Capt. John Clapp
With Notes on his Families
By his Descendant
Dr. Ellen Knight
Many Clapp descendants trace their origins to the Dr. George Gilson Clapp recorded as the progenitor of a prolific line of American Clapps in Ebenezer Clapp’s Clapp Memorial: Record of the Clapp Family in America. Ebenezer Clapp reported that the story of George Gilson Clapp had “been transmitted in different forms in all the branches of his descendants.” He acknowledged one anachronism but concluded it “does not injure the main points of the record.”
However, there are many problems with the story, principally that the American part of the story (at least) pertains to another Clapp – Capt. John Clapp. The old story is as follows:
George Gilson Clapp,
M.D. was born in
The mix-up of George Gilson and John Clapp has been
pointed up before. Percy E. Clapp
(1883-1958), a descendant of John’s son John, reportedly made a thorough search
of the contemporary records in
Without question, it was actually Capt. John Clapp who was the subject of the American part of the sketch on George Gilson Clapp (though not with those dates). While not a single document has emerged on the fabled George Gilson Clapp (in England or America), John left behind records that not only document his birth in England, residences in South Carolina and New York, but also the fact that he was esteemed and learned.
Among a number of Clapp family papers that were found
in a barn and given to the New York Genealogical & Biographical Society,
there is a page on which John Clapp stated:
"[torn, perhaps “Mar”] 25. 1670: I maryed the Daughter of Luke
Channell Gentleman: by name Elizabeth She Being his Eldest Daughter: Aged 16
year & 3 months & I just 20: ye very Day of my marriage.... “ On this page he also recorded the births of
four children, his second marriage to Sebilla Axtell Hulton, and her death. This
one page establishes the links from
In the registers of St. Nicholas of Deptford, there is a record of the first marriage:
Jno. Clapp married Eliz. Channell
Deptford was apparently John Clapp’s home town. Originally part of the
According to the NYGBS papers, John Clapp had married Elizabeth Channell and had three children prior to immigrating to the colonies:
Elias: "[Dec]emb 25 1670 about the hours of 6
& 7 in ye morning Die my first Son Elias was born & on new years Day
follow[i]ng was Baptized at my house By ye Reverend Doctor Plume haveing for
God fathers Sr. Theophilus Bedelph & Esqr Pen[...]ing & for God mothers
Ma[da]m Laneir & Mam Whitley." [Sir Theophilus Biddulph of
· Elizabeth: “[tear] 10 1677 my daughter Elizabeth was born about 9 o’clock p.m. & was babtized ye 20th following by sd. Doctor [Pl]ume having to God fathers Mr. Ths. Whitley & Mr. Thom[a]s Lewis & to God mothers Ma[dam] Elizabeth Lewis & Ma[da]m Charlott Whitney
Precisely when Capt. John first came to
Several documents identify John Clapp as an early land
23 Dec 1681, You are forthwith to cause to be admeasured and laid out unto John Clapp Gentleman three hundred and forty acres of land in the right of himselfe and fower servants namely Peter Cross, George Gibbon, Honour Crawley, and Dorothy Smith arriveing in August 1680 in some place not yett laid out or marked to be laid out for any other person or use…
Jan 1681/82, You are forthwith to cause to be admeasured and laid out unto John Clapp Gent. the Towne lott knowne by the No: of 71…
19 Jan 1685/6, John Clapp to Mr James Torquett both of the province, merchants, for a competent sum of lawful money of England, all that parcel of land commonly known by the name of Capt Clapps Plantation containing about 433 acres situate of the eastern side of Stonoh River bounding Wward on sd river, Nerly on land of Edwd Wilson, Serly on land of Doctor Napper, formerly of Robert George, Eerly on lands of several person.
The location of the
John Clapp’s name appears repeatedly in other
14 May 1684, John Clapp was administrator of the estate of William Hulton. Gov. Morton committed Clapp and Sibilla, his wife, to make a full inventory by July to satisfy all debts.
Family: Johns’ first wife Elizabeth did
not long survive in
John and Sebilla had a son John, born as recorded in the NYGBS papers:
"Octbr: 19. 1685 about ye hours of 4: or my 3d Son [wa]s born: & ye 4 (or 21): ye 22 mo following was baptized, haveing to God[fa]thers my Brother In Law, Mr. John Moor & Mr Ralph Isard to Godmother M[adam] Middleton: they Called his name John." [John Moore was married to Sebilla’s sister Rebecca.]
