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When looking at a modern map of Oxfordshire, please do remember that until the local government reorganisation of 1974 much of modern south-west Oxfordshire was in Berkshire. The river Thames (or Isis) which runs through Oxford, defined the southern boundary of the county until 1974. Prior to that date towns such as Shrivenham, Faringdon, Wantage, Abingdon, Didcot and Wallingford (to name but a few) were in Berkshire as, indeed, was a considerable piece of what is now the south-west corner of the City of Oxford.

"A county of England, 47 miles in length, and 29 in breadth; bounded by Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire, Berkshire, Warwickshire, and Northamptonshire. It is divided into 14 hundreds, which contain 1 city, 12 market towns, 280 parishes, and 51 villages. The air is sweet, mild, pleasant, and healthy, for which reason it contains several gentlemen's seats; and the soil, though various, is fertile in corn and grass, and the hills are shaded with woods. It is also a great sporting country, there being abundance of game preserved here. It has no manufactures of any account, being chiefly agricultural. Its chief city is Oxford. Population, 161,643. It sends 9 members to parliament."
-- James Barclay's "Complete and Universal English Dictionary", 1842

OXFORDSHIRE, an inland county, bounded on the south-west, south, and south-east by Berkshire; on the east by Buckinghamshire; on the north-east by Northamptonshire; on the north and north-west by Warwickshire; and on the west by Gloucestershire. It extends from 51 28' to 52 9' (N. Lat.), and, in its greatest breadth, which is a little north of the centre of the county, from 1 2' to 1 38' (W. Lon.), and comprises an area of seven hundred and fifty-two square miles, or about four hundred and eighty-one thousand two hundred and eighty acres. The population, in 1821, was 136,971. At the period of the Roman invasion, this county formed part of the territory of the Dobuni, who, desirous of releasing themselves from subjection to their eastern neighbours, the Cattieuchlani, offered no resistance to the Romans, who, on their first division of the island, included it in Britannia Prima. Its central situation retarded its final subjection to the Saxon dominion, until the latter part of the sixth century. It had been the scene of several sanguinary conflicts between the Saxons and the retiring Britons, and became that of several others between the sovereigns of Wessex and Mercia. In the year 778, this county, being ceded by Cynewulf, King of Wessex, to Offa, King of Mercia, the latter made a wide and deep trench, as a boundary between the two kingdoms, which may still be traced at Ardley, Middleton-Stoney, Northbrook, Heyford, and Kirtlington. In 917, the Anglo-Saxons were defeated with great slaughter by the Danes, at Hook-Norton, who burned the town of Oxford three several times, in the years 979, 1003, and 1009, and plundered that of Thame, in 1010. In the early progress of the Norman Conquest, Oxford was stormed and burned by the Conqueror. In 1142, the Empress Matilda was besieged in the castle of that place by King Stephen, for three months, until the river being frozen, and the ground covered with snow, she, accompanied by three knights, all dressed in white, passed the sentinels unobserved, crossed the river, and proceeded on foot to Abingdon, whence she took horse, and arrived safely at Wallingford. In 1264, Oxford was taken from the barons by Henry III. In 1387, at Radford bridge, between this county and Berkshire, Thomas de Vere, Marquis of Dublin and Earl of Oxford, was defeated by Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, and Henry, Earl of Derby, afterwards Henry IV., when the marquis with difficulty saved his life by swimming across the Isis. In 1469, at Danesmoor, near Banbury, on July 26th, the Yorkists, under the Earl of Pembroke, were defeated by Sir John Conyers, when six thousand [p.495] five hundred men were slain, and the earl made prisoner.

