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PITTSBURGH ACADEMY BULLETIN, 1906


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The Bulletin
Contains a Statement of our educational creed and how we are trying to work it out and live it out in the work of the School. It contains no school gossip, slang, or nonsense. It gives just such information about the School as we find parents and prospective students want. If you are interested in school work, we invite you to read it through.


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Calendar

The school year is divided into two terms.

1906

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, First Term opens..
THURSDAY AND FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 29 AND 30, Thanksgiving Vacation.
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 21, Christmas Vacation begins.

1907

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 2, School re-opens.
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 23, Term Examinations.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 24, Term Examinations
FRIDAY, JANUARY 25, First Term closes.
TUESDAY, JANUARY 29, Second Term opens.
FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 29, Annual Contest between Em-
anon and Knickerbocker Literary Societies.
MONDAY, MARCH 25, Normal Review Classes begin.
FRIDAY, MAY 10, Competitive Drill.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 12, Term Examinations.
THURSDAY, JUNE 13, Term Examinations.
FRIDAY, JUNE 14, Second Term closes.
TUESDAY, JUNE 18, Commencement.

School will not be in session on the following holidays: Thanksgiving, Washington's Birthday, Good Friday and Memorial Day.

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J. Warren Lytle
President and Founder Pittsburgh Academy



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Officers



J. WARREN LYTLE
President

J. C. ARMSTRONG
Principal Academic and Preparatory Departments

Miss SUE E. LYTLE
Principal Normal and Modern Language Departments

 MAJOR   V. S. BEACHLEY
Commandant Cadets

K. T. OVEREND
Principal Business Departments

Miss CHRISTINE MILLER
Secretary and Treasurer


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Faculty

J, WARREN LYTLE
Elocution

J. C. ARMSTRONG, A.M.
Science and Mathematics

MlSS  SUE E. LYTLE
Higher English

FREEMAN E. McNALL, A B.
Mathematics and History

ADOLPH G. FRANK, A M.
German

J. C. HOCH. Ph.D.
Latin and Greek

Miss GERTRUDE ANDREWS, A.B.
Higher English and History

Miss JENNIE M.  JACKSON
Drawing   and    Painting

W. A. MCLAUGHLIN, A.B.
Latin  and  French

MAJOR V. S. BEACHLEY, B. A.
Mathematics

Miss JEAN G. MILLER
Elocution and  Mathematics


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Miss CHRISTINE MILLER
Music

E.   T.   OVEREND
Commercial Branches

Miss ELLA M. BROWN
Shorthand and Typewriting

Miss J. GRACE WARNER
Commercial Branches

MlSS MAUDE M. CURRY
Commercial Branches

Miss BESSIE WHITE
Commercial Branches

Miss ETHEL WATERMAN
Commercial Branches

PROF. JOHN DAUBERGER
Instructor Cadet Band

Miss NANNIE MACKRELL
Instructor Saturdav Normal Class

PROF. J.   M.   LOGAN
Instructor Saturday   Normal Class

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Miss BESSIE MATTHEW
Stenographer

CAPT. BLAKE FETTERMAN
Assistant to Commandant

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Major V. S. BEACHLEY
Commandant Cadet Corps



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Rates of Tuition


The tuition for the Academic, Normal, Modern Language and Preparatory departments is $120.00 per school year; $60.00 payable September 6, 1906 and $60.00 payable January 29, 1907. The tuition for either term alone is $60.00, payable upon the student's entrance.

The tuition for the Teachers' special course is $75.00 per school year; $40.00 payable September 6, 1906; $35.00 payable January 29, 1907. The tuition for either term alone is $40.00, payable upon the student's entrance.

The tuition for either the Commercial or the Shorthand course is $100.00 per school year; $50.00 payable September 6, 1906, and the remaining $50.00 January 29, 1907, The tuition for either term alone is $50.00, payable upon the student's entrance. Tuition per month, $12.00.

Students pursuing irregular courses of study will be charged the same tuition fee as regular students.

The departments of Modern Languages and Art are open to all students in the Academic, Normal and Preparatory departments without charge.

All bills for tuition must be paid in advance. We carry a full line of text-books, stationery and supplies used in the school, and we will furnish them to students for cash only.

No student will be entered for less than a full term in any department, and no tuition less than the full rate for one term will be received. No deduction in tuition will be made for absence, except in case of sickness, in which case a deduction will be made for an absence of more than four weeks.


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Cadet Corps




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                                   July, 1906                                           


Editorial

To alumni, students, patrons and friends, the BULLETIN brings a cordial greeting, with glad tidings of a prosperous year and a bright outlook for the future.

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The only way the public can judge the discipline of a school is by the conduct of its students in school and in the public exercises connected with the school; and the only reliable test of the character of the work done in a school is the fitness of its students for the active duties of life and their standing as students in higher institutions. The Pittsburgh Academy is willing to have these tests applied to its discipline and instruction.

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Our special inducements are an earnest, industrious body of students, a spirit of intense interest in school work, the best moral and social influences, special opportunities to students who are anxious to advance rapidly in their work, daily individual help for students, superior advantages in literary work, military training under an expert, instruction in elocution and vocal music without extra charge, and a faculty composed of those who are experts in their lines of work.

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Former students will remember that this is the time of year that Pittsburgh Academy looks to all its friends to assist it in extending its patronage and its usefulness as an educational institution. There are people in your neighborhood whose thoughts may be turned toward the Academy by a word from you, timely spoken. When you have opportunity, speak to your acquaintances of the work done in our school. We wish to have our catalogue in the hands of everyone interested in education. Send for one.


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The success of the Pittsburgh Academy is due, in a great measure, to the efforts of its former students and graduates. The prominent positions which many of our graduates occupy is a recommendation of our strength, and we are proud of many of our boys and girls. Nine-tenths of our patrons come to us directly or indirectly through the influence of some one who is, or has been, a pupil. We take this opportunity to assure our friends that every favor shown to us is noted and keenly appreciated by the officers and faculty.

In many preparatory schools and colleges, the interest lies mainly in football, baseball, hockey, general athletics, and social affairs, with enough study and interest in school work to vary the monotony. In the Academy, these conditions are just reversed. Our theory is that the main purpose of school and college is to aid students in the formation of correct habits of study, and to train them in those lines of work that will be helpful to them in after life. The chief interest of the student body in the Academy is in study and work. Athletics and social functions occupy a second place.

The Academy has won for itself the respect and esteem of a large body of true and tried friends.    It has sent to colleges and seminaries, into professional life and commercial circles, and home life, hosts of young people who look upon it as a friend.    To all these, we bring greeting.    We thank you for the many words of encouragement, and for the kindly deeds that speak louder than words.    We bespeak your continued interest.     The call for friendship's sake; the letter recalling the good gained at school; the word of sympathy or help; the presence year after year at the closing exercises; the kindly message sent by others-- all these help along the way.

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The institution that pretends to take a boy who has just finished a grammar school course and prepare him for engineering in any of its branches in two or three years, deceives the boy, does him a wrong which will cripple him through life, and degrades an honorable profession to the level of a mere trade.

One of the most important lessons students should learn in school is that of always working up to their best, both in the quality and quantity of their work. There is something radically wrong in a school where students can devote more than half their time to athletics and social affairs, and at the same time seem to maintain a creditable standing in their classes. A student who devotes more of his time to outside affairs than to his school duties ought, in justice to himself, his parents, and his school, to withdraw from school and devote all his time and energy to those things in which he is most interested. The Academy demands a very large share of the time, energy and interest of all its students. Nothing less than the best a student can do satisfies us.

Our school is devoted to the exclusive work of aiding its students in the acquisition of those solid educational attainments that shine with their own native lustre. We hold that the principal business of the school is the formation of correct habits of study and the inculcation of those moral and social virtues that will make the student a virtuous man or woman and a useful citizen. Upon our ability to instruct students in these substantial virtues, we have asked for and received a generous share of patronage, and upon this foundation we solicit its continuance.