The Clapp-Axtell marriage was short-lived. "[missing] ary 12th 1685: about ye hours of 6 & 7 p.m. It pleased ye Almig[hty] God to Take from me to himself my Second Dear Tender & loveing [wife] Sebilla."
John Clapp remained in
Capt. John moved to
10 Jun 1691 (received 17 Oct 1681), Flushing in Queens Co. Long Island, John Clapp, merchant of town and co. aforesd formerly an inhabitant and resident of South Carolina appoints his well beloved brother and friend Mr Samuell Sands of New Shoram also called Block Island now bound for South Carolina his attorney, to receive all debts, good and merchandise.
February 10, 1692, John Clapp, of the
city of New York, gentleman, appointed his friend, Jonathan Amory, “of Ashley
River in the Province of South Carolina Gentleman,” his attorney to sue and
recover for him the debts due him in South Carolina and to give possession to
Mrs. Jane Cliff of the plantation he sold her.
As part of his maritime or mercantile business, Capt.
John probably visited
Dorothy Clapp was a child of Simon Ray, one of the
first settlers of
During this time, a town meeting on
It is a skillfully crafted letter, designed to appeal on many levels: “wee in a deep sense of our miseries and bad condition doe with all humility presume to acquaint Your Lordp with our present state and on our bended knees implore their Gracious Majties to cast a propitious eye of clemency and grace upon us, and not suffere there poore subjects totally to be ruined and undone by these monsters of men, whoe when they have done their utmost to ruine there Majties faithful people, wee have just cause to beleave will inevitably betray there Majtes City, Fort and province of New York to the French, hee not being able in the least measure to answer to those many and grievous crims he has committed which must be laid to his charge, which will force him to shelter under Cataline’s maxim (:The Ills that I have done can not be safe but by attempting greater:).” The quotation is from Ben Johnson’s play Catiline about a Roman patrician who headed a conspiracy to overthrow the government and obtain all places of power and trust for himself and his followers.
In March 1691, Leisler surrendered to the new governor
appointed by the crown, Henry Sloughter.
Gov. Sloughter called an assembly which marked the beginning of
representative government in
Another document, dated Aug 14, 1690, places Clapp in
Bowery: The Clapps lived in the Bowery, of which he
was appointed pound-keeper on
In 1697, Clapp issued an Almanack for the Year 1697, published by William Bradford, in which
he listed his tavern, the "baiting place where Gentlemen take leave of
their friends, and where a parting glass or two of generous wine 'If well apply'd makes their dull Horses
feel/One spur i' th' Head is worth two in the heel.'" It states that the distance from
Clapp’s almanac is weighty evidence of his reputation as a learned man, already manifest to a lesser degree in the Leisler letter. The fact that he produced such a volume would have been impressive in his contemporaries’ eyes. Furthermore, the book has been cited in modern scholarly articles. One noted the earliest known American translation of Dante, albeit only a snippet, in Clapp’s almanac. Others have discussed the cosmology of early almanacs, noting that Clapp’s almanac included a ten-page essay on the Copernican world view. Regardless of whether the science stands up today, it is evidence that he had studied and could discourse on scientific subjects. There is no documentary corroboration, though, that anyone thought he was possessed of supernatural agency.
Several more documents place Clapp in
Clapp owned several lots of land in
Among the land that the Clapps owned in
Long Island &
New York Family: In some sources, including J. O. Austin’s Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island and the history of Richard
Stillwell and family, Dorothy Ray is
erroneously identified as the wife of Samuel Sands. Dorothy could not have married both men, as their
children were born about the same time.
There are a series of documents indicating that John Clapp married
Dorothy Ray and that Sands married Mary Ray.
Percy Clapp reportedly submitted some data to Austin who replied on
While an actual marriage record is not known, documentation of the Clapp-Ray marriage includes the following:
1691, John Clapp appointed his "trusty and well beloved brother and
friend, Mr. Samuel Sands of New Shoreham alias
will of Simon Ray of New Shoreham, made
above-noted record of the land sale on
There are also various other records which link the names of Clapp and Ray, including the will of Benjamin Clapp, witnessed by S. Raye; an agreement between William and Tristam Dodge witnessed by Cornbury Clapp and Simon Ray 2d on Feb. 1, 1724/25; a conveyance by John Sands to Samuel Sands on Jan. 27, 1709 witnessed by John Clapp and Samuel Clowes; a conveyance by Samuel Sands to Jonathan Rogers dated March 18, 1715 and witnessed by Elias Clapp and Anne Sands; a conveyance to John Sands on Dec. 29, 1722 witnessed by Elias Clapp; a receipt given by Edward Sands to John Sands dated Feb 22, 1721/22 in presence of Elias Clapp; and a conveyance on Jan. 17, 1707/08 witnessed by John Baxter and Roger Kenyon (Mary Ray’s second husband), and recorded by John Clapp, Recorder.
