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1790 Directory

Extracts for the County of Kent


Source: The Universal British Directory submitted by Peter Stuart.
ELTHAM

Eltham is eight miles from London on the road to Maidstone and midway between Bromley and the Thames. Anthony BECK, bishop of Durham, having fraudulently secured the possession of this manor in 1290, beautified the capital mansion and left it to Eleanor, the Queen of Edward I. Edward II frequently resided here. His queen was here delivered of a son who had the name of John of Eltham. Possibly from this circumstance, it is called King John’s Palace; unless it obtained this appellation from the sumptuous entertainment given here by Edward III to the captive King John of France. Succeeding princes and particularly Henry VII enlarged and improved this palace; but it was neglected after Greenwich became the favourite country residence. Our princes often celebrated their festivals at Eltham with great pomp. One of the last of these feasts was held here at Whitsuntide in 15151 when Henry VIII created Sir Edward Stanley Baron Monteagle, for his services at Flodden-field. Part of the stately hall which was the scene of those feasts is still in good preservation and is used as a barn. The roof in particular is somewhat like that of Westminster Hall. The large moat around the palace although the greatest part of it is dry and covered with verdure, has two stone bridges over it one of which consists of four arches. The farm house in the enclosure though somewhat modernised or rather disguised by plaster and white washing was part of this ancient palace. Queen Elizabeth who was born a Greenwich was frequently carried thence to Eltham when an infant for the benefit of the air; and this palace she visited in a summer excursion round the country in 1559. It was granted, with the manor for a term of years, perpetually renewable, to one of the ancestors of Sir John SHAW, who has here a seat and plantations, called Eltham Lodge; but the trees in the park are the property of the crown and many of them were marked for sale at the last survey In the handsome garden of Mr DORRINGTON is a greenhouse in which were formally kept the exotics of that eminent botanist Dr SHERRARD. The “Hortus Elthamiensis” is well known to the curious in botany. On a part of Shooters Hill in this parish is a lofty tower erected by Lady JAMES to commemorate the reduction in 1756 of Severndroog, a strong fort which belonged to Angria the pirate on an island near Bombay. This structure which is called Severndroog Castle is erected from a design by Mr JUPP and is of a triangular from with turrets at each angle. It is seen at a great distance. Here also is Park Farm Place, a beautiful villa the property of Lady JAMES and the residence of Sir Benjamin HAMMET. It is ornamented with pilasters of the Ionic order; and the grounds are laid out with great taste. Here are two charity schools. Market on Mondays; and five fairs, Palm Monday, Easter Monday, Whit Monday and October 10. Fairey Hill, a villa at Mottingham, a hamlet near Eltham, was for many years in the occupation of Earl Bathurst, who greatly improved the grounds. It is now the residence of John RANDELL Esq.
Near Eltham also lies Chisslehurst where is the burying place of the family of WALSINGHAMS, who resided in this parish for several generations. This village is noted fro the retirement of the famous CAMDEN, who resided for several years, where he composed the greater part of his Annals of Queen Elizabeth. Here the present Lord CAMDEN has a very handsome and pleasant seat in whose park may be seen that celebrated piece of ancient architecture, called the Lantern of Demosthenes, executed in all its proportions which serves as the covering of a spring. Near this are several other towns and villages as Bexley, Crayford, Foots Cray, North Cray. At Foots Cray is a handsome seat belonging to the family of the TOWNSENDS.


ISLE OF SHEPPY

The Island of Sheppy is encompassed by the East and West Swale, two branches of the Medway that here fall into the Thames and has had its name from the sheep formally kept on it. Which were remarkable both for their numbers and the fineness of their fleece. The Danes landed here twice and plundered it and once wintered their ships in it. Also in the reign of Edward the Confessor, Earl GODWIN landed on this Island and harassed it much. It is twenty one miles in compass and yields plenty of corn but is forced to buy wood at a dear price from the continent. There are several hillocks in the marshy parts all over the island which the vulgar call Cottrells supposed to be been cast up in memory of some of the Danish leaders buried there. Most of the springs here are brackish, but lately a well was sunk so deep as to lie below the bed of the sea and to furnish the garrison at Sheerness with fresh water. A number of marine plants grow in the salt marshes and therefore they are often visited in the summer by botanists. The island has one constable who has command of all its parishes. Copperas and brimstone were formally made in the Isle of Sheppy. There was anciently a bridge and causeway between this Isle and Harty, this was called Thremberthe Bridge as afterwards the ferry was called Tremod Ferry.