Education is more than a preparation for life, — it is life itself, and an institution that has for its object the education of the young, should bring as much as possible of real life into it-


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Commissioned Officers



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self. The sexes do not live in isolation in real life, neither should they in school. In the family — an institution divinely ordained for the rearing and education of children — boys and girls are brought up together. A child brought up entirely among those of its own sex is, in nine cases out of ten, deficient in those social qualities which go far toward making the true lady or gentleman. After twenty years' experience with coeducation in a large school, we are prepared to say that not a single one of the so-called objections to co-education has given us the least trouble, and the only mystery to us is how any school engaged in preparatory work can justify itself in excluding either sex, except for purely business reasons.

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"We learn to do by doing," is a trite educational maxim whose recent revival by novices in education may mislead those who give only superficial thought to such matters. This principle, which is only a partial truth in primary education, becomes a positive error in advanced education. Prof. John A. McLellan, author of "Applied Psychology," has said the following in regard to the fallacy of this maxim: "Let the eye, and ear, and hand be thoroughly trained by all means; but is there not something behind these organs that makes the seeing eye, the hearing ear, the forming hand? Is the process from without inward, — first the hand, then the brain, then the mind? Or is it from within outward — mind, brain, hand? Even in the elementary work of what we call the mechanical stage, thinking precedes doing; in writing, for instance, the child must have an idea of the form of a letter before he can reproduce it. It may be true that the making of outward forms aids the mind to more definite conceptions ; but from the elementary to the highest stages, the ideal is before the actual. It appears, then, that the maxim, learn to do by doing, is after all but the complement of a wider and profounder principle, learn to do by knowing. We learn to do by knowing, and to know by doing, "


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We are often asked, "How long a time is required to prepare a student for college in the Academy?" This is really a somewhat difficult question to answer; in fact, it is impossible to answer it without a knowledge (1) of what the student already knows; (2) of his ability; (3) of the course of study he expects to take in college ; (4) of the college he expects to enter, and (5) of his willingness to apply himself to the work of preparation. A student of good ability, who has completed a grammar school course, can, by devoting from three to five hours a day to study, prepare for a course in one of the smaller technical schools in two years, and in one of the larger schools in three years; while preparation for a scientific or classical course in the smaller schools requires three years, and for the large colleges, such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Cornell and the University of Pennsylvania requires four years. All colleges using the certificate plan accept our certificate, and our college preparatory course is broad enough to prepare students for the entrance examinations to any American college. We regard the examination plan the fairest and best plan of college entrance.


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Honesty, industry, fidelity to duty, politeness, courtesy and obedience are cardinal virtues, and should form part of the education of every youth. In the Pittsburgh Academy, they occupy first place. Mere intellectual training, without the cultivation of these virtues that form the basis of a good character, is a dangerous thing, and ruins thousands of young people. The moral atmosphere of a school counts for more than its curriculum.


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In the Pittsburgh Academy, a student's progress is regulated entirely by his native ability and his willingness to work. A bright, ambitious student may complete a preparatory course of study with us in half the time required by slower or less ambitious ones.


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Length of Courses of Study

Our Academic course is arranged in the schedule of studies as a four years' course, and this is about the time required by the student of average ability and application, to complete it. Students of superior ability, whose training previous to entering the Academy has been good, may, by close application to study, complete this course in three years. It is assumed in our estimates of the time required to complete the courses of study that the student has completed the grammar school course for the city schools or an equivalent course. We are willing to allow ambitious students, who are desirous of completing their preparatory studies in the shortest time possible, the widest opportunities consistent with their own good and the good of the school. Under no circumstanced is the progress of bright, ambitious students retarded by those who are careless or indifferent about their work. We provide for the more rapid advancement of brighter students without the necessity of multiplying classes in the following manner: At the opening of each school year, we organize several beginning Latin classes. These classes are made up arbitrarily of an equal number of students simply for convenience in recitation. In the course of one or two months, the teachers discover who are able to advance more rapidly, and a re-adjustment of classes is made. By a careful re-adjustment of classes at the close of each quarter, it not infrequently happens that at the close of the first year, the division composed of the brightest and most ambitious students has done twice as much work as the division made up of those who are less ambitious. A few students of excellent ability have done double work in their studies, as for instance, reading Cicero and Virgil at the same time. We pursue the same plan in other studies as in Latin. In the Academy, a student's progress is not limited by any pedagogical theory or tra-


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Exhibition Drill -- Girls' Cadet Corps



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ditional course of study, but entirely by his own exertions and his native ability.

The Normal and the Modern Language are each planned as three-year courses. A few students who have done a full year's work in Latin, Algebra, and General History have been able to complete the Normal course in two years; but for the student who has not advanced beyond the grammar school grade before entering the Academy, either of these courses contains three full years' work. The same opportunities for rapid advancement are afforded ambitious students in these departments as in the Academic.

In our business school, the same opportunities for rapid advancement are offered to the ambitious student. In the Bookkeeping Department, where the work is largely individual, this is especially true. Here the only limits placed on the student's rate of advancement are those imposed by the limit of his natural ability and the amount of time he is willing to devote to his work. The same is in a large measure true of the work in the Department of Stenography.

Students of exceptional ability who have done advanced work in the Academy or in high schools or in normal schools, may complete the course in bookkeeping or the course in stenography in considerably less time than is required by those who have not had such training. This is especially true in shorthand and typewriting, where one's ability to advance depends so much upon one's power of concentration and his knowledge of English. A student whose mind has been well disciplined by the master of the studies of a higher course will master the principles of bookkeeping in one-half the time required by those whose preparatory work has been limited to an elementary course.

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Our Business Schools

PITTSBURGH   ACADEMY'S   Business   Departments have  taken rank  as high grade  schools in every particular.    They do not deal in the  short  term claptrap    "business   education"    so   extensively advertised by other schools, but are devoted to those solid educational attainments that bring success to the student when he leaves school, and win friends for the school wherever its work is known.    We have a thoroughly well-graded and complete course of study in both the departments of Bookkeeping and Stenography, and the completion of either of these courses fits the student for the work of the most exacting situations, and practically guarantees him permanent employment at a good salary.

In both departments, the student is given every advantage possible for the rapid and thorough completion of his course of study.    Although it is decidedly to the advantage of students to enter at the beginning of the year, yet they may com plete their course at any time and receive a diploma or certificate.

Many parents and young persons are attracted by glaring advertisements of business schools in which they offer a scholarship for payment of a stated sum, and guarantee the completion of a course in either Bookkeeping or Stenography, or both, in from three to six months, and a situation when the course is completed. The sale of a perpetual scholarship in any school for a fixed sum of money is as unreasonable and unfair as the agreement to furnish you groceries perpetually for a fixed sum. In either case, the contracting parties are either ignorant of the meaning of the contract or it is not made in good faith. We have just as good facilities and as able instructors in both our business departments as any other school in the city, and we can get just as much hard work out of a student in a given time as any of them; but to promise the average student that in from three to six months he may acquire such a knowledge of either


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course as will enable him to fill a position efficiently and creditably, is to make a promise that we know no institution that does honest work can fulfill. A course of study in either Bookkeeping or Shorthand and Typewriting that can be completed in from three to six months contains so little of either as to render it of little value to the student, and will not fit him for holding a responsible position. It is vastly better and far cheaper for a student to take a few months longer for the completion of a course of study than it is to be crippled throughout life from the lack of a more thorough knowledge of his chosen work.

We are able to place every student in a desirable position just as soon as his course of study is completed; and while we guarantee positions to no one, we do not hesitate to say that as long as present conditions prevail, no worthy student need remain long without desirable employment at a good salary. We were obliged to refuse very many requests for stenographers during the past six months simply because we were unable to supply the demand.