Capt. John and Dorothy Ray had children. Their names are known from various documents, though (except for John) not their birth dates or even the order they were born. The birth of John was recorded on the flyleaf of a book and copied in the Clapp Memorial. The dates of the others must be guessed at. The Clapp Memorial, which is quite faulty in the early generations, attributes to John a son named Henry of whom no evidence exists, probably confused with the name Cornbury.
John, “7 mo., 12, 1690 John Clapp ye son of John
Clapp, was born about 11 hr. p.m. or nere in the town of
Elias, d.c.1783, married Ruth Allen. In 1718, Benjamin and Elias were in conflict
with Constable Mills of
· Benjamin, died 1727.
Cornbury, b.c.1704, a date suggested by Lord Cornbury’s
arrival to assume his new position as governor of
The Clapp Family in the 1703 Census: The 1703 NYC census enumerated the following in Capt. John's household: 2 males aged 16-60, 2 males under 16, and one female. If one adult male and the female are Capt. John and Dorothy, 3 males are left to be identified. One of the boys under 16 was surely John, who was age 13 in 1703. One male over 16 and one under remain to be identified. However, five sons survived Capt. John. If two sons were born after 1703 and an older son were still in the household as of 1703, that would explain the other two enumerated men. Cornbury was surely born after 1703. Benjamin or Elias could have been the other child under 16. Gilson was probably the one over 16. Without actual birth documents, the birth dates and order of John and Dorothy’s son remains an open question. (Since Capt. John was 53 at this time, the second male aged 16 to 60 could not have been his father.)
In 1704, Capt.
John was one of 29 proprietors of
Capt. John continued to be a community leader in
One story from the
Capt. John Clapp’s death date is unknown. “It is certain, however, that he died before
Slaves: In addition to the family, the 1703 census
also records that two male and one female negroes were in the Clapp
household. It is likely that Capt. John
owned slaves on his
Religion: According to Baird's History of Rye, in 1718 Capt. John was styled a "reputed
Quaker." John Clapp was born into
the Anglican church. Any conversion to
the Society of Friends would probably have occurred in
Artifact: One family artifact allegedly dating back to
the original American Clapps is a set of bed hangings now in the Department of
American Decorative Arts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in
Adding dates and spouses to the above recital, one gets:
Sarah Carpenter Sands (1831-1904)
Mary Carpenter (1795-1872) m. John Sands (1795-1868)
Mary Clapp (b. 1750) m. Joseph Carpenter (1745-1812)
John Clapp (1714-1778) m. Alice Allen (1711-1787)
John Clapp (1690-1730) m. Dorcas Quimby (1690 – bef 1754)
Capt. John Clapp & Dorothy Ray
George Gibson Clapp
George Gibson Clapp
The Museum has only two other papers on the provenance of the bed hangings, information copied from Ebenezer Clapp’s Clapp Memorial and a letter from Mrs. Wilcox offering to sell the items. It must be noted that there are no documents contemporary with the bed hangings.
It is unclear whether Sarah Sands’ history was written independent of Ebenezer Clapp’s history or was influenced by it. He was not in touch with Sarah Sands’ family, but she could have had access to his book, as it was published in 1876 during the time she owned the curtains. The discrepancies between the “Bed Hangings” page and Clapp Memorial could be ascribed either to errors in copying information from the book or to their being based on an independently transmitted variation of the tradition. Clapp himself stated that the George Gilson Clapp story had been transmitted in different forms in all the branches of his descendants. 
