Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   
The following is the complete Preface, Chapters 1 through 5, and the References for:

The Coleman Family by the American Genealogical Research Institute,

Arlington, Virginia; 1973. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number: 72-93054, CS 71.C692 1973, pages vi - viii and 1 - 47.

- vi -

Preface


   The study of family history, or genealogy, is perhaps one of the most
ancient of human interests.  In one form or another it has found its way into
countless varieties of oral and written records, some dating well before
recorded history.

   In earliest times, ancestors-and accounts of their exploits, characters,
and general lives-were the subjects of epic poems, songs, and tales, probably
beyond number.  Myths, those timeless tales of ancient gods and heroes, abound
with what we today could only call genealogy.

   As mankind progressed and developed the art of making symbols and figures,
the tales and traditions of earlier times were rendered into various forms of
written records.  Genealogy, too, followed in this pattern and, in fact,
constitutes a great part of some of the earliest records of which we have
knowledge.  The descendants of Adam, for example, described in the Fifth Book
of Genesis, date from the second millennium before Christ.  And the
genealogies of the ancient Romans, which are surprisingly detailed, date from
the first and second centuries A.D.

   Genealogy, being as it is the study of individual people and their
relationships within the social unit of the family, parallels and in some
degree reflects the history of mankind.  Practically every great civilization
on earth has found root in the organization of the family, and, thus, each
history is composed of many family histories.  The royal pedigrees of the
Roman emperors and of the European monarchs are but another form of the


- vii -


histories of those civilizations.  And even today it may be seen that the
history of America is not dissimilar to the history of any of our great
colonial American families.

This historical nature of genealogy is, however, but a small part of the
complete explanation of its long development.  In some cultures, genealogy
has had importance to the religious customs and beliefs of the people.  In
ancient China ancestor worship was a means of developing and encouraging a
morality which had its roots in the honorable character of the forefathers.

Genealogy is likewise an important adjunct to the study and practice of law.
Legal developments in the areas of inheritance and estates are principally
founded on family history as it is expressed in such documents as wills and
land grants.

But undoubtedly the greatest impetus to the development of genealogy and
family history has been common curiosity.  This innate characteristic of
man probably accounts for more pedigrees and family histories than any
other one tiling.  People are, have been, and will always be inherently
curious about those distant figures who bore their name.  The history of
those ancestors records the origins of their family names, the basis of
their family traditions, indeed, in some cases, even the reasons for their
very existence.  And such curiosity is in fact a healthy and vital thing,
for it identifies and perpetuates traditions and truths which make for a
meaningful and moral existence.

This volume is an outgrowth of this many-faceted, long-developed tradition
of interest in genealogy.  As America approaches the bicentennial of its
founding, this civilization which has been two hundred years in the making
looks in upon itself, trying as it were to discern the roots of its growth
and prosperity.  The answer, of course, lies in the character and lives of
the individual citizens who contributed a share to that development.

This book is a small, but important record of those members of the Coleman
family who made a contribution.  From seventeenth century England with its
wars and economic privations, to the nascent colonies on the alien coast of
North America, to the Revolutionary War for Independence, and beyond, the
record contained herein is of the individuals of this family who by right
may be termed our founding fathers.  This book sets forth the origin of the
family name, the armorial heritage, and the biographies of great men who have
lived through history.  But primarily, it brings focus to a unique heritage
which by its very

viii/Preface
nature implies a concern for the present and a hope for the future.  This
family record is dedicated to those now living in expectation that they will
profit from it and perpetuate it and in so doing keep alive the traditions
it describes.



- 1 -


[Chapter 1]  Family Name and Arms


ge’ ne al’ o gy, n., pl -gies. 1. a record or account of the ancestry
and descent of a person, family, group, etc. 2. the study of family
ancestries and histories. 3. descent from an original form or
progenitor; lineage; ancestry.

-Random House Dictionary of the English Language

   At one time or another everyone has been curious to know how many
princes or presidents there are hidden in his or her family past, Such
curiosity, logically pursued, leads inevitably to the definition quoted
above, at which point, understandably, one's interest begins to wane.
Lineage, ancestry, progenitor: while these terms describe the
principal elements to genealogical research, they hardly suggest
where and how to look for one's family origins.  Although diligent
investigation is needed to produce a complete lineage, reveal in detail
one's ancestry, and turn up a progenitor, the one step required to set
this process in motion is quite simple: the identification of one's
family group and the arrangement of individuals in the family by
their last name, their surname.  This solution is appropriate,
particularly for American ancestry, because most surnames in this
country have been fixed in meaning if not in spelling since the
establishment of colonies here.  However, if it is princes, not
presidents, that one wants to find, then one's research will go beyond
the period of America's colonial development, and one will inevitably
become immersed in the unfamiliar dates and names of English and
European history.


- 2 -


   The Dark Ages, the Plague, the Renaissance, the Crusades, feudalism,
the Norman Invasion: these historical terms describe conditions and
events which are far removed from modern experience and our American
heritage.  Yet, despite this haze of ancient historiography, we are
inexorably tied to and are even products of the culture of ancient Europe.
Our names, the principal form of personal and family identification,
unwind through recorded history like a coil of yarn.  To untangle this skein,
an understanding of the social and cultural developments of the last two
thousand years is all-important.

   From earliest times, when man first used some specific vocative
sound or call to identify and differentiate members of his community,
namecalling has undergone many adaptations.  This development has not,
however, been steady, for it was most affected by the experiences of
people who promoted or participated in progress.  For example, as
occupations were created by the growth of industry and commerce, new
names denoting those engaged in the new professions were formed.  Miller,
Tucker, and Wright are but a few examples.  At the same time, progress
brought obsolescence.  Thus, a name like Woodmonger, once very common
in England, disappeared along with the very few people who continued to
eke a livelihood selling firewood.

   We may properly credit the Romans with originating our modern
system of names, but we may equally blame the demise of this intelligent
practice on the barbarians who swept across western Europe between the
third and fifth centuries A.D.  During the Dark Ages (following the Fall of
Rome) most Europeans were known first only by their given name, and
later occasionally by their given name prefixed to their place of birth.

   The advent of the eleventh century, however, saw the cultural, social,
and economic conditions in Europe grow more complex.  Populations
increased dramatically; the rise of feudalism and the early stirrings of
mercantilism supplanted the simple communal life of the country village.
All these developments forced people into ever-growing towns and cities.
Communication, the handmaid of commerce, became more efficient.  Under
such conditions, the use of a single name caused increasing confusion,
and soon, the hereditary surname (a last name, bequeathed to each
generation of children in the same or similar form) found growing
acceptance.

   Perhaps the most notable instance of this development was the
introduction of feudalism into England with the Norman Invasion of
1066.  Within the space of three generations, the French worked an almost


- 3-

Traditional British Home Counties of the Coleman Family  
Figure 1
Traditional British Home Counties of the Coleman Family

1. Kent
2. Northampton
3. Sussex
4. Essex



- 4 -

total transformation of English culture.  In particular, the Anglo-Saxon
and Celtic language was merged with and in some cases was replaced by the
native tongue of the new Norman rulers.  In the course of time other
modifications followed and hereditary surnames achieved a clearly defined
order previously unknown.  Beginning in the seventeenth century this
system was transferred virtually intact to the American colonies.
The surname Coleman is a good example of this evolutionary nature of names.
The given name Cole is a form of Nicholas ("people victory").  Old King
Cole, for example, was a well-known name from early English folklore.
The name came to England through the Saxons and their barbarian German
heritage: St. Columba was a German saint, as was St. Coleman whose holy
day is celebrated every year on November first.  The surnames Cole and
Coleman are thought by most authorities to be derived from such German
influences.

   Cole was often a nickname during the eleventh century either for a man
whose trade was the making or selling of charcoal (hard coal was not
readily available until a much later date) or for a dark-haired man of
dark-complected appearance.  Most often these nicknames gave rise to
such names as Collier and Collins.  A Coleson would have been the son
of the man named Cole.  But a Coleman or Colman would probably have been
a servant or dependent of a man named Cole.  The Colman spelling is rare
except in the English counties of Essex and Norfolk, while the Coleman
spelling has existed unchanged from at least the year 1273 and may be
considerably older.

   The surname Cole is primarily common to southern England.  Coleman is
concentrated also in the south, mainly in the counties of Kent,
Northampton, Sussex and Essex.

   In English history the Coleman family has been primarily noted among
such common people as yeomen, tradesmen, and farmers.  Only a handful
entered the higher class of the gentry.  Representatives of both classes
came to settle in America.  The reason why there were so many Coleman
immigrants is that most of them left England poor, in search of prospects
in America.  Noble titles in the family do not occur at any time in
English history.

   Coleman was not one of the more numerically prominent names in the early
American colonies, but it was a rapidly growing name nevertheless.  When
President George Washington authorized the first official national census
in 1790, the Cole family was the forty-first most numerous name on the
list.  The 307 Coleman families averaged 5.9 members and were not


- 5 -


even included among the top fifty names.  These 307 Coleman families were
primarily concentrated in Massachusetts (57), Virginia (55), North Carolina
(45), Pennsylvania (38), New York (36), and South Carolina (25).  The
remaining fifty-one families were distributed in five other new states.
There were also an additional 1,489 single and independent Coleman adults
not counted in the above-mentioned households.  Many of these were young
men who sought their future on the forested frontier.

   A more modern census taken in 1964 from the Social Security files reveals
Coleman to be the ninety-first most numerous name in the country today.
Cole is slightly behind at ninty-sixth, having six thousand fewer members.
There are approximately 179,900 adult Colemans in the United States.

   Heraldry, or the study of armorial bearings, is an adjunct to the study of
family history.  Coat armor, it is important to note, was completely
unknown in Europe before the twelfth century, and did not appear in England
until about 1250.  Its sudden rise has been ascribed to several varied
events, including the First Crusade (1097), the advent of body armor, and
the growing use of seals on personal documents.

   In any case, the early development of the use of heraldic devices followed
closely upon the need for better identification, and the trend became
widespread.  First embellished on shields and other pieces of armor, the
imaginative, elaborate heraldic designs soon were transferred to surcoats,
horse trappings, and even private possessions.  These early insignia,
including bends (diagonal stripes), fesses (horizontal stripes), chevrons,
and crosses, were chosen because they were conspicuous, even in the chaos
of bloody battle.  For the same reason bright colors were used.
Charges, or representations of animals and natural objects, did not become
popular until the second half of the twelfth century, when, as stated above,
the use of surnames was revived.

   With the advent of gunpowder in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and
the concomitant decline of armor as an essential in warfare, the need for
armorial bearings also waned.  By then, though, coats of arms were cherished
for their decorative effect, and family crests were handed down from proud
sire to aspiring son.  The ancient art was debased by the frenzied efforts
of many people to coin their own armorial bearings and


- 6 -


adorn them with embellishments and devices of doubtful historical
significance.

   Central authorities were established to inquire into the validity of the
new creations.  Their work was generally ineffectual in maintaining the
simplicity and purity of the earlier designs, but their thorough records
have subsequently proved very useful to the genealogical researcher.  These
records, showing hereditary usage of certain symbols and devices, represent
in many cases the only means for unraveling the complex familial
relationships of medieval Europe.

   In the United States, where the democratic tradition has mitigated
interest in holding and preserving official armorial bearings, there is
nonetheless a great informal interest in the science of heraldry.  The
question of rightful ownership of coat armor does not pertain in this
country, for the very nature of the settlement and development of
America makes it unlikely that any more than a few families have legitimate
claim to specific insignia.  Heraldry is instead highly regarded for its
aesthetic and historical qualities-for the symbols, devices, and colors
generally associated with any particular surname tell a story of our
ancestors.

   ARMS: Azure, on a pale radiant rayonny or, a lion rampant gules.
   Crest: A demi-lion. (Arms: On a blue field, a wide golden vertical
   bar whose edges are formed into rays, upon which is a red rearing
   lion.  Crest: A silver lion cut neatly at the waist.  See emblazon A.)

   The arms of emblazon A are those of the house of Coleman and Colman in
county Essex, England.  The various branches of the Colman family have
approximately seventeen coats of arms while the Coleman families have a
total of six.  Virtually all the Coleman and Colman arms are identical except
for minor differencing and some crest variations.

   There are two coats of arms legitimate to the American branches of the
Coleman family.  Emblazon A is the most common of the two and was copied
from the interior of a silver wine-cooling basin which dated back before
the American Revolution.  The second Coleman coat of arms is identical to
emblazon A except for its crest.  The second crest features a caltrap (a
four-pronged pyramid-shaped spike used to injure the hooves of charging
cavalry horses) between silver wings.  The caltrap was the nearest thing
peasants had to a land mine to stop knightly cavalry.


- 7 -

Heraldry of the Coleman Family
Arms of the Rev. Benjamin Colman of Boston, Massachusetts (1728).

- 8 -

The Arms of the Rev. Benjamin Colman of Boston Massachusetts dated 1728  
The Arms of the Rev. Benjamin Colman of Boston Massachusetts dated 1728



- 9 -

References

The following are the reference materials found most
useful in composing a history of the origin of your family
name and coats of arms.  They represent the most thorough
texts of armorial bearings in the English language.  Other
books in the list are distinguished for their content on
aspects of heraldry and on the evolution of name forms and
medieval history in general.  Several devote themselves
exclusively to American names in particular.  Most of the
texts can be found in a public library reference section.
The annotation in the following list may guide you in your
further pursuit of the subject.

Appleton, William S. "The Gore Roll of Arms and
   Positive Pedigrees and Authorized Arms."  Baltimore:
   Heraldic Book Co., 1964.
   -- A small volume of American coats of arms.

Bardsley, Charles Wareing.  "A Dictionary of English and
   Welsh Surnames with Special American Instances."  Baltimore:
   Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
   -- This very large volume was compiled by one of the
   world's foremost authorities on the origins of English and Welsh
   surnames.  The text is so complete that if Bardsley does not
   mention a name then it probably cannot be found.

Bolton, Charles Knowles.  "Bolton's American Armory."
   Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
   -- Similar in content to Crozier's General Armory.  Lists
   coats of arms of American families.

Burke, Sir Bernard.  "The General Armory of England, Scotland,
   Ireland, and Wales."  London: 1884.  Reprint.  Baltimore:
   Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
   -- The main reference source for English coats of arms.

"Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed
   Gentry Including American Families with British Ancestry."  London:
   Burke's Peerage, 1939.
   -- The authority in its field.  A 3,021-page compendium which is a
   basic reference source for anyone engaged in British or American
   genealogical research.

Child, Heather.  "Heraldric Design: A Handbook for Students."  London:
   G. Bell and Sons, 1965.
   -- A concise, well-designed book with many illustrations.

Colket, Meredith B., Jr., and Bridgers, Frank E. "Guide to
   Genealogical Records in the National Archives."  National Archives
   Publication No. 64-8.  Washington, D.C.: National Archives and
   Records Service, 1964.


- 10 -


Colonial Dames of America, Chapter I. "Ancestral Records and Portraits."
   2 vols.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
   -- Silhouettes and portraits and much valuable genealogical material.

Committee on Heraldry.  "Roll of Arms."  Boston: New England Historic
   Genealogical Society, 1936.

Crozier, William Armstrong, ed.  "Crozier's General Armory, a Register
   of American Families Entitled to Coat Armor."  Baltimore:
   Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.
   -- An alphabetical list of American family coats of arms.  Not
   complete, but very useful.

Crozier, William Armstrong, ed.  "Virginia County Records, a Key to
   Southern Pedigrees."  Vol. 8. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
   1971.

d'Angerville, Count, ed.  "Living Descendants of Blood Royal (in America)."
   Vols. 3 and 4. London: World Nobility and Peerage, 1964.

Elvin, C.N. "A Handbook of Mottoes."  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
   1971.
   -- Armorial mottoes in translation and indexed to family name.

Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles, ed.  "Armorial Families: a Dictionary of
   Gentlemen of Coat-Armour." 2 vols.  Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle
   Co., 1970.
   -- Much like Burke's General Armory.

Guppy, Henry Brougham.  "Homes of Family Names in Great Britain."
   Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
   -- Discusses name origins and distribution in England and Scotland.

Hardy, Stella Pickett.  "Colonial Families of the Southern States of
   America." 2nd ed.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
   -- Contains genealogies with coats of arms from English origin to
   beginning of century.

Hassall, W.O. "History Through Surnames."  Oxford, England:
   Pergamon Press, 1967.
   -- A highly useful book indexed and cross-referenced by name origin
   and evolution from medieval times to the present.