We have solicited and obtained a liberal share of patronage on the sole ground of honest work and fair treatment, and on this basis we solicit its continuance. We promise our patrons and students only fair dealing, the best facilities, expert instruction, and our utmost endeavors to further their interests in every way. By these methods, the Business Departments of the Academy have made for themselves a host of friends among former students who may be found in the offices of almost every corporation and firm in the city and vicinity. Our school has always stood for the highest and best in commercial education, and we have been so liberally supported in the stand we have taken that we believe a day of better things in commercial education is near at hand.

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Exhibition Drill



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Our Literary Societies

GREAT interest is taken in our two flourishing literary societies—the Emanon and the Knickerbocker. These societies are conducted by the students, subject to the general control of the faculty. They meet every Friday afternoon, from October to May, inclusive, at 2 p. m. Officers are elected every four weeks by the members of each society, and all the proceedings are conducted in strict accordance with the best parliamentary usage. All original performances are reviewed by the faculty with special reference to matter and literary form before they are delivered in the societies, and all members who are placed on the program for recitation, select oration, etc., receive advice and assistance in selecting and preparing their performances from members of the faculty. Students are allowed all the freedom that is possible in the conduct of these societies, and the officers are responsible to the faculty for the manner in which they are conducted. The meetings of these societies are not what such meetings frequently are, simply an opportunity for students to meet and have a good time socially, but they are for genuine literary work.

We consider the work done in these societies one of the strongest and best features of our school, and so strong is our faith in the necessity and desirability of the training they afford that no student in the literary departments of the school will be excused from attendance upon their meetings, except by a special and personal request from parents. Great care is exercised in the appointment of students for performances. No student is ever appointed for a performance which he is absolutely unable to give, and those who have no experience in literary society work are assigned only short, easy performances at first.

The society work required of each student is considered as much a part of his course of study as his mathematics or his Latin, and no student who is notably deficient in this work can

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hope to stand high in his class. A careful record is kept of each student's society work, and his record is taken into account in determining his class standing. Special literary duties are required of students during their senior year. Each member is charged a fee of fifty cents per year. There are no other fees or dues. The annual contest, which takes place in March, is an occasion of great interest to the students, patrons, and friends of the school.

If you have a son or a daughter who has not learned how to study, and has never become interested in school work, try the Pittsburgh Academy. Interest is contagious here. The students all take it. Teaching how to study is one of our specialties. We make a specialty of every student.

The Pittsburgh Academy makes ample provision for the physical training of its students. It has four companies of cadets, thoroughly equipped and under the direction of a competent officer. No side of education is neglected in the Academy.

Many causes have contributed to the Academy's remarkable growth and prosperity. Chief among these causes are the character of its patrons, the quality of its students, the thoroughness of its work, and the success of its students.


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Selecting a School

SELECTlNG a school for the preparatory training of their children is one of the most important and difficult duties that parents are called upon to perform and the proper performance of this duty calls for the highest judgment and the greatest care. A mistake in the selection of a school may blight the educational prospects of the brightest and most promising child. The most important element in the make-up of a school is the general spirit or tone. By the tone of a school is meant the general attitude of the student body toward school work, and the moral and social status of the school. The attitude of the student body toward study and school work in general is the school's greatest strength or its greatest weakness. In a school where the very atmosphere is saturated with the work spirit, the student soon learns that school life means work, and if he has not already acquired habits of idleness and the notion that school life means a loafer's life, he will soon imbibe the spirit of the school and become a studious worker. A boy or girl cannot remain long in a school without catching its spirit. If the students in a school are those whose home life is one of idleness and ease, a boy or girl entering it will soon adopt the notion that school is a place where one should have all the enjoyment and ease possible, and do only so much work as is required to maintain a respectable standing in school. The moral and social evils of school life are as contagious as smallpox, and are fully as much to be dreaded.

We challenge the commonwealth to produce a body of students in which the spirit of work is stronger than it is in the Academy. The only students who dislike the spirit of the school are those who will not work, and are therefore out of harmony with their environment.


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Non-Commissioned Officers




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Athletics

A fair and impartial judge always reserves his decision until both sides of the case have been heard; and in all matters where a practical test or application of the case can be made, no fair decision can be given until such tests and applications have been made. The management of the Pittsburgh Academy does not presume to have settled that much-discussed topic, the place of athletics in secondary schools, upon an abstract or theoretical basis, nor does it assume to advise others in the matter of athletics ; but it claims to have made such practical tests as to enable it to decide whether or not athletics as carried oninsecondary schools is a good thing for the students of the Academy.

After a trial of nearly ten years in all kinds of general athletics, we are convinced that the evils growing out of athletics greatly outweigh the good. We do not claim that athletics is an unmixed evil; for even under the most unfavorable conditions some good is derived from it. In the Academy, we have found that athletics interferes with the regular work of the school in many ways. In addition to the fact that athletics interferes seriously with the school work, we have another good reason for the position we have taken in this matter, and that is that we have an excellent substitute for athletics in our Military department.

Some of the advantages of military training over athletics are: (1) It affords superior physical and mental training; (2) every boy in school can take an active part in and secure all the advantages of military training, while in athletics only a few can take part; (3) military training can be kept under the absolute control of the authorities of the school, while athletics cannot; (4) military training is entirely free of the dangers attending athletics; (5) military training is attended by none of the demoralizing influences that always accompany athletic contests between rival schools. "Our decision in favor


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of military training over athletics is not made as a matter of policy or business, but as a result of a fair trial of both covering a period of fifteen years.

Seven years ago, when the management of the Academy practically decided to discard competitive athletics, it was freely predicted that it would seriously affect the prosperity of the school. This prediction has not been fulfilled. On the other hand, our attendance has steadily increased. We have discovered that there is a large and constantly growing number of people in this community who believe with us that the chief end of the school is not athletics and amusement, but the more serious business of getting an education. If any ardent advocate of athletics feels inclined to test the matter in a practical way, we are willing to have our boys stand an examination with those who practice athletics (1) as to their general health, (2) as to their strength and muscular development, and (3) as to the amount and character of the work they are doing in school.

In the Pittsburgh Academy, one hour is set apart each day for the purpose of giving individual help to students who need such help. All members of the faculty are in their rooms during this hour, and will give such aid and suggestions to students who apply for it, as in the judgment of the teacher, is for the student's good. No extra charge is made for this individual help.

From five to eight months' work in the shorthand department of the Pittsburgh Academy will prepare a bright, industrious boy or girl for ordinary office work. Our students are in demand. Out of more than one hundred students in the department last year, not a single one who was ready for a position is out of employment. In the past six months, we have had many requests for stenographers which we could not fill.

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Culture and Skill

Every competent teacher knows and frankly admits that after the student leaves school and college he has many things to learn before he is ready to do well his part of the work of this busy world. The fact that the student just out of school cannot take the place and do the work of those who have had fewer educational advantages, but more practical experience, has led some persons to assert that many of the so-called culture studies of school and college have no practical value whatever. If the chief end of education is to convert the boy or girl into a machine, — a skilled workman — capable of transforming a given quantity of raw material into a finished product, we would be forced to admit that much that is taught in schools has no value of any kind to the student.