The common way to this island form the main land of Kent is by the Kings Ferry where a cable of about 140 fathoms being fastened at each end across the water, serves to get over the boat by hand. On the main side of the ferry is a small stone building which will hold nine or ten persons this is said to be to have been erected by one George FOX who staying once there for a long while in the cold waiting for the ferry boat and being much affected with it built this place to shelter others from the like inconvenience.
Sheerness which guards the entrance into the river at the point of the Isle of Sheppy is a regular fortification and has such a line of heavy cannon commanding the mouth of the river that no fleet of man of war could attempt to pass by without hazarding being torn to pieces. It is not only a fortress but a good town with several streets in it and inhabitants of several sorts but chiefly much whose business obliges them to reside there.

The officers of the ordnance have here an office they being obliged to be at the this place many days together, especially at time of war when the rendezvous of the fleet is at the Nore to see to the furnishing every ship with military stores as need requires and to cheque the officers of the ships in their demands for stores, etc. Here also is yard for building ships, with a dock intended chiefly for repairing ships that may meet with any sudden accident. This yard was built many years since the fort. In making some alterations at Sheerness anno. 1760 a ball was found that weighted 64 pounds, supposed to have been fired by the Dutch in their attempt on the Royal Navy in this river on the 22 June 1667
The water between Sheppy Isle and the main land is called Well. Eastchurch is a village in this Island, Shortland is north of the Island.


QUEENBOROUGH

Queenborough, otherwise Quinborowe, and in very ancient records Quynburgh, is situate at the west end of the Isle Of Sheppy, in the county of Kent, forty eight miles from London, twenty five miles from Canterbury, eighteen miles from Rochester, nearly the same from Maidstone, and two miles from Sheerness. It is a small neat town, consisting of little more than a hundred houses, many of them newly built, and none of them more or less two stories high.
The principal trade, and chief support of Queenborough, is the oyster fishery, for which it is famous, and in which article, simple as it may be esteemed, they return many thousands of pounds, annually. There is likewise a manufactory of copperas, of which many tons are made every year, the copperas stone from whence it is manufactured being gathered in great abundance from the cliffs near Minster, and the East end of the Island. Here is also a capital windmill for grinding corn, etc.

Queenborough is a very ancient borough, being first incorporated by Edward III in the year 1369 and called by him Queenborough, in honour of his Queen Phillipa. It has however few antiquities to boast, except the site of an ancient castle, the moat of which only remains, and a well about three hundred feet deep, with a most excellent spring of water. The old market house, which stood near the centre of the town, has been lately pulled down, and a new Guildhall very neatly finished, standing on four columns, with the market place and gaols under, erected in its stead. The market days are Tuesday and Friday, but are very little frequented at present; and a fair annually on the 5th of August, at which the price of wool for the county is generally settled.
The church is an ancient building, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, without any painted glass or monuments of antiquity, its outside appearance promising very little, but it is neatly, commodiously, and decently fitted up within, as any little church in the county, having a handsome chancel paved with black and white marble, separated from the rest of the church by scroll work of iron and a neat altar piece. In the steeple are five bells. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the corporation.
This place is a district liberty of itself, under the jurisdiction of its own magistrates, who hold quarterly courts and general sessions every half year, in the Guildhall; appoint their own constable and borsholders, overseers of the poor, etc. It is governed by a major, four jurats and two bailiffs; the mayor is chosen annually, from among the jurats, on the feast of St Michael; the senior jurat is a Justice of the Peace for the Borough. It sends two members to Parliament. The number of voters, who are all Freeman of the Corporation, either by patrimony, as being the eldest sons of Freeman and born in the town, or else by servitude is about one hundred and forty, but they are constantly increasing. Before Mr CREWE’s bill there were one hundred and fifty two, but twenty one being disqualified by that bill, there then remained only one hundred and thirty one. At present, out of one hundred and forty persons entitled to vote for this Borough, twenty three hold places under the ordnance, and eleven under the Admiralty. There are also seven officers in the navy, one in the artillery, and fourteen or fifteen ordnance labourers on the gun wharfs at Sheerness and Purfleet. In time of war, the ordnance interest is considerably increased by the employment of Queenborough boats as extra craft for carrying stores.
The present members are:
Richard HOPKINS, Esq. One of the Lords of the Treasury
John SARGENT, Esq. Clerk of the Ordnance
This Borough has been very justly considered for many years as a government borough, for there has been no instance, since 1727, although there have been many contested elections, of any member being returned in opposition to administration. From 1727 – 1754, the elections were carried on by the united interests of government and Captain EVANS, who resided in this place, and had the lead for many years in the Corporation. From 1754 until the present time the interest has been divided between the boards of the ordnance and admiralty; each has constantly carried a member, and for the last sixteen years by the mere power of office, in opposition to the corporation and to the influence of the EVANS family. The systematic application of the patronage of the board of the board of ordnance to the purposes of acquiring an influence in this borough has been attended with a progressive increase in their establishment on the Thames and Medway, and a very large addition to the expense of carrying on the service by vessels employed on those rivers. It appears from official documents laid before the House of Commons that it amounted in 1754 to 742l. But it now amounts (exclusive of the wear and tear of vessels the property of the government) to 2190l. 8s.3d How far the real exigencies of the public service may require and justify so considerable an augmentation, we cannot pretend to decide, as those who are most competent have widely differed in their opinion on the subject. On the conclusion of the last war Lord TOWNSEND, the master general of the ordnance, ordered the establishment (the expense of which was then 250l per annum less than the present) to be reduced. But it has since by his successor the Duke of Richmond, been thought necessary to be increased. The mayor is the retuning officer.

