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Symbols, Abbreviations
Plus Some Other Helpful Information
purple bullet Relationship Chart
purple bullet United States Postal Service Abbreviations
purple bullet Land Measurement Conversion Guide
purple bullet What Is GEDCOM?
purple bullet A Little Bit Of Town And County Trivia



A Chart for Figuring Relationships 

On the top row, find the relationship of one person to the common ancestor and follow the column straight down. Find the other person's relationship to the common ancestor on the left hand column and follow that row straight across. The relationship is where the projected row and column meet.
 
Common Ancestor
Child
Grandchild
Great Grandchild
Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Great Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Great Great Great Great Grandchild
Child
Sibling
Niece or Nephew
Grand Niece or Nephew
Great Grand Niece or Nephew
Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
Great Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
Great Great Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
Great Great Great Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
Grandchild
Niece or Nephew
First Cousin
First Cousin Once Removed
First Cousin Twice Removed
First Cousin Three Times Removed
First Cousin Four Times Removed
First Cousin Five Times Removed
First Cousin Six Times Removed
Great Grandchild
Grand Niece or Nephew
First Cousin Once Removed
Second Cousin
Second Cousin Once Removed
Second Cousin Twice Removed
Second Cousin Three Times Removed
Second Cousin Four Times Removed
Second Cousin Five Times Removed
Great Great Grandchild
Great Grand Niece or Nephew
First Cousin Twice Removed
Second Cousin Once Removed
Third Cousin
Third Cousin Once Removed
Third Cousin Twice Removed
Third Cousin Three Times Removed
Third Cousin FourTimes Removed
Great Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
First Cousin Three Times Removed
Second Cousin Twice Removed
Third Cousin Once Removed
Fourth Cousin
Fourth Cousin Once Removed
Fourth Cousin Twice Removed
Fourth Cousin Three Times Removed
Great Great Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
First Cousin Four Times Removed
Second Cousin Three Times Removed
Third Cousin Twice Removed
Fourth Cousin Once Removed
Fifth Cousin
Fifth Cousin Once Removed
Fifth Cousin Twice removed
Great Great Great Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
First Cousin Five Times Removed
Second Cousin Four Times Removed
Third Cousin Three Times Removed
Fourth Cousin Twice Removed
Fifth Cousin Once Removed
Sixth Cousin
Sixth Cousin Once Removed
Great Great Great Great Great Great Grandchild
Great Great Great Great Great Grand Niece or Nephew
First Cousin Six Times Removed
Second Cousin Five Times Rremoved
Third Cousin FourTimes Removed
Fourth Cousin Three Times Removed
Fifth Cousin Twice Removed
Sixth Cousin Once Removed
Seventh Cousin

Genealogy Tagline graphic

United States Postal Service Abbreviations

States And Possessions 

Abbreviation



ALABAMA AL
ALASKA AK
AMERICAN SAMOA AS
ARIZONA  AZ
ARKANSAS AR
CALIFORNIA  CA
COLORADO CO
CONNECTICUT CT
DELAWARE DE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DC
FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA FM
FLORIDA  FL
GEORGIA GA
GUAM  GU
HAWAII HI
IDAHO ID
ILLINOIS IL
INDIANA IN
IOWA IA
KANSAS KS
KENTUCKY KY
LOUISIANA LA
MAINE ME
MARSHALL ISLANDS MH
MARYLAND MD
MASSACHUSETTS MA
MICHIGAN MI
MINNESOTA MN
MISSISSIPPI MS
MISSOURI MO
MONTANA MT
NEBRASKA NE
NEVADA NV
NEW HAMPSHIRE NH
NEW JERSEY NJ
NEW MEXICO NM
NEW YORK NY
NORTH CAROLINA NC
NORTH DAKOTA ND
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS MP
OHIO OH
OKLAHOMA OK
OREGON OR
PALAU PW
PENNSYLVANIA PA
PUERTO RICO PR
RHODE ISLAND RI
SOUTH CAROLINA SC
SOUTH DAKOTA SD
TENNESSEE TN
TEXAS TX
UTAH UT
VERMONT VT
VIRGIN ISLANDS VI
VIRGINIA  VA
WASHINGTON WA
WEST VIRGINIA WV
WISCONSIN WI
WYOMING WY

