely related and same surnamed individuals, the mismatch markers are usually either DYS 439 or DYS 385a, 385b, 389-1 and 389-2 from our first panel of 12 markers, and on the following from the second panel: DYS #'s 458 459a 459b 449, 464 a-d, which have shown themselves to move most rapidly. The probability of a close relationship is good; however your results show mutations, and therefore more time between you and the other same surnamed person."
It is likely that Daniel Nowlan of this lineage group was the Daniel Nolane of Kellstown, Carlow Co. Ireland transplanted in 1653-54. He would have been a descendant of Hugh O'Nolan from Shangarry. Hugh may in fact be the Hugh Roo who was pardoned for aiding and abetting a robbery in 1552.
N-11 and N-36 share a common great grandfather: John W. Nowlin or Nolen born 1769 dying 9 January 1855 in Franklin Co. Virginia. John Nowlin married Mary Thomas, born 1784 in Henry Co. Virginia dying 31 December 1872 in Franklin Co. Virginia. They had six children: Lucinda, Judith, Charles, Alexander, Wilson, and Pleasant. N-11 "can trace his ancestry with great precision and reliability to John Nowlin (1770-1851?), buried in Patrick Co. Virginia. We believe (but cannot document with sufficient reliability to be sure) that his father was James Nowlin, who lived in Pittsylvania County and that his grandmother had lived in Buckingham County. We believe we are descended from James Nowlan (one of three brothers who landed in Jamestown in the year 1700 as indentured servants). We believe that their father had sided with the losing side in the rising against William and Mary in the late 1680s, and so lost their land - so the sons had to indenture themselves to pay their passage to North America."
Other participants do not share a recent common ancestor with Nolan Lineage I at least since surnames began in Ireland around the year 1,000 A. D. Some participants do, however, share a deep ancestry with them from tens of thousands of years ago through Haplogroup R1b1. N-22 exhibits the distinctive Haplogroup R1b1c7: the Northwest Irish variety of Y-DNA Haplogroup R. R1b1c7 is distinctively clustered in Northwest Ireland and parts of Scotland.
26 April 2007
"In reviewing the set of test results that we have so far I believe that the number of test results with a Shangarry connection may be attributable to the fact that there have been more tests done for American Nolan descendants many of whom trace their ancestry back to the early 1700s and "James Nowlin of Virginia". Given that the Shangarry Nolan's were in America very early they would have had many descendants already there when the next major influx of Nolan's occurred i.e. early to mid-1800s."
"From my understanding of Carlow history and the role Nolan's played there I do not see that the "Shangarry" name and townland extends further back than the 1500s. Prior to that time, the main centres of Nolan presence were in what became known as the "Barony of Forth" in County Carlow (e.g. Tullow, where Nolan chiefs are believed to have resided prior to the coming of Strongbow (Fitzgerald) and Raymond Le Gros (Grace); Kellistown, where the Nolan chief resided in the mid 1500s; Ballon Hill, where Nolan's have been buried since time immemorial; area of Templepeter cemetery, the site of an 11th century church and burial ground for many Nolan's dating back to the 1600s and earlier).
The Shangarry townland was further south than the traditional Nolan lands and seems to have only emerged as a Nolan centre in the late 1500s when Nolan rebels favoured this area because of its more defensible nature (higher ground, more woods, etc.). In my opinion it is an example of Nolan's gradually resettling further away from their ancestral lands."
Nolan Clan Member and Former Clan Secretary
Lineage II - Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught.
Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught, R1b1c10, according to the following is a pre-Milesian Corca Luighe (Corca Laoidhe or Corca Loigde) sept; however, any speculation as to Irish arrival prior to the Iron Age is unproven.
"The Corca Luighe were a pre-Milesian race and the name Luighe was common among their early chiefs. One of those, Lughaidh Mac Con was Monarch of Ireland. According to the Book of Ballymote, Corca Luighe extended from Beann Finn westward to Tragumina and Lough Ine and from Beal Atha Buidhe to Tragh Claen at the rock. Each tuath of Corca Luighe was governed by a taoiseach and beneath him were the hereditary leaders. Tuatha O Fitcheallaigh and O Dunghalaigh merged in Clonakilty. O'Fehilly and O'Dunlea were the taoiseacha. Oglaigh or Leaders are represented by names which still survive, i.e. Duggan, Keady, Eady, Anglin, Kennedy, Cagney, Hennessy, Leary, Dineen, Cronin, Hayes or O'Hea, Murray, Dulea, Coffey, Cowhig, Cullinane, Downey, Lahiffe, Shinnick, Deady and Muintir Oh Illigh or Hill. The O'Driscolls were the ruling race."
Primary: Edward MacLysaght, first Chief Herald of Ireland, writing several books on Irish family history and heraldry, in his book, Irish Families, would take exception to the use of the term "clan" to describe these "septs" or groups of O'Nolan's. He notes that Ireland did not have a true clan system like that which developed in Scotland; however, modern DNA evidence is separating the various septs or groups of O'Nolan's living in the same vicinity into distinguishable family groups, lineages or clans. An explanatory note concerning Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan is warranted at this point, there may or may not be at least three distinct genealogical branches or lineages of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan: Connaught, Ossory, and Tipperary; 1. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan that moved into the Connacht counties of Galway and Mayo with the Barrett family in the 12th or early 13th century; 2. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan which stayed in Co. Kilkenny (Ossory) after the 12th century; and 3. Tipperary Clan O'Nolan which may or may not have developed in conjunction with Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan with a split disseminating into Co. Tipperary Clan O'Nolan somewhere between the 5th and 12th century in (Ossory) Osraighe. At present, the Connacht branch of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan is the only one that has attained the status of a distinct lineage due to a limited number of Nolan surnamed DNA participants, and it is possibly the result of an illegitimate hereditary relationship, an adoption, or a branch of a family using a different surname.
Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan has the classification of Haplogroup R-U152 meaning that it falls within ten percent of the Western European male population. Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan appears to be in the King Colla Uais and R1bSTR43 cluster. A close match with the King Colla Uais (Dalriadic) modal haplotype is also suggestive of a close ancestral relationship for Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan and Khaki Group 01 of the Windham Family DNA Project to the inhabitants of Ireland and Scotland. King Colla Uais seized Ulster taking his followers to Scotland circa the year 325 of the Common Era becoming the founding lineages for the Scottish Dalriadic kingdom.
Research into a distinct cluster of R-U152 (R1b1c10) (R1b1b2h) at DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 leads to either a Central European, Central Italy or Eastern origin for this Corca Laoighdhe sept, which ties into the Scythian Milesian ancestry myths of the Heremonian lineage of Ireland. DYS #492 at 14 exhibits itself in Central Europe or Latvia. It is not an English marker.
16 July 2007
"Historically most of the migrations of Central European Celts has been south (documented from about 400 BC) from Gaul, Bavaria and Baden to Cisalpine Italy. At present it would appear that DYS492=14 is an indicator of northern Alpine ancestry. It is interesting that despite the sample sizes (large numbers of British relative to Continental Europeans having tested) there is not a single English S28 with DYS492=14."
This research also points to the Ulster Ireland counties of Donegal and Tyrone, which the Vennicnii and the Rhobogdii tribes anciently occupied. Obviously, this haplotype might also have entered Ancient Uladh, Kingdom of Ulster.
The families of N-3, N-4, and N-30 with earliest known ancestor Michael O'Nolan of Galway, 1473 share a common lineage through Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan. N-4 and N-30 are brothers of the same mother and father, but mutations at DYS #389-2 and 464c for N-4 with a genetic distance of two at the 25-marker level compared to N-30 leaves N-30 with a more precise genetic match with N-3 and 9ZZVM - Windham at the 25-marker level than with N-4. A documented ancestral relationship between N-3, N-4, and N-30 is located at 1,000 Years of O'Nolan History through Hardin Nolen of Lauderdale Co. Alabama.
John Alexander Nolen, brother to Lewis Riley Nolen, James Green Nolen, Ferdinand A. (Howard) Nolen, and William A. Nolen, is the first great grandfather of N-3. Hardin Nolen of Lauderdale Co. AL who married Cynthia Vickers on 15 May 1845 is the second great grandfather of N-3, and Hardin Nolen of Lauderdale Co. AL who married Cynthia Vickers on 15 May 1845 is the third great grandfather of N-4 and N-30. N-3 matches N-4 in 23 of 25 markers with a genetic distance of two. This result is conclusive in determining a 99% probability of a common ancestor within a genealogical time period. The paper trail (genealogical documentation) for N-3 and N-4 has also been conclusive in determining their most recent common ancestor (MRCA) Hardin Nolen of Lauderdale Co. Alabama who married Cynthia Vickers on 15 May 1845.
A match at the 12 marker level for N-4 with the Hagan surname gives credence to a possible relationship between Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan, Tipperary Clan O'Nolan, and the Crioch Cian.
"O'Hogan, chief of Crioch Cian, about Lower Ormond, in Tipperary. Notes: Crioch Chein (O'Hogan or O'Hegan), is described as one of the tuaths under Eile O'Carroll by O'Heerin (Topo. Poems). Ardcrony, 4 1/2 miles north of Nenagh, was the site of a ruined castle and church built by the O'Hogans."
DNA evidence of N-3 and Kit #18393 from the Windham Family DNA Project match 25 of 25 markers, N-4 and Kit #56134 from the Windham Family DNA Project match 33 of 37 markers, and N-4 and Kit #18393 match 61-62 of 67 markers with a mismatch of 5 as shown by FTDNA, which gives a high probability of a common ancestor through an extramarital event, non-paternity event or adoption based on the following information:
1. Edward MacLysaght established that the Mac Suibhne, O'Mulgeehy, O Maolghaoithe, McSwyne, Sweeney family of Ireland became Wynne or Windham.
2. The 25 marker match between N-3 and Kit #18393 from the Windham Family DNA Project, the 33 of 37 Y-DNA marker match between N-4 and Kit #56134 from the Windham Family DNA Project, and the 62 of 67 marker match between N-4 and Kit #18393 from the Windham Family DNA Project have five possible points of occurrence: 1. The gallowglass (foreign mercenary) family of Mac Suibhne of Scotland are in the Province of Connaught Ireland circa 1400 and the Nolans of Galway Province of Connaught) erect a tomb in the center of the Franciscan Friary churchyard in Galway, 1394; 2. In 1574, both families owned castles in Co. Galway, Ireland and would have socialized together; 3. Each represents Herenagh Families of Donegal Co. Ireland. Herenagh meaning land typically converted into donated church property; 4. The list of individuals in Co. Sligo that were evicted by Cromwell includes John Nolan of Iskerowen, Edmond and Milmory McSwine of Ardneglas, and 5. Each family was represented in the early history of Isle of Wight Co. Virginia.
Nolan - Windham Probability & Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor.
98.55% Probability of a Shared Common Ancestor within 24 Generations:
24 generations multiplied by 15 (Years in a Generation) = 360 years
24 generations multiplied by 25 (Years in a Generation) = 600 years
94.97% Probability of a Shared Common Ancestor within 20 Generations:
20 generations multiplied by 15 (Years in a Generation) = 300 years
20 generations multiplied by 25 (Years in a Generation) = 500 years
2006 minus 1597* = 409 years
2006 minus 1643* = 363 years
* 1597 - Thomas Nolan purchased Enniscrone Castle Co. Sligo.
* 1643 - John Nolan (Nowlin) living in Isle of Wight Co. Virginia.
1. The gallowglass (foreign mercenary) family of Mac Suibhne of Scotland are in the Province of Connaught Ireland circa 1400 and the Nolans of Galway Province of Connaught) erect a tomb in the center of the Franciscan Friary churchyard in Galway, 1394.
