GEORGE MARKER SR OF FREDERICK COUNTY, MARYLAND (A REPORT OF WORK IN PROGRESS) Neil D. Thompson, F.A.S.G.
This is an examination of a single generation of a Western Maryland family of German origin; some of its members remained in the area in which they were born, others joined the movement West. As is often the case, it is not yet possible to connect George Marker. Sr. of Frederick County, father of the family, with earlier or contemporary persons of the same name. One Paul Marker purchased a tract called "Reckoning" for L60 from George Shidder 11 Sept. 1754; this may be the same Paul or Powel Marker who is recorded as having 'arrived on the ship "Brothers" from Rotterdam in Philadelphia 16 Sept. 1751 That same year of 1754 Paul Marker patented 20 acres called "Marker's Delight" in Frederick County. He is in the Debt Books for this land each year from 1755 to 1770 and then his name disappears. There is no record of any sale of his land or of any administration of his estate, but the appearance of his name among the children and grandchildren of George Marker Sr. makes it possible to assume that he was the father of the latter.
A John Marker who bought 100 acres of a tract called "Benjamin's Good Luck" from Benjamin Biggs 28 March 1770 and was in the Debt Books for this parcel from 1771 to 1773 was probably also related. His will, signed by mark, dated 13 August 1775 and proved 1 November 1775, is a most frustrating document. His wife Catherine is an executor with Adam Hane; she is to have her thirds, and the children (not named) are to share equally in all property. An addendum does identify Henry Marker as the oldest son, and the marriage of Henry to Maria Clara Schatz at the Frederick Evangelical Lutheran Church, Frederick, by license, 16 march 1780, indicates that John Marker could not have been the father of George Sr., who was likely in the same generation.
There is also a 'Michael Marker who was of age as early as 1765, the year in which he bought, 6 March 1765, for L3, a lot in Sharpsburgh from Joseph Chaplin, who reserved a rent of s3d6 per year. He sold that same lot (by this time in Washington County) 7 December 1782 to John Amen, his wife Mary renouncing dower. He had earlier purchased part, of the tract called "Resurvey on Piles' Delight" 13 May 1782 from Sheriff Alexander Clagett. This parcel was sold to John Beard 30 December 1814 with Michael's wife Anna Magdelina renouncing dower. The census entries pertaining to him and the land transactions which took place after his death among his heirs indicate that he had at least nine surviving children. Like John Marker who died in 1775, Michael Marker appears to be in the generation as George Marker Sr.,to whom we now return.
The date of birth of George Marker Sr. must be estimated from his gravestone in St. John's Lutheran Church yard at Ellerton, which says that: he died 4 February 1827, age 73 years 6 months. This would fix his birth at August 1753. His German heritage is established by his signature in German script to the conveyance of 296 acres of "Marker's Delight" on 26 November 1800 to his son-law Michael Wachter, his wife Anna Maria Marker releasing her dower rights.
The date of his marriage is not recorded; the early records of St. John's Lutheran Church, the most logical source of this information, have not survived. Fortunately, the baptismal record for their daughter Catherine, identifies the maiden name of George Marker's wife as Anna Maria Mohler. She is buried beside her husband and the gravestone says that she died 27 march 1846, age 99 years, 1 month, 27 days* -- though the same inscription also says that she was born 30 October 1746, which does not seem to agree with the age assigned to her. There is no record of the administration of any estate for either spouse. The George Marker and wife Anna Maria confirmed 2 june 1822 at Zion Lutheran Church, Middletown, a church with which a number of their children and grandchildren were at one time or another associated, are probably this same couple.
The census entries for George and Anna Maria Marker follow a comprehensible pattern:
Frederick Co-, 1790 2 males over 16, 3 males under 16 2 females
Frederick Co-, 1800, 3d Election District Males: 3 0-10, 1 10-16, 1 26-45, 1 45+ Females: 2 10-16, 1 26-45, 1 45+
Frederick Co , 1810 Males: 2 0-10, 1 10-16, 1 26-45, 1 45+ Females: 1 10-16, 1 45+
Frederick Co., 1820 Males: 2 16-25, 1 45+ Females: 2 45+
The identity of the second female over 45 resident in the home in 1820, and of one older son apparently unaccounted for, provide the only questions requiring further examination.