Hotten, John Camden, ed.  "Original Lists of Persons of Quality, 1600-1700."
   Baltimore.- Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
   -- Contains the names of emigrants with ages, trades, ship taken, place
   of origin, and many other pertinent facts to aid in the identification and
   verification of origin and family branch relative to coats of arms.


- 11 -

Mackenzie, George Norbury, ed.  "Colonial Families of the United States of
   America." 7 vols.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.
   -- Contains an indexed listing of New England and Virginia with American
   genealogies and an insert of coats of arms.

Matthews, Constance M. "English Surnames."  New York: Charles Scribner's
   Sons, 1967.
   -- An informational book giving a wide view of surname origin and
   development with profuse examples.

Matthews, John.  "Complete American Armory and Blue Book."  New York:
   Heraldic Publishing Co., 1965.
   -- American coats of arms, illustrated and indexed.

Pittman, Hannah D., ed.  "Americans of Gentle Birth and Their Ancestors."
   2 vols.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970.

Savage, J. "Genealogical Dictionary of New England." 5th ed. 4 vols.
   Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
   -- This extremely hard-to-read set is arranged alphabetically, and
   despite its many disadvantages in composition and style, it is one of
   the best books on the subject of first New England immigrants.

Smith, Elsdon C. "Dictionary of American Family Names."  New York:
   Harper & Row, 1956.

Stephenson, Jean.  "Heraldry For the American Genealogist."
   Special publication no. 25.  Washington, D.C.:
   National Genealogical Society, 1959.
   -- An essay showing how heraldry is essential to a complete
   exploration of American genealogy.

Vikus, Frederick A., ed. "The Abridged Compendium of American
   Genealogy; First Families of America." 7 vols.  Baltimore:
   Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
   -- Contains a great many genealogies, photographs, portraits
   and coats of arms.

Whitmore, W.H., ed.  "The Heraldic Journal: Recording the Armorial
   Bearings and Genealogies of American Fainilies." 4 vols. 1865/68.
   Reprint (4 vols. in 1).  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1972.
   -- All notations related to armorial bearings in a great many early
   American sources.


- 12 -

[Chapter 2] Ancestral Emigrants


   Will Rogers, in poking gentle fun at those who take perhaps an inordinate
amount of pride in their ancestry, used to remark that his ancestors (he
was part Cherokee) were at the dock to meet the Mayflower.  Figuratively, of
course, he was right, and this served to underscore the fact that every
American either is an immigrant or has descended from immigrants, with the
possible exception of the American Indians (possible exception because
many anthropologists believe that the Indians themselves were immigrants).
The story of American immigration is the story of a fabulous odyssey of an
estimated seventy million people of many different backgrounds and
nationalities.  It is the story of their hopes, their fears, their
aspirations: it is the story of America itself.  Oscar Handlin, the noted
historian, best expressed it when he said, "Once I thought to write a
history of the immigrants in America.  Then I discovered that the immigrants
were American history." No single volume could possibly relate their
magnificent story in all its breadth and scope, and the volume you now hold
in your hands is no exception.  However, there is much to be gained from a
broad overview.

   The first immigrants were the English, who were to lead all other
nationalities in immigration until the first half of the nineteenth century,
when Irish and German immigrants began to arrive in large numbers.  Early
English immigrants consisted, basically, of two different groups who settled
in two different places: the Puritans in Massachusetts and the Cavaliers in
Virginia.


- 13 -


   Tradition holds that the early colonists were religious refugees from a
dictatorial and unyielding monarchy which refused to acknowledge their basic
religious rights.  This tradition is right and wrong at the same time, for
though most colonists were Protestants fleeing the conformity of England's
state church, their flight arose from a multiplicity of issues touching on
several important matters besides religion.

   Beginning with Martin Luther in 1517, the Protestant Reformation
experienced a rapid development and wide appeal throughout much of Europe
and England.  Preaching a doctrine of salvation through individual conscience
rather than sacerdotalism, various Protestant sects had great political as
well as religious significance.

   In England, the Reformation was an important aspect of the politics of the
monarchy.  In this case, Henry VII appeared to embrace it in his attempts to
divorce his wife and take a new queen: he instituted a new church which,
though seemingly opposed to Catholicism, was really only slightly different,
mostly in its organization.  Throughout the mid-sixteenth century, the
English religion swayed back and forth, tending in some aspects toward
Catholicism and in others toward Protestantism.  By the end of the reign of
Queen Elizabeth I, the religion of England had become quite moderate.

   This moderation was very political in nature, for it attempted to put an
end to the agitation of the Puritans, or English Protestants, who sought to
"purify" the English Anglican Church of its Catholic tendencies.  Elizabeth's
efforts succeeded for a time, but by the early 1600s, Puritanism was
definitely in ascendancy in England.

   At the same time the economy of Europe and England was experiencing a
similar kind of disruptive development.  New wealth, mostly silver and gold
from Spanish colonies in the New World, was causing tremendous inflation.
Prices on all goods were rising very fast, and the poor, laboring classes
were suffering most from this condition.  In England, with its population
of seven million people divided into groups of nobles, gentry, yeomen,
and laboring poor, the economic problems of the age touched most heavily
on the king.  His income was fixed by Parliamentary law, and as he was
expected to finance his office and authority wholly from his own pocket,
he soon felt the squeeze.

   This situation focused attention on the House of Commons which was
composed of the gentry, or large landowners and merchants, who were
prospering from the inflation.  In the House of Commons, these Englishmen
could exert considerable influence over the king by their power of the


- 14 -


(Figure 3)


- 15 -


purse.  Most galling, perhaps, was their refusal to give the king the power
to tax individuals.  His royal finances thus remained dependent on his own
ingenuity and ability to devise various levies and duties to meet his needs.
Such levies ultimately reached deep into the pockets of the laboring
class.

   Concurrent to the rise of Puritanism in England and inflation in the world
economy, the Industrial Revolution led directly to great unemployment,
particularly among the rural laborers.  These people were forced into idleness
by government policies which had enclosed the previously open fields of
England in order to create land suitable, not for farming, but for raising the
great flocks of sheep necessary to support the English woolen industry.
Pressed by rising inflation, without work, and often in opposition to the
state religion, the laboring poor of England were, by the early 1600 s, easily
inclined to consider emigration; it was the only solution to an intolerable
situation.

   Almost simultaneously, there developed the government policy of mer-
cantilism, which encouraged colonization as a means of developing and
extending the economic base of the country. Mercantilism was carried on
by the joint-stock venture company, a group of merchants who received
authority from the king to organize, finance, and conduct various colonizing
expeditions. It drew on the large group of dissatisfied English
workers for the supply of colonists necessary to effect the policy of
mercantilism. Thus, a combination of political, economic, and religious
factors influenced greatly the developments which gave rise to the English
colonies in North America.

   The Puritans saw the New World as an ideal location for their "experiment
in constructive Protestantism." They settled in Massachusetts, and the
history of their colony actually begins with Captain John Smith. In
1614, two London merchants hired him to conduct a whaling expedition
off the American coast, and although unsuccessful in that, he did bring
back a shipload of fish that paid for the voyage. More importantly, he
brought back a tremendous enthusiasm that translated itself into a best-
selling pamphlet entitled "A Description of New England." John Smith's
bright, optimistic reports on "the Paradise" of New England greatly
interested the Puritans. So it was that when they chose a place of refuge from
the increasing religious intolerance in England, that place was the northern
coast of North America. And when James I greeted their petition with the
question, "What profits may arise in the parts to which they intend to
go?" the Puritans replied, "Fishing." "So God have my soul," James
exclaimed, "tis an honest trade! 'Twas the Apostles' own calling." He


- 16 -


granted royal sanction, and so began the voyage of the Mayflower and the
subsequent colonization of New England.  In America, they were able to
dedicate themselves fully to practicing their beliefs, rather than
criticizing and trying to reform the English church.

  Most influential in this development was John Winthrop, the governor of
the Massachusetts Bay Company, who actually established a virtually
autonomous colonial government in Massachusetts in 1629.  His community,
centered around Boston, was, however, a bit too strict for some of his
followers, most of whom were simple laborers and merchants rather than
Puritans.  The rigid, unyielding autocracy imposed by the Puritan minority
in Massachusetts soon gave rise to a new migration, this one heading out
of Massachusetts and into the Connecticut River Valley.

   The Connecticut Colony was located at Hartford and later became loosely
tied with the New Haven Colony on the coast.  Governed by a Puritan elite
which put more emphasis on the commercial aspects of Puritanism (the emphasis
has subsequently been described as the Protestant work ethic), the colony
encouraged rapid growth and generated a growing number of other settlements,
mostly populated by non-Puritan English yeomen and merchants.

   Later, a flood of immigrants to Virginia was a direct result of the
English civil war.  Like all wars, the underlying causes were complex, and
had been woven into the fabric of the whole society many years before.  As
discussed previously, Parliament and the king had come to an impasse over
the issue of taxation and royal finances, and seeing the opportunity,
English Puritans joined the antimonarchial forces.  King Charles I attempted
to force loans from the recalcitrant gentry and commercial class.  The gentry
refused, and Charles became desperate for money.  The war was finally
precipitated when the famous Long Parliament, which convened on 3 November
1640, repudiated the King's concepts of absolutism and rule by Divine Right.
The members of Parliament demanded greater freedom and religious tolerance.
When hostilities broke out, the battle lines were drawn between the
Royalists, who supported the king, and the Puritans, who supported Parliament.

   The Royalists were recruited from the Cavaliers, who were, for the most
part, wealthy landowners and Roman Catholics; the bulk of the Puritan forces
were drawn mostly from the common people.  While the war, or actually, series
of wars, raged from 1642 to 1649, many people, Puritan and Royalist alike,
left the country for the New World, but Cromwell's final victory over
Charles I prompted a huge migration of


- 17 -


(Figure 4)


- 18 -


Cavaliers to Virginia.  After Charles was beheaded in 1649, and the Puritans
were in Firm control of Parliament, it was declared to be an act of high
treason to recognize Charles II or to attempt to "restore" him to the throne.
Virginia appeared to be the only refuge for supporters of the monarchy;
they were certainly not welcome in Puritan New England.  Also, in Virginia,
the Cavaliers found a social and economic system which was already similar to
that of the English gentry.  Large tobacco plantations were the outgrowth of
the earliest settlements, and, as time passed, these plantations took on the
aura of the English estate.  From its beginning, the Virginia Colony had a
significant population of gentry.  In most cases the colonial gentry was made
up of the younger sons of the English landed families.  Because of
primogeniture, the legal doctrine of inheritance of the estate by the eldest
son, these younger sons often found themselves without any financial support
once they reached their majority.  Thus, emigration to Virginia offered a
ready opportunity for employment and the important chance for achieving high
social standing.

   However, in some circles, Virginia gained an early and completely
undeserved reputation as a "land of death." So much so, that some prisoners in
English jails, when given the choice of emigration to Virginia or death by
hanging, chose the latter.  In fact, many people came because they were forced
to - vagrants, paupers, thieves, even prisoners of war were deported to
America, where they would be out of the way of decent folk and could do no
harm except to each other.  So it may be seen that great numbers of immigrants
were actually driven to the New World, driven because of political, economic,
or religious reasons, or sometimes more directly, driven out by the law
because they were considered to be undesirables.

   The profit motive brought others.  In any great migration (just as, for
example, in our own westward expansion), there are always those who see the
tremendous economic potential in a new land.  Although visions of easy riches
in gold or silver most often quickly evaporated, there were still the cod-rich
waters of Massachusetts Bay, tobacco in the southern colonies, furs, and new
ports for trade up and down the virgin coastline.  These riches of the New
World accrued mostly to the mercantilists, but there were riches of a
different sort for the common man.  Some wanted nothing more than their
own land and a fresh start.  This opportunity was open to virtually every
man.  Even if he had to become an indentured servant for a while, this was
not such a bad bargain as it may seem.  The indentured servant received free
transportation to America, and at the end of his contract, which was typically
for four years, he received his "freedom


- 19 -


dues."  This payment was usually clothing, a gun, tools, some money, and
sometimes as much as fifty acres of land.  The indentured servant had
often learned a useful trade as well.

   In addition to the three main reasons for emigration (religious
persecution, political oppression, and economic considerations), other less
obvious, more personal, and historically unimportant motives have caused
people to pack up and come to America: the end of a love affair, escape from
altercations, the desire to be with friends who were going, or perhaps just
an adventuresome spirit.  These were some of the reasons.  However, human
motivations are nothing if not complex, and undoubtedly many came for reasons
unknown even to themselves.  Perhaps all they felt was a strange beckoning
from a New Land which could not be denied.

   In spite of all the dissimilarities in their backgrounds and reasons for
coming, all early immigrants had one experience in common: a long, dangerous,
and extremely unpleasant voyage across the Atlantic.  In 1902,
Henry F. Thompson read a paper before the Maryland Historical Society
in Baltimore.  Entitled "An Atlantic Voyage in the Seventeenth Century," it
gives an absorbing account of exactly what such a journey entailed.

      The vessels which were in use in the seventeenth century were small,
   when judged by the ideas of sea-going ships of the present day, for
   there were few over two hundred tons, as an inspection of the few returns
   (which are extant) of the naval officers of the Patuxent and Potomac
   Rivers will show.  Although a few ships were from three hundred to five
   hundred tons, the greater number of them were from one hundred and fifty
   to two hundred and fifty, and more were under than over two hundred.
      They were broad in the bow, the forecastle and the poop were raised
   high above the main deck, the mainmast was placed in the middle of the
   ship, the foremast as near the bow as possible and the mizzen where the
   builder thought fit.  The books on navigation and shipbuilding, all
   speak of top gallant masts and sails but in no one of the log-books
   is there any mention of a sail above the topsail, although, of course,
   they speak of making and taking in the sails as well of sending down
   topmasts and yards.  They were but slow sailers and although instances
   occur of as much as eight miles an hour being made, it was when there
   was a fair wind and plenty of it, and with a smooth sea, but at no time
   was that rate kept up for twentyfour hours.  When the wind was ahead,
   but slow progress was made, for no ship could sail "close to the wind,"
   and often four or five miles was all there was to show for a whole day,
   and


- 20 -

there were even times when they were further from their destination at the
end of twenty-four hours than they were at the beginning.  Rather than keep
on against a head wind they would "heave to" or "try" as they said in those
days.  The Bristow arrived in York River  on 8th March, 1701, having left
London on the 22nd October, and her Master writes "a more terrible passage
has hardly been known by man.  I have been on this coast near twelve weeks
within forty or fifty leagues by all estimation."  He had become separated
from the fleet, for although the Gloster did not arrive until the day after
the Bristow, the latter found on her arrival several vessels which left
London with her, but which had been in port eight or nine weeks.

   Indeed, there is nothing in which a voyage, two hundred years ago,
differed more from one today, than in the great uncertainty as to the time
which was to be spent in going from one port to the other.

   When a passenger started from London, he could not say within many weeks,
how long he was to be on board the ship which was to take him to Maryland or
Virginia, for, of the eleven voyages of which we have the records, they were
from forty-seven days to one hundred and thirty-eight days from London to the
Capes, and from thirty-two to one hundred and thirteen on their way home.

   The same vessel varied from forty-seven days to one hundred and two days,
in coming from London, and from thirty two to fifty-two in returning home.

   A ship would often be three or four weeks from London before she took her
departure from the Lizard detained in the Downs or some port by head winds or
storms, and it must have been an inspiriting sight, after a storm, to see the
numerous vessels getting under way from the Downs; for there would be hundreds
of vessels starting out for all parts of the world, the vessels bound for the
Chesapeake Bay often numbering forty or fifty, as the captain of one of them
says, "We Virginians keeping together," the name Virginian being often applied
to all vessels bound in the Capes.

   When the fleet was clear of the land, they steered for the Azores, and one
or more ships generally sighted Flores and Corves, the most westerly of the
islands.  Then they steered for Cape Henry, and deviated as little as possible
from a straight course, for their latitude they could find every day at noon,
by means of their quadrants, but their longitude they could only estimate by
calculating the distance run and the course steered, making allowances for
currents, leeway or a heavy sea knocking them off their course.
Notwithstanding this rather uncertain calculation they were not far out of the
way when they began sounding to find out if they were near land.


- 21 -


   Although a large fleet of fifty or sixty vessels might leave England, they
soon became more or less scattered, although there were some vessels always in
sight of each other, frequently in and calm weather there were visits between
the officers and passengers of the different vessels, who dined or spent whole
days, of which custom the following extract from the log-book of the Johanna
gives an example: "Mr.  Baker hoysted out his boat and came on board of us.
We spared them some tobacco to pipe, for it was very scarce with them.  About
5 oclocke they went aboard again: the master of her was sufficiently in drink
before he went."