2. McSwyne castle owners in the Barony of Clare Co. Galway, 1574 and Nolan Lineage II castle, the Barony of Moycullen Co. Galway, 1574 which included the town of Galway.
JOURNAL OF THE GALWAY ARCHÆOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY JGAHS Vol. I (1900 - 1901), No. i, Nolan, J. P.: The Castles of Clare Barony [The thirty-four De Burgo Castles in the Barony of Clare], 11-48.
"The most Irish names amongst the Clare castle owners are O'Heine (Hynes) and two MacSwynes (Sweeney), faithful adherents of Clanricarde."
JOURNAL OF THE GALWAY ARCHÆOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY JGAHS Vol. I (1900 - 1901), No. ii, Nolan, J. P.: Galway Castles and Owners in 1574, 109-123.
The Baronie of Mvykullen*
Qwarown browne Donell Oge Ohologhan (Nolan)
* (including the Barony of Galway.-t.)
The Boronie of Clare
Kyliskiegh Murrough McSwyne
Cahirnefieke Tirlagh Caragh Mc Swyne
3. Clandaholka and Mevaugh Parish are adjacent to each other in Co. Donegal Ireland.
Herenagh O'Mulgeegh; the O'Boile's; the McSwyne's; or freeholds: Clandaholka parish, containing 9 ballibetaghs whereof the herenagh O'Mulgeegh has 1 qr., who pays to the bishop of Raphoe 13s 4d Ir. rent, and 1l 13s 4d Ir. pension out of the bishop's thirds of the tithes, the bishop hass 1/3 qr. called Marfaugh, anciently inhabited by the sept of the O'Boile's, for which 4s rent is paid, the McSwyne's paid them a cosherie of 4 madders of butter and 8 madders of meal, whereof nothing has been paid in the time of the present bishop, about 3 miles from the church is a ruined chapel with 7 gorts of free land called Clonveg, the tenants of which paid 2s 4d yearly to the parson of Clondaholka in this parish, the parson, vicar, tithes and repairs are as in Faughan parish, the parson and vicar pay 8s Ir. proxies to the bishop and have 4 gorts of glebe between them, there are also 2 qrs. belonging to the late abbey of BallymcSwyne Odie besides Doe castle, the tithes and spirituallities of which are divided between the parishes of Clondaholka and Kilmacrenan;
Herenagh the sept of the O'Nolan's; or freeholds: Mevaugh parish, containing 5 baalibetaghs, of which 1 qr. are church land enjoyed by the sept of the O'Nolan's, as herenaghs, who pay to the bishop of Raphoe 13s 4d Ir. and 1l Ir. pension out of the bishop's third of the tithes, the parson, vicar, tithes and repairs are as in Faughan parish, the parson and vicar pay 3s proxies each to the bishop, and have 2 gorts of glebe land between them, in this parish are 6 gorts of free land called Kinelargie, the proprietors of which paid 2s yearly to the official of Raphoe, there is also a chapel with 1/2 qr. of land called Druin which belonged to the Franciscan friars of Kilmacrenan who received 13s yearly out of it, the McSwyne's challenged a cosherie of 4 meathers of butter and 8 meathers of meal from it;"
4. List of the people in Co. Sligo that were evicted by Cromwell: John Nolan of Iskerowen, Edmond and Milmory McSwine of Ardneglas.
5. John Nolan (Nowlin) living in Isle of Wight Co. Virginia, 1643.
Lineage III - Barony of Forth, Carlow Clan O'Nolan
Barony of Forth (Co. Carlow) * to the left above Scarawalsh Barony
Primary: This 25-marker haplotype may represent the original Nualan or Nuallain lineage of Eocha Fionn Fohart, the brother of Conn Cead-Catha or Conn of the Hundred Battles. Eocha Fionn Fohart was ancestor of Carlow Clan (O'Nowlan) O'Nolan. Lineage III matches R1b1c7 exactly to the 22nd marker and mismatches R1b1c7 by 2 in a 25-marker comparison. The families of N-1, N-21, and N-26 share a common ancestor. N-21 matched 24 of 25 markers with N-1 giving a genetic distance of one at the 25-marker level. N-26 also has a genetic distance of one with the families of N-1 and N-21 at the 25-marker level. The probability of a close relationship between these three participants is very high based on a 24 of 25-marker match, however, further testing at the 37-marker level resulted in a genetic distance of five between N-1 and N-21 meaning that these two participants are only possibly related. Each line of this family cluster probably experienced separate mutations and one person would have experienced at least two mutations. N-26 mismatches N-1 at the 37-marker level by two indicating that these two participants share relatedness within the same surname subgroup.
N-21 indicates an earliest known ancestor of Daniel Nolan. It is believed that Daniel Nolan of this lineage was a plumber who worked on the Merrimack River Dam project in Massachusetts. N-26 indicates an earliest known ancestor of Patrick Pierce Nolen born in Ireland, 1802.
N-1, N-21, and N-26 match the same 12-marker haplotype with Shangarry, Carlow Clan O'Nolan and it is, therefore, evident that N-1, N-21, and N-26 have an ancient connection to Shangarry, Carlow Clan O'Nolan representing the second branch of Carlow Clan O'Nolan.
N-29 and N-59 have an exact 12-marker match with N-5 of Shangarry, Carlow Clan O’Nolan. N-29 matches N-59 exactly at 25-markers.
Lineage IV - O'Nolan - I-P37.2
Primary: The families of N-24 and N-25 are of Haplogroup I2a (I-P37.2), and thus their families do not share deep ancestry with any of the above lineages. N-24 and N-25 share a recent common ancestor through a 65 of 67-marker match. Joseph Archibald Nolan is the earliest known ancestor of N-24, and Thomas Nolan born about the year 1821 in Ireland dying 1879 is the earliest known ancestor of N-25. N-25 has an exact 29-marker match at the Long DNA Surname Project. O’Nolan (N-24 and N-25) match N-51 (O’Long) at 64 of 67-markers. N-24 and N-25 exhibit relatedness to N-51 and his John Long/Ann Herrington line of Queen Anne's Co. Maryland in Ireland, Ohio, or Kentucky. Further information more recently updated than the below discussion is at Nolan Y-DNA Haplogroup I2a (I-P37.2) DYS #385a and 385b at 11 and 17 and the Fomorians of Irish Mythology.
