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Chronology
Co. Cork

Updated 5 Sept 1999

Submitted by Peter Langley from Vol. VIII of A New History of Ireland. Posted here with his kind permission.

30,000 BCEvidence found of bears, reindeer, hyena and woolly mammoths during this period.
8,000 BCFinal spell of severe cold weather ends and post-glacial period begins.
6,500 BCIreland cut off from Britain by rising sea level.
Earliest presence of man in Ireland.
3,000 BCBuilding of megalithic tombs starts.
2,550 BCWheat cultivated at Newgrange, Co. Meath.
1,500 BCCopper mining at Mount Gabriel Co. Cork.
753 BCRome founded.
500 BCStart of Iron Age in Ireland.
300 BCEvidence of La Tene influences in Ireland through trade and possible migration from the continent.
Building of ring forts, hill forts and crannogs commence.
55 BCJulius Caesar invades Britain.
297 ADPicts, in conjunction with the Irish attack Roman Britain. Irish raids on Britain continue to 450, many slaves being brought back including one who went on to become St. Patrick.
370Assault on Britain by Picts, Irish (Scotti), and Saxons.
432Traditional date for the commencement of St. Patrick's mission.
449Saxons invade Britain.
493March 17th.Traditional date for death of St. Patrick.
544Bubonic plague reaches Ireland.
549Recurrence of the plague.
554Outbreak of Small Pox.
564Great wind.
588Great snow
589Hot summer.
594Eclipse of the sun, causing wide spread panic.
616Battle of Chester in England, and Northumbrian power reaches the Irish sea.
664Another outbreak of Bubonic plague, continues for four years.
670Great snow, famine.
698Start of three years of famine and pestilence, cannibalism rumoured.
700Cattle plague in Ireland.
Around this time there was a gradual transition from tribalism to dynastic politics, resulting in 5 hundred years of inter Kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, there were also inter monastery battles.
709Plague, believed to have been polio, also dysentery.
742Outbreak of small pox.
764Great snow for 3 months.
772Twelve years of famine and plague, Bloody flux, small pox, rabies and cattle murrain.
773Drought and famine.
777Bad summer - wind and rain.
795First Viking raids on Ireland.
799Inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.
807Large Viking raid on western coast.
837Vikings carry out intensive raids on Ireland, and set up bases.
848Norse occupy Cork.
876Relative respite from Viking raids for next forty years.
892Great wind, forests destroyed and wooden churches and house blown away.
899More inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.
900English coins begin to circulate in Ireland.
902Dublin evacuated by the Norse.
914Large Viking fleet arrives in Waterford.
920 to 50Dublin Kings strike coins at York in England.
922Foundation of the Norse town of Limerick.
951Outbreak of Small pox and bloody flux among the Norse in Dublin.
965Famine.
978Battle of Belach Lechta in Ballyhoura mountains in north Cork. Brian Boruma mac Cennetig (Brian Boru) defeats and kills Mael Muad mac Brain and become king of Munster.
999Battle of Glenn Mama near Dublin, Mael Morda, king of Leinster, and Sitric Silkbeard king of Dublin defeated by Brian Boru. Other inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.
1000Brian Boru captures Dublin.
1002Reign of Brian Boru as High King commences twelve years of reasonable peace apart odd out breaks of inter dynasty fights in Ulster.
1014Mael Morda, king of Leinster invites Jarl Sigurd of Orkney to help him fight Brian Boru. In the battle of Clontarf on Good Friday Apr. 23. They are defeated and both killed. Brian Boruma is killed after the battle. Inter kingdom feuds and battles recommence.
1047Famine in Ulster causing a lot of them to settle in Leinster.
1061Small Pox and Collic reach epidemic proportions in Leinster.
1062Colic in Leinster, spreads to rest of country.
1066Battle of Hastings, Normans conquer England.
1086Doomesday survey in England.
1094Severe weather throughout the country causing dearth.
1095Pope Urban II proclaims first crusade at council of Clermont; "Scotti come in crowds from the land of mist" to join
1095Another great plague.
1096Foundation of the See of Waterford.
1096Great plague continues, laws of abstinence and almsgiving promulgated by clergy and princes.
1097Round tower of Monasterboice burned and library destroyed
1098Great famine.
1099Other inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, again took place during this century.
1106See of Limerick founded
1107March;many cattle died in severe snow.
1108Flemish colonisation of Pembroke in Wales.