One of the earliest transactions relating to the great war occurred on Chalgrove Field, in this county, on the 15th of August, 1642, when the celebrated John Hampden appeared in arms, to enforce the ordinance of the militia. Such of the other events connected with that memorable contest as relate especially to this county may be thus briefly recounted. On the 14th of September, 1642, Sir John Byron, having taken possession of Oxford for the king, was driven from it by Lord Say and Sele. On the 27th of October, four days after the battle of Edge-Hill, Banbury castle, in which was a garrison of eight hundred foot and a troop of horse, and Broughton castle, surrendered to the king, who the next day entered Oxford, whence he marched to Brentford, and after the battle there, returned with his prisoners to Oxford, on the 28th of November. At Oxford, in April 1643, the twelve commissioners from the parliament waited on the king with proposals of peace, which negociation was broken off on the 15th of the same month; and on the 25th, at Caversham bridge, between this county and Berkshire, Ruthven, Earl of Forth, with the van of the king's army, was repulsed by Lord Robarts, in an attempt to relieve Reading, which surrendered on the following day to the Earl of Essex. In the night of June 17th, detachments from the army under the Earl of Essex were attacked at Wycombe and Postcombe, by Prince Rupert, who, on his return, with many prisoners and much booty, was overtaken the following morning on Chalgrove Field, but after a smart skirmish, the parliamentarians were repulsed, Colonel John Hampden was mortally wounded, and the prince returned in triumph to Oxford. On the lst of August the king left Oxford for Bristol, but returned on the 16th; on the 18th he proceeded to the unsuccessful siege of Gloucester; and on September 23rd, three days after the battle of Newbury, he again returned to Oxford. That city having been now for some time the head-quarters of the royalists, to supply its garrison with provisions became a heavy burden upon the county: on the 15th of April, 1644, a royal proclamation was issued to the inhabitants of the counties of Oxford and Berks, requiring them to bring in supplies for the garrison, on pain of being visited with fire and sword: this produced a declaration from both houses of parliament, dated the 22nd of the same month, expressing their horror at the proclamation, and their determination to hazard their lives and fortunes to prevent its being carried into effect. Vigorous operations were accordingly commenced, with a view to the reduction of Oxford, and that city being nearly surrounded by two numerous detachments of the parliamentarian army, under the Earl of Essex and Sir William Waller, the king, in the night of June 3rd, effected his escape, and proceeded to Worcester, upon which the enemy relinquished their intention of besieging Oxford. At Cropredy bridge, on the 30th of June, an indecisive action took place beween the king and Sir William Waller. The garrison of Banbury, commanded by Sir William Compton, was besieged by the parliament's troops, under Colonel Fiennes, who, on October 25th, was compelled, by the Earl of Northampton, to raise the siege. November 27th, the king returned to Oxford. On the 24th of April, 1645, near Islip bridge, four regiments of the royal horse were routed by Cromwell, who on the same day took Blechingdon house without resistance, for which surrender its governor, Colonel Windebank, was shot at Oxford on the 3rd of May. The king left Oxford on May 7th, and Fairfax laid siege to it on the 22nd; but the siege was raised on the 7th of June, and the king again returned thither, on the 27th of August. On the 30th he departed for Hereford, and on November 6th he once more came to Oxford, where he passed the winter. April 26th, 1646, Woodstock manor-house, after a vigorous defence, surrendered to the parliamentarian forces; and the next day the king left Oxford to surrender himself to the Scottish army besieging Newark. May 8th, the garrison in Banbury castle, after an heroic defence for ten weeks, capitulated on honourable terms to Colonel Whalley; and on the 24th of June, Oxford, which had been besieged by Fairfax since May 2nd, surrendered at the king's command. At the time of the rebellion of 1715, several partizans of the Stuart family were seized at Oxford.

This county lies in the diocese of Oxford, and in the province of Canterbury, and forms an archdeaconry, comprising, exclusively of Oxford, the deaneries of Aston, Burcester, Chipping-Norton, Cuddesden, Deddington, Henley, Witney, and Woodstock; and containing two hundred and twelve parishes, of which ninety-nine are rectories, seventy-two vicarages, and the remainder perpetual curacies. For purposes of civil government it is divided into the fourteen hundreds of Bampton, Banbury, Binfield, Bloxham, Bullington, Chadlington, Dorchester, Ewelme, Langtree, Lewknor, Pirton, Ploughley, Thame, and Wootton. It contains the city and university of Oxford, the borough and market towns of Banbury and Woodstock, and the market towns of Bampton, Bicester, Burford, Chipping-Norton, Henley upon Thames, Thame, Watlington, and Witney. Two knights are returned to parliament for the shire; two representatives for the city, and two for the university, of Oxford; two for the borough of Woodstock; and one for that of Banbury: the county members are elected at Oxford. This county is in the Oxford circuit: the assizes are held at Oxford, where is the county gaol; and the quarter sessions at the same city, on January 11th, April 19th, July 12th, and October 18th: there are fifty-nine acting magistrates. The rates raised in the county for the year ending March 25th, 1827, amounted to 139,005; the expenditure to 135,886, of which, 119,738. 19. was applied to the relief of the poor.