"Recorded in many forms including O' Longain, Longain, Lanahan, Langan, Lanigan, Lannigan, Lonnigon, Lenaghan, and Lenihan, this is an Irish surname. However spelt in Ireland they originate from O' Longain or O' Lennachain, and it is possible both derive from the early Norse-Viking and later Gaelic word "long". If so the names in a transfrred sense refer to a ship and hence were bi-names for a sailor, or more precisely, the male descendant of a sailor, who may well have been a Viking. O' Leannachain was originally the name of an Irish sept situated in Roscommon, while two distinct septs of O' Longain existed, one in County Mayo, and a branch of the Ulster sept in County Armagh; the other in Counties Cork and Limerick. They were erenaghs of hereditary lay lords, responsible for the maintenance of church lands, and some later adopted the surname of Long."
"The undifferentiated subclade of Haplogroup I1b (or I1b*) is centered in the Balkans, where its founders may have taken refuge from the Ice Age. After the Ice Age, I1b* spread into Eastern Europe. Unlike subclade I1a, it is not commonly found in Scandinavia and Western Europe. Where it is found in Britain at all, it may reflect the genetic influence of Roman troops and settlers, many of whom came from the Balkans or other parts of southeastern Europe. Another subclade, I1b2, may have originated in Sardinia and spread into Iberia and France, later migrating to the British Isles during the upper Paleolithic.
A recent study has indicated that subclade I1b2, although far more common in Sardinia than anywhere else, also occurs among the Basques, and in Ireland at a rate of about 2.6 percent. Since I1b2 is found among the Basques and the Irish, one may assume that it was part of the genetic make-up of the aboriginal population of Western Europe - a kind of junior partner to the much more widely prevalent AMH.
I1b Haplotype #1
This haplotype may reflect the movement of the Germanic tribes - particularly the Goths - during the period of The Great Migrations. The Goths were active around the Black Sea, and controlled portions of Eastern Spain and Northern Italy. This haplotype may have entered Britain with troops in the Roman army."
Lineage V - Carlow Clan O’Nolan #3
N-49 and N-50 have an exact 25-marker match and constitute Carlow Clan O’Nolan lineage three with a further 33 of 37-marker match.
Cavanaugh (Kavanaugh) Clan O'Nolan
Fotharta an Chairn (Barony of Forth in Co. Wexford)
Barony of Forth (Co. Wexford) Lower Right
New Ross Township (Co. Wexford) West of Barony of Forth (Wexford)
Barony of Forth (Co. Carlow) * to the left above Scarawalsh Barony
Of Course, it is possible that a Barony of Forth, Co. Wexford lineage would match the Y-DNA of Carlow Clan O'Nolan, however, this researcher thinks that possibility is very remote considering that the Kavanagh or Cavanagh Clan would have most likely absorbed or co-opted whatever remaining Carlow Nolan Y-DNA remained from very ancient times not allowing those lineages to continue. Instead, the Kavanagh or Cavanagh Clan would have made sure its own Y-DNA prospered at the Castle of Old Ross in Wexford as seen by the genetic matches of N-35 with the Kavanagh surname.
Primary: N-35 (brother to N-53) has a 12-marker exact match and is a genetic distance of four at the 37-marker and 67-marker level with the Kavanaugh surname, which suggests the family of N-35 and N-53 exhibit relatedness to the Kavanaugh Clan. The Kavanaugh's and Nolan's of Leinster interacted for centuries. Donel Reagh Mac-Morrogh Kavanagh, Lord of Ferus, Co. Wexford may have an important role in the family lineage of N-35 and N-53.
"The name Kavanagh or Cavanagh and all its variations is derived from the Irish Gaelic name Caomhánach.
Caomhánach was a nickname adopted by a 12th century King of Leinster, Domhnall Caomhánach MacMurrough (Donal Kavanagh). Domhnall was the eldest son of the historic Irish King of Leinster, Diarmait mac Murchada (Dermot MacMurrough).
Until the Clan was destroyed in the 17th century, Domhanall Caomhánach, and his descendants, continued to control the kingdom of Leinster. The historic stronghold of the clan was known as Ui Ceinnsealaigh (Hy Kinsella), and it included nearly all of counties Carlow and Wexford, as well as parts of counties Wicklow and Kilkenny."
"The ancient Uí Chinnsealaigh Kings of Leinster had fortresses at Dinn Righ, between Carlow and Leighlin and at Naas in Co. Kildare. Later on Ferns in Wexford, became their capital and they also had castles at Old Ross in Wexford and Ballymoon in Carlow. (For a fuller account of Caomhánach castles, see Junglejim's article on those in Carlow in the 2004 Annual). The Uí Chinnsealaigh were inaugurated as kings of Leinster at a place called Cnoc an Bhogha, attended by the chief marshall and chief of Forth in Carlow, O'Nolan, and O'Doran Chief Brehon of Leinster and Mac Keogh, chief Bard."
O'Nolan: The History of a People, 340.
O'Nolan pardons according to the Fiants of the Tudor Monarchs
Date-F. No. Name Address Reason
1602-6647 Melaghlin Duff [O'Nolan] Wexford Submission In rebellion with various rebels
Patrick Nowlan, from Old Ross (Co. Wexford), married at St. John's, 1811 (Nfld. Archives BRC)
Circa 115 C. E., Cu Corb, King of Leinster, granted seven Fotharts in Leinster to Eochaidh Finn Fuathairt, the Carlow Nolan progenitor. Five were eventually absorbed back into the adjacent territories, but two withstood the test of time and survived as Fotharta Ui Nuallain (barony of Forth in Co. Carlow) and Fotharta an Chairn (barony of Forth in Co. Wexford).