The management of the Pittsburgh Academy cannot believe that the good people of this community are ready to accept any such estimate of the purpose of school and education. While the purpose to fit our youth to be skillful workers in the great manufacturing concerns of the city and its environs is a laudable one, yet we do not hesitate to assert that the attempt so to arrange the work of all our educational institutions as to make the direct training of skilled workmen their chief purpose would be a most serious mistake. We need many skilled workers for our mills and factories, and it is certainly desirable that we shall be able to supply them from the boys and girls who are now in our schools rather than import them; but it should also be remembered that we need intelligent, law-abiding, God-fearing citizens as well as skilled workers. It may be the duty of the state to give its citizens such training as will fit them in a measure for their trades or callings in life ; but there can be no question that it is our duty to train for citizenship, for social usefulness, and personal enjoyment. To make a skilled mechanic of a boy is well, but it should be remembered that the boy becomes a man, and that as a man and a citizen he will


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have other duties to perform that are just as essential to his happiness and prosperity as his skill as a workman. The boy must be taught that he is a rational being, that he has a spiritual nature that bears a close relation to his happiness and success, that he is part of a social organism and owes something to it. If it be admitted that much of the work of the schools does not fit students for the trades and handicrafts, it may be positively asserted that the changes suggested by those who favor making our schools subserve the purpose of direct preparation for workshop and factory, would fail entirely in the higher purpose of personal self-respect and social usefulness. Those ardent advocates of industrial education who seem to think that the only remedy for our social and industrial ills lies in industrializing our system of education, forget entirely that those nations in which there is most social and industrial unrest are also the nations in which manual training and technical schools have reached their highest efficiency. France and Germany lead the world in technical education, and yet among the enlightened nations of the world there are no others in which there is more social unrest and general discontent.

There always have been, and it is safe to predict that there always will be unhappy, unfortunate, and discontented people in the world, and he who undertakes to write a prescription for the cure of all those evils attempts a hopeless task. The very best that the schools can do to aid our boys and girls in realizing the most and the best that is in life, is to teach them those things that will render them capable of enjoying the higher and better things, make them feel its responsibilities and duties, and help them to perform with care and skill whatever work they may choose. Let them be taught those things that will help them to become skillful and reliable workmen when they leave school and enter life's great workshop, but we plead that the higher and nobler and better purposes of education be not subordinated to the lower, material and commercial. The chief end of man is not to become a skillful worker and money earner, but to live a pure, noble, useful and happy life. The true order in education is culture, skill and efficiency.


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Education a Growth

IT HAS been wisely said that the education of a man begins one hundred years before his birth. Therefore, the men of to-day must ask themselves the question, "What kind of men will our descendants be?" This is a serious question. In this age of steam and electricity, of the telegraph and telephone, in this age of hustle, we hear much of the strenuous life. It is claimed that a man must get into the harness before his body and mind are mature; that he must rush things and then make way for another generation. Let us not be found in this whirl, but let us steer clear of the rock. Let us return to the times when education was a process of digestion and assimilation; when life was a growth and a period of work well-planned. On a narrow foundation, we can hope to build only a narrow superstructure, but the broader the foundation on which we build, the higher and stronger will be our structure. Let us plead with you for intelligent preparation and broadening influence, and not for a short-cut and bread-and-butter course.

An ancient poet sang: ' 'The mills of the gods grind slowly," and all history proves this true. All progress is slow. Great results cannot be achieved in a short time. Thorough preparation for life's work is an absolute necessity. We must all enter the struggle for life in which the fittest survive, and the unfit go to the wall. This fitness is relative, not absolute; a continually changing environment demands a continual change of preparation. The problem of education is a progressive one. Each new set of conditions brings about a new combination of specific characters and demands new features of fitness.

Since all history is a principle of development, it may also be said that a man's life is, in like manner, a development in which the man himself is the agent. It has been said: ' 'An untrained race, like an untrained man, is at an immense disadvantage, not only in the competition of the world, but in the working out of individual destiny.'' Thus we see the import-

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""

 1. Julius SPATZ, 1st Honor, Literary Dept.  4. Frederick WINTERS, Knickerbocker President, one term.
 2. William FORSYTH, Knickerbocker President, one term.  5. Otto LAMPUS, 2nd Honor, Commercial Dept.
 3. Earl McCLINTOCK, Knickerbocker President, one term.  6. Capt. Harold BRENNEN, Knickerbocker President, one term.
7. Jesse HAMILTON, Knickerbocker President, one term.




P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

ance of education as a process of training by which man attains his full stature. It is not only man's privilege, but his imperative duty to seek knowledge, to desire wisdom, to strive for something better than he has known, and greater than he has yet achieved, to have high ideals that will raise life out of the dust and lift it toward the stars. This development must not be one-sided, ill proportioned, but must be full and fine and finished at every point. All the powers—physical, intellectual, and spiritual—must be developed harmoniously and symmetrically. If this ideal is the aim of education, it will tend to produce a perfect man—a man, who is linked in his origin with the grass and beast, but in his destiny with the universe and his Creator.

The ideal school will do something for the body, for the intellect, and for the spirit, giving each its due proportion and emphasis, and such a school is the Pittsburgh Academy.

If you wish to become a Draughtsman, attend the Academy. Students who complete our course in Drawing and Mathematics have no difficulty in obtaining good situations, or are prepared for the best Technical schools.

Concentration is a forerunner of success in any student's career.

If you seek this "power to win," investigate the methods at the Pittsburgh Academy.


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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Military Department

Major V. S. Beachley

This department was organized in September, 1899, and it has proved a popular and beneficial addition to our work. Military work in the Academy is no longer an experiment; it has become one of the permanent features of the school. The corps has increased in numbers and efficiency each year since its organization. While membership in the corps is optional with the student, yet a larger percentage of the boys are joining each year. The enthusiasm among the members of the corps and the marked benefits derived from it warrant the prediction that the time is not far distant when every young man of the Academy will avail himself of the excellent opportunities offered by the corps.

There are numerous advantages and benefits arising from military training, of which a few may be mentioned:

1.    It conduces to erectness and gracefulness of carriage, elasticity and grace of step, and that ease of bearing so desirable in every walk of life.

2.    An  excellent  muscular  development  is   an  incidental benefit of no mean value.

3.    Faulty positions and movements so often acquired by earnest or careless students are,  by careful instruction and training, gradually corrected.

4.    Military discipline, while it may be exercised with reference to only one department, cultivates punctuality, strict and prompt obedience, and respect for all constituted authority.    It thus is an invaluable aid in developing law-abiding citizens.

5.    The close attention to instruction and commands required in military drill cultivates the faculties of attention and concentration in a marked degree.

6.    The uniform dress and unity of purpose requisite to good corps work conduce to a healthful esprit de corps.


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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N


7.    The knowledge acquired in this department is information useful and pleasant to possess in the after life of every active citizen.

8.    It is an accomplishment of great value to be able to keep perfectly still and silent and not appear awkward.    This the cadet acquires.

9.    In no department of life is respectful courtesy so thoroughly taught as in military organizations.

The military corps is known as the Pittsburgh Academy Corps of Cadets.

The Academy has a full supply of muskets, equipments, trumpets, drums, flags, etc., and a band of musicians.

A uniform of the best Charlottesville gray, with a blue cap of the same style as worn by the West Point cadets, is worn by cadets at all exercises. The uniform is furnished by special contract at the low price of $20.00, and is made in the best manner, with excellent trimmings. In addition to this, one pair of white duck trousers for dress occasions is required.

Cadets are enlisted for the period of their attendance at the Academy, and will not be permitted to withdraw within the period of enlistment, except for reasons deemed adequate by the President and the Commandant.

Daily drills or recitatons on military subjects are given each week, together with such special drills as are necessary, and every cadet must be present at each of these unless detained by sickness or other imperative demand; and in all cases of absence, statement of cause must be given to the Commandant before or immediately after such absence.

Course of Study and Drills

The work of the corps as a whole will be much the same from year to year, but, second-year men and those in line of promotion will have additional instruction and duties.

The Infantry Drill Manual is followed strictly in regular drills.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Fall.—School of the Soldier; School of the Company; Dress Parade; Inspection.

Winter.—Recitation; Bayonet Exercise; Guard Duty; Special training to correct defects; Fancy Drills ; Butts' Rifle Drill.

Spring.—School of the Company; School of the Battalion Extended  Order; Advance Guard; Guard Mounting.  Prizes will be offered for special excellence.