The post comes in about seven every morning, (Except Monday) The post office shuts every night at five.
This town has no thoroughfare, and consequently has no coaches, wagons or other stages, passing to or from it, the chief conveyance being by water carriage, and principally by the passage boats that go to and from London and Sheerness every Wednesday and Saturday. There is however one hoy called the Industry, Samuel OST, Master which carries corn and wool occasionally to Bear Key.

The following are the principal inhabitants

CORPORATION
STAMP, William, Esq. Mayor
JURATS
BAKER, George Evans, Esq. (Freeman) Senior 
MARSHALL, Evans, Esq.
BARROW, John, Esq. (Freeman)
BAKER, Iles, Land Bailiff
GIBBS, Thomas, Water Bailiff
SHOVE, Alured Henry, Esq. Recorder
HINDLE, John, Esq. Town Clerk
WELLS, William (sen) Town Serjeant and Gaol Keeper
MARKS, Isaiah, Under Serjeant, Principal Non resident Freeman
PARKER, William, Esq. Rear Admiral of the Blue
PARKER, Robert, Captain, Navy
CHAMBERS, King, Lieutenant, Navy
HATHERHILL, Richard, Lieutenant, Navy
HOSMER, Thomas, Major, Artillery
SMITH, William, Esq. Storekeeper of the Ordnance at Chatham
AKID, William, Esq., Storekeeper of the Ordnance at Sheerness
BREEZE, William, Clerk of the Ordnance at Sheerness
JENKINS, James, Purser in the Navy
SAFFERY, Stephen William, Surgeon of the Sick and Hurt at Sheerness
PENNAL, John, Master of the Discovery Transport
WOOD, John, Master of the Navy Transport
GRAY, Robert, Master of the Townsend Ordnance Sloop

GENTRY
BAKER, John, Gent, (Freeman)
BLAXLAND, James, (sen) (Freeman)
BROWN, Mar, Mrs. (Freeman)
COOK, Sarah, Mrs, (Freeman)

CLERGY
HATHERHILL, Joseph, Rev. Minister

PHYSIC
SHOVE, Edward, Surgeon, (Freeman)