The shape of the county is extremely irregular: near the middle of it, at Oxford, it is not more than seven miles across, and though the northern part spreads out to the breadth of about thirty-eight miles, yet that lying to the south of Oxford is not in any part more than twelve miles broad: the latter is computed to contain one hundred and forty-one thousand acres; the former, three hundred and nine thousand. The southernmost part has a fine alternation of hill and dale, which produces much pleasing scenery; and the Chiltern elevations, more particularly, which are partly clothed with fine woods of beech, partly arable, and partly in open sheep downs, are beautifully varied. The more central district has little inequality of surface, but is adorned with numerous woods, which present a rich and pleasing aspect. In the northern and [p.496] western districts of that portion of the county lying north of Oxford, the scenery is for the most part less agreeable, in consequence of the enclosures being formed by bare stone walls: in Whichwood Forest, however, are many grassy vales and woody glens, which afford much charming scenery. But the rivers of Oxfordshire are among its chief natural beauties, flowing through almost every part of it, and being always accompanied by luxuriant meadows, and varying prospects. In the vicinity of Oxford, the vale of the Isis expands into a spacious amphitheatre, bounded by some striking hills, in the centre of which rise the majestic towers, domes, and spires of that city, from behind the thick shade of venerable groves. Shillingford bridge occupies a romantic situation on the same river, soon after it has been joined by the Thame; and after having passed Wallingford, in Berkshire, the scenery upon its banks assumes an immense variety of fresh beauties, and forms an indented valley through the range of the Chiltern hills, which, gradually losing the appearance of downs, exhibited by some of their more naked summits in the distance, become adorned by numerous varied beauties of art and nature: thick woods clothe their sides and summits, while the slopes, in the more immediate vicinity of the river, consist of rich meadows. Towns and villages lie scattered along its banks, and magnificent seats adorn the declivities on each side. Having been joined by the Kennet and the Loddon, which it receives from the south, the Thames swells into a majestic river, navigated by numerous small craft, and glides onward through the plain, until it becomes engulphed amidst the fine hills around Henley, the scenery of which is among the most interesting on its banks. The climate of Oxfordshire, its situation and latitude considered, is cold, particularly in the western part of the northern division of the county, where the fences consist chiefly of stone walls, affording but little shelter. In the Chiltern district, at the southern extremity of the county, it is moist: it is also cold upon the Chiltern hills, and in their vicinity, more especially upon the poor white lands at the foot of them, where it is observed that the frosts always take effect sooner, and are of longer continuance, than on the other soils.

With regard to soil, this county comprises three different tracts, the limits of which are pretty clearly defined, and which may be distinguished as the red-land district, the stonebrash land, and the Chiltern hills. The red-land occupies the whole northern part, and may be separated from the rest of it by an irregular line drawn from Little Rollright, on the borders of Warwickshire, by Westcott-Barton and Somerton, to the vicinity of Mixbury, near the confines of North-amptonshire and Buckingbamshire: this district, which much exceeds in fertility any other of equal extent in Oxfordshire, and contains about seventy-nine thousand six hundred and thirty-five acres, consists of a rich sandy loam of a reddish colour, which is deep, sound, and friable, being well adapted to the production of every crop: the substratum is red grit-stone rock. The stonebrash district adjoins the former, and extends from the borders of Gloucestershire, on the west, nearly to those of Buckinghamshire, on the east, the southern border, of it running from the boundary of the county, near Broughton-Poggs, in a north-easterly direction by Brize-Norton, Witney, North Leigh, Bladon, Kirtlington and Bicester, to Stratton-Audley, and thence northward, at a short distance from the borders of Buckinghamshire, to Mixbury: in so extensive a tract as this, which is computed to comprise one hundred and sixty-four thousand and twenty-three acres, a great variety is found, from poor loose sandy slopes, to deep and more heavy soils, approaching to clay; but that which predominates is a loose, dry, friable sand, or loam, apparently formed in a great measure of abraded limestone, of which it contains many fragments: in the vales various loams are found. The Chiltern district comprises the south-eastern extremity of Oxfordshire; its boundary from the rest of the county extending from Chinnor, in a south-westerly direction, near Watlington, to the vicinity of the Thames at Gatehampton: the basis of this tract, which contains sixty-four thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight acres, is chalk, in some places very white and pure, in others imperfect, which is covered to various depths with a clayey loam, generally sound and dry, and containing a considerable quantity of flints, mostly brown, rough, and honey-combed, frequently to perforation: many of these flints have also a sparry incrustation, and the best soils are often the most covered with them: on the banks of the Thames, and in some other places where the hills recede, the soil is an excellent sandy loam, which, as well as the flinty hills, forms a good turnip soil. The remaining large portion of the county, extending from this to the stonebrash district, and calculated to comprise one hundred and sixty-six thousand four hundred acres, includes all sorts of soils, from a loose sand to a heavy clay, and these are so intermixed, and the respective tracts of each so small, as to render it difficult to give a distinct account of them. Peat-earth is occasionally found; and it is considered as a mark of the general fertility of the county, that good crops of wheat grow on all its soils. Quarries of freestone are numerous; limestone is very plentiful; and slate, fit for roofing common buildings, is obtained in several parts: the ochre found at Shotover is esteemed of the very best quality.