1116Freat famine in spring; affecting Leinster and Munster.
1122Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobair of Meath campaigns with fleet and land forces throughout Munster.
1145"Great war this year, so that Ireland was a trembling sod" - From the Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters.
1151Battle of Moin Mor in north Cork. Toirrdelbach Ua Briain , king of Munster defeated by Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobair, 7,000 Munstermen killed.
1155Cattle plague.
1155Proposal for invasion of Ireland by Henry II discussed at Council of Winchester, but rejected.
1156/57Great frost, lakes frozen.
1163Muirchertach mac Domnaill Ua Mael Sechlainn drowned at Cork in the River Lee after falling from a bridge while drunk. (First mention of a bridge in Cork).
1164Malcolm IV of Scotland, defeats and kills Somarlaide, helped by Dublin fleet near Renfrew Scotland.
1165Henry II of England campaigns unsuccessfully in Wales having hired the Dublin fleet for six months.
1169Robert fitz Stephen, Hervey de Montmorency , and Maurice de Prendergast land at Bannow Bay in Wexford. Wexford captured by Diarmait Mac Murchada, assisted by the Normans and the custody is given to Robert fitz Stephen.
Mac Murchada invades Ossory, Maurice fitz Gerald arrives in Wexford.
1170MayRaymond (le Gros) Fitz William land in Co. Wexford
Aug. 23Richard de Clare (Strongbow) Earl of Pembroke, lands near Waterford.
Aug. 25Strongbow and Raymond le Gros capture Waterford. Strongbow marries Mac Murchada's daughter, Aoife.
Sept 21.MacMurchada and Norman allies capture Dublin.
1169May.Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster dies and is succeeded by his son in law, Strongbow.
Nov.Kings of North Leinster and Breifne submit to Henry II in Dublin. Henry II grants charter to city of Dublin.
1170Sept. 20Pope Alexander III writes to the Irish Kings advocating fealty to Henry II
1171Merchants of Lucca and Flanders trade with Cork city.
1175Ruaidri Ua Conchobair and Normans campaign together in Ormond and Thomond, Limerick city captured.
1185Prince John lands at Waterford
1189Prince John grants charter to Cork city.
1197Prince John grants charter to city of Limerick.
1199Numerous battles during this century; Irish versus Irish, Norman versus Irish, Norman and Irish versus Irish and other combinations.
1209King John campaigns in Ireland.
1213May 15.King John reconciled with the pope.
June 6.Papal confirmation of annual tax of 300 marks for Ireland.
Oct 3.King John surrenders kingship of England to Holy See.
1214June 24.Magna Carta signed in England.
1215Nov. 12Magna Carta issued for Ireland.
1217Jan. 14.Royal Mandate against promotion of Irishmen to cathedral benefices.
Feb. 28.Papal tax levied for Fifth Crusade.
Nov. 10.Feudal aid levied.
1218Apr.Papal recognition of rights of crown in Irish Episcopal elections.
1222Dublin imposes tax on wines.
1232Kerry shirred as separate county.
1237Revolt of the O'Briens
1242Jan. 2.Henry III grants Cork city right to hold in fee farm, and recognises guilds.
1245Light house built at Hook Head, Co. Wexford.
1246Connacht shired.
1251Mint for the minting of coins, opened in Dublin.
1252Mar. 13.Clerical tenth levied.
1253Limerick and Tipperary shired as separate counties.
1256Jan. 26.Pope condemns English attitudes to Irish laws of inheritance.
1260Apr. 29.Royal order against Scots migration into Ireland.
1261Irish Kings offer high-kingship to Haakon IV of Norway, for support in expelling English from Ireland.
1271Bad weather, famine and disease.
1272Irish wool taxed at Bruges.
1293Edward I gives safe conduct to Flanders merchants in Ireland.
1294Mint operates briefly for one year in Cork.
1296Edward I invades Scotland.
1750Nov.First copy of Dublin Directory published.
Charles Smith's The ancient and present state of the county and city of Cork published.
1752Sept.2Julian calendar abolished and replace by Gregorian calendar the following day became 14 Sept.
1755Nov. 1Earthquake at Lisbon, felt in Munster.
1756AprilDearth of corn and potatoes, continues to 1757.
1761Oct.Start of Whiteboyism in Munster.
1763Sept 10First number of Freeman's Journal.