Competitive Drills occur annually between Companies A,  B and D, for the Colors and for special prizes.

""

LIEUT. C. W. BRUSH
Emanon President, one term


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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N


""

ROSS LITTEN
Knickerbocker President—one term

Prize winners for 1906


Company D won the colors.

The E. E. Yost Medal for Non-Commissioned Officers, Sergt. John Keller, Company D.

Commandant's Medal for Privates, Private George Pabst, Company D.


Organization

The corps comprises three companies fully officered,  with
battalion staff and band.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Physical Training for the Young Ladies

During the past year, at the urgent solicitation of a number of the girls, a company was organized among the girls of the school for the purpose of military drill. Although the work was undertaken as an experiment, yet the results were so gratifying both to the young ladies themselves and to the management of the school, that we have decided to make it one of the permanent features of the school. This organization for military training among the girls of the school is solely for the physical training it affords, and it is not a part of the Academy Cadet Corps and bears no relation to it whatever.

The exercises are carefully adapted in every particular to the strength and powers of endurance of the individual. The drills are all conducted indoors and they are strictly private.

After having tried several other systems of physical training for girls, we do not hesitate to say that military drill is superior to any of them in every particular. A larger number of the girls enter into it, they enjoy it more, and they receive more benefit from it than from any other system of exercise we have ever tried. While this work is entirely optional, yet we strongly recommend it to every girl in the school.

""

Willis BRIERLY
Emanon President, one term.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N
 
Courses of Study

----------

Academic Course

----------

FIRST YEAR
FIRST   TERM

CLASSICAL.                                                SCIENTIFIC.
Latin: Collar & Daniel's First Book.     Latin: Collar & Daniel's First Book.
English: Grammar reviewed; Figures of Speech; Kinds of Poetry; Mechanism of Poetry; Composition.
    Algebra:    Well's Essentials of Algebra through factoring.
    Arithmetic reviewed.
    Roman History.

SECOND   TERM

CLASSICAL.                                                SCIENTIFIC.
Latin: Collar & Daniel's First Book,      Latin: Collar & Daniel's First Book, completed.                                        completed.
English: Introduction to American Literature; Composition; Classics : The Courtship of Miles Standish, The Sketch-Book, The House of Seven Gables, The Last of the Mohicans.
    Algebra:    Through Simultaneous Equations.
    Physiology.
    Drawing or Elocution.

SECOND YEAR
FIRST TERM

CLASSICAL.                                                SCIENTIFIC.
Latin: Caesar's De Bello Gallico, I,         Latin: Caesar's De Bello Gallico, I,
II; Prose Composition.                           II; Prose Composition.
Greek: White's First Book                     German: Grammar, Part I,and Conversation.
   English: Rhetoric;   Composition;   Classics: Sir   Roger   de   Coverly, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Silas    Marner.
   Algebra:    Through Simultaneous Quadratics.
   Greek History, Drawing ; Elocution.    (Elective.)

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""

Class '06  Commercial Departments




P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N


SECOND   TERM
CLASSICAL.                                               SCIENTIFIC.
Latin: Caesar's De Bello Gallico, II-             Latin: Caesar's De Bello Gallico, II
IV; Prose Composition.                                    IV; Prose Composition.
Greek:    White's    First    Book    and                    German: Grammar, Part I, and
Grammar.                                                         Conversation
English:   Rhetoric; Composition;                            Vision of Sir Launfal, Ivanhoe, The Princess.
Algebra:    School Algebra completed.
Drawing: Freehand or Mechanical.    (Elective.)
Elocution.     (Elective.)

THIRD YEAR
FIRST   TERM

CLASSICAL.                                           SCIENTIFIC.
Latin: Three Orations of Cicero;                             Latin: Three Orations of Cicero;
      Sallust, Cataline or Jugurtha;                                Sallust, Cataline or Jugurtha;
      Sight Reading; Prose Composition.                      Sight Reading; Prose Composition.
Greek: Grammar; Anabasis I-II; Prose Composition.  German: Select Reading; Conversation.
German or French.                                                     French.    (Elective.)
English: Rhetoric completed; Compositions on subjects selected from classics; Classics: Merchant of Venice, Milton's Minor Poems, Vicar of Wakefield.
Plane Geometry, Books I-II.
English History.
Physics.
Mechanical Drawing.  (Elective.)


SECOND   TERM
CLASSICAL.                                                                                 SCIENTIFIC.
Latin: Cicero, three Orations; Prose                                            Latin:  Cicero, three Orations;
   Composition; Grammar reviewed.                                                Prose Composition:  Grammar reviewed.
Greek: Anabasis,  III-IV;  Sight Reading                                         German: Select Reading; Conversation.
   from Anabasis V and Cyropedia: Prose Composition.                   French. (Elective.)
German or French.
English Literature: Classics: Essays on Milton and Addison,   David Copperfield.
Plane Geometry, Books III-V.
Physics.
Botany.    (Elective.)

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

FOURTH YEAR
FIRST  TERM
CLASSICAL.                                                SCIENTIFIC.
Latin:   Virgil     Æneid,   I-III;   Prose Composition.     Latin: Virgil,   Æneid, I-II, Prose Composition.                         
Greek: Xenophon's Hellenica, Selec-                            German: Select Reading;  Conver-
-tions; Iliad and Odyssey, Selec-                                     sation.
tions; Sight Reading, Reviews.                                      French.    (Elective.)
German or French.
English: English Literature completed, Composition; Classics; Speech on Conciliation with America, Iliad (Books I, III, XXII, XXIV), Macbeth.
Geometry: Solid, Books VI-VIII.
Chemistry:    (Elective.)

SECOND TERM
CLASSICAL.                                                SCIENTIFIC.
Latin: Virgil, Æneid IV-VI; Rapid                        Latin: Virgil, Æneid IV-VI;
Reading; Poetry and Prose ;                                Rapid Reading;   Poetry and  Prose;
Prose Composition.                                            Prose Composition.
Greek: Xenophon's Hellenica, Selec-                   German: Select Reading, Conversation.
tions;  Iliad and Odyssey, Se-                              French.  (Elective.)
lections; Sight Reading; Prose Composition.
German or French.
   English: Composition; Review of Books read; Classics: A recent novel chosen by the class.
   Mathematics: Algebra and Geometry reviewed; Plane and Spherical Trigonometry.
   Chemistry. '   (Elective.)


Normal Course

FIRST YEAR
FIRST TERM
1.    English Grammar and Composi-    4.    Algebra : Through Factoring.
tion.                                                     5.    History.
2.    Latin:   First Book.                        6.    Drawing.
3.    Arithmetic.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

SECOND TERM
1.    American   Literature,   Composi-   4.  Latin:    First  Book Completed.
       tion and Classics.                            5.  Physiology.
2.    Arithmetic completed.                     6.   Drawing.
3.    Algebra,   through   Simultaneous
       Equations.

SECOND YEAR
FIRST   TERM
1.    Rhetoric, Composition and  Clas-   3.  Algebra,  through  Simultaneous
        sics.                                                      Quadratics.
2.    Latin:   Caesar's De Bello Gallico,  4. Geometry, Plane, I-II.
       I-II; Prose Composition.                 5.  General History.
6.  Drawing and Elocution.

SECOND  TERM
1.    Rhetoric, Composition and Clas-    3.  Algebra Completed.
       sics.                                               4.  Geometry, Plane, III-V.
2.    Latin:  Caesar's De Bello Gallico,    5.  General History completed.
III-IV;  Prose  Composition.                  6.  Painting.

THIRD YEAR
FIRST   TERM
1.    English Literature;  Composition;    4.  Geography reviewed.
          Selected Classics.                       5.  Elocution and Vocal Music.
2.    Physics.                                         6.  Painting.    (Elective.)
3.    Elements of Psychology.