The earliest entry for George Marker Sr. on the land' records is a purchase from Henry Brim of blacksmith's tools animals and household furniture, dated 5 March 1783. Later he purchased from Samuel Sharp part of a tract called "The Legacy" and exchanged for that parcel another, part of a tract called "Pilgrim's Wander". which he had bought earlier that year, 25 March 1794, from James Fleming. It was probably he rather than his son George who was a witness to a bill of sale of furniture and goods recorded 5 January 1797, and he was an executor of the will of Daniel Gaver (d. 1799). The transaction with Michael Wachter, his son-in-law, in which he sold a tract which had been resurveyed for him 26 August 1795 has already been' noted, but it should not pass unnoticed that the tract bore the same designation as that chosen by Paul Marker for his much smaller parcel some twenty years earlier.
Five years prior to his death George Marker Sr. sold to his son Peter, for $100.00, a distilling kettle and ,household furniture, which may in part explain why there was no administration of his estate, particularly since the 1830 and 1840 Federal census entries show that his widow continued to reside with this son Peter until her death. On 17 December 1827 the widow Anna Maria Marker and her son-in-law Michael Wachter sold 53 1/2 acres, comprised of parts of several colorfully named tracts, for $1,600.00 to George Feaga, with Barbara, wife of Michael and daughter of George and Anna Maria, renouncing dower. On 21 December 1842 Anna Maria, here simply called Mary Marker, joined with her son Peter, his wife (also named Mary) renouncing dower, in selling to George Palmer their interest in several tracts which may have had some relationship to the estate of George Marker Sr. The Frederick County land records do not reveal other transactions which might be related to a distribution of estate lands, at least on first examination; it is possible that some private arrangement was made for the support of the widow by the children.
It will be noted that Anna Maria is given an age some seven or eight years older than her husband's, and also that if either birth date ascribed to her is correct, she bore her last child at the age of fifty-four. This is not impossible, especially if there were other children who did not survive, infancy or miscarriage, but it tends to be more likely that her age was somewhat exaggerated as time passed. Among the children here ascribed to her and her husband, Barbara and Peter are established by the conveyances described, Catherine by her baptismal record, and the others by family tradition, onomastic evidence, propinquity and a network of relationships only partially revealed by the surviving documentation.
Children of George (Sr.) and Anna Maria (Mohler) Marker, all born in Frederick County, Maryland: i. Barbara Marker, b 21 Oct. 1772, d. 23 Oct. 1847, m (Frederick Co ) Michael Wachter, b. 7 Oct.1769, d. 9 Nov. 1844. Issue (at least three children).
ii. (Capt.) Daniel Marker, b. 1777/8 (age 72, 1850) . His will, dated 27 Dec. 1853, was proved 18 Jan. 1854 in Darke Co., Ohio. He served 64 days (25 Aug to 27 Oct. 1814) as captain of Stembel's 3d Regiment of Militia (Maryland) having previously served from 16 Aug to 11 Sept. 1813 as captain of a detachment of riflemen which bore his own name.(37) With George Marker, he witnessed a bill of sale of furniture and household goods recorded in Frederick County 5 Jan. 1797. That same year he married at Middletown, 9 May 1797 (license 6 May), Anna Christina Beckenbach, daughter of Johann Caspar and Susanna (Sinn) Beckenbach, b 8 April (bapt. 23 Oct.) 1778, d. Washington Co, Md. 10 April 1835 and bur. at Sharpsburg. He took a mortgage on the cattle and household furniture of James Stokes dated 21 Aug 1802. The following year he bought three parcels of land, in total 31 acres, 24 May 1803 from John Custard for L55. He sold these tracts for $2,000 19 March 1817 to John Marker, but without any renunciation of dower by his wife; later this land was seized to pay two judgments of John Marker and sold by the sheriff, and the purchasers, David Bowlus and John Herring, were obliged to obtain a quitclaim deed from Daniel and Christina Marker for $10 The Daniel Marker who gave a trust deed of personalty for the benefit of Peter Kearny and others, including George and Betsy Marker, dated 10 Jan 1823 in Berkeley Co., Va., may