Military "State"

Abbreviation

Armed Forces Africa  AE
Armed Forces Americas (except Canada) AA
Armed Forces Canada AE
Armed Forces Europe AE
Armed Forces Middle East AE
Armed Forces Pacific AP
Group picture

Land Measurement Conversion Guide


1 Acre = 43,560 square feet
1 Acre = 160 square rods
1 Acre = 1.1834 square arpents
1 Acre = 10 square chains
1 Acre = 160 square rods
1 Acre = 160 perches
1 Acre = 160 poles
1 Acre = .4047 hectare
1 Acre = 4047 square meters
1 Acre = is about 208 3/4 feet square
1 Acre Square = 5645.376 square varas

Arpen measurements vary by locality:
1 Arpent (in LA, MS, AL, FL) = .84625 of an acre
1 Arpent Square (in LA, MS, AL, FL) = 191.994 feet or 2.909 chains on each side
1 Arpent (AR and MO) = .8507 of an acre
1 Arpent Square (AR and MO) = 192.5 feet or 2.91667 chains on each side

1 Caballeria (Texas-Spanish) = 108 acres
1 Centimeter = .3937 inches
1 Centimeter = .032808 feet

1 Chain = 66 feet
1 Chain = 4 rods
1 Chain = 4 perches
1 Chain = 4 poles
1 Chain = 100 links
1 Chain = 20.1168 meters
1 Foot = 12 inches
1 Foot = .36 varas
1 Furlong = 660 feet
1 Furlong = 40 rods
1 Foot = 0.3048006 meter

1 Hectare = 10,000 square meters
1 Hectare = 2.471 acres

1 Inch = .0254 meter
1 Kilometer = 3280.83 feet
1 Kilometer = .62 mile
1 Knot = 6080.2 feet
1 Labor (Texas-Spanish)= 1,000,000 square varas
1 Labor = 177.136 acres

1 League (Texas-Spanish) = 25,000,000 square varas
1 League = 4428.4 acres

1 Link = 7.92 inches
1 Link = .66 feet
1 Link = .2017 meter
1 Meter = 3.280833 feet
1 Meter = 39.37 inches
1 Meter Square = 10.764 square feet

1 Mile = 5,280 feet
1 Mile = 8 furlongs
1 Mile = 320 rods
1 Mile = 80 chains
1 Mile = 1.60935 kilometers
1 Mile = 320 perches
1 Mile = 320 poles
1 Mile = 8000 links
1 Mile = 1,609.2655 meters
1 Mile Square = a regular Section of land
1 Mile Square = 27,878,400 square feet
1 Mile Square = 640 acres
1 Mile Square = 259 hectares
1 Mile Square = 2.59 square hectares

1 Perch = 25 links
1 Perch = 1 pole
1 Perch = 1 rod
1 Perch = 16.5 feet

1 Pole = 16.5 feet
1 Pole = 1 perch
1 Pole = 1 Rod
1 Rod = 1 pole
1 Rod = 1 perch
1 Rod = 16.5 feet

1 Section = 1 mile long, by 1 mile wide
1 Section = 640 acres

1 Sitio (Texas-Spanish)= 1 league
1 Township = 6 miles long, by 6 miles wide
1 Township = 36 sections
1 Township = 36 square miles
Vara Measurements differ by locality:
1 Vara (Texas-Spanish) = 33 1/3 inches
1 Vara (Southern Colorado) 32.993 inches
1 Vara (Florida) 33.372 inches 

1 Yard = 36 inches
1 Yard = 3 feet
1 Yard Square = 9 square feet

What is GEDCOM?


GEDCOM is an acronym for Genealogical Data Communication; it's a method of formatting the text of your family data so that different software programs and operating systems can read and understand it.