   It may be supposed that the great uncertainty as to the duration of the
voyage would have caused some trouble in providing sufficient food and water
for so many persons, but the food was composed principally of bread or ship-
biscuit, salt meat, peas and cheese, all which would keep well for many
months, and therefore it was only the space required for enough food and
water that gave any trouble, and when it is recollected that it would be
necessary to carry food and water for one hundred persons (including
passengers and crew) for a voyage lasting perhaps five months it is evident
that the provisions which were necessary would occupy a great deal of space.

   In a contract made with the owners of the ship Nassau, of five hundred
tons, to carry one hundred and fifty or more passengers to Virginia, the
following stipulations were made in regard to food.  The passengers to have
the same allowance of food as the sailors, that is to say: "they were to have
their allowance of bread, butter and cheese weekly, and the rest of the
provisions were to be distributed daily: each passenger, over six years of
age, was to have seven pounds of bread every week, each mess of eight to have
two pieces of pork (each piece to be two pounds) with pease five days in the
week, and on the other two days four pounds of beef with pease each day, or
four pounds of beef with a pudding, with pease for the two days, and in case
the kettle could not be boiled each passenger was to have one pound of cheese
every day.  Children under six years of age to have such allowance in flour,
oatmeal, fruit, Sugar and butter as the overseers of them shall judge fit."

   There were in this ship one hundred and ninety-one passengers, of whom
twenty-five were under twelve years of age, and although there were some of
all ranks in life there seems to have been no difference made between them
as to diet and lodging.

  The ordinary price of a passage to Maryland or Virginia was six pounds,
but for this large party the price was five pounds, for each person over
twelve years of age, and half price for children under that age.

 - 22 -


   The ship Johanna was on her way from London to Virginia in March, 1674,
when the following incident occurred, viz.: "About 12 o'clock last night
some of our people saw something walke in the shape of a dog and after that
it was heard betwixt dex cry like a child and sometimes knocking without
bord and the dog that belonged to the ship run whineing up and down and
crept in among the passengers I pray God dyliver us from all evil."

   Nothing happened to them on the voyage, and they arrived in Virginia
after a quick passage, and without any accident, but two years later on
the same ship something happened which caused the death of two men, but
what it was, is not very clear.  "One of our servants was missing, judged
he fell overboard and drowned: and another had his other leg cut ofe, his
other being cut of sometime before - they were boath Cap.  Beales servants,"

   If the vessels were long in crossing the ocean, they were also sometime
in port, before they were ready to return home.

   The "Constant Friendship" arrived in the Saint Mary's river on the 20th
December 1671, and the next day, the Master went ashore and entered the
ship at the Custom House.  They lay there 10 day, landing passengers and
goods, and then sailed for the Patuxent "to do some business there," and
while there they buried a passenger, the 2nd mate, and one of the seamen.
At the end of the week they sailed for the "Seavorne" which they reached at
2 a.m., sailing in boldly, "there being moonlight and fair weather." For two
months and a half, they were delivering goods and taking in tobacco.  Some of
the English goods were consigned to different persons, and some were sold
from the ship, payment being made in tobacco.  The ship lay at anchor in the
river, and the tobacco was brought off in shallops from the landings to which
it had been rolled from the plantations.  By the 25th March, they had on board
about five hundred and fifty hogsheads, and they sailed for the Patuxent,
where they took in more tobacco, and then went to St. Mary's where by the end
of April they finished their loading, having seven hundred and eight hogsheads
on board, and cleared the ship, when they were ready to sail.

   The ships generally spent three or four months in the rivers, delivering
their goods and taking in tobacco, which was taken on freight, or obtained by
"trucking" as it was called, that is to say, bartering the English goods for
the tobacco, or sometimes the skins of wild animals, of which a goodly number
were exported in the early days of the Colony.  When the loading was finished,
and the ship was cleared and ready for sea, they went to Lynnhaven Bay, where
the fleet for England was made up, and received their sailing orders.  One of
the fleet was named as the


- 23 -

Flag ship, and her commander was appointed Admiral with a certain authority
over the Masters of the other ships, subject of course to the orders of the
Commander of the Men of War who conveyed the fleet off the coast or at times
all the way to England.  A Man of War lay in the Chesapeake, whose duty among
other things was to convoy the ships 25 or 30 leagues off the coast, for there
was great danger of an attack by Pirates who hovered about the coast, and
sometimes ran into the bays and harbours to make a capture, but seldom, if
ever, roamed over the ocean in search of their prey.  The Governor of Virginia,
at times, went out in the Man of War to see the fleet safely on their way, and
when he arrived on board, most of the ships fired a salute, for they all had
guns and a gunner was a member of every ship's company as surely as a carpenter
or sailmaker.

   A "fleet" frequently numbered fifty vessels, or more and on the 31st July
1702 one hundred and forty vessels sailed out of the Capes convoyed by four
Men of War.

   Even when there was war between Great Britain and some other country,
there was not much danger of capture on the high seas, but when they got
near the land the Privateers, Or "Capers," as Dutch privateers were called,
were cruising about, watching for the incoming ships, and sometimes capturing
and carrying them off.  One such incident is told in the log-book of the
Johanna, under the date of July, 1676 - "When Twart of Beachy Head saw severall
shallops French Privateers come up with us and commanded our boat out and us by
the lee but I would not being able to Deale with them: we saw them clap several
Vessels aboard and plunder them and caryed two away at 10 O'clock in the night
two came up with us together which command us to strick and by the lee which I
would not they fired 3 gunnes at us but hitt us not the shot fell by the ships
side, then they came close up and said they would clap us abord both together
I bid them keep ofe or else we would fire att them we gott two of or guns upon
the forecassell and Poynted them aft at them for they intended to come abord
upon the quarter we could not bring a gun to beare upon them with (until?] we
had done so: the french seeing us in preparation to defend ourselves bid us
good night and left us after many bad words which passed between us.  We fired
not at them-" The encounter with the privateers ended happily enough, nothing
worse than an exchange of "bad words" having happened, but owing to the
preparations for defence, one of the men on the Johanna lost his life, as the
log-book tells in the following words: "Att 3 of Clock this morning the
Carpenters mate being laid down to sleep upon the forehatch by the windlass
and one of the guns upon the forecassel standing upon a pease and my mate
goeing up on the for Cassel tooke holde of the mussell of the gun which
oversett it it not being lashed Dumbled doune upon the deck


- 24 -


(Figure 5)


- 25 -


and bruised the head of the Carpenters mate and broke his scull very much he
dyed Presently which was a very sad accident.  We keept him until he was could
and stiff and buryd him in the sea of the South forland which I pray God have
mercy upon his soule for he was suddenly taken out of this world.

   There were other dangers that menaced the ships, even when they were thought
to be past all the perils of the sea; and there is one more extract which tells
of the end of the Baltimore, which had made many voyages to Maryland, and was
considered a strong, well built ship.  In 1673 she had made the passage home
in very good time, and with the rest of the London Fleet had gone into
Plymouth harbour - on the 18th September, all thinking, no doubt, that they
would soon land their tobacco in London.  They lay there for three days, and
then started to go on to London but as all the ships could not get out in time
a signal was made, for those that were outside to return. When the Baltimore
got back the log-book says: "it was darke we run in behind the Island and
ankored in 6 fad the wind abt S S E and blowed hard and rained we struck our
topmasts and yards and rod about 2 hours fast but the wind blowing harder and
harder we let go the sheet ankor and in vering away upon the best bower
started the best vower ankor and nether that not the sheet ankor wold take
hold againe but we drove ashore upon the rockes about 3 ships lengths to the
westward of milebay and being a high water and falling we presently sued and
struck fast and bilged upon the rocks the next tide the water ranne over part
of the gun deck: we saved about 60 hhds dry and all the ships materialls as
guns cables ankors and rigging and sayies: and could not save the shipp
although it wass indevoured by the plymouth men: but she stove all to peeses
. . . I pray God send me better fortune the next voyage."

   English immigration to America continues even to the present day.  Only
a few short years ago, the "Brain Drain," or immigration of British scientists
and technicians, was the subject of much reportage.  But, by the first half of
the nineteenth century England had ceased to be the predominant supplier of
new settlers.  At this point in history, Irish and German immigrants began to
pour in.  As with the English before them, their motivations were diverse and
complex, but there were also general reasons.  As for the Irish, it is
estimated that nearly one million came in a five year period as a direct
result or the potato famine (1845).  Many Germans came because of the heavy
suppression of liberal thought which came about as a national reaction against
the reform ideas of the French Revolution.  This suppression manifested itself
in strict censorship of the press, of public


- 26 -


meetings, and of schools and universities.  The friction between the liberals
and conservatives finally resulted in open hostilities in 1830, and again in
1848, with two unsuccessful revolutions.  As is illustrated by the English
civil wars prior to this, and the Russian Revolution nearly a century later,
any internal upheaval in a nation produces its refugees, and these refugees
in turn become immigrants, many of them, over the years, American immigrants.

   In general, immigrants followed certain distinctive migration patterns once
they landed, and the Germans and Irish are two good examples.  The Irish,
since they generally arrived dirt poor, in fact, had come precisely because
they were poor, had no real option but to stay where they had landed - in
cities on the eastern seaboard, particularly in New York and Boston.  The
first and most essential order of business for an Irish immigrant was to get
a job.  This usually presented no problem, indeed, contractors actually waited
at the docks to sign up Irish laborers as soon as they set foot on shore.  But
while the Irish could survive and did get an economic foothold, they had
virtually no mobility.

   The Germans, however, could afford to go about the business of settling at
a more sedate pace.  Unlike the Irish, the Germans left home not because of
economic disaster, but for political or intellectual reasons, or simply because
 they wanted to better their lot.  Consequently, they usually arrived with some
savings, and a clear-cut destination: the rich farmlands of the Midwest.  After
the early German immigrants had staked out farms in Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
and New York, the later German immigrants sought their homesteads in Illinois,
Wisconsin, Ohio, and Minnesota.

   In passing, the desire for a homestead as a motive for both immigration and
migration cannot be underestimated.  A great impetus was given to both
movements on 20 May 1862 when the Homestead Act was signed into law by
Abraham Lincoln.  The law gave to "any person who is the head of a family, or
who has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and is a citizen of the
United States, or who shall have filed his declaration of intention to become
such," the right to 160 acres of land for only a filing fee and the stipulation
that he live on it for five years and make certain improvements.

   The immigrants wrote letters (mostly enthusiastic) home, and these letters
prompted still others to make the long, one-way journey across the Atlantic.
Marcus Lee Hansen, in his comprehensive study, "The Atlantic Migration,
1607-1860," reveals an interesting sidelight about the letters home.


- 27 -


      A persistent belief existed that letters were tampered with; that no
communication derogatory to the country was allowed to leave; that to
encourage immigration false letters of praise were concocted and signatures
forged - a simple enough matter at a time when many of the senders, being
illiterate, had to depend upon another's pen.  To guard against interference
and to prevent fraud, ingenious devices were adopted.  Before departure it
would be agreed that the emigrant's letters should be written upon a certain
variety of stationery, or bear a device pricked by pins in the corner, or
have the sealing wax applied in a place agreed upon, or a bent pin or small
coin hidden in the wax.  Occasionally a code would be adopted in which words
did not mean exactly what they said.  Thus a departing Irishman arranged that,
if he advised his brother not to follow him without their dear grandmother,
then, in view of the fact that the venerable dame had been dead thirty years,
the advice should be interpreted as an adverse report.

   The latter half of the nineteenth century saw the Italians and those from
the various eastern European countries supplant the Germans and the Irish as
the numerical leaders of American immigration.  Immigrants from Scandinavia as
well began to arrive as the twentieth century approached.  Their reasons were
essentially identical to those of all the immigrant groups who preceded them.
Whole books could be written on each immigrant group, from the first English
settlers to those who followed nearly three hundred years later: the 5 million
Italians, the half million Greeks, the one and a quarter million Swedes, and
all the others who had the courage to start a new life.  But each group has
its own story, its own heroes and villians, its own peculiar problems of
adjustment.  They are all different, yet finally, not so different.  All of
these immigrant groups have had to overcome prejudice and hardship.  They have
all made vast and important contributions to American culture and progress.
In the agonizing and often heartbreaking business of building a new nation,
they have all faced obstacles and triumphed - triumphed with quiet pride and
dignity; they have all become Americans.

   All Americans are descended from immigrants, whether from the very first or
the two millionth, and having the blood of these courageous men and women flow
in their veins is something from which they can derive a just pride.  But it
is only natural and fitting that one should seek to know more about his
immigrant ancestors.  How should the problem be approached?

   For a start, if your ancestors immigrated in or prior to 1800, the chances
are good that you need look no further.  The listing which follows


- 28 -


contains all known recorded immigrants of the Coleman family for that time
frame.

   A complete listing of all Coleman immigrants who arrived after this time
would be impractical in this book.  For that matter, an absolutely complete
listing is not to be had anywhere.  However, the National Archives (see last
chapter for further information on the collections in the National Archives)
has in its possession passenger arrival lists which record the names of those
who arrived from abroad at ports on the Atlantic or the Gulf of Mexico and a
few inland ports.  Some of the lists go back as far as 1798, but the bulk of
them cover the years 1820 through 1945.  There are gaps, but nowhere else are
there to be found lists as extensive as these.

   The lists fall into three categories: customs lists of aliens, customs
passenger lists, and immigration passenger lists.  Customs lists of aliens
are available for only the ports of Salem and Beverly, Massachusetts.  The
customs passenger lists normally contain the following information for each
passenger: name, age, sex, and occupation; the country of embarkation; the
country of destination; and, on occasion, the date and circumstances of a
death occurring in transit.  Only those immigration passenger lists that are
more than fifty years old are available for research purposes.  They vary in
content but usually give the same information found in the customs passenger
fists as well as the place of birth and last place of residence.  In addition,
they sometimes give the name and address of a relative in the country from
which the immigrant came.

   The National Archives will conduct a search of the customs passenger lists
if an inquirer can supply: (a) name of the passenger, (b) port of entry,
(c) name of the ship, and approximate date of arrival or port of embarkation
and exact date of arrival.  The National Archives will also search the
immigration passenger lists over fifty years old if supplied: (a) name of
passenger, (b) age of passenger, '(c) names and ages of accompanying
passengers, (d) port of entry, (e) name of ship, and (f) exact date of
arrival.  It will also consult its indexes as to the names on the customs and
immigration passenger lists provided an inquirer can supply the port of entry
and supposed year of arrival.

   The immigrant is a pivotal and crucial point in any fanifly tree, and too
much care cannot be taken to insure that one has exhausted every possible
source and amassed all available data on him.  He is an important man in many
ways.


- 29 -


--- Coleman; emigrated from England to the Vicinity Of Marion, South Carolina,
around 1750; had a son John.

Edward Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1637.

Edward Coleman; emigrated from Thorrington, Essex, to Boston in or pnor to
1650.

Francis Coleman; emigrated from England to Pennsylvania on board the ship
"Golden Hinde" in 1682.

George Coleman; transported* from Newgate Prison to Virginia on board
the ship "Forward Galley" on 27 October 1729; indentured servant.

Henry Coleman; born 1594; emigrated from England to Elizabeth City County,
Virginia, in 1632; received a land grant of 1000 acres; married to Catherine

John Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1649.

John Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1654.

John Coleman; emigrated from Stepney, Middlesex, to Maryland in
January 1729, aged 20; weaver; indentured ser-vant.

John Coleman; transported from Surrey to either Maryland or Virginia on
board the ship Forward Galley on 8 May 1737; indentured servant.

Jonathan Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1643.

Joseph Coleman; emigrated from Sandwich, Kent, to Charlestown, Massachusetts,
in or prior to 1 650.

  *There were no less than 150 capital crimes in England for which a man
might be transported.  Of course, there were the expected ones of murder,
arson, and treason, but there were also lesser ones such as maiming, stealing
a cow, cutting down trees along an avenue, sending threatening letters, and
standing mute when addressed by a legal official.  Some convicts were even
people of quality.  One gentleman of high birth, for instance, was transported
for stealing books out of a library.  As a child, George Washington was taught
to read and write by a transported convict who had been a schoolmaster.
Especially in the countryside, the crimes which resulted in transportation
were often very petty.  One man was transported for stealing a silver
shoebuckle.  Another was sent to America and indentured for seven years for
the theft of a chicken.