There is one noteworthy bit of information in “Bed
Hangings” not in the Clapp Memorial –
that the embroidery is the work of the three wives of George Gilson Clapp. Ebenezer Clapp said nothing about George
Gilson’s wife or wives or his father’s wife or wives except something entirely
theoretical: “Dr. Clapp is also said to
have been of Italian descent, but if such a tradition has any foundation
in fact, it probably amounts to nothing more than that his father may
have been a traveller, as well as himself, and perhaps married in
Italy (emphasis added).” While it is not
impossible that another Clapp ancestor besides Capt. John had three wives, John
Clapp is known to have had three wives, the third living in
According to both former assistant curator of the
American Wing, Margaret Jeffery,  and the
current curator of the Met’s American Decorative Arts department, Amelia Peck,  the bed
hangings are English, not Italian, in style.
There is reportedly no way to tell if they passed through three sets of
hands. The ground fabric was printed
with the motifs, and then the set was embroidered following the pattern with
set stitches. They could have been
embroidered by Clapp wives, or they could have been professionally embroidered in
Conclusion: Despite the
errors and confusions of various secondary sources, from
the wealth of documents cited above, it is apparent that the Clapp who left
Ancestry of John Clapp
And what of the rest of the story? Even though it was Capt. John Clapp who founded the American line of Clapps, the earlier part of the legend of the traveler George Gilson Clapp concerning 20 years travel prior to the Great Plague of 1665 (when Capt. John was only about 15) must belong to his father or other relative. The fact that part of the story is wrongly attributed does not discredit the rest of the story. However, though there are some American documents mentioning a Gilson Clapp, mariner or merchant, no evidence has yet come to light to document a Dr. George Gilson Clapp. In fact, there is evidence suggesting that Capt. John’s father was someone else. [Please note that this suggestion is not yet proven but is certainly credible and worthy of further investigation.]
Capt. Elias Clapp
There are other records worth noting in Deptford (where John married Elizabeth Channell:
Elias Clapp married Susan Gilson,
1 Ap 1649 Jno. s/o Elias Clapp born.
Though the NYGBS paper from the barn and the Deptford records differ slightly, which is not unusual for 17th century records, here is a suggestion that our Capt. John Clapp was the Jno. Clapp, son of Elias and Susan, born in Apr. 1649 (age 20 in March 1670 if he was born in 1649/50). This would explain why John named his first son Elias – after his father – and his second son Gilson – after the family name of his mother. Other records which give Elias the title of Captain and identify him as a mariner provide a professional link between Elias and John.
Further, there was a Susan Gilson, christened on
Deptford records provide the burial dates for Elias
and Susan Clapp,
Unknown Clapp parents
- Capt. Elias Clapp
married (1) 1648, Susan Gilson (2)
Children of Elias & Susan:
- John: chr.
- Patience: chr. Jul 1649
- Susan: born c.
1655, m. William Wild on
Child of Elias and probably Elizabeth
- Thomas Clapp, married Jane, survived Elias.
Capt. Elias Clapp styled himself “mariner” in his will. Little is yet known of his career, except that he made a voyage for the East India Company, captaining the ship Asia (a.k.a Asia Merchant) on its first voyage for the East India Company, which started in 1684 and ended 1685, and that he had a one-eighth interest in the ship Robert and Margaret of London of which his son-in-law William Wild was master. His will makes reference to some damask “which I brought from the Straits,” though it is unknown when he voyaged there.
His brother Thomas may also have been a mariner. There was a Thomas Clapp commissioned in 1666 to be captain of the Little Lion fireship in the Royal Navy, though it is unknown if this was Elias’s brother.
Elias Clapp’s will unfortunately does not conclusively identify his son John as Capt. John. Elias simply stated, “Whereas my sonne John Clapp is indebted unto me the sume of three hundred pounds sterling I do freely forgive him the said debt and over and above the same I give and bequeath unto him my said sonne John Clapp the sum of five pounds in full satisfaction of all demands.”
“George Gilson Clapp” is the composite of at least two people, Capt. John and someone older. Perhaps he is the composite of three men – John and Elias Clapp and George Gilson.
While it is not the intent of this history to trace
the lives of all of Capt. John’s children, a discussion of the various Gilson/Gillson
Clapps follows, as the evidence both presents clues and leaves mysteries
regarding the identity of the original Clapps and their descendants. (In the following, the spelling “Gilson” is
There are records of a Gillson Clapp in
Some genealogies have stated that when Capt. John left
the real difficulty is that the Gillson Clapp of South Carolina died in 1698,
and there are records of Capt. John’s son Gilson being in New York after that
time. Notably, Benjamin Clapp mentioned
a brother Gilson in his will written in 1727.