TRADERS
ASHBEE, John, Mariner
AUSTIN, Walter, (Ship Inn)
BAKER, Samuel, Hair Dresser
BASSETT, Henry, Dredger
BATCHELOR, James, Mariner
BEAN, John, Dredger
BISHOP, Thomas, Schoolmaster, (Freeman)
BLAXLAND, James, Dredger
BREEZE, Luke, Shopkeeper
BROADBANK, Richard, Mariner
BROADBANK, William, Mariner
BURGESS, Robert, Auctioneer & Grocer, (Freeman)
BURGESS, William, Miller & Baker, (Freeman)
CARTER, John, Boat Builder
CHALK, James, Grazier & Salesman
CHALK, Richard, Grazier & Salesman, (Freeman)
CHAMBERS, Thomas, Mariner
CLARK, John, (jun) Dredger
CLARK, John, (sen) Dredger
CLARK, Richard, Boat Builder, (Freeman)
COLE, Tomas, Dredger
COLE, William, Dredger
COOK, John, Dredger
CRAYDEN, Samuel, Grazier & Butcher
DODD, Mathias, Clerk in the Ordnance
DODD, William, Dredger
DOSSELL, John, Mariner
DOSSELL, Richard, Mariner
EAGLE, William, Dredger (Freeman)
ELLERIDGE, Samuel, Dredger
EMPTAGE, John, Deputy Water Bailiff
GALLOSSON, John, Pilot
GANN, Stephen, Mariner
GASKIN, Robert, Dredger
GIBBS, Henry, Mariner
GIBBS, Henry, Mariner
GUNNER, James, Mariner
HALL, James, Dredger
HALL, Mary, Mrs Post Mistress & Victualler (George)
HAMMOND, Thomas, Dredger
HART, Francis, Dredger
HART, John, Dredger
HEAD, William, Riding Officer, (Freeman)
HEWES, Eleanor, Milliner
HEWES, Richard, Carpenter
HOGGISON, Thomas, Dredger
HOLELEY, Copperas Worker
HOLMES, William, Mariner
HUGHES, Jane, Mantua Maker
HUGHES, Rebecca & Sarah, Shopkeepers
JARRETT, William Baker, Mariner
JEFFERSON, John, Mariner
JEFFERSON, William, Dredger
JONES, John, Mariner
KEMP, James, Dredger
KNEWSTUBB, William Grey, Mariner
LANCASTER, Joseph, Mariner
LESSER, Thomas, Mariner
LITTEL, John, Mariner
MARSHALL, William, Castle Inn
MARTIN, Richard, Dredger
MATTHEWS, Richard, Bricklayer
MILES, Jefferson, Sail Maker
MORLEY, Thomas, Dredger
MORRIS, Richard, Master in the Navy
MORRIS, Thomas, Mariner
NAYLOR, William, Dredger
OST, Abigail, Mrs., Ship Owner
OST, JOHN, Mariner
OST, Samuel, Mariner
PELLATT, Daniel, Draper & Taylor
PENNAL, Henry, Mariner
PENNAL, Isaac, Mariner
PENNAL, Thomas Lewis, Clerk of the Survey of the Ordnance of Sheerness
PENNAL, William, Pilot
POULTER, Robert, Mariner
POULTER, William, (jun), Mariner
POULTER, William, (sen), Mariner
RAKE, William, Dredger
ROBERTS, Henry Soan, Mariner
ROBERTS, Richard, Mariner
ROGERSON, Mosses, Mariner
SASSERY, John, Mariner
SAYWELL, Ann, Mrs., Widow
SAYWELL, Susanna, Mrs., Widow
SAYWELL, Thomas, Dredger
SCIENCE, James, Mariner
SEXTON, Lydia, Mrs., Blacksmith
SHORE, John, Mariner
TAYLOR, Richard Hicks, Mariner
TERRY, George, Dredger
TERRY, Richard, Dredger
TERRY, William, Carpenter
THURLSTON, John, Riding Officer
UNDERDOWN, Isaac, Mariner
UNDERDOWN, John, Mariner
VENTOM, George, Carpenter
WALKER, William, Dredger
WALSALL, Henry, Mariner
WATERER, William, Mariner
WELLS, William, (jun) Dredger
WINCH, James, Dredger
WOODLOW, Richard, Dredger & Coal Meter

RAMSGATE

Ramsgate in the Isle of Thanet, in the St Laurence parish, five miles from Margate, is a member of the town and port of Sandwich. It is the first place of note South, South East from the North Foreland towards Sandwich. Ramsgate is situated in the cove of a chalky cliff. It was formally but an obscure fishing village; but since the year 1688 has been improved and enlarged by successful trade to Russia and the East Country. But what renders it most worthy of notice is the new harbour which is one of the most capacious in England if not Europe. It was began in 1750; and, consists of two piers that to the east is wholly of Purbeck stone and extends itself into the ocean near 800 feet before it forms an angle; its breadth on the top is 26 feet, including a strong parapet wall, which runs along the outside of it; that to the west is constructed of wood as far as the low water mark, but the rest is stone. The angles of which there are five in each pier consist of 160 feet each, with octagons at the end of fifty feet diameter, leaving an entrance of 200 feet into the harbour, the depth of which admits of a gradual increase of eighteen to thirty six feet. This harbour is intended as a place of refuge for ships in the frequent hard gales of wind from the south east to east north east when they are exposed to the greatest danger in the Downs. But after all the immense cost and trouble and contrivance which has employed and exerted in completing this enormous undertaking it collects so much sand, mud etc., that it by no means answers the great end designed by its construction.


SANDWICH

Sandwich is one of the Cinque Ports, and is situated near a mile and a half from the sea, nine miles from Margate, seven from Ramsgate, twelve from Canterbury, eleven from Dover and five from Deal. It sends tow members to parliament who still retain the ancient name of barons of the Cinque port of Sandwich. The trade of the town chiefly consists of coal, fir timber, deals, etc. with which the country is supplied. Here also are shipped corn, malt, fruit and feeds fro London and other markets. Market days are Wednesdays and Saturdays and a fair on the 4th December, which continues two market days.
This was formally one of the chief ports of England, and walled around. It has still a wall on the north and west sides, and a rampart and a ditch on the others. It has suffered much by the Danes, etc. whose king; Canute here slit the noses and cut off the hands of those Englishmen who were given as hostages to his father Swain. In 1217 it was burnt by the French and again in 1457. It has two monasteries, and other religious foundations. It was first incorporated by the name of Barons and in the reign of Edward III by the stile of mayor, jurats and commonality. The mayor was chosen in the guildhall, on the Monday after St Andrew’s day. Here are three churches, three hospitals, a custom house, a quay, and a free school built out of the ruins of the Carmelite monastery. This was reckoned one of the Cinque Ports even in the reign of William Conqueror. The members belonging to it are: Fordwich, Deal, Walmer, Ramsgate, Reculver, Stonar, and Sar and Brightingley, eight miles form Colchester, in Essex, is under the jurisdiction of its mayor. This is the only Cinque port except Dover, which has the least claim to independence, and that arises from the extensive number of its electors. Sandwich which has for many years been ranked as an Admiralty Borough, from the influence of innumerable places, and the documents which the voters hold under the patronage of that board, has been generally represented by two members of their nomination; but at the last election, Sir Horace Mann, who resides in the neighbourhood, having the largest Kentish estate of any man in the country, and who is so much respected for his hospitality and convivial talents that no other person would have stood the smallest chance of success in opposition to government, became a candidate on his own interest, in opposition to Lord Parker, controller of the household (who was supported by government in conjunction with Mr Stephens, Secretary to the Admiralty) was successful, as will appear by the close of the poll; the numbers being for