1765AprilStart of severe drought resulting in poor harvest and stunted livestock.
1766SummerWide spread rioting owing to scarcity and high price of food.
1773Nov 8Opening in Dublin of first house of industry. (Work House).
1775JuneReconstitution of Irish regiments in French service: regiment of Clare amalgamated with Berwick, Bulkeley amalgamated with Dillon.
1776July 4Declaration of American independence.
1778Series of bank and merchant failures.
1782May 4Catholic relief act, allows Catholics to acquire land.
1784MayIrish Post Office established by statue.
1785SeptWhiteboys, now known as Rightboys, renew disturbances in Munster.
1790July 5First mail coach.
July 10Based on hearth-money returns made in 1788, population estimated at 4,040,000
1791July 21Irish brigade disbanded by French national assembly.
Oct 14Society of United Irish Irishmen founded in Belfast. Secretary Robert Simms (The wife's ancestor)
1794 Mar 1Statutes of Dublin University amended to allow Catholics to take degrees.
1795Sept 21Battle of the diamond near Loughall Co. Armagh between Peep o' Day Boys and Defenders, leading to the foundation of the Orange Order.
1796July 12First Orange Parade at Portadown.
1798May 23United Irish rebellion begins in Leinster.
1799Aug 1Irish act of union
Aug 2Last meeting of Irish parliament.
1750Nov.First copy of Dublin Directory published.
Charles Smith's The ancient and present state of the county and city of Cork published.
1752Sept.2Julian calendar abolished and replace by Gregorian calendar the following day became 14 Sept.
1755Nov. 1Earthquake at Lisbon, felt in Munster.
1756AprilDearth of corn and potatoes, continues to 1757.
1761Oct.Start of Whiteboyism in Munster.
1763Sept 10First number of Freeman's Journal.
1765AprilStart of severe drought resulting in poor harvest and stunted livestock.
1766SummerWide spread rioting owing to scarcity and high price of food.
1773Nov 8Opening in Dublin of first house of industry. (Work House).
1775JuneReconstitution of Irish regiments in French service: regiment of Clare amalgamated with Berwick, Bulkeley amalgamated with Dillon.
1776July 4Declaration of American independence.
1778 Series of bank and merchant failures.
1782May 4Catholic relief act, allows Catholics to acquire land.
1784MayIrish Post Office established by statue.
1785SeptWhiteboys, now known as Rightboys, renew disturbances in Munster.
1790July 5First mail coach.
July 10Based on hearth-money returns made in 1788, population estimated at 4,040,000
1791July 21Irish brigade disbanded by French national assembly.
Oct 14Society of United Irish Irishmen founded in Belfast. Secretary Robert Simms (The wife's ancestor)
1794Mar 1Statutes of Dublin University amended to allow Catholics to take degrees.
1795Sept 21Battle of the diamond near Loughall Co. Armagh between Peep o' Day Boys and Defenders, leading to the foundation of the Orange Order.
1796July 12First Orange Parade at Portadown.
1798May 23United Irish rebellion begins in Leinster.
1799Aug 1Irish act of union
Aug 2Last meeting of Irish parliament.
1801July 2.Copyright act .. Requiring one copy of every book published in UK to be deposited in library of Trinity College, Dublin and makes illegal the pirating in Ireland of British-published books.
1803Jan.Influenza epidemic, which continued until June.
July 23.Robert Emmet's rising in Dublin.
Sept 19.Robert Emmet convicted of high treason (executed next day).
Dec. 7.Commissioning of officers in new Irish legion established by Baonaparte
1804Jan 14.Opening in Dublin of Institution for vaccinating against small pox.
Mar 4 - 5Insurrection at Castle Hill near Parramatta, New South Wales many Irish involved.
1805Mar 25.Presentation to parliament of Irish catholic petition
April 9.Pius VII grants final approval to Presentation order founded at Cork by Nano Nagle.
May 13House of Commons debates Irish catholic petition;
Grattan makes his maiden speech in its support.
1807Jan 19First meeting of Gaelic Society of Dublin.
Mar 20.Charter incorporating Cork Institution for promoting science and agriculture.
1808August.Christian Brothers, lay teaching order, founded by Edmund Rice.
1809June 15.Drainage of bogs act.
1810September.Commission to inquire into state of Irish records (Reports 1-15 in 3 vols.)
1813July 12.First recorded disturbances in Belfast as a result of tension between Protestants and Catholics.