Conn Cead-Catha or Conn of the Hundred Battles had two brothers, named Eochy Fionn Fohart and Fiacha Suidhe. This Eocha Fionn Fohart was ancestor of O'Nowlan, the lord or prince of the "Foharta" - the name by which the descendants of this Eocha were called; and the two principal districts inhabited by them still retain the name, viz.: the baronies of Forth in the counties of Wexford and Carlow. From "Foharta" is derived the surname Faharty.
According to Jewel Nolen: The Nolen Story, "Teige was the father of John, who was the father of Donal or Daniel, who had a son named John O'Nowlan or O'Nolan, was the ancestor of the Nolan family of the County of Wexford, Ireland, as well as others."
Lineage VII - Tipperary Clan O'Nolan
Primary: The families of N-8, N-10, and N-38 prove a descendancy from Co. Tipperary, Ireland and connect to the Pierce Nowland (Noland) line of O'Nolan's that began traveling to the New World around the mid 17th century. N-8 matches N-10 and N-38 exactly at the 25-marker level. Plus, N-8 and N-10 have an exact 37-marker match. N-10 is also a genetic distance of 3 at the 37-marker level with N-38. At the 67-marker level, N-8 and N-10 are a genetic distance of 2 while N-10 and N-38 are at a genetic distance of 5. This separate and distinct O'Nolan clan from Co. Tipperary could have an ancient Osraighe (Ossory) connection to the ancestors of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan, the Corca Laighde, as described below. And N-8 has a 64 of 67-marker match with the Keane surname and a 63 of 67-marker match with Donohoe and Bryan.
"In the fifth century the neighbouring tribe of the Deisi (from modern Co. Waterford/Tipperary), aided by the Corca Laighde (from modern Co. Cork), conquered south Ossory, and for over a century, the Corca Laighde chiefs ruled in place of the dispossessed Ossory chiefs."
Some genealogical researchers have this family living in Co. Mayo in the early seventeenth century, which suggests transplantation or dispossession from Co. Tipperary. The earliest known ancestor of N-13 is James J. Nolan born in Co. Mayo in the year 1810. The Maryland estate of Pierce Noland, "Fethard," was most likely named after the ancient walled city of Co. Tipperary where this family or clan of O'Nolan's may have originated. N-38 matches exactly the 25-marker haplotype of the Irish Type III Web Page. N-38 has exact 25-marker matches in Y-Search with individuals claiming Co. Tipperary and Clare origins.
Or the families of N-8, N-13, and N-38 may have a connection to the O'Houlihan's who "were originally chiefs in County Clare, where their arms and their proximity to Aidhne suggest a clan affiliation with the O'Shaughnessy's (both the O'Shaughnessy's and the O'Heyne's had important medieval branches settled in just over the Clare border in Limerick). The O'Houlihan's were in any case pushed by Cromwell into Connaught, though; some were dispersed southward to County Cork, where they adopted the form "Holland," by which name they are still known. In Roscommon and Mayo the name became Nuallachain, and was Anglicized as Nolan." The above quote is from the Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland, Chapter IX: The Gaels, 96-97.
N-31 mismatches N-8 at DYS #389-1 and 389-2 at the 12-marker level. N-31 seems very similar to Irish Type III, but mismatches it by two at DYS #389-1 and 389-2 also. Matches of significance at Y-Search for N-31 are the exact 12-marker O'Bryne (Bryne) Co. Kilkenny result for RE7TY and PJY4B Breen of Ireland result. The match with RE7TY of Co. Kilkenny Ireland is precisely where this Noland haplotype should exist according to research posted at History of Carlow Clan O'Nolan and Tipperary Clan O'Nolan. This Noland haplotype migrated into Co. Tipperary Ireland after its Co. Kilkenny residence and may connect to N-8 and N-13 at Irish Type III. N-32 mismatches N-8 and N-13 at DYS #426 and 439 at the 12-marker level. N-32 also mismatches the WAMH at DYS #426 and Irish Type III at DYS #426 and 439 at the 12-marker level.
Irish Type III identifying markers are DYS # 439 at 11, DYS 459 at 8 and 9, DYS 464a-d at 13, 13, 15, and 17, DYS 456 at 15, and DYS 463 at 23. N-13 does not match these identifying markers for Irish Type III. N-31 matches DYS # 439 at 11, as does N-8.
Lineage VIII - Nolan (Nollent) and Ozment (Osmond) Clan
Primary: N-2 and N-62 have a 23 of 25-marker match. They mismatch at DYS # 385a and 464d. The mutation from 11 to 12 at DYS #385a for N-62 does not appear to be a recent mutation meaning that the 23 of 25-marker match for these two families indicates an ancient common ancestor not within the genealogical time frame. N-62 clearly has an 11 and 14 ancestor at DYS #385a and 385b. His lineage then mutated to 12 and 14 at DYS #385a and 385b. N-62 is more likely to have recent common connections with a group at 12 and 14 at DYS #385a and 385b then with his 11 and 14 ancestor, however, the ancient connection to the 11 and 14 ancestor is still valid and may exhibit itself as in this 23 of 25-marker match. N-2 and N-62 have a genetic distance of 5 at the 67-marker level validating the connection within Lineage VIII. And N-68 is a genetic distance of one from N-2 and N-62 at the 25-marker level.
The family of N-2 is probably descended from the Nolan (Nollent) and Ozment (Osmond) surname through the Famille de Nollent of France. N-2 matched 33 of 37 markers with the Ozment (Osmond) surname meaning that they are probably related. There are many explanations for this result with the most common answer being a second marriage for Marguerite Osmond and her child from a previous relationship using the name Nolan or Ozment (Osmond)."Were the surnames interconnected? For example, did a Mr. Osmond Nolan have male offspring surnamed Osmond around 1156 to 1556?