On the arable lands, which occupy by far the greater part of the county, the courses of cropping are very irregular, even on soils that are alike. The corn crops commonly cultivated are wheat, barley, and oats: the general average produce of wheat is estimated at three quarters per acre; that of barley, at four quarters; and that of oats, at five quarters. Peas are occasionally cultivated; beans are sown on the heavier soils; and there exists likewise a practice of sowing what is here called poulse, namely beans and peas mixed, of which good crops are produced on the lighter lands. The common turnip and the Swedish turnip are both extensively cultivated. Tares are commonly grown; lentils to a small extent; rape, but little; cabbages, carrots, and potatoes occasionally as agricultural crops. Clover and trefoil are frequently cultivated; and sainfoin is grown to a great extent upon all the soils that are proper for it. Of the grass lands, the chief part is situated in the narrow flat tracts on the borders of the rivers, containing most of the open field meadows, which are extensive, and situated so low as to be frequently overflowed by sudden rains, and sometimes even during the hay-harvest, insomuch, that the crops are either spoiled or entirely swept away: this flooding, however, improves the soil, when the waters do not remain out long enough to injure [p.497] the grass, which seldom receives any other manure than the sediment thus deposited. At Water-Eaton is the best grass land in the county, which is occupied for dairies; but it is very liable to summer floods: at North Weston, in the rich district near Thame, the meadows are mown twice a year. The enclosed pasture, or meadow land, is chiefly confined to the central part of the county, near Oxford, where there is a considerable tract of deep rich soil: besides the quantity of butter made here, which is considerable, numerous calves are suckled, to supply the London market with veal; in various parts of this district some cattle and sheep are also fattened: many of the pasture grounds, however, are full of ant-hills, and a great part of the herbage is consequently coarse. Much butter is sent to the London market from some other parts of Oxfordshire, particularly from the vicinity of Bicester; and in the district around Thame many calves are also fattened, to be sent as veal to the same market: little cheese is made: the produce of hay per acre is calculated to average nearly two tons. The best feeding-land lies on the banks of the rivers Thame, Isis, and Cherwell, but the lowest meadows are subject to floods, which sometimes do much damage to the herbage, when they occur late in the spring. Lime is extensively used as a manure, as are also peat and coal ashes; and great quantities of rags, purchased in London, are brought for the same purpose. Oxfordshire has no peculiar breed of cattle, nor does any particular sort prevail; those most frequently seen are of the shorthorned Yorkshire, the long-horned Leicestershire, the Devon, and the Alderney breeds: oxen are frequently employed in agricultural labours, for which the Herefordshire breed is preferred. It is well stocked with sheep, of which the most common are the South Down, the Berkshire, the New Leicester, a cross between the Berkshire and the Leicester, a Spanish breed, which is sometimes found mingled with the South Down, and a mixed breed between the New Leicester and the Cotswold sheep. Of hogs, the Berkshire breed is the most common throughout the county: many boars are fed for the purpose of making brawn and sausages, which form considerable articles of trade at Oxford, and some other places in the county.