1816August.Potato crop fails owing to late seasons and excessive rain;
beginning of first major famine since 1742.
Oct - Nov.Typhus epidemic begins. (Continues until December 1819 causing some 50,000 deaths).
1817.June 16.Poor employment act, empowers appointment of commissioners to direct public works financed by mortgages of rates.
July 11.Act to provide for the establishment of asylums for the lunatic poor in Ireland.
July .Jeffery Sedwards forms total abstinence society in Skibbereen,
Sept 30.National fever committee appointed to disburse government aid for victims of epidemic (18,629 spent in 2 years)
1818May.Fever hospitals act provides for the establishment of fever hospitals and extension of dispensary system.
1820May 25.Failure of Roche's Bank and stoppage of Leslie's Bank at Cork causes banking crisis which spreads throughout Munster and then to Dublin.
1821Census - population 6,801,827
Sept.Potato crop fails again.
1822May 24.Poor employment act, provided 50,000 for building of roads in response to widespread failure of potato crop.
June. Fever follows famine in west of Ireland.
1823July.Irish tithe composition act. Enables incumbents and their parishioners to substitute fixed money payment, settled by arbitrators, in lieu of tithes.
1825Dec.Over 60 English banks suspend payments, causing severe recession in English and Irish manufacturing industry.
1826June-August.Fever epidemic follows collapse of textile industry in Dublin, Belfast and Cork.
1834Dec 18Affray at Rathcormac Co. Cork during collection of tithes.
1835June 2.William Sharman Crawford opens tenant-right campaign in Commons by bringing in a bill to compensate evicted tenants for improvements.
1838July 31.Poor Relief Act extends English poor law to Ireland. Commission set up to administer a workhouse system.
1839Jan. 6.The night of "The big wind".
1840Apr. 24.First union workhouse (South Dublin) opened.
1841June 6.Census taken throughout Ireland: Population 8,175,124 (5.25% increase since 1831).
1841Aug. 30.First edition of Cork Examiner.
1842June 18.Capital Punishment (Ireland) Act abolishes death penalty for numerous offences.
Aug. 12.Act confirms validity of marriages celebrated by dissenting ministers.
1844Aug.Act authorising construction of railway from Dublin to Cashel. Extension to Cork authorised July 1845.
1845Sept 9.Dublin Evening Post reports the arrival of potato blight in Ireland.
Sept 25.First sod cut for Cork Bandon railway.
Oct 31.Committee formed in Dublin to examine extent of potato loss and to suggest remedies.
Nov. 10.Peel, on his own responsibility, orders purchase in USA of 100,000 of Indian corn for shipment to Ireland.
Nov 18.Appointment of Peel's relief commission to administer scheme of relief.
1846Jan. 23Public Works Bill, the first in a series of measures intended to relieve distress.
Mar 13Eviction of 300 tenants on Gerrard estate in Co. Galway.
Mar 28.Sales begin at Cork and other places of food being distributed by relief commission
June 26.Peel repeals the corn laws, abolishing all duties on imported corn.
June 14.Reappearance of potato blight.
Sept 25.Disturbance at Youghal arising out of attempt by crowd to hold up ship laden with oats for export.
Nov.Start of unusually severe winter, snow, frost, north easterly gales.
1847Jan 1.First operation performed in Richmond Hospital, Dublin under general anaesthesia.
Jan 2.Formation of British Association for the relief of the extreme Distress in the Remote Parishes of Ireland and Scotland.
Jan 26.Duties on importation of corn suspended until Sept 1.
Feb. 26Destitute Poor Act - permits appointment of relief commission to administer outdoor relief.
Apr. 5First soup kitchen opened in Dublin.
June 8.Poor Relief Act, empowers boards of guardians to grant outdoor relief to aged, infirm, and to sick poor and to poor widows with 2 or more dependent children; it also empowered poor law commissioners to permit boards to give food to able-bodied poor for limited periods; but persons holding more than quarter acre of land were excluded.
July.Potato harvest small but sound.
Sept 19Meeting of tenant farmers at Holycross, Co. Tipperary, convened by Lalor to form a tenant league.
Oct 1.Distribution from government soup-kitchens ceased.
1848Summer.Failure of potato crop due to blight.
Aug. 1Inauguration of regular mail service by rail between Ireland and London.
Nov.Cholera returns to Ireland.
1849June.Reappearance of potato blight.


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