M.R.C.A. -- 450 years = 74.65%, 550 years = 89.81%, 650 years = 79.39%, 750 years = 91.47%, 850 years = 96.82% (if not related within 10 generations)."
The following marriage of Marguerite Osmond to Richard de Nollent falls within the (MRCA) Most Recent Common Ancestor estimate listed above: 2006 minus 1538 equals 468 years. This is most likely the relationship connection between the Nolan (Nollent) and Ozment (Osmond) families that bind these two surnames together.
Richard de NOLLENT, seigneur de Saint-Cyr, de Chanday et de Mélicourt, fils de Gilles de NOLLENT et de Jeanne de MELICOURT. x 10-8-1538 Marguerite OSMOND.
Child: Richard de NOLLENT.
Richard de NOLLENT (+1517) seigneur de Saint-Cyr, de Chanday et de Mélicourt, fils de Richard de NOLLENT et de Marguerite OSMOND x 9-10-1566 Hélène de LISLE.
Children: Richard de NOLLENT, seigneur de Sainr Cyr.
Françoise de NOLLENT x Philippe LE SENS, seigneur de Morsant.
Pierre de NOLLENT, seigneur de Chanday.
Jean de NOLLENT.
Marguerite de NOLLENT x 11-3-1613 Pierre de BARRE, seigneur des Authieux.
François de NOLLENT (+ 1619).
"This particular line of Nolans traces its ancestry back to Isambart de Nollent (Nollen), a Norman knight, who was born in the mid to late 1200s. Given the timeframe in which the first known ancestor of this line lived it is possible to further speculate that Isambart, his father or grandfather may have come from Ireland having been recruited for service in the crusades. Starting in 1169, the presence of Norman knights on Nolan ancestral lands is well documented and the Church did indeed recruit for the crusades in Ireland. This is certainly an interesting possibility but does require further research before a definite link back to Ireland can be established.
In France, from the late 1200s, the "de Nollent" family thrived and, at the time of the French Revolution, they still held substantial lands in Normandy."
Lineage IX - Barony of Boyle, Co. Roscommon Clan O’Nolan
Primary: N-15 and N-64 have a genetic distance of one with a 36 of 37-marker match. Information available suggests it is a Co. Roscommon lineage.
Family I - Kilknock Branch, Carlow Clan O'Nolan
Primary: N-18 mismatched by one mutation from the thoroughly researched Shangarry, Carlow Clan O'Nolan 12-marker haplotype and it is, therefore, evident that N-18 has an ancient connection to Shangarry, Carlow Clan O'Nolan representing the third branch of Carlow Clan O'Nolan.
"I have now identified the exact townland and relatives of my ancestor who emigrated to New Brunswick around 1818. Our line is the Kilknock Nolan line, Kilknock being a townland close to Ballon Village in County Carlow."
Family II and III
Primary: The family of N-14 is of Haplogroup G, and thus his family does not share deep ancestry with any of the above lineages. The earliest known ancestor of N-14 is Thomas Francis Nolan born about 1853 who came from Portugal. Family legend is that he was a stow-away who changed his name upon arrival in New England: Boston, Massachusetts. N-27 is of Haplogroup G2a, and thus this family does share a common deep ancestry with N-14. From that information, we can assume the N-14 Haplogroup G family of Nolans are not indigenous to Ireland or the Nolan surname.
N-27, Haplogroup G2a, has a Y-Search 37-marker genetic distance match of 2 with QEDRW of the Laird surname recorded with Country of Origin as Belfast, Ireland. And N-27 appears in the Haplogroup G Project - DNA Results and Groupings - The G2a Clade with Duplicated Values for DYS19 page with a match to DW6WC, Villoni, Italy.
"Members of the G group are all descended from a common ancestor who developed a mutation at the M-201 site on the male DNA chromosome (Y chromosome). This ancestor is thought to have lived about 30,000 years ago along the eastern edge of the Middle East, perhaps as far east as the Himalayan foothills in Pakistan or India." Haplogroup G "put down roots predominantly in the area south and east of the Caucasus Mountains in the period before the Current Era (over 2000 years ago) when some other groups were instead populating all areas of Europe for the first time after the Ice Age glaciers melted. These G persons gradually relocated into the Caucasus area of Europe and into other continents. The Caucasus are today mainly the countries of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and southwestern Russia."
"The G family definitely partially migrated westward into Europe in the last several thousand years by invasion, capture as slaves or other means of movement." The "coalition of Iranian nomadic tribes, which moved gradually from the Caspian plains to eastern Europe and threatened the Roman empire, as described at the following web page:
Sarmatians, "comprised the only group from the eastern edge of Europe known to have settled in western Europe almost 2,000 years ago in significant numbers such that they should still be a noticeable part of the population when DNA studies are performed."
"The Sarmatian genetic profile, therefore, should necessarily be different from the native R and I profiles of Western Europe. The Sarmatians are known to have had settlements in the western half of Europe in Britain, Holland, Germany, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. But only in France is a population figure from that migration period known. The Sarmatians were there at least 35,000 persons - thus two percent or more of the estimated population then. The percentage of G in many of these western European populations today is only a little higher."
A relationship does exist between N-27 and the Whittaker surname with two exact 12-marker matches and one 25-marker match at a genetic distance of one.
Family IV & V
Primary: N-20 lists his only known ancestor as F. Jacob Adam Nolan born 27 January 1943 dying 10 May 2005. This DNA result indicates an E3b3a Haplogroup and thus does not share deep ancestry with any of the above lineages or Nolan DNA participants except N-23 of Haplogroup E3b. N-20 and N-23 are deemed unrelated in a 12-marker test.
N-20 does have a 23 of 25-marker match with the (E1b1b1) Knepper surname of Pennsylvania and German origin who tested with Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation.