Oxfordshire may be considered a well-wooded county, excepting the northernmost part of it, but there is comparatively but very little oak. The woodlands may be classed as follows; first, groves on spring-woods; secondly, woods consisting of timber trees and underwood; and thirdly, coppices consisting of underwood only. Of the first class, the extensive natural beechwoods confined to the Chiltern district are the principal, consisting of large trees, among which is a succession of younger ones that have been produced by the falling of the beech mast: these woods are never all felled at once, except for the purpose of bringing the land under tillage, but are drawn occasionally. Of the second kind are the woods in the vicinity of Stanton St. John, called "the Quarters," the soil of which is a strong clay: there are also numerous spots of woodland of this description dispersed in various other parts of the county. Coppices are not very numerous, there being hardly any extensive ones, except those tracts of Whichwood Forest that are thus called, but which, containing timber trees, are more properly woods. There are extensive artificial plantations in several places, particularly at Blenheim. The waste lands, excepting the large tract of Whichwood Forest, is inconsiderable. This forest, situated towards the western confines of the county, and having a soil, in some places of reddish loam, and in others of the common stonebrash of the extensive district in which it is included, contains six thousand seven hundred and twenty acres, and is subject to a right of commonage for horses and sheep only. It comprises thirty-four coppices, eighteen of which belong to the king, twelve to the Duke of Marlborough, and four to different individuals; and contains some thriving young oak timber: next to oak, ash is the most abundant, and after that beech, with some elm. The coppices occupy three thousand and thirty-seven acres, the keepers' lodges and lawns one hundred and thirty-four, and the open forest (which produces nothing but brushwood and pasturage for the numerous deer and the cattle) two thousand four hundred and twenty-one acres. After having been cut, the coppices are fenced off for seven years against the cattle and sheep, but the deer are never excluded. Comprised within the forest are also the chase woods, occupying four hundred and eighty-eight acres; and Blandford park, containing six hundred and forty acres. Otmoor, near Islip, six miles north of Oxford, contains about four thousand acres, and, prior to its enclosure, under an act obtained in 1815, was commonable to eight adjoining townships: the soil is generally a good loam, but the whole tract is so extremely flat, and situated so low, that in wet seasons much of it lies under water for a long time, the consequence of which is that the cattle and sheep upon it become diseased. Formerly the number of cattle turned upon the moor by each householder was subject to no limitation: some large flocks of geese were also kept upon it. What are called flits upon this moor are the holes from which peat has been dug; pills are hills of quaking bog. The poor inhabitants of these townships, who had been deprived of their customary right of common by the enclosure bill, destroyed the fences repeatedly, and, in September 1830, assembled in a numerous body, and proceeded, in a riotous manner, to effect the removal of what they considered to be an encroachment on their ancient rights, insomuch that the military were called in, and some of the ringleaders taken into custody, but subsequently liberated by their companions on their way to prison, under a small escort. Most of the unenclosed parishes, which are rather numerous, have larger or smaller tracts of waste, or down land, which is appropriated chiefly to the pasturage of sheep: the range of the Chiltern hills, which crosses the southern end of the county, has much land of this description, being in many places too steep to admit of cultivation. In the more northern parts too are considerable tracts of downs, which are in many instances overrun with ant-hills and coarse herbage, and of little value, being chiefly appropriated to the pasturage of young cattle, and sometimes of oxen that are employed in the plough. At Kidlington is a large common, which feeds three hundred cows, from May 16th until Michaelmas; and at Campsfield, in the same parish, is an extensive common pastured by sheep.

The principal manufactures are, that of blankets, at [p.498] Witney; and those of gloves and articles of polished steel, at Woodstock: the glove manufacture was established about the middle of the last ceutury, and now furnishes employment to the poor for many miles around that town. A coarse kind of velvet, called Shag, is made at Banbury: the female poor in the southern part of the county are chiefly employed in lace-making.