The GEDCOM "standard" was originally developed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' Family History Department, which holds the copyright. Although it began as a "universal" format, many genealogy programs implement their own, slightly-modified version of GEDCOM. To you, the user, this means that it isn't always a sure thing that all of your data makes it from one program to another (more about this later).

What is a GEDCOM File?

A GEDCOM file is a series of text lines (usually using the ASCII character set) each holding a specific piece of data relevant to your family file. The lines are numbered to show the hierarchy among the data, and are tagged to show the type of data.

It's quite possible to construct a GEDCOM file manually (using a word processor), but the process could be painstaking. 

Parts of a GEDCOM File

If you created a GEDCOM file and opened it using your word processor, you would see line after line of numbers, abbreviations, and bits and pieces of data. There are no blank lines and no indentations in a GEDCOM file. Although it might look confusing, there is method to the madness.

Groups of lines that hold information about one individual (INDI), one source (SOUR) or one family (FAM) are consideredrecords, and each line in a record has a level number. The first line of every record is numbered "0" (zero), to show that it is the beginning of a new record. Within that record, different level numbers pertain to the next nearest level above it; the lines following the 0 level all pertain to that record, until the next 0 level is reached.

Think of it like an outline format, with level numbers instead of Roman numerals, etc. For example, here is a simplified record of an individual with some explanations in parenthesis:

0 NAME Joseph /PRYOR/
1 SEX M (data about the record in level 0 above, which is Joseph)
1 BIRT (more data about Joseph, this time that he had a birth...)
2 DATE 13 FEB 1922 (details about the birth in level 1 above)
2 PLAC Monroeville, Cass Co, MI (more details about the birth)
[This record is about Joseph PRYOR until the next level 0 is reached, signalling the start of a new record:]
0 NAME Martha /WHITE/ (new record about another individual)
1 SEX F (data about Martha)
1 BIRT (etc.)

After the level number, these lines also contain a Tag, which is an abbreviation of the type of data in that line. Most tags are obvious; HUSB for husband, PLAC for place, MARR for marriage, etc., but some are more unique, like EMIG for Emigration, and HMOT for Husband of Mother. These tags can also bePointers (@S43@), which indicate another individual, family, or source within the same GEDCOM file.
When importing a GEDCOM file, a genealogy program uses these level numbers and tags to assemble the data into a family, with relationships intact. The software reads the line numbers and the tags and tries to place the data into the correct fields. If the software doesn't recognize a tag, it either ignores that line or places it in a specific field from which you can move it later.


 

Towns with Unusual Names

Alabama
Burnt Corn, Intercourse, Muck City

Alaska
Chicken, Deadhorse, Unalaska

Arizona
Boneyard, Carefree, Goobertown, Nothing, Why

Arkansas
Experiment, Okay, Toad Suck

California
Cool, Dunmovin, Frying Pan, Hells Kitchen, Secret Town

Colorado
Last Chance, No Name, Tin Cup

Georgia
Between, Hopeulikit, Jinks

Kentucky
Bug, Busy, Monkey's Eyebrow, Oddville, Ordinary

Missouri
Enough, Fairdealing, Tightwad, Useful

North Carolina
Lizard Lick, Speed, Tick Bite, Whynot

Oklahoma
Happy Land, Nowhere, Okay

Oregon
Boring, Half.com, Idiotville, Zig Zag

Pennsylvania
Corner Store, Fear Not, Panic

Tennessee
Defeated, Difficult, Life, Nameless, Only

Texas
Black Jack, Cut n' Shoot, Ding Dong, Hoop and Holler

 

County names most commonly used:

1. Washington County - 31 states
2. Jefferson County - 26 states
3. Franklin County - 25 states
4. Jackson County - 24 states
5. Lincoln County - 24 states
 

States with the most counties:

1. Texas - 254 counties
2. Georgia - 159 counties
3. Kentucky - 120 counties
4. North Carolina - 100 counties
5. Virginia - 95 counties


States with the least counties:

1. Delaware - 3 counties
2. Hawaii - 5 counties
3. Rhode Island - 5 counties
4. Connecticut - 8 counties
5. New Hampshire - 10 counties


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Linda and Mike Bianchi
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