Philip Stephens, Esq. - 474, Sir Horace Mann - 311, Lord Parker - 290

Thus the independent interest succeeded, for the first time, in the election of one of their members. The other is still considered as being at the disposal of the Admiralty. At the election in 1620, the third parliament of James I, Lord Cobham, warden of the Cinque Ports, made an order, which he got confirmed by the Lords of the Privy-Council, that the mayor and jurats only should make the elections of members of parliament. The freemen, or commons, were therefore debarred from giving their voices, with threats of imprisonment. Sir Robert Hatton was returned by the mayor and jurats. The commons, who intended to choose Mr Borrows, were intimidated by the magistrates. The House of Commons, however, held the election void, and ordered a new writ for the freeman at large to make the election. It likewise appears, that the corporation of this port have not been exempt from the charge of corruption any more than their neighbours; as, on the 25th November 1695, a petition of John THURBAN, serjeant at law, was presented to the House, setting forth, that he was duly elected a Barron to serve in parliament for this port, but Edward BRENT and John TAYLOR, Esquires, had prevailed with the mayor to return them, though they were not duly chosen. Upon the examination of evidence, the following matter came out before a committee: Ralph GOODCHILD said, a great while before the writ came down and he believes a month before the election , at the desire of some of Mr TAYLOR’s friends, he went to Mr TAYLOR’s house, with an account of what men they thought would engage him and that Mr TALOR said to him, and, as he believes, Mr PARAMOUR, Mr MANDY, and Mr GREGG, were by, that he had heard some people got places of profit by being parliament men; and that, if the town chose him, and he got any, he would give half to the corporation, and twenty ponds a year to the poor, and give the corporation a treat on the day that he was chosen, yearly; that Mr TAYLOR bade him speak of it, and he did, accordingly make use of it, to persuade several to vote for Mr TAYLOR; that he voted so, and designed to do so before the said promise; and said, he believed he saw bills of charges of three hundred pounds on Mr TAYLOR’s account, and that Mr CRICKET was Mr TAYLOR’s agent. TWISDEN said, that Mr TAYLOR the day before the election, declared, MANDY being present, if he got a place of a thousand or five hundred pounds a year, as he hoped that he should, or what ever it was, he would give half to the town; and Mr CRICKET said, he would give is bond, that Mr TAYLOR should expend forty or fifty ponds yearly upon the town, and give twenty pounds to the poor; and TURNER, sitting by, said he would drink the petitioners health , but durst not vote for him, for, if he did, they would never employ him again. John CHAPMAN said, CRICKET declared, that Mr TAYLOR had promised, and he, (CRICKET) would give his bond as before testified; and on that, on account of his voting for Mr BRENT, CRICKET had received forth shillings of RICKSEY, which he paid in part of seven pounds owing from him to the serjeant, but owned CRICKET was bound with him for it; but it did not appear Mr BENT had employed CRICKET. CRICKET and MOOR said, the mayor went to several to vote for Mr BRENT; and MOOR owned, that he himself had spoken to several to vote for the sejeant. CLARK, JENKINSON, and STONE said, that a letter was read, as from Sir Cloudesly SHOVAL, by which they pretended that all freeman who would vote for Mr BRENT should be pressed. RICKSEY and others were present, and some seamen were scared out of the town by it. RICKSEY produced a letter which, being read, he said was only a recommendation of Mr BRENT, without any threatening or promises. John VATCHELOR said, BRODERLY, who voted and made interest for Mr BENT, offered him two half crowns to vote for MR BENT, and RICKSEY and FISHER were by, and was threatened to be ruined, because he would not vote against the serjeant. N VATCHELOR, his brother, said, he heard his brother John declare, that BRODERLY had offered him no money. HUTTON said, he had a debt of three pounds odd money owing to him from CURSER; but, he dying, it became dubious; and that he was offered to have it paid if he would vote for Mr TAYLOR. The number of voters is four hundred and eighty; returning officer, the mayor. The present corporation, by a charter dated in the year 1685, consists a mayor, recorder, twelve jurats and twenty four common councilmen. This town gives the title of Earl to the family of MONTAGUE.