SECOND   TERM
1.    English Literature; Composition;     4.  Arithmetic,   Grammar,    United
         Selected Classics.                                   States   History   and   Civil
2.    Physics completed.                                   Government reviewed.
3.    Methods of Teaching and School
Management.


Modern Language Course


FIRST YEAR
FIRST   TERM
German:    Grammar, Part I; Conver-  English: Grammar, reviewed; Fig
 -sation.                                                ures   of   Speech;    Kinds   of
Algebra : Through Factoring.                        Poetry;       Mechanism       of
Arithmetic Reviewed.                                   Poetry.
Roman History.                                   Drawing.

                                               XLV




P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N


SECOND   TERM

German: Grammar, Part I; Conversation.                             Algebra:    Through    Simultaneous
English: American Literature; Composition;                              Equations.
Classics: The Courtship of Miles Standish,                           Physiology.
The Sketch-Book, The House of Seven Gables,                  Drawing.
The Last of the Mohicans.                                                   Elocution.    (Elective.)

SECOND YEAR
FIRST  TERM
German:    Grammar,   Part II; Con-                                     English:  Rhetoric;   Composition;
versation and Reading.                                                           Classics: Sir Roger De Cov-
French: Grammar,  Part I, and  Con-                                      erly, The Rime of the An-
versation.                                                                               cient Mariner, Silas Marner,
Algebra:    Through Simultaneous Quadratics.
Greek History.
Drawing and Elocution.

SECOND   TERM
Grammar, Part II, etc.                                                        Algebra completed.
French: Grammar, Part I, etc.                                             Elocution.
English:   Rhetoric and Composition continued;                   Painting.   (Elective.)
Classics:    Ivan-hoe, Vision of Sir Launfal, The Princess.


THIRD YEAR
FIRST  TERM
German: Select Reading;  Conversation.                                 Plane Geometry: Books I and II.
French: Select Reading; Conversation.                                    English History.
English: English Literature; Composition ;                                 Elocution.
Classics: Merchant of Venice, Milton's Minor                            Painting.    (Elective.)
Poems, Vicar of Wakefield.

SECOND   TERM
German: Select Reading;  Conversation.                                   English: English Literature;   Clas-
French:   Select Reading;  Conversation.                                      sics:    Essays on Milton and
Plane Geometry, Books III-V.                                                     Addison, David Copperneld.
                                                                                                Botany.
                                                                                                 Elocution.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

The Mechanical Drawing Course

This course is designed for those who do not intend to go to college, and who expect to become draughtsmen. It includes two years' work in English, German or French, Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Plane Trigonometry and Drawing throughout the course. Students who have finished the course of study prescribed for the grammar schools of the cities can complete this course in two years. It is an excellent preparation for draughting, and students who complete it secure employment at once at good salaries.

Teacbers' Special Course

This course is designed for those who wish to study only such branches as will prepare them for the examination for teachers' certificates. The course will include instruction in all the branches required by law on teachers' certificates. It should not be confounded with our regular Normal course, which requires three years for its completion, and includes the higher branches.

Preparatory Work

This course is intended for those who are not sufficiently advanced to take up the work of the first year of other courses. Students in this course receive instruction in Reading, Orthography, Penmanship, English Grammar and Composition, Arithmetic, U. S. History, and Geography. The classes are taught by the regular department teachers, thereby giving the younger students all the advantages of expert teaching enjoyed by those who are more advanced.

Advanced Work

We advise all our students who can possibly do so to take a course at college; and we are sending more young men and young women to higher institutions than any other similar

XLVII






""

Contestants at Sixteenth annual Contest between Emanon and Knickerbocker Literary Societies at Carnegie
Music Hall, Pittsburgh, March 20, 1906.




P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

school in the city. But among so large a number of students, there are some who find it impossible to go to college, and yet they wish to enter a profession. To accommodate this class of students, we have arranged a year's course of advanced work. We do not offer this course as being, in any sense, the equivalent of a college course; we offer it as the least possible preparation one should have for entering such professions as Law, Medicine, Dentistry, or Pharmacy. The year's work will consist of advanced study in Latin or German, English and American Literature, English History, Mathematics, and Science.

Irregular Work

It is always better for a student to devote his whole time to school work, and we much prefer that all our students should do so; but it sometimes happens that students are so situated that this is impossible. We occasionally have students who can devote only one or two hours a day to school work, the rest of the time being otherwise occupied. We have helped a number of young men to secure a secondary education by permitting them to enter classes as irregular students, and we are willing to help others. A student may take up one or more studies with us, provided he is prepared to enter the classes and can arrange his time to suit our schedule of recitations.

Number of Recitations

There are five recitations per week in all branches included in the foregoing outline, except Vocal Music. There is one recitation per week in Vocal Music. Recitation periods are forty minutes in length.

Courses of Study

The Literary department of the Academy offers to students three courses of study, namely, the Academic, the Normal and the Modern Language. There are two modifications of the

XLIX





P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Academic course, known as the Classical and the Scientific. The Classical section is intended for those who propose taking a Classical course at college; the Scientific section fits students for schools of science where Latin and one or two modern languages are required.

The Academic course, as arranged in the outline of studies, requires four years for its completion. Nearly one-half of the students who enter upon this course complete it in less than the time indicated in the outline. The time required by the individual student will depend on his preparation, ability, health, application and age. There is no reason why a bright, energetic, ambitious student's advancement should be regulated by those whose abilities are not so high, and who are indifferent in regard to the time required for the completion of their course of study. No obstacles will be placed in the way of ambitious students who may wish to do the work of the course in less than four years.

The Modern Language course and the Normal course each requires three years for its completion. The former is intended for students who desire the modern languages, and prepares for technical schools where no Latin is required for entrance; the Normal course prepares students for the profession of teaching. The students sent out from the Academy as teachers have proved the high character of the work of this department.

Admission

Students who have completed the course of study set for the grammar schools of the cities or the schools of Allegheny county may enter either of these courses regularly and complete it in the allotted time. All students who cannot furnish a diploma, certificate, reports, or other satisfactory evidence of work completed in other schools, will be required to undergo an entrance examination. Those who are not sufficiently advanced to take up the work of the course they wish to enter will be assigned to the Preparatory department. Students


L






P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

from other secondary schools may enter advanced classes in either course upon presentation of a report signed by the authorities of the school from which they come, or by passing a satisfactory examination in all preceding studies of the course.

Home Study

It is expected that students will prepare the greater part of their lessons at home. In order that a student may do the work required by our schedule of studies so as to maintain a creditable standing in class, it is necessary that he should spend not less than three hours per day in study, outside of school. A student who is not willing to devote his evenings to study cannot long retain his standing in class. The principal and teachers of the Academy urge upon parents and others interested in the welfare of a student that they insist upon a careful preparation of lessons at home, and upon a regular and punctual attendance at school. Patrons of the Academy may always rest assured that if their children do not devote at least three hours per day to study at home, their work cannot be satisfactory to their teachers. We believe that the best results in school work can be obtained only when there is perfect co-operation between the school and the home. Parents and others are cordially invited to visit us, inspect our work, and consult us in regard to the welfare of their children. Experience has taught that those parents who keep in closest touch with the school are best satisfied with the progress their children make.

Graduation, Diplomas and Certificates

Students completing a course of study will be graduated and will receive diplomas. In order that a student may graduate, he must pass each study of his course on a grade of at least sixty-five per cent. The fee for a diploma is five dollars. Students completing a partial course, provided they have attended the Academy a full year, may receive a certificate of the work


LI




P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

they have done. These certificates give full details as to the branches studied, text -books used, parts of books completed, time spent in the study of each branch, class grades, attendance, application, deportment, etc. No study in which the student's average is below sixty-five per cent, will be entered on his certificate. No certificate will be issued to students who are dismissed from school, or to those whose character as students will not fully warrant us in recommending them to the authorities of other schools. Grades for graduation and certificates are based on class records and term examinations.