The principal rivers are the Thames (or Isis), the Cherwell, the Thame, the Evenlode, and the Windrush. The first-mentioned river, which forms the entire southern boundary of the county, separating it from Berkshire, rises in Gloucestershire, and having been joined by different small streams near Lechlade, first touches this county at its south-western extremity, being then imperfectly navigable, and bearing the name of Isis: hence it pursues its course, for a considerable distance, through an undiversified plain, and in an easterly direction, until it has received the waters of the Windrush, when it takes a north-easterly course, and having been joined by the Evenlode, soon after suddenly turns southward to Oxford, a little above which city it divides into small channels, which traverse the meadows of Witham, and, leaving Oxford immediately on the left, pass under several stone bridges, connected by a grand causeway, which forms the principal approach to that city on the west: these streams soon re-uniting, the river winds round the city towards the north-east, and having been crossed by an ancient stone bridge, and joined by the Cherwell, becomes navigable, and pursues a very devious course, for the most part in a south-easterly direction, through an extensive tract of rich low meadows, to a short distance below Dorchester, where it is joined by the Thame: at this junction the river loses its assumed poetical name of Isis, and is first popularly called Thames, although in various old grants and charters, both of the period of the Saxon sway in England, and since the Norman Conquest, it is always denominated by the latter title in the higher parts of its course also. The Thames immediately passes under Shillingford bridge, and shortly after under that of Wallingford, below which the river continues a protracted southerly course, until it begins to make an extensive sweep round by the east to the north, enclosing the southern extremity of the county, which it wholly quits at a short distance below Henley, when it takes an easterly direction, and begins to form the boundary between Berkshire and Buckinghamshire. Though by no means a rapid river, it is far from being sluggish in its course, and has been poetically described as "without o'erflowing full:" its waters are here clear and silvery, except when disturbed by floods. The principal fish which it contains, in that part of its course bordering on Oxfordshire, are pike, chub, barbel, perch, eels, roach, dace, and gudgeons: salmon are also sometimes taken. The Cherwell, rising in Northamptonshire, enters this county at its northernmost extremity, and almost immediately, in the vicinity of Banbury, becomes its eastern boundary, separating it from Northamptonshire for the distance of seven or eight miles; it then finally enters Oxfordshire, and, receiving numerous smaller streams, continues its irregular southerly course through an extensive tract to the eastern side of Oxford, where it runs under Magdalene bridge, and soon after joins the Thames. The Thame, rising on the borders of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, near Chinnor, takes a northwesterly course, forming the eastern boundary of the county, and passing by the town of Thame, until, in the vicinity of Waterstock, it enters it, and pursues a southwesterly, and afterwards a southerly, course, passing under the bridges of Wheatley and Dorchester, to the Isis, a little below the latter place, the united waters then taking the name of Thames. The Evenlode, rising on the north-western borders of the county, and descending by Whichwood Forest, pursues a very irregular south-easterly course by Charlbury, and having been augmented by the smaller stream of the Glyme, which flows past Woodstock, and forms the magnificent sheet of water in Blenheim park, joins the Thames a few miles above Oxford. The Windrush, rising at a short distance within the borders of Gloucestershire, soon enters this county, and pursues a nearly eastern course by Burford to Witney, to the manufactures of which latter town it is of great service, and whence it takes a direction about south-south-east, falling into the Thames near Northmoor. The smaller streams, all of which fall into some of the larger rivers before mentioned, are extremely numerous. The Oxford canal, which is of immense advantage to the county, by opening a communication, through other canals, with Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, and the Wednesbury collieries, enters at its northern extremity, and soon approaching the Cherwell, runs nearly parallel with the course of that river, which it crosses, near Banbury, and a few miles to the cast of Deddington and Woodstock, to the city of Oxford, where it communicates with the navigation of the Thames.

The turnpike roads are generally very good, especially in situations where gravel can be obtained: in the northern part of the county, the red grit-stone is used, but is not so good for the purpose. The road from London to Cheltenham, Gloucester, and Hereford, enters the county from Maidenhead, in Berkshire, and, passing through Henley, Nettlebed, Dorchester, Oxford, Witney, and Burford, leaves it a little beyond that town. The upper road from London to Oxford, Worcester, and Aberystwith, enters from High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, and passes through Stokenchurch, Tetsworth. Wheatley, Oxford, Woolvercott, Woodstock, Over Kiddington, Chapel-House, and Little Rollright, and enters Gloucestershire at the Four Shire Stone: this is also the road from London to Holyhead, through Worcester. The road from London to Holyhead, through Buckingham and Shrewsbury, enters the county from Tingewick in Buckinghamshire, passes through Finmere and Mixbury, and, after crossing a part of Northamptonshire, re-cuters it at Nell bridge, and passes through Adderbury, Banbury, Drayton, and Wroxton, to Upton in Warwickshire: this is also the road from London to Holyhead, through Birmingham and from London to Chester, through the same town. The road from London to Aylesbury, Bicester, and Oxford, enters from Fleet-Marston in Buckinghamshire, and passes through Bicester to Oxford. From: Lewis, Samuel. A Topographical Dictionary of England - Vol. I-IV (4), London: S. Lewis and Company, 1831. Source

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