- 30 -


Morris Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1638.

Richard Coleman., immigrated to Virginia in 1654.

Robert Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1638.

Robert Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1643.

Samuel Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1654.

Samuel Coleman; transported from Buckinghamshire to America on board
the ship "Susannah" on 1 October 1744; indentured servant.

Thomas Coleman; born 1602, died 1685; emigrated from Marlborough, Wiltshire,
to Boston on board the ship "James" in 1635; moved to Hampton, New Hampshire,
and then to Nantucket, Massachusetts; married (1st) to Susanna ---, (2nd) to
Mary Johnson on 11 July 1651, and (3rd) to Margery Asbourne Fowler; children
were Tobias, Benjamin, Joseph, John, Isaac, Joanna, and Susanna.


Thomas Coleman; born 1598, died 1674; emigrated from Evesham, Worcestershire,
to Wethersfield, Connecticut, in or prior to 1639; moved to
Hadley, Massachusetts, around 1661; married (1st) to (wife's name unknown)
and (2nd) to Frances Wells; children were Sarah, Deborah, Thomas, John, and
Mary.

Thomas Coleman; emigrated from Cotterstock, Northamptonshire, to
Newbury, Massachusetts, in or prior to 1650.

William Coleman; emigrated from England to Virginia on board the ship
"Assurance" on 24 July 1635, aged 16.

William Coleman; immigrated to Virginia in 1656.


References

The following books pertain to the information discussed in the preceding
chapter- Nearly all of them are available in any good genealogical
collection and are highly recommended for those who wish to pursue the
subject further.


- 31 -


Adams, Arthur, and Weis, Frederick Lewis- "The Magna Carta Sureties, 1215,
the Barons Named in the Magna Carta, 1215, and Some of Their Descendants
Who Settled in America, 1607-1650." 2nd ed.  Revised by Walter Lee Shepard,
Jr.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
Contains lineages dating from 1215.  Indexed.

Bailey, Thomas A. "The American Spirit: United States History as Seen by
Contemporaries."  Vol. 1. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1963.
Bailey has extracted rich material from old diaries, letters, autobiographies,
editorials, and other sources.  Through the use of this material, we are able
to see events in American history, from colonial days up through the
Reconstruction, as described by people who were actually there.


Banks, Charles Edward.  The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers
Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and
the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing
Co., 1971.
Useful biographical material.

Banks, Charles Edward.  "Topographical Dictionary of 2885 English Settlers
to New England, 1620 -1650."  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
Gives home parish of the emigrant and his destination in the New World.
Often lists ship's name as well.

Barck, Oscar Theodore, Jr., and Lefler, Hugh Talmage.  "Colonial America."
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1958.
A complete colonial American history with emphasis on the establishment of
each of the original colonies.


Blum, John M., et al.  "The National Experience: A History of the United
States." 2nd ed.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968,
An excellent brief history of the nation.  It enjoys wide use as a college
textbook.

"Bristol and America,  A Record of the First Settlers in the Colonies of
North America, 1654-1685."  Preface by N. Dermott Harding.
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970.
Compiled from ships' passenger lists.

"Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry Including
American Families with British Ancestry."  London: Burke's Peerage, 1939.
The authority in its field.  A 3,021-page compendium which is a
basic reference source for anyone engaged in British or American genealogical
research.


- 32 -


Cameron, Viola Root.  "Emigrants from Scotland to America, 1774-1775."
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1965.
Consists of ninety-seven pages of passenger lists.  Indexed.

Colket, Meredith B., Jr., and Bridgers, Frank E. "Guide to Genealogical Records
in the National Archives."  Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records
Service, 1964.
A general description of all records in the National Archives which are useful
to those engaged in genealogical research.

Colonial Dames of America, Chapter 1. "Ancestral Records and Portraits." 2 vols.
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
Two volumes of lineages and biographical material.  Illustrated with Portraits
and armorial bearings.

Coulter, E. Merton, and Saye, Albert B., eds.  "A List of the Early Settlers of
Georgia."  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1949.
Lists 1,355 early immigrants to Georgia in addition to the passenger list of
the Anne, the first ship to Georgia ( 1732).

d'Angerville, Count, ed.  "Living Descendants of Blood Royal (in America)."
4 vols.  London: World Nobility and Peerage, 1964.
Lineages of those American families which have ties to English nobility.

Daniel, J.R.V. "A Hornbook of Virginia History."  Richmond: The Virginia
Department of Conservation and Development, 1949.
A small book which gives an outline of Virginia history, with a rather complete
listing of localities, names, and events.

Drake, Samuel Gardner.  "The Founders of New England."  Baltimore: Genealogical
Publishing Co., 1969.
Difficult to use due to Old English, abbreviations, etc., but has quite a bit of
ship list information.

Fothergill, Gerald.  "A List of Emigrant Ministers to America, 1690-1811."
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1965.
Compiled from British records, this is a list of ministers and schoolmasters of
the Church of England who went to America during a 121-year period.

Fothergill, Gerald, ed.  "Emigrants from England, 1773-1776."  Baltimore:
Genealogical Publishing Co., 1964.
Listing of 6,000 names from old documents in the Public Record Office in London.

French, Elizabeth.  "List of Emigrants to America from Liverpool, 1697-1707."
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
Contains more than 1,500 names.  Indexed and footnoted.


- 33 -


"Gazetteer of the British Isles."  Edinburgh: John Bartholomew & Son, 1943.

Ghirelli, Michael.  "A List of Emigrants from England to America, 1682-1692."
Baltimore: Magna Carta Book Co., 1968.
In alphabetical order with indexes of place and agent names.

Greer, George Cabell.  "Early Virginia Immigrants, 1623-1666."
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
1960.
Nearly 25,000 names arranged in alphabetical order.

Hansen, Marcus Lee. "The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860."  Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, I 9 5 1.
A comprehensive study of the history and causes of American immigration
between the Years 1607 and 1860.

Hardy, Stella Pickett.  "Colonial Families of the Southern States of America."
2nd ed., rev.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing co., 1968.
This book deals with the genealogical history of Southern families whose
Colonial forefathers were established in the Colonies before the formation of
the thirteen original states." There are sixty-six family headings, arranged
alphabetically.

Hake, David. "The Colonial Experience."  New York: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1966.
Hawke covers the period from the discovery of the North American continent to
the year 1788.  In short, the complete colonial era.  It is extremely
thorough, and highly recommended for the more serious student of colonial
history.


Hotten, John Camden, ed.  "Lists of Emigrants to America, 1600-1700." 3rd ed.
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
This compilation Of lists is drawn from ships'  Passenger records.  The
compiler emphasizes that the lists are by no means complete. It cannot be
doubted but that other lists were made, but they are either lost, or are
among the mass of papers still uncatalogued at the Record Office." Also,
these are only the names of those who left England legally; many people,
those who left to avoid paying a subsidy to the crown, or to avoid taking the
oath of allegiance, did so secretly.  Parish records, patents, deeds, and land
grant records supplement the ships’ lists.

Jacobus, Donald Lines. "Index to Genealogical Periodicals." 3 vols.
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1963.
This is a first-rate genealogical aid.  It is divided into two sections:
first, surnames, and second, Places and subjects.

Jester, Annie Lash, and Hilden, Martha Woodroof, comps.  "Adventurers of
Purse and Person, Virginia,  1607-1625." 2nd ed. 1964.


- 34 -


Genealogical, biographical, and historical material.  Contains lineages.

Jones, Maldwyn Allen.  "American Immigration."  Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1967.
An extremely thorough treatment of all phases of American
immigration from 1607 to 1959.

Kaminkow, Jack, and Kaminkow, Marion, eds.  "A List of Emigrants from
England to America, 1718-1759.  Baltimore: Magna Carta Book Co.,
1964.
Listing of indentured servants.  Gives name, age, sex, place of
origin, date, of indenture, length of indenture, and destination.

Kaminkow,.  Jack, and Kaminkow, Marion, eds. "Original Lists of Emigrants
in Bondage from London to the American Colonies, 1719-1744."  Baltimore:
Magna Carta Book Co., 1967.
A listing of those who were transported (see footnote in preceding
pages).

Kennedy, John F.  "A Nation of Immigrants."  New York: Harper & Row,
1964.
A highly readable short history and discussion of American immigration.
Photographs.

Lancour, Harold. A Bibliography of Ship Passenger Lists, 1538-1825. 3rd
ed.  Revised by Richard J. Wolfe,  New York: New York Public Library, 1938.
Invaluable aid in ancestor-hunting.

Mackenzie, George Norbury, ed.  "Colonial Families of the United States of
America. 7 vots.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966
This work is devoted exclusively to families who trace their ancestry back
to the colonial period-from the time of the settlement of Jamestown, 13 May
1607, to the Battle of Lexington, 19 April
1775.  It gives the history, genealogy, and armorial bearings of colonial
families in the American colonies, and is a standard work of genealogical
reference for persons interested in their family histories and for logical
genealogical researchers.

McCracken, George E. "The Welcome claimants: Proved, Disproved, and Doubtful."
Penn's Colony: Genealogical and Historical Materials Relating to the
Settlement of Pennsylvania, vol. 2. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
1970.
Companion volume to the work by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., listed below.

Nicholson, Cregoe, D. P.	"Some Early Emigrants to America; also Early


- 35 -


Emigrants to America from Liverpool."  Abstracted by R. Sharpe France.
Reprinted from "Genealogists' Magazine" 12 and 13 (1955-1958).
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1965.
Covers more than 1,000 emigrants who came between the years 1683 and 1686.
Indexed.

Nugent, Nell Marion.  "Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land
Patents and Grants, 1622-1666."  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
1969.
Gives full names of the grantees and patentees, the number of acres,
locations and dates of settlement, names of relatives and relationships,
and also includes the names of those transported or brought over by the
early settlers.

Peirce, Ebenezer W. "Civil, Military, and Professional Lists of Plymouth
and Rhode Island Colonies, 1621-1700."  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing
Co., 1968.
A ready reference book in which the names of colonial county and town
officers and professional men are presented concisely and in a convenient
form.

Pittman, Hannah D., ed.  "Americans of Gentle Birth and Their Ancestors."
2 vols.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970.
Originally published in 1903, this two-volume set contains lineages for
numerous families of the time, tracing them back to colonial days.

Rupp, I. Daniel.  "A Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names of
German, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania
from 1727 to 1776." 2nd ed.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1971.
Lists names of ships, ports of embarkation, and dates of arrival in
Philadelphia.  Indexed.

Savage, James.  "Genealogical Dictionary of New England." 5th ed. 4 vols.
Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., 1969.
This four-volume work was originally published in 1860, and attempts to
give the lineages of all settlers in New England who arrived in or prior
to 1692 "without regard to rank or wealth." The set is arranged alphabetically
by family name.

Schultz, Harold John.  "History of England."  New York: Barnes & Noble, 1968.
An outline of English history, complete with many maps and useful bibliographies.

Sheppard, Walter Lee, Jr.  "Passengers and Ships Prior to 1684."  Penn's
Colony: Genealogical and Historical Materials Relating to the Settlement of
Pennsylvania, vol. 1. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970.


- 36 -


Generously footnoted and indexed.  An excellent reference.

Thompson, Henry F. "An Atlantic Voyage in the Seventeenth Century."
Maryland Historical Magazine 2(1907):319-326.
The Maryland Historical Magazine is published quarterly, and contains a wealth
of biographical, historical, and genealogical information.

Tunis, Edwin.  "Colonial Living."  Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1957.
This profusely illustrated volume deals with everyday Life in America during
the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.  Virtually every aspect
is covered, from weaving to house-building, and from education to hat-making.

Virkus, Frederick A., ed.  "The Abridged Compendium of American Genealogy."
2nd ed. 7 vols.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968.
The first volume alone of this seven-volume set lists more than 7,000 lineages
of American families, the principal object being to compress into one source
all available information on the ancestry of those who are able to trace
themselves back to the earliest days of our country.

Whittemore, Henry.  "Genealogical Guide to the Early Settlers of America."
Excerpted and reprinted from "The Spirit of '76" vols. 5-12 (September 1898
- June 1906):6.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1967.
Alphabetical listing up to and including the name Prior.


- 37 -


[Chapter 3] Early Marriage Records


All genealogists will agree that one valuable, indeed one indispensable tool
in constructing lineages, or "family trees," is something that is free of
charge to everyone: marriage records.  For the price of a stamp, one can
obtain marriage  information from any courthouse in the country, providing he
furnishes enough particulars (such as the name of at least one of the couple
and an approximate date) to enable the town or county clerk to locate the
records; a list of sources of marriage records for every state maintaining
such information is provided in Appendix 2.

Oftentimes, though, we don't have even this bare minimum of information at
our disposal.  Other times, we may have a name and date, but no location-no
idea of where the marriage took place, except that it was in a certain state.
More often than not, early marriages, especially those dating back to colonial
times, present particularly difficult problems.

This is only inevitable, since, as the generations have rolled inexorably
onward, countless family records, both oral and written have been lost to
historical oblivion.  This is due in large part to the numerous American
migrations, but also due to the nature of time itself.  An event becomes a
memory, and a memory, after having been passed on for a time, all too often
is eventually forgotten.  The following listing of some Coleman marriages in
America prior to 1700 will, it is hoped, prove to be a helpful aid to those
members of the family who wish either to begin or to continue research of
their own.


- 38 -


(Figure 5) A Colonial Wedding.  This colonial marriage ceremony took place
at Plymouth in 1695 and probably was very much like, if not identical to,
the weddings of members of the Coleman family in the same period.


- 39 -


Hannah Coleman; married Thomas Nash in August 1685, in Hadley,
Massachusetts.


Hanry Coleman; married Mary Meade in December 1691 in New York City.


Henry Coleman; married Elenor Hunt on 27 July 1698 in New York.


John Coleman; married Hannah Wright on 24 April 1695 in Wethersfield,
Connecticut.


Mary Coleman; married Peter Montague on 16 September 1680 in Hadley,
Massachusetts.


Noah Coleman; married Mary Crow on 27 December 1666 in Hadley, Massachusetts.


William Coleman; married Bridget Roe (widow) on 14 November 1662 in
Gloucester, Massachusetts.


References

The following two books may be helpful in beginning a search for marriage
records; they are two of the most comprehensive sources available, and
should be consulted before searching the various state records.


Bolton, Charles K. "Marriage Notices, 1785-1794, for the Whole
United States."  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1965.
Copied from the "Massachusetts" and the "Columbian Centinels", the
book provides marriage records in the form common to newspaper  announcements.

Clernens, William Montgomery, ed.  "American Marriage Records Before 1699."
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1967.
Covers marriages in the first colonies, arranged in an alphabetic listing
giving name, date, and place of marriage.


- 40 -


[Chapter] 4     CENSUS OF 1790


   On 1 March 1790, President George Washington signed into law the first
Census Act of the United States of America.  The responsibility for deter-
mining the manner in which the first complete listing of the inhabitants of
the country was to be compiled was placed upon the president himself.
Although historians are still not certain exactly what method the president
used, it is commonly assumed that he delegated the major responsibility
for its enactment to the marshals of the several existing judicial districts.

   The instructions in the law were to ascertain the number of inhabitants
of each county or district in the thirteen states that existed at the time;
to indicate the sex and color of these persons; and to enumerate the free
males sixteen years of age and over.  Indians, not being taxed, were not
included, and a careful distinction was made between free inhabitants and
slaves (including indentured servants bound to service for only a short
period of time).  Although the Constitution called only for a simple enu-
meration of the inhabitants of the land, the census of 1790 was undoubt-
edly used to obtain knowledge of the military strength and industrial
potential of the country.

   The actual compiling of the census was a very difficult and often
dangerous task.  Enormous areas of the eastern portion of the country were
still wilderness and even in the most heavily populated areas,
transportation was primitive and unreliable.  As a result, the schedules
obtained in this first census were not altogether consistent in their
content and


                                                    CENSUS OF 1790/41

form.  They are, however, considered accurate and complete.  Unfortunately,
the Capitol was burned by the British forces during the War of
1812, and the schedules for the areas that constituted the present states of
Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia were destroyed.

   The records which escaped destruction have proven inestimably valuable,
for they show a complete listing of the heads of all families living in
the United States at the time of the adoption of the Constitution.  These
schedules contain over 400,000 names, and since each family averages six
persons, historians have estimated the population of the country in 1790
to have been approximately 3,231,533.