have been he; in any event, he was certainly in Washington Co., Md. by 9 April 1824, when he sold his brother George Marker Jr. of Frederick Co. his household furniture for $250 The marriages of a number of his children are recorded in Washington County. There is no indication that he ever owned any land there, and some time after the death of his first wife he moved to Darke Co., Ohio. It is possible that he is the Daniel Marker who married in Preble Co., Ohio, 23 Aug. 1836, Nancy Ann Dowler; it is certain that he married, 25 Nov. 1840 in Darke County, Mary Ann Harkrider or Hasksider, widow of Daniel Morgan (d. 19 Dec 1835) whom she had married in Warren Co , Ohio 24 Dec. 1821. He is buried at Christian Cemetery in Adams Twp , Darke Co. , where his war service is commemorated but there are no dates on the marker. He had at least ten children by his first wife and one daughter by his second; these are known because his widow was dissatisfied with his will and commenced an action to set off her dower rights from both husbands and partition the lands, which was successful. The widow Mary Marker was still alive 12 Oct. 1863, when she sold her land in Adams Twp. to Solomon Flory for $450, reserving the right to use the house for her lifetime. iii. George Marker (Jr.), b. 19 June 1780, d. 29 Nov 1854, Montgomery Co., Ohio, and bur. at Ellerton Cemetery, Jefferson Twp. in that county. He married, 13 May 1801, at Frederick Evangelical Lutheran Church, Frederick, Md., Margaretha Sturm, b. 17 April 1783, d, in Lanier Twp., Preble Co., Ohio at the home of her son Lewis, 12 Feb. 1870; and buried in Sugar Hill Cemetery there. He was in Montgomery County prior to 1830 and passed the remainder of his life there; according to the 1850 Federal census he was a wagonmaker by trade. Two recorded conveyances in Montgomery County list his nine children, one made 14 March 1834 by his brother Paul Marker and the latter's wife Elizabeth to all of them, the other, after his demise, 27 March 1855 to George Bowser from "the heirs of George Marker, deceased", selling the same tract. No will or administration of his estate was recorded. Issue: eleven children, of whom nine survived him.
iv. Catherine Marker, b. 24 Feb., bapt. 2 Nov. 1783, Zion Lutheran Church, Middletown. This may be the Catherine Marker who had a license in Frederick Co, to marry George Patton, 17 Dec. 1806. While I have not found census entries for this couple, George Patton sold a tract of 13 acres to Elizabeth Craft for $1,390, 20 March 1820, his wife Catharine releasing dower rights. It has been suggested that Catherine was the wife of Adam Shutt of Frederick Co., but there is a conveyance of lands belonging to Christian Sterner, deceased, 1 April 1818, in which Adam and Catherine Shutt joined, proving that Adam's wife was born Sterner and not Marker. No further record.
v. John Marker, b. 1784, d. Miami Co., Ohio, 22 June 1858, m. (license 29 May 1810, Washington Co. , Md.) Elizabeth Wertenbaker, b. c.1790, d. 13 July 1865, bur. with her husband at Christian Cemetery, Adams Twp., Darke Co., Ohio. He was in Newberry Twp., Miami Co. before 1850, where he is recorded with his wife Elizabeth and six younger children, all born in Ohio. His estate was administered a number of years after his death at the request of a creditor; the estate papers identify his widow as Susan (probably a mistaken reference to their daughter Susan) and name the surviving children. Among these papers is a note signed by John Marker in German script and dated 26 Feb. 1858. He held 90 acres of land in Newberry Twp. which ultimately was owned by his son Henry Marker. Issue: at least eleven children, nine of whom survived.
vi. Elizabeth Margaret Marker, b. 5 March 1789, d. 9 Jan. 1856, m. (Frederick Co. license dated 17 April 1810) George Kline, b. 16 Dec. 1790, d. 13 April 1846. Lived at Wolfsville, Frederick Co. Issue: ten children.
vii. Paul marker, b. 7 Nov. 1792, d. 3 Nov.,1864, Montgomery Co. Ohio, m. Dec. 1816 Elizabeth Warenfeltz (Warenfels) daughter of Jacob and Hannah (Hartman) Warenfelt, b. 4 Dec. 1795, d. 9 April 1862 and buried with her husband in Ellerton Cemetery. He was a farmer by trade. His conveyance to the children of his older brother George Marker Jr. has already been noted. There is also a conveyance by this couple of 52 1/ 2 acres to William Patton in Montgomery Co., 31 Oct. 1843. Issue two sons and three daughters.