Since the Gilson who died in 1698 and the one alive in 1727 cannot be
the same man, the only possibility for identifying the So. Carolina Gilson as
Capt. John’s son is that Capt. John named a second son Gilson after the first
died. Is this possible? Capt. John had two sons John and probably two
sons named Elias. However, the first
John and Elias died as children, not as adult who had perpetuated the name with
their own sons, as the South Carolina Gillson did. Still, it is possible. Records that name Gilson in
In addition to Benjamin’s will, the name “Gilson Clapp” appears in records of 1725/26; 1731, when he bought & sold land in Conn.; 1736, when he was “of North Castle”; 1739 when he was in New Rochelle; 1741-47, again “of North Castle; 1758 when a Gilson Clapp married Sarah C. in Dutchess Co.; 1757-59 when taxed in Southern Precinct; and 1768 when “Gillson Clapp” was listed twice among tenants of a lot in Southeast, Dutchess Co. These documents could pertain to more than one generation. If Gilson had descendants in N.Y., this might account for some of the Clapps whose tie-in with the family has not been established and solve a few family mysteries.
There were three generations of Gillson Clapps living
in South Carolina from the 1690s through the early 18th century –
Capt. Gillson Clapp, mariner; his son, a merchant; and his grandson, who
apparently died young. In 1693, the name
of Capt. Gillson Clapp first appears in the proprietary records of
Gillson and Elizabeth were married by 1696 for,
according to proprietary records, Gillson Clapp of
After being widowed,
Elizabeth Calfe Clapp Lindrey then put together
several parcels of land in
Gillson also engaged in the slave trade, returning to
was established as a merchant “on the Bay” (i.e. along the river) in
Dorchester, Berkeley Co., in 1724, where he became a substantial land holder
and served as Justice of the Peace from Berkeley Co. in 1734 and 1737. Gillson Clapp owned a large amount of
property. In 1725, he purchased three
town lots in
In Sumners, Gillson was the owner of a small, unnamed plantation composed of an aggregation of several Dorchester subdivisions in what was called the second range in the first division; "it represented the extreme Western limit of the original Dorchester grant, of that part of it called 'Roses' land from an original Rose for whom it had been surveyed prior to 1696." Gillson’s will mentions houses and lands in or near Dorchester, lands in parish of St. James, Santee and Prince Ge orge’s Parish, Winyah, and lands near Williamsburg, Craven County.
In his will Gillson
left his dwelling house to his wife for her use until a house was built for her
on a lot in
 Dr. Ellen Knight is a journalist and
historian specializing in the arts history of the
 Ebenezer Clapp, The Clapp Memorial: Record of the Clapp Family in
Josephine Frost, Ancestors of Welding Ring and his wife, Ida Malvina Mailer, (1935), p. 125. Frost wrote of Percy Clapp that “He has for many years been seeking information both here and abroad on this family, preparatory to publishing a revision of the Gilson Clapp article in the Clapp Memorial. The revision apparently never appeared, but did lead to documents being shared with Frost.
 These papers are the subject of Kenneth Scott’s “The Record of John Clapp,” in New York Genealogical & Biographical Record, July 1981. The author has used her own transcriptions of the documents.
 A transcript of these records are in the LDS family history library in
for Lands in
 The house lots are identified in a list of
the “original plan, early settlers” of
 Frost, p. 121.
 A warrant dated 24 Feb. 1696/7 mentions
“David Maybanck had a warrant for one hundred acres of land which land is
situate upon the south side of Couper River and is bounded northly to the
plantacon of Capt. John Clap…,” confirming the plantation on Cooper River. An early map shows the name “Clap” on the
east side of the
 Mrs. Dorcas Smith received a warrant in 1674 for 340 acres of land “for herself one Negroe man & two women servants, arriving 1672 & 1673.” She was deceased by January 1684, and her 340 acres were laid out to Captain John Clapp, having been relinquished by Thomas Dickeson.
 Proprietary Records of South Carolina have been abstracted and published in two volumes by Susan Baldwin Bates and Harriott Cheves Leland (Charleston: History Press, 2005 and 2006).
 Will of John Cottingham of Charles town,
 John Lawson was issued a warrant on
 Sebilla Axtell Clapp’s sister Rebecca married John Moore (1658-1732).
 Clapp Memorial, p. 284.