Marks and Reports

Every student in the school receives eight reports during the year. No reports are issued for the months of September and June. These reports are handed to the students at the close of each school month. If parents or guardians desire it, reports will be mailed to them. A student's report indicates what branches he is studying, his grade in each branch, the number of recitations missed during the month, and his deportment. Reports are marked on a scale of 100. When a student's grade in any branch falls below 65, it is unsatisfactory to us, and indicates that he is not giving the proper amount of time to the preparation of his lessons.

If for any reason parents should fail to receive a report, they should notify the secretary at once, and a copy of the report will be sent them.

Office Days

The Academy office is open every week day throughout vacation from 9:30 A. M. to 12 M., and from 1:30 to 3:30 P. M.

The President may be seen at the Academy office on Wednes days and Saturdays during vacation.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Regulations

Students are required to be regular and punctual in their attendance, and excuses are required for all absence from recitation or school. Students are not permitted to leave the building without permission until the close of the day. Permission to leave the building will be granted only when it is known to be with the consent of the parents or guardians.

The opening exercises of the school are from 8:45 to 9:00 A. M., and it is expected that each student will be present during these exercises. Lunch hour is from 11:50 A. M. to 12 :30 p. M., and it is required that each student so-arrange his affairs as not to leave the school for lunch before the regular time, and to be present at the feopening of the session at 12:30 p. m. Recitations close about 3:10 p. m.

It is expected that students will prepare the greater part of their lessons at home; but in case lessons are not prepared there, the student will be detained after school and required to prepare lessons under the supervision of a teacher. When students are not engaged in recitation, they are required to spend their time in preparation of lessons in the study hall. A careful record is kept of each student's class work, deportment, punctuality, etc., and this record determines his class-standing, and is a basis for recommendation.

If pupils are not doing well, through idleness, negligence or otherwise, their parents or guardians will be informed of it. If this does not secure attention to studies, a request will be made'for their withdrawal, or they will be removed by the authorities of the School.

----------

For full particulars concerning the Business Courses, send for Business Handbook.


LIII





P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Departments in Detail

English

Miss Lytle and Miss Andrews

The English course includes a study of Grammar, Composition, American Literature, Rhetoric, Eng-lish and American Classics, and English Literature. Though the majority of our first year students have finished the course in the public schools, we find that a term's work in grammar is necessary as a preparation for the study of advanced English and of the other languages. This is followed by American Literature and the American classics, which are completed in the second half of the first year.

The work in composition, the training of the student to express his thoughts clearly and effectively, is recognized as a most important part of the training, and is, therefore, continued throughout the course. We aim to make the work valuable by presenting a variety of requirements, which are drawn from the text-books and classics studied, from the more important happenings of the day, and from the experience and needs of the student himself.

The study of rhetoric is carried through the whole of the second year, together with the easier English classics. The latter are taken from the list assigned as requirements for entrance to all the leading colleges in the country. In this and the two succeeding years, the reading and study of these masterpieces are used not only for their intrinsic matter and style, but to cultivate a wise criticism and to instill a love for good literature.

In addition to the further study of English classics and composition, a comprehensive text-book on English literature is

LIV





P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

taken up in the third year. This is completed in the fourth year, the most difficult classics are studied, and longer themes in argumentation, persuasion and exposition are presented. From time to time throughout the course, essays and orations are delivered in public.

Latin

Dr. Hoch and Mr. McLaughlin

Courses in Latin are offered, fully meeting the requirements for admission to any college. The maximum of work in Latin will ordinarily be completed in four years as follows: First year, Latin Lessons, Caesar's Gallic War, the Latin Grammar; second year, Caesar's Gallic War, Cicero's Orations; third year, Cicero's Orations, Virgil's Æneid; fourth year, Virgil's Æneid, reviews. Systematic study of the Latin Grammar, practice in Latin Composition and sight reading accompanying the work of each year.

Students showing special aptitude for the subject, or those preparing for institutions which accept less than the maximum of work in Latin may, by faithful work, complete the course in three years, and they will be permitted to do so whenever consistent with the standards of the Academy.

Greek

Dr. Hoch

The course in Greek embraces three years' work, and its study is begun in the second year. The first year's work consists of the elements of Greek, as given in White's First Book in Greek and a study of Greek Grammar. During the second year, Books I and II of the Anabasis are read, and considerable time is devoted to prose composition and review of forms. The third year is devoted to the reading of selections from Xeno-phon's Hellenica, and from the Odyssey and the Iliad.


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Class '06 -- Literary Departments




P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

During the first year's work, the student masters the common forms of the language, acquires as large a vocabulary as possible, and gains a thorough knowledge of the simpler principles of syntax. To this end, written as well as oral work is required in the class, so that both the eye and the ear may be appealed to in fixing firmly in the mind of the pupil the combination of the consonants, the changes of the mutes, and the contraction of the current vowels; also the correct use of the marks of accent, etc. In connection with the reading of the Anabasis and the Iliad, the Greek Grammar is carefully studied and applied.

Greek History is studied in the department of history during the second year of the course.

Modern Languages

Mr. Frank and Mr. McLaughlin

The course in French or German embraces three years' work. We aim to give to our students a thorough knowledge of grammar, facility in sight reading and conversation, and to make them acquainted with the most noted writers and their best productions. During the entire course, written exercises are frequent; at first, they consist of translations from the native into the foreign tongue; later, of letters, essays and compositions. Texts are always chosen with the utmost care; choice poems are occasionally committed to memory.

In the first year, we acquaint our students with the elements of grammar, i.e., declension of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, conjugation of regular and some irregular verbs, simpler prepositions, etc.; some easy reading is accomplished. In the second year, grammar is reviewed, syntax studied; reading material consists of good stories and plays. In the third year the classics are read, grammar being referred to whenever necessary.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

It frequently happens that persons, after they have studied a modern language for several years, are unable to speak it, or, at least, feel very much embarrassed when addressed in the foreign tongue. To avoid this, we begin to practice conversation at the first lesson, thus combining the natural method with a more scientific one; it is hardly necessary to state that our conversation consists, at such an early period, of very simple questions and answers, but gradually, as the vocabulary increases, confidence is acquired, and in the last year almost any subject that presents itself in connection with our studies is spoken of in French or German.

History

Miss Andrews and Mr. McNall

The subjects of this department are General History, United States   History,   English   History   and   Civics.    All   students must complete,   either here  or before entering,   a thorough course in the history of our own country; while in all courses General History is studied throughout the first year.

The aim of this department throughout is to give, first, a broad foundation of facts with the more important dates; second, a clear idea of the great forces and movements that have controlled the course of history, with a knowledge of the men who have led in these movements. Especial attention is given to the study of the origin and development of the great institutions of government. In addition to the text-books, questions and outlines are presented, and the students are encouraged to make maps and charts. Attention is constantly given to current events, especially in the Civics classes.

In the latter subject, the work covers every department of our government, including National, State, County and Municipal.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Mathematics

Mr. Armstrong, Mr. McNall and Major Beachley

ARITHMETIC,    ALGEBRA,    GEOMETRY    AND    TRIGONOMETRY.

The system pursued in teaching Mathematics in the Academy is entirely different from that used in a large majority of other schools of similar grade; and the general success of our students, whether as teachers or students at college, is sufficient evidence of its merits. Text-books in Algebra and Arithmetic are used only for their problems, and throughout the whole course a grasp of principles is insisted upon, as opposed to the usual answer-getting methods in common use; the test of a pupils' knowledge is his ability to apply what he has learned.

Often when students have a distaste for mathematics, with us they soon come to like it; and it is seldom a student asks to drop any of his mathematical studies when he comes to us early enough.