   Below are listed the names of all the heads of families bearing the
name Coleman in twelve of the thirteen original states (the schedules of
Delaware having been destroyed in 1812 and those of Virginia having been
reconstructed from state enumerations taken in the years 1782, 1783, and
1785).  The list numbers over 350 family heads in the states of Connecticut,
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, and Virginia.
Following the name is the county or district (in the case of North and
South Carolina) of domicile of the particular individual.  Additional
names from a reconstructed 1800 census schedule (compiled from lists of
taxpayers) for the state of Kentucky are also included.

Connecticut


Coleman, Aaron	Litchfield
Coleman, Ambrus	New London
Coleman, Asa	Tolland
Coleman, Asaph	Hartford
Coleman, Daniel	New London
Coleman, Ebenezer	New London
Coleman, Ebenezer, Jr	Tolland
Coleman, Jason	Windham
Coleman, John	New London
Coleman, John	Windham
Coleman, John, Jr	Windham
Coleman, Josiah	Middlesex
Coleman, Levy	Tolland
Coleman, Nath	Tolland
Coleman, Noah	Windham
Coleman, Petig	Hartford
Coleman, Samuel	Tolland
Coleman, Thomas	Hartford
Coleman, Tim	Tolland
Coleman, ---	Tolland


	Kentucky

Coleman, Archibald	Jessamine
Coleman, Benjamin	Harrison
Coleman, Daniel	Clark
Coleman, Daniel	Henry
Coleman, Daniet Sr	Clark
Coleman, Edward	Harrison
Coleman, Frances	Harrison
Coleman, George	Ohio
Coleman, Henry	Ohio
Coleman, James	Harrison
Coleman, James	Nelson
Coleman, James	Woodford
Coleman, John	Montgomery
Coleman, Joseph	Barren
Coleman, Julius	Pendleton


Coleman, Madison	Harrison
Coleman, Martin	Ohio
Coleman, Martin, Sr	Ohio
Coleman, Nathan	Nelson
Coleman, Page	Barren
Coleman, Peter	Jessamine
Coleman, Robert	Clark
Coleman, Robert	Fayette
Coleman, Robert	Jefferson
Coleman, Robert	Muhlenberg
Coleman, Robert	Warren
Coleman, Thomas	Fayette
Coleman, Thomas	Warren
Coleman, Thomas	Woodford
Coleman, William	Clark
Coleman, William	Harrison

	Maine



	Maryland

Coleman, Charles H	Cecil
Coleman, Darius	Kent
Coleman, George	Hartford
Coleman, John	Hartford
Coleman, Nathan	Kent
Coleman, Nicholas	Talbot
Coleman, Richard	Queen Arms
Coleman, William	Queen Arms

	Massachusetts

Coleman, Alanson	Bristol
Coleman, Anne	Essex
Coleman, Barnabas	Nantucket
Coleman, Barzilia	Nantucket
Coleman, Benjamin	Essex
Coleman, Benjamin	Essex
Coleman, Betty	Essex
Coleman, Christ	Nantucket
Coleman, Daniel	Nantucket
Coleman, David	Nantucket
Coleman, Ebenezer	Barnstable
Coleman, Ebenezer	Nantucket
Coleman, Edward	Barnstable
Coleman, Enoch	Nantucket
Coleman, Francis	Nantucket
Coleman, George	Nantucket
Coleman, George	Nantucket
Coleman, Huldah	Nantucket
Coleman, Isaac	Suffolk
Coleman, James	Barnstable
Coleman, James	Barnstable
Coleman, James	Bristol
Coleman, Jeremiah	Nantucket
Coleman, Job	Nantucket
Coleman, Job	Worcester
Coleman, John	Essex
Coleman, John	Nantucket
Coleman, John	Worcester
Coleman, John, Jr	Worcester
Coleman, Jonathan	Nantucket
Coleman, Joseph	Plymouth
Coleman, Mathew	Nantucket
Coleman, Moses	Essex
Coleman, Nath	Barnstable
Coleman, Nathaniel	Hampshire
Coleman, Nath	Nantucket
Coleman, Obed	Nantucket
Coleman, Owen	Nantucket
Coleman, Peleg	Nantucket
Coleman, Prince	Nantucket
Coleman, Ruben	Nantucket
Coleman, Samuel	Essex
Coleman, Shubal	Nantucket
Coleman, Silvanus	Nantucket
Coleman, Silvanus	Nantucket
Coleman, Simeon	Nantucket
Coleman, Solomon	Nantucket
Coleman, Solomon, Jr.	Nantucket
Coleman, Stephen	Nantucket
Coleman, Thadeus	Worcester
Coleman, Thomas	Barnstable
Coleman, Thomas	Plymouth
Coleman, Thomas	Plymouth
Coleman, Timothy	Middlesex
Coleman, William	Essex
Coleman, William	Nantucket
Coleman, William	Suffolk

New Hampshire

Coleman, Aaron	Cheshire
Coleman, John	Rockingham
Coleman, John	Rockingham
Coleman, Joseph	Rockingham
Coleman, Martha	Rockingham
Coleman, Phinehas	Rockingham
Coleman, Solomon	Hillsborough

New York

Coleman, Abner	Orange
Coleman, Asael	Orange
Coleman, Benjamin	Suffolk
Coleman, Caleb	Orange
Coleman, Charles	Dutchess
Coleman, Christopher	Orange
Coleman, David	Ulster
Coleman, Duncan	Ulster
Coleman, Elihu	Kings
Coleman, George	Orange
Coleman, Gideon	Orange
Coleman, Gilbert W	New York
Coleman, Israel	Ulster
Coleman, Jethro	Dutchess
Coleman, Joab	Orange
Coleman, Joel	Orange
Coleman, John	Clinton
Coleman, John	Dutchess
Coleman, John	Orange
Coleman, John	Orange
Coleman, John	Ulster
Coleman, Jonathan	Ulster
Coleman, Kezia	Ulster
Coleman, Micah	Orange
Coleman, Nathan	Orange
Coleman, Oziar	Washington
Coleman, Oziar, Jr	Washington
Coleman, Richard	Orange
Coleman, Samuel	Orange
Coleman, Samuel	Ulster
Coleman, Silas	Orange
Coleman, Thomas	Orange
Coleman, Thomas, Jr	Orange
Coleman, William	Orange
Coleman, William	Ulster

North Carolina

Coleman, Aaron		Halifax
Coleman, Aaron		Halifax
Coleman, Benjamin	Newbern
Coleman, Charles	Halifax
Coleman, Charles	Salisbury
Coleman, Daniel		Hillsborough
Coleman, Dolly		Fayette
Coleman, Edward		Halifax
Coleman, Elias		Newbern
Coleman, Elijah		Newbern
Coleman, Hardy		Halifax
Coleman, Isaac		Newbern
Coleman, James		Fayette
Coleman, James		Newbem
Coleman, Jesse		Fayette
Coleman, John

Coleman, John		Halifax
Coleman, John		Hillsborough
Coleman, Josiah		Halifax
Coleman, Mark		Salisbury
Coleman, Moses		Halifax
Coleman, Peter		Salisbury
Coleman, Phillip	Salisbury
Coleman, Richard	Hillsborough
Coleman, Robert		Halifax
Coleman, Robert		Halifax
Coleman, Robert		Halifax
Coleman, Robert		Salisbury
Coleman, Samuel		Salisbury
Coleman, Samuel		Newbern
Coleman, Sarah		Halifax
Coleman, Spillsby	Hillsborough
Coleman, Stephen	Halifax
Coleman, Stephen	Halifax
Coleman, Theophilus	Halifax
Coleman, Thomas		Newbern
Coleman, William	Newbem
Coleman, William	Salisbury

Pennsylvania

Coleman, Adam		Philadelphia
Coleman, Benjamin	Northampton
Coleman, Burkhart	Berks
Coleman, Catherine	Montgomery
Coleman, Charles	Bucks
Coleman, Charles	Dauphin
Coleman, Charles	Dauphin
Coleman, Charles	Dauphin
Coleman, Daniel		Philadelphia
Coleman, Isaac		Chester
Coleman, Jacob		Berks
Coleman, Jacob		Dauphin
Coleman, Jacob		Northampton
Coleman, James		Bucks
Coleman, James		Bucks
Coleman, Jeremiah	Luzerne
Coleman, Joel		Luzerne
Coleman, John		Dauphin
Coleman, John		Delaware
Coleman, John		Northumberland
Coleman, Jonathan	Northampton
Coleman, Kitty		Philadelphia
Coleman, Leanard	Washington
Coleman, Nath		Washington
Coleman, Philip		Allegheny
Coleman, Philip		Philadelphia
Coleman, Philip		Philadelphia
Coleman, Robert		Lancaster
Coleman, Samuel		Luzerne
Coleman, Samuel		Northampton
Coleman, Thomas		Luzeme
Coleman, Thomas		Philadelphia
Coleman, Timothy	Luzerne
Coleman, William	Berks
Coleman, William	Philadelphia

Rhode Island

Coleman, Ebor		Providence
Coleman, John		Providence
Coleman, ---		Providence

South Carolina

Coleman, Aber		Ninety-six
Coleman, David		Camden
Coleman, Francis	Ninety-six
Coleman, George		Ninety-six
Coleman, Hezekiah	Ninety-six
Coleman, Jacob		Georgetown
Coleman, James		Charleston
Coleman, James		Cheraw
Coleman, John		Ninety-six
Coleman, Joseph		Ninety-six
Coleman, Michael	Ninety-six
Coleman, Robert		Camden
Coleman, Robert		Georgetown
Coleman, Robert		Ninety-six
Coleman, Robert, Sr	Camden
Coleman, Richard	Camden
Coleman, Richard	Ninety-six
Coleman, Sampson	Georgetown
Coleman, Samuel		Georgetown
Coleman, Thomas		Camden
Coleman, William	Camden
Coleman, William	Ninety-six
Coleman, William	Ninety-six

Vermont

Coleman, Antony		Rutland
Coleman, John		Rutland
Coleman, Joshua		Windham

Virginia

Coleman, Abraham	Amelia
Coleman, Benjamin	Amherst
Coleman, Benjamin	Amherst
Coleman, Burwell	Amelia
Coleman, Cluverius	Mecklenburg
Coleman, Cluverius	Mecklenburg
Coleman, Daniel		Charlotte
Coleman, Daniel, Jr.	Amelia
Coleman, Elizabeth	Charlotte
Coleman, Elizabeth	Amherst
Coleman, Elizabeth	Amherst
Coleman, Elliot		Gloucester
Coleman, Francis	Amelia
Coleman, George		Amherst
Coleman, George		Amherst
Coleman, Gulleelmeis	Gloucester
Coleman, Isaac		Amelia
Coleman, Jacob		Shenandoah
Coleman, James		Mecklenburg
Coleman, James		Northumberland
Coleman, James		Orange
Coleman, James		Pittsylvania
Coleman, James		Albemarle
Coleman, James		Harrison
Coleman, James		Orange
Coleman, James		Orange
Coleman, James		Orange
Coleman, Jesse		Amelia
Coleman, John		Charlotte
Coleman, John	Halifax
Coleman, John	Amherst
Coleman, John Daniel	Amherst
Coleman, John	Halifax
Coleman, Joseph	Charlotte
Coleman, Joseph	Northumberland
Coleman, Joseph	Northumberland
Coleman, Joseph	Amelia
Coleman, Lindsey	Chesterfield
Coleman, Milley	Amherst
Coleman, Parmenus	Gloucester
Coleman, Patience	Charlotte
Coleman, Patience	Gloucester
Coleman, Peter	Amelia
Coleman, Richard	Mecklenburg
Coleman, Richard	Nansemond
Coleman, Stephen	Pittsylvania
Coleman, Stephen	Pittsylvania
Coleman, Sutten	Amelia
Coleman, Thomas	Cumberland
Coleman, Thomas	Northumberland
Coleman, Thomas	Richmond
Coleman, Thomas	Gloucester
Coleman, Thomas	Orange
Coleman, William	Cumberland
Coleman, William	Gloucester
Coleman, William	Albemarle
Coleman, William	Orange

References

The following is a list of books of the first census in most of the original colonies.  These sources are
essential in establishing the early residence of any head of family in colonial America.

Clift, Glenn C. "Second Census" of Kentucky 1800.  A Privately Compiled and Published Enumeration of
Taxpayers Appearing in the 79 manuscript Columns Extant of Tax Lists of the 42 Counties of Kentucky in
Existence in 1800. 1954.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970.

Surname listing of inhabitants with county of residence and tax date list.  Heads of families only.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year
1790.  Connecticut. 1908.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.

Facsimile reprint of the first Connecticut census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads Of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year
1790.  Maine. 1908.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.

Facsimile reprint of the first Maine census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads Of Families at the First Census of the
United States Taken in the Year 1790.  Maryland. 1907.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
1972.
Facsimile reprint of the first Maryland census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads Of Families at the First Census of the

46/COLEMANFAMILY


United States Taken in the Year 1790.  Massachusetts. 1908.  Reprint.
Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.

Facsimile reprint of the first Massachusetts census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year
1790.  New Hampshire. 1907.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.

Facsimile reprint of the first New Hampshire census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year
1790.  New York. 1908.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1 97 1.

Facsimile reprint of the first New York census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1
790.  North Carolina. 1908.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.

Facsimile reprint of the first North Carolina census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United Siates Taken in the Year
1790.  Pennsylvania. 1908.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970.

Facsimile reprint of the first Pennsylvania census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1
790.  Rhode Island. 1908.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.

Facsimile reprint of the first Rhode Island census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year
1790.  South Carolina. 1908.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1972.

Facsimile reprint of the first South Carolina census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year
1790.  Vermont. 1907.  Reprint.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1966.

Facsimile reprint of the first Vermont census, divided by county with surname index.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Heads of Families at the First Census of the

CENSUS OF 1790/47

United States Taken in the Year 1790.  Records of the State Enumerations: 1782 to 1785.  Virginia. 1908.
Reprint.  Baltimore:
Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970.

Facsimile reprint of the first Virginia census, divided by county
with surname index.


48/COLEMAN FAMILY

[Chapter] 5  Patriots and their Ancestors



An interest in one's ancestry is in essence an inquiry into history.  The vast
collections of military records located in the National Archives and the
Library of Congress are a primary source for gaining a clear understanding
of many men's roles in making history.  These documents are a crucial
instrument in laying the foundation for a genealogical study of the
Coleman family.  Furthermore, because these records are both reliable and
thorough, they are used to accredit membership in such patriotic societies
as the Daughters of the American Revolution.
    Entries in military records range from a simple listing of a soldier's
first
and last names to such information as the dates and places of his birth and
death, his wife's and children's names, the date of his enlistment or
commission, his rank and promotions, the unit in which he served, and in
some cases, his pension award.
    For an accurate reading of the information provided in the military
archives, an understanding of the organization of these files is necessary:
military records are divided into two categories, service records and
veterans' benefits records.  While the benefits records as a rule provide the
most data, both categories are at times incomplete because some records
were destroyed in the burning of Washington, D.C., on 8 November 1800
and on 24 August 1814.  Despite this loss, military records in the National
Archives date as far back as 1775.  As an aid in penetrating the volumes of
available data, a discussion of their systematization is necessary.