"E3b (E-M35) was one of the Y haplogroups that was common among the Neolithic farmers from the Middle East who first brought agriculture into Europe about 9000 years ago. Cruciani et al give an estimate of 24-27 thousand years ago for the date of the most recent common ancestor of all E3b's and named eastern Africa as the probable place of origin. The distribution of E3b in Europe is shown as the group in yellow on the fourth page of King and Underhill's >paper on Neolithic ceramics. It is seen most frequently along the Mediterranean coast - especially at the eastern end. Semino et al saw E3b at frequencies of 20-24% in Greece, 10-27% in Italy, and 2-11% in Spain. Capelli et al saw E3b in Britain at frequencies of 0-6%, in Germany at 3%, and less than 0.5% in Norway. Studies by Al-Zahery et al and Lucotte et al indicate that most E3b's probably yield a result of ht5 for tests of the 49a,f Taq/I locus."
"E3b3a is an E3b sub-clade defined by the SNPs M123 and M34. Paracchini et al saw E3b3a among Cauacasians in the US at a frequency of about 2%. Cruciani et al saw evidence that E3b3a originated in the Near East. It occurs in Europe at a rate of 1.7% and may have been introduced there by Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However the authors point out that the lack of E3b3a in southeastern Europe weakens that hypothesis, and suggest that it may have been introduced to Europe directly from Africa. The paper by Semino et al includes a good map (named "E-M123") that shows the distribution of E3b3a in Europe, Africa, and the Near East. Cruciani et al found E3b3a at frequencies of 2-7% in Italy, and at low frequencies among Corsicans and Asturians. They reported rates of E3b3a in the Near East of 2-8%. Semino et al saw E3b3 among Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews at a rate of 10-12%.
No description of the E3b3a haplotype was given in the paper by Cruciani et al. Only two individuals (from Bulgaria and from Central Asia) have been seen who had the M123 mutation, but did not have the M34 mutation. The E3b3a sub-group defined by M136 has only been seen in two individuals from Pakistan/India."
Primary: N-31 mismatches N-8 at DYS #389-1 and 389-2 at the 12-marker level. N-31 seems very similar to Irish Type III, but mismatches it by two at DYS #389-1 and 389-2 also. Matches of significance at Y-Search for N-31 are the exact 12-marker O'Bryne (Bryne) Co. Kilkenny result for RE7TY and PJY4B Breen of Ireland result. N-31 has fifteen exact 12-marker matches with the Townsend surname. The match with RE7TY of Co. Kilkenny Ireland is precisely where this Noland haplotype should exist according to research posted at History of Carlow Clan O'Nolan and Tipperary Clan O'Nolan. This Noland haplotype migrated into Co. Tipperary Ireland after its Co. Kilkenny residence and may connect to N-8 and N-13 at Irish Type III.
19 June 2009
"I spent some time studying your project, and esp. the different branches and where they originated from. The N-31 branch caught my interest, as the Breen [PJY4B] mentioned as a 12/12 match is a 3rd cousin of mine. The other "bryne" mentioned is actually Byrne of Clara castle lineage Johnstown, Kilkenny with whom I match 25/25 [32-37]. Our lineage we have found back to Dublin c. 1818 Jeremiah Breen, which continues to present in Dublin. I noted also the "15 matches [12m] to Townsend". This ties in with my 6 matches to [Townsend]."
"We are on the Byrne/Burn project on Le 1f [Leinster] section inc' byrne/kilkenny. On Ysearch I am R2R8F. I have also been invited to join the Leinster modal [464xCCGG] beatty-burns group, as I have matching with [approx] ten beatty also. I have been in contact with the Byrne/kilk, whose ancestors also lived at Bayswell house in northwest Kilkenny. Also geographically interesting for me is that I [now] live about 10 mls from Enniscrone, Sligo. Is the castle still above ground or has it been demolished like so many others across the country?"
Terence G. Breen
Millview, Dromore west
The DYS #389-2 at 31 value for N-31 matches N-3 and N-30 of Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan. N-3 and N-30 are the only other two Nolan results at 31 for DYS #389-2, and they are haplogroup R1b1c10. That may represent an ancient relationship prior to the introduction of surnames between N-31 and Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan as predicted in research posted at History of Carlow Clan O'Nolan and Tipperary Clan O'Nolan. Certainly, a genetic distance of two with N-8 and three with N-3 and N-30 at the 12-marker level indicates that this Noland family does not match the Irish Type III or Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan within the timeframe of surname use, but it does not rule out an ancient connection between N-31, Irish Type III, or Offaly - Kilkenny Clan O'Nolan.
"The O'Briens descend from the Delcassians of Munster, ancient Gaelic tribes (Dal gCais) that occupied what is now Clare, as well as adjacent parts of Limerick and Tipperary."
"the Gaelic spelling of Ua Briain was changed to that of O'Brien..."
"In a few cases, the name O'Brien may be derived from Norman origins. Some families originally called Bryne or Bryon added the O' prefix to gaelicize their name. Common variant spellings of the name include O'Brian, O'Bryne and O'Bryan."
THE ANNALS OF ULSTER, THE ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS & THE ANNALS OF CONNACHT. ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS.
"Donnell O'Brien defeated the English of Ossory, and made a great slaughter of them."
Tribes of the Érainn: Based on Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland: An Ethnography of the Gael A.D. 500 - 1750 by C. Thomas Cairney, Ph.D. @ http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/cairney/index.htm
O hAonghusa (O'Hennessy) (O'Huallachain)
O Briain (O'Brien)
Primary: N-34 represents the first Nolan R1a or also known as R1a1, which is less than 1% in most of Ireland. Essentially, R1a indicates Viking heritage from an origin of Central Asia. In Western Norway R1a represents 23-30% of the population, England 3-5% of the population in concentrated areas of Norse Viking settlement, and in Scotland in concentrations similar to but slightly exceeding the British percentages.