Our course in Algebra and Geometry is very thorough; for these studies are the foundations of all subsequent work, and the bulwark of more than ninety per cent, of the practical applications of mathematics. When pupils can complete these subjects in the time allotted, they are permitted to do so; when they cannot, they are required to continue the study of them until they are thoroughly familiar with them.

The course in Mathematics includes Arithmetic, Elementary Algebra, Advanced Algebra, Plane and Solid Geometry, and Plane Trigonometry, and it fully meets the requirements for admission to any college or school of Science.

Science

Mr. Armstrong

THE COURSE IN SCIENCE INCLUDES PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY.

In each of these, the instruction fulfills the requirements for college entrance.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Physics is begun in the third year and is continued ten months. The course comprises Avery's "School Physics."
Especial attention is given to the application of the principles to practical affairs, particularly in the study of the later advancement in electricity in its commercial and mechanical uses. Experiments with the "Crowell Apparatus" and others illustrate the text, and much training is given in the solution of practical problems.

The CHEMISTRY course, extending throughout the fourth year, comprises all of William's "Elements of Chemistry."

Numerous experiments and the solution of problems aid in grasping the practical side of the subject.

The work in PHYSIOLOGY covers such parts of the subject as are treated in the best text of the Academic grade. The time allowed is fifteen weeks, five lessons per week.

Students in any course may elect BOTANY during the second term of the third year, five lessons per week.

We aim to give students in this beautiful and interesting science such knowledge of elementary facts and principles as will create interest in and love for it, and lead to more advanced work in higher institutions. The work is presented after the most approved modern methods.


Art Department

Miss Jackson

This department offers courses in Freehand Drawing, Mechanical Drawing, Water Colors, Pastel and Oil Painting.

The course in Freehand Drawing aims at the cultivation of the powers of observation by the study of objects, still life, interiors, and sketching from life in black and white, in any of the usual mediums, charcoal, crayon, pencil, pen and ink; thus giving the student an excellent beginning in the popular branch of illustrating, a sound knowledge of drawing, based upon anatomy and perspective, being the foundation of this work.


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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

The Mechanical course, extending through a period of two years, includes Geometrical Drawing, Orthographical Projection, Isometric Projection, Projection of Shadows, Machine Drawing and Scientific Perspective.

The work in Architectural drawing includes all the work of the Mechanical course, besides Building Construction, and the Historic Schools of Ornament and Design.

The Normal Course proposes to give the most practical help in Model and Object Drawing, Light and Shade, Water Color, Constructive Drawing, Modeling, Descriptive and Pictorial Design and Color; also, optional work, including blackboard illustrative work, and out-of-door sketching.

Pastel, Water Colors and Oil include working from flowers, still life, and interiors and out-of-door sketching.


Elocution

Mr. Lytle and Miss Jean Miller

Educated people differ in their opinions of the value and desirability of elocutionary training in its dramatic and higher artistic phases; there is no difference of opinion among them, however, in regard to the value and desirability of such a course of training as will secure clear and distinct enunciation, proper pronounciation and modulation, becoming position and graceful gesture. It matters but little what one's educational advantages may have been or what titles he may have; if he has not acquired the art of "proper address" in both public and private speaking, he labors at a constant disadvantage.

The work in this department includes instruction in articulation, enunciation, pronunciation, position, gesture, expression, calisthenic exercises, exercises to strengthen and develop the voice, how to use the voice, etc. Special attention is given to defects in speech, position, expression and gesture. Students who are timid, or those who have defects in marked degree, are given private lessons until the defect is overcome to such a degree as to enable them to recite in class.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Besides the regular class work, students are required to read or recite selections in the presence of the class and the instructor. The literary societies hold meetings every Friday afternoon, thus affording an excellent opportunity for practice in public reading, speaking, debate, etc.—All students in the Literary department are required to become members of and take an active part in the exercises of these societies.


If you cannot afford to go to college, try our two years' course in mathematics or mechanical drawing. Students who complete this course secure desirable positions at good salaries. There is a constant demand for good draughtsmen.


A Popular Feature.—The only school in Pittsburgh offering Military Training. While not compulsory, all students may secure military training under a competent instructor.


Accuracy, speed and neatness, are demanded by railroad companies and large corporations of their Bookkeepers, Stenographers, Typewriters and Correspondents. A course in the Pittsburgh Academy, the surest way to success.

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Bayne LAUTENSLAGER

Emanon President, one term.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

General Information
Regulations, etc.

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Past and Present

PITTSBURGH   ACADEMY   was   organized   by   the present management in 1881.    It  then   occupied rooms in Neville Hall, corner of Fourth Avenue and Liberty Street, had an enrollment of twenty students,    and     a    faculty    consisting    of    three    instructors.    From this small beginning, it has grown steadily, and during the past year it had an enrollment of over six hundred students and a faculty of twenty-three instructors.    By thorough work, judicious management, and fair dealing with students and patrons, the institution has taken rank as one of the largest and most successful private schools in the country.

Our Aim

We aim to do such work, and only such work, as is done in all first-class academies and fitting schools. It is the purpose of the Academic course to prepare students for the freshman class in the best colleges and schools of science. It also affords sufficient training to enable students who do not wish to attend college, to pass the preliminary examinations for the study of Law, Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmacy. The Normal course affords a thorough preparation for teaching in the public schools. The Modern Language course is intended for those who wish mure language and history, and the minimum in mathematics.

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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

Departments of Work

Our departments of work are those of the Classics, Modern Languages, English, Mathematics, Science, Art, Elocution, Military Tactics, Physical Culture, Bookkeeping and Shorthand. Each department is in charge of skilled instructors who are specialists in their lines of work, one of whom is recognized as the head of the department. By thus sharply dividing our work into departments, each teacher is required to teach only one or two subjects, thus insuring much more thorough work than can possibly be done in a school where no such division of work exists.

Admission

Every candidate for admission to the Academy should apply in person, and present a certificate or report of the work he has done in his studies. Schools differ so widely in their courses of study and manner of grading pupils that we are compelled to require a detailed written statement not only of the branches studied, but also of the text-books used, subjects completed, and the student's class grade. In case an applicant for admission cannot furnish us with such a certificate, he will not be assigned a place until such tests may be made as will enable us to place him just where he belongs. It is a matter of vital importance to both the individual student and the school that every student should be placed in such classes as he is fully prepared to enter. A student who is graded too high is always overworked, and soon becomes discouraged; while one who is graded too low soon loses interest in his work. -We use the utmost care in classifying students when they enter the Academy, and we will cheerfully accept any suggestion that parents, friends or former teachers may give us concerning what a student has accomplished, and his general ability and character as a student. It is advisable for parents or guardians to accompany applicants for admission.


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P I T T S B U R G H    A C A D E M Y    B U L L E T I N

No particular age is required for admission to the Academy. Any boy or girl who is prepared to enter the first year of any of the literary courses may do so, regardless of age. Those who are not prepared to enter a course regularly will be assigned to the preparatory department, where they may prepare for any of our regular courses of study.

While we will not admit students whose presence and influence would prove detrimental to the best interests of the student body, we are willing to treat every student whom we admit with the utmost confidence, until he proves himself to be unworthy. Only those who are willing to obey the regulations of the school implicitly, give proper time and attention to study, and conduct themselves at all times as ladies and gentlemen, will be retained in the school.

Government

The method of government of the institution is based upon the pupil's sense of honor and duty, and his power of self-control. More reliance is placed upon the principles of self-government than on arbitrary restrictions or positive rules with penalties attached.

It is taken for granted that each pupil when he enters school is disposed to do right and obey regulations; and implicit confidence is placed in his sense of honor and propriety, until it is seen that he is unworthy of our confidence.

Twentieth Century Demands.—This is a commercial age and a commercial nation, and a knowledge of business is absolutely essential to success. The Commercial course and the Shorthand and Typewriting course at The Pittsburgh Academy have placed hundreds of young men and women in good positions.


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