                                                PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/49

   The following military organizations all have service records: the
Regular Army, the United States Navy, the Marine Corps, volunteer
organizations, and the armed forces of the Confederate States of America.
Records of military service are taken from muster rolls, registers of
commissions and enlistments, hospital rolls, burial records, and in the case
of the Civil War, from prison, parole, and amnesty records.
   Service records of the Regular Army cover the years 1800-1912 (some
as early as 1784 relating to the army of the Congress of the Confederation)
and pertain to commissioned officers, United States Military Academy
cadets, and enlisted men.  Those records relating to commissioned officers
are in three forms: personal papers', registers of commissions, and military
histories.  The personal papers include commission acceptances, oaths of
office, and transfer requests, and are arranged according to the year in
which the papers were received by the Adjutant General's Office.  Registers
of commissions are contained in twenty-four volumes and registers of
brevet commissions in six volumes.  A name index is in each volume and
the registers include such data as the officer's name, commission date,
tank, and if applicable, brevet citation.  The third documentation of
commissioned officers, the military histories, contains citations to the files
on which the histories are based and is prepared in two indexed volumes.
   The second category included in the service records of the Regular
Army refers to cadets of the United States Military Academy.  These
records consist of application papers, recommendations, and parental
consents.  These papers provide such genealogical information as the
cadet's name, age, place of residence, parents' names, and family back-
ground.
   The final category of the Regular Army service records relates to enlisted
men and is taken from muster rolls, enlistment papers, and registers of
enlistments.  Muster rolls are lists of troops present on the dates
of muster, thus constituting the basic evidence of military service.
Enlistment papers are arranged alphabetically within a given time period
(1792-1820, 1821-1894, and 1894-1912) and give a soldier's name, place
and date of birth, occupation and personal description, place and date of
enlistment, and military organization.  Registers of enlistments vary in
detail but in general include such information as place and period of
enlistment, nature of service termination, place of birth, and occupation.
The records are contained in 140 volumes and on microfilm.  They are
arranged chronologically by date of enlistment and each chronological
grouping is then arranged alphabetically.  Because the muster rolls are not

_50/COLEMAN FAMILY

indexed and often contain less information than enlistment records, using
these enlistment registers is most often the best method of identifying an
enlisted man's service in the Regular Army.
    Service records of the United States Navy cover the years 1798 to
1885 and are arranged in a manner similar to those of the Regular Army:
records for commissioned officers, for cadets, for enlisted men, and for
naval apprentices.  Records for commissioned officers are divided into
several categories by year.  The two volumes of records for 1842-1843, for
instance, are statements of service written by officers largely from memory
and are in response to questionnaires.  Records of officers in lettered
volumes are abstracts of service records taken from appointment letters,
orders, and resignations, and relate to most officers who served at any time
during the period 1798 to 1893.  Records of officers in numbered volumes
concern the years 1896 to 1902.  Both sets of volumes include such
information as the officer's name, appointment date, promotion dates,
stations where he was assigned, nature and date of service termination, and
date and place of death.
    Records relating to cadets or midshipmen commence with the establishment
of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis on 10 October
1845 and contain registers of admissions and records of appointees.  They
give such genealogical information as the candidate's name and signature,
age or date of birth, residence and parents' occupation.
    The years 1798 to 1885 are those chiefly covered in the service records
relating to naval enlisted men.  These records include muster and pay rolls
of vessels and of shore establishments, and registers of enlistment.  Each
volume of the muster and pay rolls of vessels relates to a single vessel and
entries for each volume are arranged chronologically.  The volumes relating
to shore establishments are arranged alphabetically by name of the shore
establishment.  Registers of enlistments are indexed records chiefly for the
years 1845 to 1854, giving the enlisted man's name, birth place and age,
and date and place of enlistment.
    Naval apprentice records, the last division under service records of the
United States Navy, are dated chiefly 1837 to 1839, and are based on an
act of 2 March 1837 that permitted boys from age thirteen to eighteen to
enlist and serve until they were twenty-one.  The records include
certificates of parental consent, apprenticeship papers, and a register of
naval apprentices.
    Service records of the Marine Corps are primarily for the years 1798 to
1895 and relate to both officers and enlisted men.  Those pertaining to

_                                                PATRI0TS AND VETERANS 51

officers include letters of acceptance, age certificates, a register of living
and retired officers, and card records of the names of officers who served
during the years 1798 to 1941.  The three volumes of acceptance letters
also include many oaths of allegiance and some letters give the officer's
residence.  The indexed register of living and retired officers focuses on
officers who served between 1899 and 1905.  The alphabetized card
records give the officer's name, rank, and date of appointment.  The
records relating to enlisted men include service records, card abstracts of
service records, and card records.  The card records serve as an index to the
service records (enlistment papers, medical records, and documents of
correspondence) and each card shows the enlisted man's name, date, and
place of enlistment.  The card abstracts pertain to World War I and include
the man's birth date and place, his rank and promotions, and the date of
service termination.
   Military service records of volunteer organizations relate to volunteer
officers and men, and to drafted men who served in the post-Revolu-
tionary War period, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, and
the Spanish-American War.  They include compiled military service records
and documents in correspondence files.  These compiled records of volun-
teer organizations are based on muster rolls, hospital rolls, and lists of
deserters, and are arranged by war.  Those for the post-Revolutionary War
period show a man's name, rank, unit, dates of service, and occasionally,
the name of the state from which he served.  Records for the War of 1812
give the same data and are arranged by name of state, thereunder by
military organization, and finally by the soldier's name.  Records of Indian
and related wars are dated 1817 to 1858 and include a name and state
index.  They take in service in the Florida War, the Seminole War, the
Black Hawk War, the Creek War, the Cherokee War, and the Sac and Fox
War.  The records of the Mexican War are chiefly card abstracts which are
arranged alphabetically by name of state, and some of these records
include histories of the military organizations.  Records of the Union forces
of the Civil War include prisoner-of-war papers, hospital rolls, voluntary
enlistment papers, and death reports.  For some soldiers the file contains a
voluntary enlistment paper that gives his age, place of birth, occupation,
and personal description.  These military service records usually do not
indicate the battles in which a soldier fought.  However, they do show what
regiment he was in and for what time he served in this regiment.  By using
Frederick H. Dyer's A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, one can
determine which regiments took part in a particular battle and, accord-
ingly, whether a particular soldier was in that regiment at that time.

_52/COLEMAN FAMILY

    The draft records of the Civil War can also be found in the National
Archives.  The draft for the Civil War was created by an act of Congress
approved on 3 March 1863, and affected men residing in the states
controlled by the United States.  The records (consolidated lists and
descriptive rolls) show a man's name, age, residence, occupation, marital
status, and birth place.  Compiled service records of the Spanish-American
War are dated 1898-1899 and include such information as a soldier's name,
rank, military organization, dates of service, birth place, place of
residence,
and occupation.
    The compiled military service records of the Confederate States of
America are taken from Union prison and parole records and from such
Confederate records as muster rolls, rosters, payrolls, and hospital
registers.  They refer to officers, non-commissioned officers, and enlisted
men.  Most of the records are arranged alphabetically by state and have
been microfilmed.  The records include such data as the soldier's name,
regiment, rank and promotions, dates of service, occupation, and personal
description.  There are also compiled hospital and prison records relating to
naval and marine personnel of the Confederate states which have been
microfilmed.
    Military service records, obviously, are a reliable means of verifying
patriotic service.  With a preliminary knowledge of where these records are
located and how they can best be used, one can accurately trace his
family's role in serving his country. However, to the genealogists and even
to the  curious citizen, the scope of these records appears somewhat
limited.  Another possible research approach directs you to the veterans'
benefits records, the second category of military records found in the
National Archives.  Pension records not only affirm service, but also
present genealogical information that helps the researcher gain a broader
understanding of the man in uniform.  He is no longer simply a name and a
rank-with the data provided in most veterans' benefits tiles, his own
distinct identity emerges, for he can be seen not only in the national
context, but also in his family's corn text.
    Records of veterans' benefits in the National Archives encompass
army, navy, and marine service performed between 1775 and 1934, with
the exception of Confederate and World War I service.  The four types of
veterans' benefits are pensions, bounty-land warrants, naval prizes, and
domiciliary care.
    The first of these, pensions, are granted by Congress and are perhaps
the greatest benefit a country can offer its dedicated citizens.  To qualify

_                                                  PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/53


for a pension a soldier had to show proof of military service.  In this sense
it is easy to see the reciprocal relationship of service records and veterans'
benefits records.  The first pension acts, while discussed in the Continental
Congress, were actually prepared individually by each state.  Nonetheless,
members of Congress initiated the program, and as early as 26 August
1776 established firm guidelines for their enactment.  On that day Congress
resolved:

        That every commissioned officer, non-commissioned officer,
     and private soldier, who shall lose a limb in any engagement, or
     be so disabled in the service of the United States of America as
     to render him incapable afterwards of getting a livelihood, shall
     receive, during his life, or the continuance of such disability, the
     one half of his monthly pay from and after the time that his pay
     as an officer or soldier ceases; to be paid by the committee as
     hereafter mentioned.
        That every commissioned officer, non-commissioned officer
     and private soldier, in the army, and every commander, commis-
     sioned officer, warrant officer, marine, or seaman of any of the
     ships of war, or armed vessels belonging to the United States of
     America, who shall be wounded in any engagement, so as to be
     rendered incapable of serving in the army or navy, though not
     totally disabled from getting a livelihood, shall receive such
     monthly sum towards his subsistence as shall be judged adequate
     by the assembly or other representative body of the state where
     he belongs or resides, upon application to them for that
     purpose, provided the same doth not exceed half his pay.
         No [one I ... shall be entitled to his half pay or other
     allowance, unless he produce to the committee or officer
     appointed to receive the same, in the state where he resides or
     belongs, or to the assembly or legislative body of such state, a
     certificate from the commanding officer, who was in the same
     engagement in which he was wounded, or, in case of death, from
     some other officer of the same corps, and the surgeon that
     attended him, or a certificate from the commander of the ship
     of war or armed vessel engaged in the action,. . of the name of
     the person so wounded, his office, rank, department, regiment,
     company, ship of war, or armed vessel, to which he belonged,
     his office or rank therein, the nature of his wound, and in what
     action or engagement he received it.
         That it be recommended to the several assemblies or
     legislative bodies of the United States of America, to appoint
     some person or persons in their respective states, who shall
     receive and examine all such certificates, as may be presented to
     them, and register the same in a book ... and shall make a fair
     and regular report of the same quarterly to the secretary of

_54/COLEMAN FAMILY
   Congress or Board of War where a separate record shall be kept
of the same.
   That it be recommended to the assemblies or legislative
bodies of the several states, to cause payment to be made of all
such half pay or other allowances as shall be adjudged due to the
persons aforementioned, on account of the United States.

   These resolutions were again emphasized in the Continental Congress
on 7 June 1785.  Congress outlined in a number of steps the procedures to
be taken by each state in granting pensions.  Congress firmly suggested that
each state make provisions for its disabled veterans: first, by making an
inclusive list with the name, age, regiment, corps or ship of each invalid
and transmitting this list to the Secretary of War; second, that in estab-
lishing the claimant's validity no one be considered without a certificate
from the commanding officer or surgeon; third, to establish the proper
guidelines for making the pension payment commensurate with the degree
of disability and with the rank of the disabled; and, finally, that each state
appoint one or more persons for the sole purpose of examining the claims.
Under a similar resolution of 29 September 1789, the federal government
temporarily (and later permanently) assumed the responsibility for paying.
these pensions for invalids.  Later acts broadened the qualifications and
extended the benefits to a far greater number of veterans.
    Pension documentation in the National Archives is divided into
pension application records and pension payment records.  The following
list of people could by law apply for pensions: disabled veterans; veterans
who served a minimum period of time, if they were living at an advanced!
age; elderly widows and, in some cases, other heirs of such veterans;
widows and orphans of men killed in service.  Often more than one claim was
made for the same service and these claims are consolidated in one file.
(The letter W as the first part of the file number is used to indicate that a
veteran's widow applied for the pension.) Each pension claim was usually
based on a single act of Congress.  Pensions granted on the basis of dis-
ability or death incurred in service are called disability or death pensions;
those granted on the basis of minimum period of service are called service
pensions.  A claims file includes the pension application, documents 9
proof of identity and service, and evidence of action taken on the claim.
   There are literally millions of pension applications, but all are indexed
either alphabetically by name of veteran, alphabetically in the remarried
widows index, or by application or certificate number (which also has the
name index attached).  The files are divided into the seven following series

_                                             PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/55

Revolutionary War invalid series; Revolutionary War service series; Old
Wars series; War of 1812 series; Mexican War series; Civil War and later
series; and In than wars series.
   The two-part Revolutionary series will be discussed in detail later.  The
Old Wars series of pension applications includes claims for service in the
Mexican War, the Indian wars, and in some cages, the Civil War.  The first
act of Congress under which these applications were made was passed on
30 April 1790.  If the veteran made the claim, the file gives not only his
rank, unit, and period of service, but also his age and place of residence.
If the claimant was a widow, her age and residence is given as well as her
maiden name, the date and place of her marriage to the veteran, and the
date, place, and circumstances of the veteran's death.
   The War of 1812 series includes applications based on service between
1812 and 1815.  These pensions were provided for by acts of Congress
approved on 14 February 1871 and 9 March 1878.  The first of these
provided pensions to veterans who had served sixty days, provided they
had not fought for the Confederacy, and the second provided pensions to
veterans who had served fourteen days or in any engagement.  Both acts
provided pensions to widows of such veterans.  Along with the afore-
mentioned genealogical data, a widow's application also included the name
of the official who performed the marriage ceremony.
   The Mexican War series includes applications based on service between
1846 and 1848.  An act of Congress on 29 January 1887 provided pensions
for veterans (and for their unremarried widows) who had served sixty
days.  In this instance, a widow's claim also included the names and birth
dates of living children.
   The Civil War and later series concerns service between 1861 and 1934,
excluding Indian wars service, World War I service, and records relating to
pensions still on the rolls.  Most of the records included in this series
pertain to the Civil War; and the relevant acts of Congress upon which the
items are based are dated 14 July 1862, 25 January 1879, 27 June 1890,
and 6 February 1907.  The first of these acts granted pensions to disabled
veterans or to widows, mothers, orphan sisters under sixteen, or children
under sixteen of veterans who died in patriotic service.  The second act
extended benefits in connection with disability or death and the third
extended benefits to some veterans who had served ninety days or more.
The last act extended benefits to veterans who had reached the age of
sixty-two and had served at least ninety days.  The documents in this series
that are of the greatest genealogical interest include the veteran and
the

_56/COLEMAN FAMILY


Battle of Lexington.  This 1859 engraving by Josephy Smillie
depicts the fighting between British regulars under Major Pitcairn and the
Massachusetts Minutemen
on Lexington Green, 19 April 1775.  The "shot heard 'round the world" opened
a long and bloody war which saw many Coleman men, musket in hand,
rush to the colors of their new nation.

_                                          PATRI0TS AND VETERANS/57

widow's declaration, a personal history and family questionnaire, and a
statement of service from the War or Navy department.  The information
included in each file varies depending upon which act the claim was filed
under, but in general these files include the same type and amount of
information as is found in the previously mentioned series.

    The Indian War series includes applications based on service in the
Indian campaigns between 1817 and 1899.  The Congressional acts under
which claims were filed provided service pensions for veterans and for
unremarried widows.  As in the other series, the data in these files varies
correspondingly to the act under which the claim was made.  Again, the
records include a personal history and family questionnaire, and other
documents of genealogical interest.

    Pension payment records are kept in a Pension Office record book of
payments and in a Treasury Department record book of payments.  Both
books catalogue the payments by year.  Information provided in the
Pension Office record book includes name and rank of the pensioner;
name of the state in which payment was made; amount and commence-
ment date of pension payment; the name of the agency through which
payment was made; the date of the act under which payment was made;
and in some instances, the date and circumstance of the pensioner's death.
The Treasury Department record book contains basically the same data.
For the quickest search, all available information in the related pension
application file should be noted before trying to locate a payment entry,
since payment entries for the most part are not initially filed alphabeti-
cally by name.

    Land grants are another form of veterans' benefits by which the
government rewards its patriots.  Bounty-land warrants, granted to veterans
or their heirs on the basis of military service performed between the years
1775 and 1855, are a right to free land in the public domain.  Land grants
were originally extended to Canadian and Novia Scotian refugees as well as
to Americans.  Later land use was restricted and only Americans were
eligible for land grants.  As in the case of pensions, military records were
valuable in establishing claims for bounty-land warrants.  The inducement
of land grants, which encouraged westward migration, coincided with the
passage of early land ordinances.  Americans have always placed a high
value on land.  During and after the American Revolution many large
states were broken up and sold.  Laws of inheritance were changed so that
all the children of a family, rather than just the oldest son, could have a
part of the land.  The early land-bounty warrants and land ordinances


_58/COLEMAN FAMILY

marked the emergence of what is often referred to as the pioneering spirit
of Americans.  The opportunity to explore and settle on undeveloped land
presented a challenge that many Americans could not resist.  Thus land-
bounty warrants were an inducement for many men to serve in the
military, as well as a reward for that service.  Their influence and effect in
changing the physical boundaries of this nation are immeasurable.  While
Congress- had previously granted land to specific individuals, the first
public grant is dated 16 September 1776, at which time it was resolved:

      That Congress make provision for granting lands in the
   following proportions: to the officers and soldiers who shall so
   engage in the service, and continue therein to the close of the
   war, or until discharged by Congress, and to the representatives
   of such officers and soldiers as shall be slain by the enemy:
      Such lands to be provided by the United States, and what-
   ever expense shall be necessary to procure such land, the said
   expense shall be paid and borne by the states in the same
   proportion as the other expenses of war, viz:
      To a colonel, 500 acres; to a lieutenant colonel, 450; to a
   major, 400; to a captain, 300; to a lieutenant, 200; to an ensign,
   150; each non-commissioned officer and soldier, 100.