The harbour has for many years been so choked up with sand and by a ship of great burden, of Paul IV sunk in the channel that here is not depth of water enough for vessels of a considerable size. The wool stable was removed hither from Queenborough in the reign of Richard II and some Walloons and Dutchmen, who fled hither, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, from persecution, set up the manufacture of cloth; but the chief trade of the town is in shipping and malting. The London markets are supplied from hence with the largest and sweetest carrots, and the feedsmen with most of their feeds, the soil being very good for all sorts of garden stuff. There are two charity schools for twenty five boys and as many girls.

The mayor carries a black knotted staff, whereas the mayors of the other Cinque Ports generally have white staves. Before the gates are two Roman tumuli and on the south side, by the shore, are six large broad Celtic tumuli; at equal distance. From hence to Hithe the French coast is visible all the way.

The principal Inns are:
The Old Bell, kept by William HARRISON, Strand Street, near the bridge.
New Rose, kept by Stephen RAYNER, Market Place
New Inn, kept by John WILLIAMS, Delph Street
An assembly for dancing and cards once a month, and for cards once a fortnight, during the winter.
Flower-de-Luce kept by Daniel CLAREBUT, Delph Street.

A corn market his held every Wednesday; and an assembly for cards every fortnight during the winter.
The London post comes in every morning, Mondays excepted, about nine o’clock. The Ramsgate post returns to Sandwich about five in the afternoon, except during the season when it is allowed to be half an hour later. The Sandwich bag is sealed at half past five, and sets off at six, at which time the post comes from Deal.
Jeremiah HUNT, post master
A coach sets out from the Old Bell to Canterbury on Mondays and Fridays, and returns through Sandwich the following day; he also comes from Deal to Sandwich on Thursday and returns the same day.
WALLER’s caravan sets out from Sandwich to Canterbury every Saturday, and returns the same day.
PHILPOTT’s and PRICE’s caravans come from Ramsgate every Wednesday and Saturday and return the same day.

HOYS
The Fortune - Daniel VALDER
Two Brothers - Maurice READ
Endeavour - William OSBORN
Stephens – Stephen STANNER
All are employed in carrying corn and other goods to and from London and Rochester, for Sandwich, 
Deal and adjacent country.

VESSESLS
The Union – Robert COOK
Hare – John SAYER
Martin – Michael LOTHERINGTON
Johanna – Thomas SIMEY
All employed in the coal trade
Endeavour – Michael NEAM
Good Intent – John CUMMING
Nancy – James B FISK
Kitty – George SMITH
Are employed in the Baltic and Norway trades.

CORPORATION
Charles ROBINSON Esq. – Recorder
Jurats
Terry SAYER, Esq.
Valentine SAYER
William BOYS
Benjamin SAYER
John HARVEY
William SLAUGHTER
Henry MASON
Augustine SMITHERS
Joseph SOLLY
Henry K BRADFORD
Richard EMMERSON
Edmund FOWLE
Common Council
William JORDAN
Samuel SILVER
Benjamin DENNE
John DEVESON
John MATSON
John JORDAN
Peter RAINIER
Henry SAYER (jun)
Francis COCKING
John WOODRUFF
Peter HARRRISON
John BROWN
William BRICE
Andrew HILLS
Charles WARMAN
Daniel ENSTON (sen)
William WARMAN
Thomas BUNDOCK (sen)
Jacob WALLER
Thomas BUNDOCK (jun)
Robert BAYLY
Samuel HARVEY
Slodden CASTLE
William PHILPOT (Town Clerk)
Herbert HOOPER & Latham OSBORN (Treasurers)
Thomas WOODWARD (Common Wardman)
Henry LAWRENCE and Jacob HAWKWS (Serjeants at Mace)
Nathaniel BRADLEY (Gaol keeper)
Peter BUNTON (Common Crier)