It is the opinion of N-34 that his "Nowling family of West Florida descends from one of the well known brothers of the famous Loudoun Co. Virginia Noland family. Most probable is the brother named Paul, of which little can be proved by records." The South Carolina ancestry of N-34 may also be the result of a British military soldier, Sergeant Daniel Noulan (Nowlan), who enlisted in England settling in the Colonies after twenty years of military service to the English crown.
N-34: 27 November e-mail
Noland's of South Carolina
"Have more definitive information on the British soldier in early South Carolina. The Council Journal Vol. II 1748-1752 is the source. Several former soldiers in a British army unit recently disbanded asked for assistance in getting transportation, apparently to England. Among the names was Daniel Noulan, formerly a sergeant, date was July 4, 1749.
The next entry is more informative, dated September 6, 1749. Daniel Nowlan said he was one of the soldiers disbanded from Captain Hudson's Company. He had enlisted in England and served 20 years as a sergeant. He desired to settle in the Colony, had a wife and two children and prayed for a grant of land based on a family of this size. He asked for 200 acres on the North Side of Broad River."
N-34: 6 December 2007 e-mail
"There is another tradition that may be of interest... One story came from more than one source. That is, the family was Irish, but they left Ireland and lived in Holland, one person said Belgium, for several years before moving to America before the Revolutionary War. I interpret this to detail flight from Ireland in the Cromwell era. It is interesting that the only other place I have heard this tradition is from the Noland Family in Haywood County, North Carolina. They can document their descent from Peter Noland, a brother to Paul."
Haplogroup R1a1 could also represent the Gailenga Beg Corca Laoidhe branch of Nolan's from Co. Offaly. A branch of the Corca Laoighdhe did locate "nearer to Dublin". Dublin was a Viking settlement at the mouth of the river Liffey.
"In Irish it is O hAonghusa, i.e. descendant of Aonghus or Angus. The principal sept of this name was located near the town of Kilbeggan and Croghan Hill, their territory being chiefly in the northern part of Co. Offaly, where they shared with O'Holohan the lordship of Clan Cholgain; a branch of this was located nearer to Dublin, the head of it being chief of Gailenga Beg on the north side of the River Liffey on the borders of Counties Meath and Dublin. The latter was displaced by the Anglo-Norman invasion."
The closest Y-Search match with N-34 is B943D with the Hawthorne surname from Greaugh, Drumsnatt, Monaghan, Ireland, 13 25 16 10 11 15 12 12 10 14 11 31, arriving in South Carolina from Belfast on the brigantine Chichester with brothers and father, John Hawthorne. Robert and Joseph Hawthorne fought in the Revolutionary War.
"An important historical Irish example of this haplogroup is *kit no., 50946 - Rollo Hume D.'Auvergne Prendergast, Esq. Rollo is a direct paper ancestor to Sir Maurice de Prendergast, born in the mid-12th Century. Maurice de Prendergast was Strongbow's (Earl of Pembroke) chief Herald and Marshall of the mixed force of Norman, Irish, Welsh and Flemish which came to the aid of Dhairmaid MacMurchu - the deposed King of Leinster."
"R1a - originally thought to have originated in the Caucasus region around the Black Sea, new research is indicating that this type may have originated in the region around Khazakstan, possibly even in India or Pakistan. R1a spread into Central Asia and migrated across the Russian Steppes into Eastern Europe where it reaches high levels in Hungary, Poland, the Ukraine and the Slavic regions (the peoples genetically closest to Norwegians).
R1a is characterized by the mutations SRY10831.2- (negative as opposed to positive) and M17+. M17 is what most academic studies have tested for to determine R1a - it actually categorizes R1a1, which seems to encompass all R1a (I have yet to see a single "R1a" that was SRY10831.2- and also M17-. Anyone SRY10831.2- seems to be universally M17+, in other words all R1a are also R1a1). For this reason you will many times see R1a and R1a1 used interchangably within the literature.
One particular group of Y-STR values within R1a shows matches in Central Asia, around the Siberian Altai and Uyghur province of Western China. The recent find of Caucasian mummies in the Takla Makan deserts of the Uyghur province prove that a race of red and blond haired people with Scandinavian features, over 6' tall, once lived in this region. R1a is found at very high percentages in Western Norway, where it reaches frequencies between 23% to 30%. Some researchers believe the Icelandic Sagas, which describe a migration of a population from Asia beyond the Ural mountains, to Norway, may actually be based in fact. Thor Heyerdahl, of Kon Tiki fame, spent the remaining years of his life attempting to prove this theory -- and DNA evidence is seeming to prove him right. The Swedes have long believed this legend, and the emergence of a specific type of Scandinavian R1a with a Central Asian motif seems to support this account.
The MacDonalds have determined that their progenitor, Somerled, belonged to haplogroup R1a (of the same Central Asian motif) and the Douglas's progenitor, Willem de Douglas, recently turned up R1a according to the Clan Douglas DNA project. It seems this holds true for most of the pseudo-aristocracy of Scandinavia. R1a is found at levels of less than 1% in most regions of Ireland, and at levels of 3-5% in England, and only slightly higher in Scotland. The highest concentrations of this haplogroup are seen in areas of Britain colonized by the Norse Vikings. One of the leading DNA experts has called R1a the only sure proof of Norse Viking origins when seen in men of deep British ancestry.
"The Scandinavians have long believed that their ancestors originated in Asia. The Icelandic sagas claim descent for the Jarls of Norway from the warriors of Troy, and the anthropologist Thor Heyerdahl - the author of the classic "Kon Tiki" - spent his final years attempting to trace the human originals of Wodin and the Aesir back to Azerbaijan in the Caucasus. There may be an element of truth to these speculations, since individuals with R1a haplotypes often score matches with Indians, Siberians, Chinese and other Asians - even when they score no matches with persons from Europe. The recent discovery of fair-haired mummies in the Takla Makan desert of western China has revived interest in the long forgotten Indo-Iranian tribe, the Tocharians, their possible role in the economy of the Silk Road, and their relationship with the people of Europe."
Primary: A likely relationship for N-9 is with the Williams surname.