    In a later session of Congress, on 22 October 1787, a specific tract of,
land* was set aside for the purpose of supplying these land grants and
curtailing unplanned, piecemeal development.  Congress resolved:

      That a million of acres of land to be bounded east by the
   7th range of townships, south by the land contracted for by the
   Cutler and Sargent and to extend north as far as the ranges of
   the townships and westward so far as to include the above
   quantity, also a tract to be bounded as follows beginning at the
   mouth of the river Ohio thence up the Mississippi to the river
   AuVasse, thence up the same unit until it meets a west line from
   the mouth of the little Wabash thence easterly with the said
   West line to the Great Wabash, thence down the same to the
   Ohio and thence with the Ohio to the place of beginning, be
   reserved and set aside for the purpose of satisfying the military
   bounties due to the late Army and that no locations other than
   for the said bounties be permitted within the said tract until
   they shall be fully satisfied.

The bounty and warrant application file comprises documents related
to claims for bounty-land based on an individual's military service.
*The territorial boundaries described here outline what was later to become
the state of Ohio.

_                                                   PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/59

Included in these records is a warrant application, a veteran's discharge
certificate to substantiate his claim, and a record of whether or not his
claim was approved.  It is interesting to note that some of the bounty-land
warrant claimants sold their rights to the land rather than move from a
state to the public domain.  The application records are divided into two
principal series: the Revolutionary War series and the post-Revolutionary
War series.  Those of the Revolutionary War will be discussed later.  The
post-Revolutionary War series relates chiefly to the War of 1812, the
Indian wars, and the Mexican War.  Bounty-land benefits for veterans and
their heirs after the Revolutionary War are based on numerous Congres-
sional acts.  The last act approved on 3 March 1855 was by far the most
liberal.  If a veteran had served in a battle or for 14 days he was eligible
to receive 160 acres of land.  The bounty-land warrant application files give
such information as the soldier's name, rank, unit, period of service, age,
residence, and occasionally, personal description.  If the claim was filed by
an heir, it also includes the name of the heir and the degree of relationship,
and the place and date of the veteran's death.  If the claim was approved,
the file shows the warrant number, the number of acres granted, and the
year of the corresponding Congressional act.

   A third type of veterans' benefit relates specifically to naval service-
men.  These special naval awards were usually in the form of prize money,
awarded on the basis of prizes captured at sea during time of war.  This
series of claims includes half-pay files of Virginia naval officers of the
Revolutionary War and claims of heirs of men lost at sea.  In both instances
the files contain such information as the maiden name oil the wife of the
Naval serviceman, the date and place of their marriage, the place of her
residence, or the identification of orphans or other heirs.
   The final category of veterans' benefits relates to federal homes
records which encompass the years 1851 to 1935.  The records pertain to
servicemen who in their old age spent time in federal homes.  They include
the files of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers (and its
successor agency, the Veterans Administration) and of the United States
Soldiers Home.  The former was created by @n act of Congress dated 21
March 1866 and in 1930 was consolidated with similar agencies to form
the Veterans Administration.  The Home, with branches in several states,
provided for honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, and marines who
served in United States forces.  Information compiled in its registers
includes the veterans' name, place of birth, age, personal description,
religion, occupation, date of admittance, former residence, marital status,
next-of-kin, and if he died at a Home, death date.  The United States

_60/COLEMAN FAMILY

Soldiers' Home was created under an act of Congress dated 3 March 1851
and was originally called the Military Asylum.  Its records include registers
of inmates, a register of deaths, and copies of death certificates.  These
files show approximately the same genealogical information as those of the
National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers.

    Both military service records and veterans' benefits records are an
invaluable source for the genealogist.  A man's service for Ws country
inevitably becomes a dramatic part of American history not soon to be
forgotten.  The National Archives and the Library of Congress have
provided you with the tools to reconstruct that history.  As a member of
the Coleman family, you can use these resources to delve into your own
family's proud American origins.  An advisable preliminary step in this
search is to consult the Guide to Genealogical Records in the National
Archives, written by Meredith B. Colket, Jr. and Frank E. Bridgers, and
published by the National-Archives and Records Service.  Not only does
this manual discuss the types of military records located in the Archives,
but it also gives the names of useful reference sources for additional, more
detailed information.  Starting with only your family name, the military
records of the National Archives and supplementary works in the Library
of Congress open the doors to your past.
   To present a thorough and accurate listing of all the members of the
Coleman family who served this country during times of military conflict
would be a far too voluminous undertaking for the scope of this book.  For
this reason we have selected to research your family in one war, the
American Revolution.  Hopefully, this presentation of the Coleman family
members who took part in the American Revolution will stimulate and
direct your interests to discovering more about your ancestors who did
patriotic service at other times in American history.  The methods and
results of our research on your family's role in the American Revolution
can easily be duplicated for other wars.
   As in the instances mentioned above, the military records of the
American Revolution can be divided into service records and veterans'
benefits records.  The service records, dated 1775 to 1783, pertain to
troops of the Continental army, state troops, and state militias, and were
kept by the Adjutant General's Office-pay records were filed by the
Treasury Department.  The Adjutant General's Office obtained records
from the departments of War, State, Treasury, and Interior to replace the
original records which were destroyed by fire.  They also obtained records
from such officials as President George Washington and Secretary of War

_                                              PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/61

Timothy Pickering.  The compiled service records are based primarily on
muster rolls and payrolls and give such information as the soldier's name,
rank, military organization, dates of service, and in some cases the state
from which the soldier served.  Other sources of military service records are
based on orderly books, rosters of soldiers, oaths of allegiance taken by
officers, enlistment papers, and correspondence.  The files also include
photostats of records of individuals and of public and private institutions.
The pay records of the Treasury Department include the company books
of the 1st Regiment of New Jersey and the 1st Pennsylvania Line; the
company book of Captain Aaron Ogden; and John Pierce's register of
indebtedness certificates.
   Service records relating to Revolutionary officers and men of the Navy
include record books and unbound papers assembled by the Navy Depart-
ment, and records assembled by the War Department.  The record books of
the Navy Department include payrolls and rosters of the Continental ships
Confederacy, Ranger, Bonhomme Richard, Pallas, and Vengeance.  Data
from these records includes the man's name and the vessel on which he
served.  The records compiled by the War Department concern payments to
Revolutionary War naval servicemen and in addition to the above infor-
mation, show the man's rank, dates of service, and payment due for
service.

   Veterans' benefits records for the Revolutionary War include pension
application and payment records, bounty-land warrant applications, and
naval awards.  Invalid Revolutionary War veterans made pension claims on
the basis of several resolutions passed by Congress, as mentioned earlier.
The original applications sent to the War Department were destroyed by
fire, but reports based on these applications were made for Congress by
the War Department.  These reports give such information as name of the
invalid pensioner and nature of his disability, rank, regiment, residence,
and frequently, evidence of action on the claim.  Service pension claims
were based on several acts of Congress.  The earlier service pension laws
required not only proof of service, but also of need.  Widows of veterans
with the stipulated minimum service were entitled to pensions by an act
approved on 4 July 1836.  A service pension application file includes the
veteran's name, age, birth place, place of residence, rank, unit, and period
of service.  If a widow applied, her maiden name is given, along with the
date and place of her marriage, and the date and place of her husband's
death.  Pension payment records are found in both the Pension Office and
the Treasury Department.  Entries show the name and rank of the
pensioner, the agency by which he was paid, and the amount of the
payment.

_62/COLEMAN FAMLY

   As noted previously, the Revolutionary War series of bounty-land
warrants were based on several acts of Congress. Many Revolutionary War
warrants based on acts prior to 1855 were converted into tracts of land in
Ohio (a United States military district) or exchanged for scrip.  By five
Congressional acts originated in 1830, Congress provided that holders of
unused Virginia warrants (offered by the state to its veterans) and unused
United States Revolutionary War warrants could exchange them for scrip
certificates.  Scrip certificates did not limit the claimant to a geographical
area within the public domain.  The original land-bounty warrant applica-
tion files dated 1789 to 1800 were burned, but were replaced by record
books.  A file contains such information as the veteran's name, age,
residence, unit and dates of service, along with the name, age, and
residence of the widow.  If approved, the file gives the warrant number,
date issued, and amount of land granted.

   Claim files for special Naval awards consist of the half-pay files of the
Virginia naval officers of the Revolutionary War.  These claims were based
on a Congressional act dated 5 July 1832, which awarded Virginia naval
officers one-half their pay from the termination of their service until their
deaths.  These records give similar information as found in the pension
application fife, but with more detail on identification of heirs.

   At first glance the volumes of military records perhaps appear to lack
the emotional appeal and human interest of other genealogical resources
Yet the names, numbers, and dates of Revolutionary soldiers begin to take
on significant substance when viewed in the context of America's develop-
ment at that time.  As early as 1763 colonists were beginning to resent the
economic, political, and social restrictions imposed by Britain.  In that yen
Parliament passed the Greenville Program which placed tariffs on sugar and
other commodities and virtually closed the frontier to further settlement
Colonial societies called Sons of Liberty were formed actively to oppose
these restraints.  Parliament again enacted more extensive tariffs with the
passage of the Townshend Acts of 1767.  Included in these acts was the
right of British custom officers to enforce these tariffs (the Sugar Act and
the Stamp Act) by searching homes and by trying violators without a jury.

   The colonial protests gained momentum-whether as a reaction to 6
new duties (taxation without representation), to the enforcement
methods, or the use made by Britain of the money collected from the
revenues and provoked a riot on 5 March 1770 known as the
Massacre.  When colonists of Massachusetts destroyed cargoes of
Boston harbor, Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts (so named

_                                          PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/63

colonists) as a form of punishment.  Britain stipulated that its soldiers on
the American continent should be housed by colonists; that town meetings
be banned in Massachusetts-, and that the Boston port be closed until
payment was made by the colonists for the destroyed tea.

    These restrictions were an immediate factor in spurring the colonists to
send fifty-six delegates to the first Continental Congress on 5 September
1774.  The delegates prepared a Declaration of Rights and Grievances and
agreed that the colonies should act as a united America in dealing with
Britain and that the delegates of Congress would act as spokesmen.  Less
than a year later, the two countries met in conflict at Lexington and
Concord where eight colonists were killed and ten wounded.

    A. B. Muzzey in his book Reminiscences and Memorials of Men of the
Revolution and 7heir Families, first published in 1833, gives some clear
insights into the mood of the colonists prior to and during this first
encounter.  In view of the threatening condition of the country, Captain
John Parker had formed a military company of 130 names on its roll in
Lexington.  It is from this organization that the Minutemen gained their
notable reputation.  A Minuteman was a militia soldier ready at a moment's
notice to defend his town-the Minutemen of Lexington and Concord,
Massachusetts, are famous for their spirited resistance to the British
regulars at the beginning of the American Revolution.

    As the 800 British soldiers marched to Concord through Lexington,
Parker ordered his soldiers not to shoot unless fired upon, adding "but if
they want a war, let it begin here."  The struggle at Lexington and Concord
laid the foundations of civil and religious liberty in America.  Soon after,
the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed at the Second Continental
Congress on 4 July 1776.

    Yet despite the Confederation, the states continued to encourage local
distinctions that promoted disunion and greatly affected the status of the
military.  State rivalries arose from conflicts over such issues as land
claims
and representation in Congress.  Almost every state had its own navy.  Each
remained financially autonomous by printing its own currency and failing to
collect taxes for Congress.  At the same time Congress was forced to
pay increasingly larger sums of Continental dollars.  Money depreciated in
value and prices soared.  As a result, the army was without money and had
bad credit.  While the troops of Pennsylvania, for example, were well
supplied, they did not share this prosperity with other state troops.  Most
soldiers were underclothed and underfed and officers, who had to pay
their own living expenses, frequently could not make ends meet and were

_64/COLEMAN FAMILY

forced to return home.  At times during the war, particularly in the winter
of 1777, even General Washington had to confront suspicion from
Congress and from the country.
    While the common soldier suffered most from the states' unwillingness
to collaborate, a faction of civilians, the Loyalists, also paid the price of
war. Farmers and merchants were a part of this group, but the majority of
Loyalists were of the upper-class.  Most had benefited from the British
connection.  Over 100,000 Loyalists left this country for Canada, England,
and other countries.  While Britain did offer pensions to many colonists
who returned to England, most Loyalists lost all their land in America and
received little or no compensation for the millions of acres that were
confiscated by the states.

    Fighting lasted for six years.  Although the military operations began
in New England, the British offensive headed south and the war was
necessarily fought by a unification of soldiers from the southern and
middle states as well.  The war finally ended on 19 October 1781 at
Yorktown, Virginia, where General Cornwallis surrendered his British
army.  In the Treaty of Paris, signed 3 September 1783, England
acknowledged the thirteen states as free and independent.  The outcome of
the American Revolution not only affected the soldiers on the battlefields,
but altered the mood and trend of the society as well.  With the exodus of
the Loyalists, the establishment of a hereditary aristocracy was virtually
eliminated.  Attitudes toward the slave trade changed notably after the war
and Americans for the first time experienced feelings of guilt in regard to
the institution of slavery.

    While the climate was in fact changing, in one sense the war was
initiated not to revolutionize the future, but to conserve the past.  The
states had been fighting a war in the name of liberty.  That they should
now be regulated by a central government appeared to them to hinder the.
resolution of this goal.  The old colonial pattern of states' rights continued
to flourish after the war, and even today, with its roots in the Declaration
of Independence, this colonial heritage is a strong element in American
society.

    The victory of the American Revolution was more than just a military
victory. These dedicated soldiers helped conceive the birth of a national
whose ideals were government by the consent of the governed an
individual liberty.  As a member of the Coleman family, your ancestor
who took part in the American Revolution will always be an inspiration
for generations to come.

_                                        PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/65

    Specific sources used in the following compilation of the Coleman
family's military history in the American Revolution include the DAR
Patriot index; Max Ellsworth Hoyt's Index to Revolutionary War Pension
Applications,- and Francis B. Heitman's Historical Register of Officers of
the Continental Army During the War of the Revolution.  These books
were selected to begin the research because they are thorough, reliable,
and well-organized.  Cross-references have been made whenever possible;
pension and warrant numbers are presented whenever available.  While this
system of compilation helps to validate entries, it at times duplicates
entries because not all names have complete identifying information.  How-
ever, you will find that most of the entries on this list provide you with
the essential data necessary to locate extensive genealogical data in the
records of the National Archives.
    There are several supplementary sources wwch are not represented in
this fist but which can be consulted in your genealogical and historical
research.  Charles Paullin's The Navy of the American Revolution presents
an interesting account of the growth of the American navy.  Lorenzo
Sabine's Loyalists in the American Revolution thoroughly deals with the
attitudes of colonists sympathetic to the British cause.  A. B. Muzzey's
Reminiscences and Testimonials of Men of the Revolution and Their
Families details the lives of several prominent revolutionists.  These and
other research aids provide a sound historical background necessary for a
constructive appreciation and application of the facts presented in the
following list.  It is hoped that the data included will give you the interest
and the tools to continue your own research into the Coleman family
during the Revolutionary War, or during any American war.

Abner Coleman (born 29 September 1759, died 17 June 1834): private in
    a New York unit; married to Ruth Tuthill.

Abraham Coleman (born around 1745146, died before 21 January 1801)-.
    private in a Virginia unit; married to Elizabeth

Asaph Coleman (born 27 September 1747, died 15 November 1920)-.
    doctor in a Connecticut unit; married to Eunice Hollister.

Benjamin Coleman (baptized 26 February 1720, died January 1797):
    private in a Massachusetts unit; married to Anne Brown.

Benjamin Coleman (baptized 3 August 1749, died 12 October 18'-@6):
    private in a Massachusetts unit; married to Susannah Martin.

_66/COLEMAN FAMILY

Benjamin Coleman, Jr. (born 1757, died June 1843): private in a New
    Jersey unit; married to Adaline Smith.

Benjamin Coleman, Jr. (born 16 April 1755, died 5 August 1832): private
    in a New York unit-, married to Hannah Finch.

Benjamin Coleman, Sr. (born around 1725, died I June 1802): private in a
    New York unit; married to Hannah Wood; pension application (16918)
    submitted by Ws widow.

Benjamin Coleman (born around 1753, died 17 May 1813): captain in a
    North Carolina unit; married to Elizabeth Goodman; bounty-land
    warrant (appl. 479) for 300 acres issued to Isaac Cole, assignee.

Caleb Coleman (born 22 April 1745, died after 1789): private; performed
    patriotic service in New York; married to Desire Clark.