viii. Peter Marker, b. 15 Oct. 1797, d. Frederick Co, Md. 23 Jan 1881, m. (Frederick Co. license 23 May 1827) Mary (Polly) Warenfeltz, daughter of Jacob Warenfeltz, Jr., b. 23 March 1809, d. 27 Aug. 1879 He remained in Frederick County and raised a family of some sixteen children. He was the last of the children to die, and the combined lifespan of his father and himself exceeded 125 years. His mother lived with him after his father's death. Issue as noted.
ix. Michael Marker, b. 26 April 1800, d. Frederick Co., Md., 25 July 1854, m. (Frederick Co. license 16 Jan. 1826) Sarah Ann Shriner, b. 10 Feb. 1808, d. 28 March 1876. They also remained in Frederick County and raised seven children. Issue as noted.
The existence of a second male over 16 in the household in 1790 may indicate that there was an older son who was married by 1800, but it is impossible even to speculate concerning. his identity, in the light of the fact that several Marker families were producing children at about the same time. The slight discrepancy in the age of Peter Marker, who, if born as late as 1802 as the 1850 census entry indicates, would cause his mother to be giving birth at an impossible age, also remains for clarification.
Further work remains to be done on this family as well as on the families of Paul, John and Michael Marker to which reference was made at the beginning of this article. The author would welcome additions and corrections based on documentary evidence which would establish relationships among these 18th century inhabitants of Frederick County.
NOTES 1. Frederick Co.. Deeds E-533, rec. same day. 2. Ralph B. Strassburger and William J. Hinke, ed., Pennsylvanla German Pioneers, 1 (repr.Baltimore, 1966), p. 463. 3. Warrant 25 Oct. 1754, certificate 26 Dec. 1754, examined and passed 12 June 1755. Md. Patents BC & GS 1-322, 2-178. 4. Debt Books', Frederick Co. (Hall of Records, Annapolis, MD), s.v. Paul, Powell, John Marker. 5. Frederick Co. Deeds N:98, rec. 11 April 1770. 6. Frederick Co. Wills Al-547. 7. Frederick S. Weiser, Marriages and Burials from the FrederIck, Md. Evangelical Lutheran Church (NGS Pub. #38, Washington, D.C 1972), p. 25; Frederick Co Marriage Licenses, 1, Henry Marker and Clory Shotts, 28 Feb. 1780. 8. Frederick Co. Deeds J-1147, rec. 3 May 1765. 9. Washington Co. Deeds C-196. 10. Washington Co. Deeds C-70. 11. Washington Co. Deeds AA 154, rec. 20 Jan. 1815. 12. First Census 1790 Maryland, Washington Co., p. 121, 6 males under 16, 1 male over 16, 4 females; Second Census... 1800: Maryland, Washington Co., p. 110, line 11, 1 male under 10, 1 male 10-16, 1 male 45+, 1 female 10-16, 1 female 16-25, 1 female 45+; Third Census. 1810: Maryland, Washington Co., p. 184, line 3, 1 male 45+. 1 female 45+. 13. Joseph Marker to John McGrath, 2 Nov. 1824, rec. 15 Nov.1824, Washington Co. Deeds GG-1021; Leonard Marker, Martin Kizer and Elizabeth Kizer to Jacob Miller, 4 April, rec. 5 April 1826, Washington Co. Deeds HH:929; Peter Marker and Mary Harter to Jacob Miller, 2 April 1828, rec. same day, Washington Co. Deeds II:891. Each conveyance refers to the grantor's one-ninth interest. The other deeds have not yet been found. 14. Jacob M. Holdcraft, Names in Stone: 75,000 Cemetery Inscriptions from Frederick County,Maryland, 2 (Ann Arbor,Mich., 1966), p 766 15. Frederick Co. Deeds WA 20:339, rec. 26 Nov. 1800. The land had been resurveyed for him 26 Aug. 1795. 16. Letter, Rev. William M. Brown to the author, 16 Dec. 1978. 17. Lutheran Zion Church, Middletown, Md., 2 Nov. 1783. 18. Id., Record of Confirmations, §78. 19. First Census 1790 Maryland, Frederick Co., p. 66. 20. Second Census 1800 Maryland, Frederick Co., p. 112. 