GENTRY
ADDISON, Henry, Gent
BARTON, William, Gent (Freeman)
BOYS, Pearson, Lieut, Navy (Freeman)
BRADLY, R B Lieut, Navy 
BROWN, John, Gent (Freeman)
BULLER, Peter, Gent (Freeman)
BUNDOCK, Thomas, (sen) Gent (Freeman)
CASTLE, William, Gent (Freeman)
COOPER, Thomas, Gent (Freeman)
CURLING, Edward, Gent 
DILNOT, John, Gent (Freeman)
EDWARDS, John, Capt Navy (Freeman)
ELGAR, Nathaniel, Esq., (Freeman)
GARRET, Richard, Gent (Freeman)
GEORGE, James, Lieut, Navy
HARVEY, John, Capt Navy (Freeman)
HILLS, Richard, Gent, (Freeman)
HORTON, William, Gent, (Freeman)
LILLY, John, Gent, (Freeman)
LUSHINGTON, Thomas, Gent, (Freeman)
MATSON, John, Gent, (Freeman)
PICKMORE, Francis, Capt, Navy
PINFOLD, Richard, Lieut, Navy (Freeman)
PRINCE, Richard, Gent, (Freeman)
SAYER, Henry, Gent, (Freeman)
SAYER, Terry, Gent
SHRUBSOLE, John, Gent, (Freeman)
SLAUGHTER, Isaac, Gent, (Freeman)
SMITHERS, Augustine, Gent, (Freeman)
WALLER, Jacob, Capt, Navy, (Freeman)
WOOD, John, Lieut, Navy, (Freeman)
WOOD, Thomas, Gent, (Freeman)

CLERGY
BUNCE, WHELER, Rev. (Freeman)
CONANT, John, Rev, (Freeman)
MILNES, James, Rev.

PHYSIC
BOYS, William, Surgeon, (Freeman)
CURLING, Bunce, Surgeon
CURLING, Robert, Surgeon

LAW
PHILPOTT, William, Attorney, (Freeman)
SOLLY, Joseph, Attorney, (Freeman)

TRADERS
ABRAHAMS, Samuel, Silversmith
ASH, Samuel, Staymaker, (Freeman)
BAKER, John, Cabinet Maker, (Freeman)
BAKER, Thomas, Bricklayer, (Freeman)
BARRETT, Thomas, Carpenter, (Freeman)
BASDEN, Charles, Shopkeeper
BEADLE, Arthur, Victualler, (Freeman)
BELFRY, Thomas, Butcher, (Freeman)
BING, Thomas, Blacksmith
BLACKBORN, William, Shopkeeper
BOTTLE, Alexander, Butcher
BRADLEY & HARVEY, Brewers, (Freeman)
BRICE, William, Watchmaker, (Freeman)
BUNDOCK, Thomas, (jun) Weaver, (Freeman)
BURNAP, Edward (jun), Baker
BURNAP, Edward, (sen) Master of the Charity School, (Freeman)
CASTLE, Elizabeth, Innkeeper
CASTLE, Slodden, Grocer, (Freeman)
CHURCH, Samuel, Baker, (Freeman)
CLAREBUT, Daniel, Innkeeper
CLARINGBOLD, William, Basket maker, (Freeman)
CLOKE, William, Blacksmith
COCKING, Francis and Son, Grocers, Druggists, Booksellers, (Freeman)
COOK, Robert, Coal Merchant
CORNWELL, Peter, Shopkeeper
COVENEY, May, Glazier
DAVYE, Thomas, Hatter & Sadler
DENNE, John, Shoemaker, (Freeman)
DEVESON, John, Stonemason, (Freeman)
EMMERSON, Richard, Merchant, (Freeman)
ENSTON, Daniel, (jun) Cabinet Maker
ENSTON, Daniel, (sen), Grocer
EPPS, Isaac, Shopkeeper
FORREST, Augustine, Butcher, (Freeman)
FORWOOD, Stephen, Turner, (Freeman)
FOWLE, Edmund, Deal Merchant, (Freeman)
FOWLE, Sussana, Glazier
FRIEND, William, Draper, (Freeman)
FRIEND, William, Shoemaker, (Freeman)
GARDNER, Rebecca, Shopkeeper
GENT, John, Currier
GILL, John, Schoolmaster, (Freeman)
GOODCHILD, Nicholas, Bricklayer, (Freeman)
GOODWIN, Christopher, Shoemaker
GRAHAM, Margaret, Shopkeeper
GRAY, James & Edward, Millers, (Freeman)
HAMMOND, George, Shoemaker
HARRISON, Peter, Woolstapler, (Freeman)
HARRISON, William, Innkeeper, (Freeman)
HAWKES, Michael, Weaver, (Freeman)
HAYWARD, John, Taylor
HILLS, Andrew, Shipwright, (Freeman)
HOILE,John, Hoyman, (Freeman)
HOOPER, Herbert, Grocer, (Freeman)
HOPKINS, Thomas, Peruke-Maker
HORN, John, Peruke-Maker
HORTON, Edward, Seedman
HUBBARD, Stephen, Maltster, (Freeman)
HUNT, Jeremiah, Linen Draper & Distributor of Stamps
HUTION, James, Miller, (Freeman)
HUXSTEP, Mary, Shoopkeeper
JOHNSON, John, Weaver, (Freeman)
JONES, Henry, Victualler
JONES, Mark, Taylor
JONES, Stephen, Blacksmith
JULL, Thomas, Shopkeeper, (Freeman)
KINGSFORD, Charles, Cooper
KIPPS, Henry, Pipemaker
MARBROOK, John, Schoolmaster
MATSON, Henry, Woollen Draper, (Freeman)
MOTTON, Richard, Woolstapler, (Freeman)
NEALES, William, Shopkeeper
OMER, Andrew, Butcher
OMER, John, Butcher, (Freeman)
OSBORN, Latham, Hoyman
PARKER, Samuel, Taylor
PERSONNEAUX, Charles, Dancing Master
PETMAN, William, Shopkeeper
PORTER, Charles, Baker, (Freeman)
POTT, William, Cabinet Maker, (Freeman)
POWELL, George, Carpenter, (Freeman)
RAINIER, Daniel, Wine Merchant, (Freeman)
RALPH, Stephen, Tinman
RAYNER, Stephen, Innkeeper
RUTTER, Jinnings, Cabinet Maker
SAUNDERS, LEMON, & SAXBY, Deal Merchants, (Freemen)
SAYER, John, Mariner
SCOTT, Stephen, Shoemaker, (Freeman)
SLAUGHTER, John, Butcher, (Freeman)
SLAUGHTER, William (jun) Tanner, (Freeman)
SLAUGHTER, William (sen) Merchant, (Freeman)
SMEED, William, Victualler
SMITH, Thomas, Hoyman
SOUTHHOUSE, John, Butcher
SPURGEN, John, Draper, (Freeman)
STANNARD, Samuel, Supervisor of Excise
STANNER, John, Shopkeeper
STANNER, Stephen, Mariner, (Freeman)
STEPLEY, Bartholomew, Excise Officer
STONE, Mary, Shopkeeper
TATTERSALL, Edmund, Fellmonger, (Freeman)
TATTERSALL, Richard, Glover, (Freeman)
TAYLOR, David, Cabinet Maker, (Freeman)
TEMPLE, George, Shopkeeper,
TEMPLE, Henry, Baker
TUCKER, Laurence, Turner
VALDER, Daniel, Mariner
VALDER, Peter, Peruke Maker, (Freeman)
WALLER, Arthur, Seedman
WARMAN, Charles, Currier, (Freeman)
WARMAN, William, Draper, (Freeman)
WILLIAMS, John, Innkeeper
WOODCOCK, Edward, Baker, (Freeman)
WOODCOCK, Henry, Baker, (Freeman)
WOODCOCK, William, Peruke Maker, (Freeman)
WOODRUFF, John, Butcher (Freeman)
WOODWARD, Thomas, Victualler, (Freeman)
YOUNG, Thomas, Basket Maker, (Freeman)