Charles Coleman (born 25 January 1763, died February 1827): private in
    a Maryland unit; married to Elizabeth Early.

Charles Coleman (born between 1750, and 1755, died after 16 December
    1823): quartermaster in a North Carolina unit; married to Mary
    Roundtree.

Charles Coleman (born 1762, died April 1842): soldier in a South Carolina
    unit; married to Eliza Gibson; pension appl. (2155) submitted, but
    rejected.

Charles P Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a North
    Carolina unit; married to Fanny ---; received bounty-land warrant
    (appl. 28536) for 160 acres; pension appl. (25435) submitted by his
    widow.

Christopher Coleman (born 25 May 1758, died after 1819): private in a
    Pennsylvania unit; married to Ruth Simpson.

Daniel Coleman (born 24 May 1731, died 7 May 1794): soldier in a
    Georgia unit; married to Susannah Harris.

Daniel Coleman (born 21 January 1753, died 1817): colonel in a Virginia
    unit; married (1st) to Mary Childs and (2nd) to Martha Cocke.

_                                        PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/67

 Daniel Coleman (born 7 June 1768, died 8 April 1860): performed patri-
     otic service in Virginia; married to Anna Payne Harrison.

 Daniel Coleman, Jr. (born around 1746, died 1819): performed patriotic
     service in Virginia.

 Daniel Coleman (birth date unknown, died before 6 February 1789):
     performed patriotic service in Virginia.

 Daniel Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a New Jersey
     unit; married to Mary - - - ; received bounty-land warrant (appl. 3515)
     for 160 acres; pension appl. (1826) submitted by his widow.

 David Coleman (born 1762, died 1840): private in a New Jersey unit;
     married to Jane Hawkins; pension appl. (2157) submitted, but
     rejected.

 Dua7ey Coleman (born 24 August 1745, died 16 November 1797): lieu-
     tenant colonel in a Massachusetts unit; married to Mary Jones.

 Ebenezer Coleman, Jr. (born 20 October 1751, died 13 April 1827):
     corporal in a Connecticut unit; married to Phebe Carpenter.

 Ebenezer Coleman (birth date unknown, died after 1785): soldier in a
     Connecticut unit.

 Edmund Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): second lieutenant in
     Stanton's Regiment of the Rhode Island Militia.

 Edward S. Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): first lieutenant in
     the 4th Connecticut Infantry.

 Elijah Coleman (born 10 March 1745, died 19 January 1818): sergeant in
     a Massachusetts unit; married to Tabitha Meekins.

 Elliott Glenn Coleman (born around 1764, died before 24 March 1823):
     private in a Virginia unit; married to Elizabeth Daniel.

 Francis Coleman (born 16 August 1744, died 13 August 1823): soldier in
     a Georgia unit; married to Margaret

_68/COLEMAN FAMILY

George Coleman (birth date unknown, died December 183 1): private in a
    New York unit; married to Deborah Brown.

Gideon Coleman (born 1753, died I I April 1813): private in a New York
    unit; married to Catherine Bull.

Hardy Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a North
    Carolina unit; married to Avey ---; pension appl. (26) submitted by
    Ns widow.

Hawes Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Virginia
    unit; pension appl. (16732) submitted by himself.

Henry Coleman (birth date unknown, died 1807/08). performed patriotic
    service in Virginia; married to Mary Ann Hutchison.

Isham Coleman (born 17 September 1758, died I November 1825):
    private in a Virginia unit; married to Ann Roper.

Israel Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): private in a New York
    unit; bounty-land warrant (appl. 7003) issued 25 September 1790 to
    Ebenezer Clark, assignee.

Jacob Coleman (born 1764, died before 20 June 1835): private in a New
    Jersey unit; married to Deborah - - - ; pension appl. (42140)
    submitted by himself.

Jacob Coleman (born 1748, died 1828): lieutenant in a Virginia unit;
    married to Sarah McCulloch; pension appl. (35848) submitted by
    himself; received bounty-land warrant (appl. 1206) for 200 acres.

James Coleman (born around 1745, died October 1814): soldier in a
    South Carolina unit; married to Rachel Kobb.

James Coleman (born around 1740, died 2 March 1796): performed
    patriotic service in Virginia; married to Anna Cocke.

James Coleman (born around 1739, died 1817): colonel in a Virginia unit;
    married to Jeane Critcher.

_                                               PATRI0TS AND VETERANS/69

James Coleman (born around 1755, died 1825): private in a Virginia unit;
    married to Sarah Taylor; bounty-land warrant (appl. 12019) issued to
    James Reynolds, assignee.

James Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a New Hamp-
    shire unit; married to Dorcas - - - ; pension appl. (2159) submitted,
    but rejected;

Job Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Massachusetts
    unit; married to Nanny ---; pension appl. (14510) submitted by his
    widow.

Job Coleman (born 25 October 1741, died 2 September 1805): soldier;
    performed patriotic service in Massachusetts; married to Elizabeth
    Martin.

Joel Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Virginia unit;
    pension appl. (42139) submitted by himself.

Joel Coleman (born 23 August 1758, died 20 October 1840): private in a
    New York unit; married to Mary Dunning; pension appl. (22680)
    submitted by himself.

John Coleman (born 1735, died 7 May 181 1): private in a New York unit;
    married to Sarah ---.

John Coleman (born I January 1747, died 19 February 1806): private;
    performed patriotic service in New York; married to Bathsheba Ryder.

John Coleman (born 1760, died 1803): soldier in a New York unit;
    married to Martha Smith.

John Coleman (born 21 April 1759, died 13 June 1829): private in a
    Pennsylvania unit; married to Margaret ---.

John Coleman (born 1720, died after 1779): lieutenant in a Virginia unit;
    married to Sarah Embry.

John Coleman (born before 1760, died after 1786): ensign in a Virginia
    unit; married to Mary Wells.

_70/COLEMAN FAMILY

John Coleman (born 1758, died 20 January 1816): sergeant major in a
    Virginia unit; married to Pleasance Goodwin.

John Coleman (born 1748, died 16 August 1846): private in a New Jersey
    unit; married to Mary Mahon; pension appl. (2163) submitted, but
    rejected.

John Coleman (born August 1761, died 12 March 1845): sergeant in a
    New York unit; married to Rachel Barden; pension appl. (1720)
    submitted by Ms widow.

John Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Connecticut
    unit; pension appl. (17350) submitted by himself.

John Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Pennsylvania
    regiment of the Continental Line*; pension appl. (40843) submitted
    by himself.

John Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Georgia unit;
    pension appl. (39339) submitted by himself.

John Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a New Jersey
    unit; pension appl. (34222) submitted by himself; received bounty-
    land warrant (appl. 1 24) for I 00 acres.

John Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a New York
    unit; pension appl. (43347) submitted by himself.

John Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Pennsylvania
    unit; pension appl. (42132) submitted by himself.

Jonathan Coleman (born 9 October 1750, died 13 January 1825): soldier
    in a Georgia unit; married to Milly Pittman.

Joseph Coleman (born 1750, died 1777): private in a New York unit;
    married to Elizabeth Denton.



 * Continental Line: the equivalent of a national army before the country was
actually a nation.  Continentals were the professional soldiers.  They
enlisted for longer than state militiamen (a year, minimum) and were better
trained.

_                                    PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/71

Joseph Coleman (born 1718, died 15 November 1800): performed patriotic
    service in New York; married (I st) to (wife's name unknown) and
    (2nd) to Mary Salmon.

Joseph Coleman (born around 1757, died 1806): sergeant in a Virginia
    unit; married to Sithey Glenn; pension appl. (9738) submitted by his
    widow.

Lemuel Coleman (born 1752, died I I February 1824): corporal in a
    Massachusetts unit; married to Catharine Edwards.

Leonard Coleman (born 14 April 1745, died 28 March 1839): sergeant in a
    New Jersey unit; married to Eunice Pierson; pension appl. (9810)
    submitted by Ms widow.

Moses Coleman (born 19 November 1755, died 1837): performed patriotic
     service in Massachusetts; married to Dorothy Pearson.

Naiad Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Virginia
    unit; pension appl. (42657) submitted by himself.

Nathan Coleman (born 27 December 1755, died 26 April 1929): private in
    a Connecticut unit; married to Deborah Turner; pension appl. (17652)
    submitted by his widow.

Nathaniel Coleman (born around 1742, died 14 September 1816): private
    in a Massachusetts unit; married to Anna Dickinson.

Nathaniel Coleman (born 1754, died 17 May 1837): soldier in a Massachu-
    setts unit; married (1st) to Rachel Damon and (2nd) to Rebecca
    Damon.

Nathaniel Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Massa-
    chusetts unit; pension appl. (3195) submitted by himself.

Nathaniel Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Massa-
    chusetts unit; married to Elethrar ---; pension appl. (15656)
    submitted by Ms widow.

Nicholas Coleman (born 14 October 1748, died 16 August 1816): private

_72/COLEMAN FAMILY

    in a Pennsylvania unit; married (I st) to Elizabeth Hicks and (2nd) to
    Fredreca ---.

Nicholas Coleman (born 8 September 173 1, died after 1795): private in a
    Pennsylvania unit; married to Jane McClelland.

Nicholas Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): lieutenant in a Penn-
    sylvania unit; received bounty-land warrant (appl. 436) for 200 acres.

Niles Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Massachusetts
    unit; pension appl. (43377) submitted by himself.

Noah Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): surgeon in the 2nd
    Connecticut Infantry; received bounty-land warrant (appl. 436) for
    400 acres.

Phineas Coleman (baptized 22 August 1719, died before 1784): performed
    patriotic service in New Hampshire; married to Abigail Huntress.

Richard Coleman (born 18 January 1761, died after 1798): private in a
    Virginia unit; married (1st) to Lucy Sydnor and (2nd) to Nancy Ann
    Stubbs.

Richard Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): lieutenant in a
    Virginia unit; bounty-land warrant (appl. 457) issued 17 January 1800
    for 200 acres to James Taylor, assignee of Francis Coleman, heir.

Robert Coleman (born 1748, died 9 January 1834): private in a Virginia
    unit; married to Catharine Robinson; pension appl. (8620) submitted
    by his widow.

Robert Coleman (born 4 November 1748, died 14 August 1825): lieu-
    tenant in a Pennsylvania unit; married to Ann Old.

Robert Coleman (birth date unknown, died 18 June 1823): private in a
    South Carolina unit; married to Thresa ---.

Robert Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a South
    Carolina unit; married to Prudence - - - ; pension appl. (23858)
    submitted by his widow.

_                                            PATRIOTS AND VETERANS/73

Robert Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Virginia
    unit; pension appl. (19255) submitted by himself.

Samuel Coleman (born 1753, died 12 May 1837): performed service in
    North Carolina; married (1st) to Mary Dyar and (2nd) to Sarah Evans;
    pension appl. (2164) submitted, but rejected.

Samuel Coleman (birth date unknown, died 1797): captain in a Virginia
    unit; married to Sarah ---.

Samuel Coleman (born 21 July 1755, died 8 March 181 1): first lieutenant
    in a Virginia unit; married to Susanna Storrs; bounty-land warrant
    (appl. 469) issued for 200 acres to Robert Means, assignee.

Samuel Coleman (born 1752, died 23 July 1824): private in a Virginia
    unit; married (1st) to Millie Coffee and (2nd) to Ann ---.

Solomon Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Massa-
    chusetts unit; pension appl. (34254) submitted by himself.

Spencer Coleman (born 15 February 1752, died after 1834): private in a
    Virginia unit; married to Lucy - - - ; pension appl. (3194) submitted
    by himself.

Stephen Coleman (born 17 March 1739, died 1798): captain; performed
    civil and patriotic service in Virginia; married to Sarah Watson.

Theophilus Coleman (born 1760, died after 1812): lieutenant in a North
    Carolina unit; married to Abigail Robertson.

Theophilus Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a North
    Carolina unit; married to Keziah ---; pension appl. (2162)
    submitted, but rejected.

Thomas Coleman (born 1748, died 2 February 1837): ensign in a Pennsyl-
    vania unit; married to Pheby Gray; pension appl. (23579) submitted
    by himself.

Thomas Coleman (born around 1736, died after t825): soldier in a
    Virginia unit.

_74/COLEMAN FAMILY

Thomas Coleman (born 1738, died 29 March 1810): performed civil and
    patriotic service in Virginia; married to Elizabeth

Thomas Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Virginia
    unit; pension appl. (16345) submitted by himself.

Thomas Coleman (birth and death dates unknown):   soldier in a Virginia
    unit; married to Lucy - - - ; received bounty-land warrant (appi. 6383)
    for 160 acres; pension appl. (3002) submitted by his widow.

Thompson Coleman (born around 1760, died 1831): soldier in a Georgia
    unit; married (1st) to Elizabeth McFarlin and (2nd) to Mrs. Sarah
    West.

Timothy Coleman (born 1752, died 18 August 1831): lieutenant in a New
    York unit; married to Elizabeth DeWitt; pension appl. (15763)
    submitted by his widow.

Valentine Coleman (born around 1755, died 24 August 1845): private in a
    Pennsylvania unit; married (1st) to Magdalena --- and (2nd) to Anna
    Maria Shull; pension appl. (2166) submitted, but rejected.

Whitehead Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): lieutenant in the
    1st Continental Artillery; received bounty4and warrant (appl. 467) for
    300 acres.

William Coleman, Sr. (born 1724, died 1785): private in a South Carolina
    unit; married to Ann Hester.

William Coleman, Jr. (born 1754, died 1820): private in a South Carolina
    unit; married to Mary Gray.

William Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a Georgia
    regiment of the Continental Line; pension appl. (39337) submitted by
    himself.

William Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): soldier in a North
    Carolina unit; pension appl. (3196) submitted by himself.

Wyatt Coleman (birth and death dates unknown): first lieutenant in the
    1st Virginia State Regiment.

_                                                PATRI0TS AND VETERANS/75


References

   The following is a list of source books referred to in the preceding
chapter.  Many of these books will be available in any historical collection
and should be of interest to anyone tracing American military war records.

Colket, Meredith B., Jr., and Bridgers, Frank E., eds.  Guide to Genea-
   logical Records in the National Archives.  Washington, D.C.: National
   Archives and Records Service, 1964.
       A guide to records of the Federal Government that can be used in
   the National Archives (pp. 44-102 relate solely to military records).

Ford, Worthington Chauncey, ed.  Journal of the Continental Congress.
   From the original records in the Library of Congress, 34 vols.
   Washington, D.C.: GPO, t936.
       A daily record of resolutions passed while the Continental
   Congress was in session.

Hawke, David. 77ze Colonial Experience.  New York.  Bobbs-Merrill
   Company, Inc., 1966.
       A narrative history of America from its discovery in 1492 to the
   ratification of the Constitution in 1788 (pp. 557-598 relate specifically
   to the American Revolution).

Heitman, Francis B. Historical Register of Officers of the Continental
   Army during the War of the Revolution, 1775-1783. 1914.  Reprint.
   Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1967.
       Listing of over 14,000 names compiled from service records;
   includes dates of service, unit, rank, and death date where known.  Also
   includes other lists such as Washington's aides-de-camp, officers of all
   Continental Line units, etc.  One of the most definitive of all available
   sources on the Revolution.

Hoyt, Max Ellsworth, ed.  Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applica-
   tions.  Special publication no. 32.  Washington, D.C.: National Genea-
   logical Society, 1966.
       Alphabetical listing by surname, including state of service, rank,
   and pension and bounty-land warrant application numbers.

Miller, Florence Hazen, comp.  Memorial Album of Revolutionary Soldiers,
   1776, Crete, Nebraska: 1958.
       Alphabetically arranged sketches of Revolutionary War veterans
   (with photos) including ranks, company, dates of service as well as
   each man's role in the war, particular distinctions, and awards.
   Includes some biographical information such as home, wife, date of
   birth, etc.

Muzzey, Artemas B. Reminiscences and Memorials of Men of the Revolution

_76/COLEMAN FAMILY
   and Their Families.  Michigan: Plutarch Press, 197 1.
   A historical narrative which includes accounts of battles, stories of
   heroism, and biographical information.

National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution.  DAR Patriot
   Index and Supplement. 3rd ed.  Washington, D.C.: 1966.
   Listing by surname including birth and death date's where known,
   wife's name, rank and unit in the Revolutionary War; one of the most
   comprehensive sources of Revolutionary military records, including
   over 105,000 names.

Peterson, Clarence S. Known Military Dead During the American Revolu-
   tionary War, 1775-1783.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
   1967.
   Alphabetical listing by surname including rank and regiment, date
   of death.