21. Third Census 1810 Maryland, Frederick Co, p. 404. 22. Fourth Census 1820 Maryland, Frederick Co., p. 129. 23. Frederick Co. Deeds WR 3-402, rec. '10 March 1783. 24. Frederick Co. Deeds WR 12-469, rec. same day. 25. Frederick Co. Deeds WR 12-388, rec. 3 May 1794. 26. Frederick Co Deeds WR 15-4. The bill was in the estate of Johann Caspar Beckenbach whose daughter married his son Daniel. 27. Frederick Co. Wills GM 3:354, dated 12 April 1790, proved I8 Dec. 1799. See also the extensive litigation in Chancery Papers #3714 (Hall of Records, Annapolis, MD.) over the inheritance of Daniel's son John who had had seven children by Susannah Beckenbach. 28. Federick Co Deeds JS 15-730, rec. 15 June 1822. 29. Fifth Census... 1830: Maryland, Frederick Co., p. 75, Peter Marker, Sixth Census.., 1840 Maryland, Frederick Co., p. 195, line 16. 30. Frederick Co. Deeds JS 28:529, rec. 31 Dec. 1827. 31. Frederick Co. Deeds HS 18:563, rec. 22 May 1843. 32. I am indebted to Mrs. Floyd Spade, Route 2, Smithsburg. Md. for a considerable amount of information concerning the family traditions and for a comparison of her reconstruction of the family of George Marker,Sr., with my own. 33. Holdcraft, note 14, 2:766. 34. Seventh Census... 1850: Ohio, Adams Twp., Darke Co., p. 349 (##207/08), Daniel Marker, age 72 (overwritten 73 in originaland not clear). 35. Darke Co. Wills A:145, Probate Journal A:246, 18 Jan. 1854. 36. National Archives, File #590, Daniel Marker. 37. National Archives, File #23, Daniel Marker. 38. Frederick Co. Marriage Licenses, 1. 6 May 1797, p. 55. 39. Will of Gasper Beckabaugh, dated 1 June 1784, proved 11 Feb. 1790, Frederick Co. Wills GM 2-328; Edwin T. Brace and Atha Peckenpaugh Brace, Peckinpaughs, Pickenpaughs, Beckenbaughs, Peckinpahs, and Peckenpaughs: Descendants of Johann Adam and Anna Maria Beckenbach (Baltimore, 1975), passim. 40. DAR Cemetery Records, Washington Co., Md., 5:187 ("Mrs. Daniel Marker, d. Apr. 10, 1835"). 41. Frederick Co. Deeds WR 23:32, recorded same day. 42. Frederick Co. Deeds 24:432, recorded same day. 43. Frederick Co. Deeds JS 5:581, rec. 13 Sept. 1817. This may have been his younger brother John but this is not established. 44. Frederick Co. Deeds JS 14:610, rec. 20 Dec. 1821. 45. Frederick Co. Deeds JS 22:60, rec. 15 March 1825. 46. Berkeley Co. Deeds 33:293, rec. 29 Jan. 1823. His son Daniel, who settled and died in this county and did not go West would have been too young (born Oct.1806 according to his death record) to have made this trust deed. Berkeley Co. Deaths 1:65, #39, 24 April 1887, Daniel Marker. 47. Washington Co. Deeds GG:839, rec. 26 April 1824. 48. Washington Co. Marriage Licenses 1:115 (8 Nov. 1824, George Marker and Mary Moats), 1:144 (12 June 1830, Paul Marker and Mary Ensminger), 1:154 (11 April 1832, James Marker and Amelia Naeff), 1:156 (13 Aug. 1832, Henry Naeff and Susan Marker). 1:159 (19 July 1833, George Smith and Lydia Marker), 1:183 (15 Dec. 1837, Jesse Planks and Catherine Marker), and 1:191 (15 July 1839, Paul Marker and Isabella West). Another daughter, Elizabeth or Betsy, md. Jacob Burns in Berkeley Co., Va., Daniel Marker being surety on the marriage bond. Berkeley Co., Va. Marriage Bonds 4:240, 22 May 1823. 49. Preble Co. Marriages A:317. 50. Darke Co. Marriages 1 (not paged). 51. Warren Co. Marriages, 1:229. 52. Ruth Bowers and Anita Short, Cemetery Inscriptions, Darke County, Ohio, 2 (Arcanum, Ohio, 1968), p. 41. 53. Darke Co. Court of Common Pleas, N1:74-91 (1854). 54. Darke Co. Deeds P2:546. 55. Lindsay R. Brien, Cemetery Records of Montgomery County. Ohio, 1 (Dayton, Ohio, 1939), p.71. 