CUSTOM HOUSE
BLACKBORN, William, Tidesman
BRADFORD, Henry K. Surveyor & Land Waiter
BUTLER, George, Coalmeter
CASPELL, William, Tidesman
DEBOCH, Thomas, Tidesman
DEENE, Benjamin, Deputy Comptroller
FORREST, Thomas, Boatman
FRISBY, Thomas, Boatman
HOLMANS, Stephen, Riding Officer
JORDAN, William, Collector
NAIRNE, Edward, Supervisor
SAYER, John, Boatman
TEMPLE, George, Coalmeter
TEMPLE, Henry, Coalmeter
TETTER, Joseph, Boatman
One mile from Sandwich, after crossing a bridge over the RIVER Stour, are two or three houses, which are the only remains of the ancient town of Stonar, well known for the antiquaries of this country, to many of whom it has furnished a very curious subject of research and examination. About a mile to the right of this place is Richborough, the Rutupium of the Romans, and their first and most comfortable situation in this kingdom, being the chief port from which they carried on their trade and connections with the continent. The remains of the castle are still visible and appear of considerable extent. The walls whose original height cannot be ascertained because they are no where perfect are in some parts near twelve feet in thickness, composed chiefly of flints and roman bricks; the latter are sixteen inches in length and eleven broad and the intervening spaces filled up with round beach stones. The whole eastern side of the castle is sunk down and destroyed by the fall of the cliff; the remainder is ruinous and overgrown with ivy and stands a melancholy monument of its pristine greatness. Upon an eminence near the castle are the remains of an amphitheatre made of turf, where the garrison is supposed to have exercised themselves in the manly diversions of those days. The soil is gravel and sand and has long been ploughed over. To those who may wish for a particular account of and examination into these venerable remains we should recommend a very ingenious little discourse by Dr BATTELY, entitled Antiquitates Rutupina, a translation of which with explanatory notes has been published by the Rev. Mr DUNSCOMBE of Canterbury.
Six miles from hence is Wingham which gives title of baron to Earl COWPER


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The Universal British Directory 1790 part 2
Created by Maureen Rawson