 “Abstracts from Records of the Court of
 Although a marriage record has not been found, there is evidence that John had a wife Dorothy and that she was Dorothy Ray. See Frost, p. 122.
 One of the NYGBS Clapp family documents,
 Quoted in Iconography of New York, Vol. V, under the year 1697.
 Frost, p. 122.
 Fucilla, pp. 9-11.
 The Bastianse conveyance is referenced in Scott, p. 137 as an original ms. In NYHS. The other records have been reprinted in secondary sources.
 This land is discussed in Iconography of New York, vol. 6, pp. 144-45. It is there stated there is no record of when the Clapps bought the land.
 Frost, pp. 122-123.
The letter is reproduced in Frost, pp. 246-48 and referenced in G. Andrews Moriarty, “Early Block Island Families,” Register of the New England Historic Genealogical Society (July 1932), Vol. 86, p. 327.
 See Frost, p. 124, for the full text of these seven instances.
 Clapp Memorial, p. 435.
 In the making of wills, the tendency was to name children or siblings in order of age. Capt. John’s son Benjamin named his brothers in the order John, Elias, Gilson, and Cornbury; however, this does not seem to help the 1703 census puzzle. Even if the brothers are in chronological order (which is doubtful if Gilson was the first born among them), one does not know where to place Benjamin in the list.
 Ruth has been identified as the widow of
(1) Daniel Weed, b. c. 1652 and (2) Peter Ferris, b 1636. She has also been identified as Ruth Knapp,
 The story is told in Charles Washington
Baird, Chronicle of a
 Frost, p. 125.
 There were Clapp families who cannot yet be fitted into the family tree. Gilbert Clapp and his sisters comprise one example. Though Ebenezer Clapp (with reservations) put Gilbert in the Clapp Memorial as the son of James (1715-1755), the evidence all points to James dying childless. Some of these families may be descended from Gilson.
 Baird, p. 361.
 The bed hangings are described, with a photograph of a detail in Margaret Jeffery, “Early American Embroidery,”
 Mildred G. Wilcox, born about 1890, was the
wife of Harold George Wilcox, a dentist, born
Clapp’s information on this line ends with Mary Clapp m. Joseph Carpenter; “she and eight children were living in 1827, but are now all dead.”
 It may be noted that in The Clapp Memorial the name of the generation that varies from Sarah Sands’ paper is written as “John (George Gilson),” and could easily have been miscopied from the book.
 Ebenezer Clapp, p. 283.
 Jeffery, p. 120.
 E-mail correspondence with the author during Aug. 2007.
 There is a confusing mixture of stories in
connection with John Jacob Clapp (1818-1866) and his son John Henry Clapp, who
held prominent positions in White Plains, Westchester Co. One history of
 Boyd’s Marriage Index.
 Double dates were often used in the 17th century, e.g., 1649/50. A birth date may be transcribed as “March 1649” but really was 1650.
 Ebenezer Clapp’s history does not attach
the title “Capt.” to any of the early Johns.
That history states that George Gilson Clapp had a son John who had an
only son John called “the second” who was the father of the John who lived in Westchester
Co. and married Dorcas Quimby. Documents
show that there was only one John who came from
 Another Susan Gilson married an Abraham
Clap in 1653 at St. Dunstan in the East,
The will does mention son John but, unfortunately, does not name any grandchildren.
 Elias left his son-in-law his interest in the Robert and Margaret in his will.
 This Thomas Clapp is included in a list of all commissioned officers serving the Crown in the Royal Navy of England from May 1660 to Dec. 1688, in J. R. Tanner, ed., A Descriptive Catalogue of The Naval Manuscripts of the Pepysian Library of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1903, I:335. The catalogue is vol. 26 in the Publications of the Navy Records Society.
 Fucilla states that Thomas was John Clapp’s uncle, p. 11.
 The first known record of a Gilson Clapp in
NY is dated
 Whether this refers to two men or two
tenancies by one man is unknown. The
name appears twice as tenants on
 See Bates and Leland, Proprietary Records of
 Records of Province, So.
 These documents were located by another Clapp descendant, Donna Gibson, who copied them by hand and sent the author copies in 1980 and gave as a citation only “PC 1694-1704, p. 175,” presumably Charleston County Probate Court Records.
 Agnes Leland Baldwin, First Settlers of
 Records of the Court of Chancery, pp. 290-292
 Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in