56. Weiser. note 7, p.64; Frederick Co. Marriage Licenses, 2, 21 May 1801. 57. Ruth Bowers and Anita Short, Cemetery Inscriptions of Preble County, Ohio, 1 (Arcanum, Ohio, 1969). p. 83; Eaton Register, obituary notice. 58. His oldest daughter Mary married in Montgomery Co., 26 Oct. 1826, William Williams. 59. Seventh Census... 1850: Ohio. Jefferson Twp., Montgomery Co.,P. 361 (##1282/82). 60. Montgomery Co. Deeds S:33, rec. 24 March 1834. 61. Montgomery Co. Deeds H3:135, rec. 7 Nov. 1859. 62. Mrs. Spade states that they had twin daughters born and died 15 June 1809. 63. Frederick Co. Marriage Licenses, 2. 64. Frederick Co. Deeds JS 10:461, rec. 21 March 1820. 65. Frederick Co. Deeds JS 8:362, rec. 5 April 1819. 66. Ruth Bowers and Anita Short, note 52, p. 41. 67. Washington Co. Marriage Licenses 1:42. 68. Seventh Census 1850: Ohio, Newberry Twp., Miami Co., p.400. 69. Miami Co. Estate Papers #4225, John Marker. 70. Miami Co. Estate Papers #4860, Henry Marker. 71. The children are scheduled in the creditor's petition, note 69. Daniel Marker and Jacob Marker, two sons who died at age 21, are buried with their parents in Christian Cemetery, note 66. 72. Holdcraft, note 14, 2:766. 73. Frederick Co. Marriage Licenses, 3. 74. Brien, note 55, p. 71. 75. Frederick Co. Marriage Licenses, 3. Information on the Warenfeltz family is by courtesy of Mrs. Floyd Spade. 76. Seventh Census... Ohio: Jefferson Twp., Montgomery Co., p. 370 (##1424/24). He was a farmer by trade. 77. Montgomery Co. Deeds H2:395, rec. 15 Dec. 1843, 78. Frederick Co. Marriage Licenses 3:105. 79. Seventh Census... 1850: Maryland, Frederick Co., P. 373 (##240/247), shows him with fourteen of them, aged 19 to 1 month. 80. Frederick Co. Marriage Licenses, 3:94. 81. Seventh Census... 1850: Maryland, Frederick Co., p. 374 (##256/263), with six children at home.
I would like to thank Mrs. Floyd Spade and Mrs. Rose I. Shilt for contributions to the data underlying parts of this article and particularly to thank Lt. Col. Stanley N. Marker, U.S.A.F. (ret.) for encouraging the research upon which it is based.
The Editor would be glad to receive correspondence concerning materials published in this journal or other matters of specific genealogical interest (no queries, please) . It is understood that letters may be edited to conform to style and space requirements.
Source: "The Genealogist" Neil D. Thompson Vol. 1, Issue 1, Pub. Spring 1980 Pps. 96-105
Reprinted with permission from the author. Thank you Mr. Thompson.
*I thought the info Thompson gave in his article about Mary Mohler Marker's tombstone was incorrect and was based on the published Names in Stone.
I have an old polaroid of the tombstone and therefore would like to point out that whereas Names in Stone says Mary was 99 years, 1 month, and 27 days old, when I saw the stone years ago I read it as 99 years, 4 months, and 28 days, which (as best I can figure out) does indeed agree with the date of birth given on the stone: 30 Oct. 1746.
Also it appears Names in Stone and therefore Thompson has an error about Michael Marker's age at death too. And Nancy this might throw off the same/similar date of birth you mentioned at Leah Spade's. Names in Stone says that Michael died 25 July 1854, aged 54 years, 2 months, 29 days and from that (therefrom?) Thompson figures out a birth date of 26 Apr. 1800. However, my notes based on the visit I made years ago (and I also have a polaroid of the stone) has his age age 54 years, 2 months, and 22 days and therefore I calculate a birth date of 3 May 1800.
Source: Email from Sam Andrusko 6/9/1999
For more infomation email Linda
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