Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   
Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland Part 4

VIII. The Laigin

The Laigin, or Dumnonii, were the third ethno-tribal group to come to Ireland, coming from Gaul shortly
          before the Gaels themselves, sometime during the first century B.C. Branches of the Dumnonii settled
          first in the Devon-Cornwall area before others moved on to Ireland (Chapter III).

          In southern Britain their kingdom gave its name to Devon (Dumnonia). In the time of King Arthur (ca.
          A.D. 500), as the tribe most closely associated with that great Pendragon, these Devon Domnonii
          established a dual kingdom which included the north coast of Brittany (Domnonie), from whose royal
          house eventually sprang the House of Stewart (which house inherited the crown of the Scots in 1371
          and that of England in 1603). The Stewarts are covered under the chapter on the Normans, having
          come to Scotland in the wake of Norman conquest of England, in which they served as allies of the
          dukes of Normandy.

          In Ireland the Dumnonii were generally known as the Laigin, and originally became overlords in the
          southeastern and central regions, and in Connacht. From there they later spread to other parts of
          Gaeldom, as we shall see.

                                  Tribes of the Laigin

          The Cianacht
          The Cianacht encompassed the O’Connors (O Conchobhair) of Keenaght, and the Luighne. The
          O’Connors were lords of Keenaght, County Derry, until dispossessed by the O’Kanes shortly before
          the Anglo-Norman invasion in the twelfth century. The Luighne were of County Sligo, where they had
          settled as fighting men to the Northern Gaels in the early centuries A.D. The Cianacht were closely
          related to the Dealbhna and Saithne.

          The Luighne or "race of Lugh," included the families of O’Hara (O hEaghra) and O’Gara (O Gadhra).
          The O’Haras descend from Eaghra, Lord of Luighne (now the Barony of Leyney) in South Sligo, who
          died in 926. In the fourteenth century the O’Haras divided into two branches, the heads of which were
known as O’Hara Boy (Buidhe), the Yellow O’Hara, and O’Hara Reagh (Riabhach), the Speckled or
          Brindled O’Hara. A branch of the family settled early in County Antrim, and became very important
          there.

          The O’Garas were once one clan with the O’Haras, and together their territory, Luighne, included the
          modern baronies of Corran and Leyney in South Sligo, and Gallen and North Costello (Sliabh Lugha) in
          Mayo. About the end of the tenth century the two families separated, and divided the territory between
          them, the O’Garas taking the Mayo portion. They were driven from their territory by the Jordans,
          Costellos and other Anglo-Norman settlers, and resettled in Greagraidhe, in Sligo, now the Barony of Coolavin, and were later known as lords of
          Coolavin. They built their stronghold, Moygara, at the northeastern extremity of Lough Gara. Branches
          went to Munster before the end of the sixteenth century, and are known as Geary or Guiry. The
          O’Duanys or Devanys of Sligo are a branch of the O’Garas.

          The Dealbhna Eathra and Dealbhna Nuadat
          The Dealbhna Eathra and Dealbhna Nuadat were closely related to the Cianacht and Saithne. They
          originally comprised a single tribal kingdom in the Roscommon-Offaly area, but in course of time the
          various branches of the Deal bhna became separated under different overlordships, just as the Ui Maine
          became separated from their collateral kinsmen to the northeast of the Shannon, the Oirghialla, by the
          growing apart of the North Gaels which itself resulted in the ultimate overkingdoms of the Connachta
          and Ui Neill. The Dealbhna Eathra were situated to the east of the Shannon around Clonmacnoise, as
          a semiindependent tribal kingdom nominally subject to the Southern Ui NieII. Their chief families in
          medieval times were the MacCoghlans and O’Conrahys.

          The MacCoghlans (Mac Cochla in) descend from Cochlan, lord of Dealbhna Eathra in 1053. The heads
          of the family were for centuries the lords of Dealbhna Eathra, and the territory of their tribal kingdom
          was in later times called after them "Delvin (Dealbhna) MacCoghlane." Their territory cornprised the
          modern barony of Garrycastle, in County Offaly. They were once very powerful, and had ten strong
          castles in the Garrycastle area. The O’Conrahys (O Conratha) are a branch of the MacCoghlans.

          The Deal bhna Nuadat were centered on the other side of the Shannon, between it and the River Suck
          in County Roscommon, and were tributary to the Ui Maine. Their later representatives are the O’Hanlys
          of Connacht.

          The O’Hanlys (O hAinle) were chiefs of Cinel Dobhtha, called in later tirnes Tuaohanly and Doohy
          Hanly, being a district along the River Shannon north of Lough Ree. The O’Hanleys held this territory
          as late as the seventeenth century as tributaries of the O’Connor Don of Ui Maine. In the late sixteenth
          century several related gentlemen of the name were given in succession the office of "Seneschal"
          ("Royal Officer") of "Tohahohanly" under Queen Elizabeth I.

          The Saithne
          The Saithne were closely related to the Cianacht and Dealbhna. They originally inhabited a territory in
          the southern part of the kingdom of Brega, the kingship of which they in ancient times had shared with
          kindred groups. Their lands in Brega lay southeasterly, midway between the River Boyne and the River
          Liffey. Their later representatives were the O’Caseys.

The O’Caseys (O Cathasaigh) were originally lords of Saithne, in the north of the present County
          Dublin, until they were dispossessed by the Normans under Sir Hugh de Lacy soon after the
          Anglo-Norman invasion (twelfth cenwry). Afterwards they became an important Erenagh (church)
          family, being hereditary keepers of Kilarduff and Dunfeeny in County Mayo, Cloondara and Tisrara in
          County Roscommon, and Devinish in County Fermanagh.

          The Ciarraighe Locha na nAirne
          The Ciarraighe Locha na nAirne were originally part of a greater kingdom, the tribal kingdom of
          Ciarraighe, centered at Cruachu (the ancient capital of Connacht). This kingdom was fragmented by the
          Ui Briuin of the North Gaels during the late eighth century or early ninth century. They may have been,
          in more ancient times, closely related to the ancestors of the Oirghialla, the allies of the North Gaels
          (in the Heroic Age tales of the North, the "Ulster Cycle," Cruachu is the center of the Gaelic-Laiginian
          alliance). The Ciarraighe were indigenous to Connacht. Their main representatives in the Middle Ages
          were the O’Kierans (O Ceirin) of northwest County Mayo. The native territory of the O’Kierans was in
          the south of the barony of Costello, but they were reduced in power there by the Anglo-Norman
          encroachment, and branches in Donegal and Clare became more important.

          The Ciarraighe Luachra
          The Ciarraighe Luachra were the original tribe of North Kerry, a branch of the Ciarraighe. Before the
          Anglo-Norman invasion had had a semiindependent kingdom between Tralee and the Shannon. Their
          chief family was that of O’Connor (O Conchobhair) of Kerry, whose stronghold was at Carrigafoyle, near
          Ballylongford. They held the Barony of lraghticonor in the extreme north of County Kerry after the
          southern part of their territory was encroached upon by the Fitzmaurices of Clanmaurice and other
          Norman settlers. The O’Connors held lraghticonor down to the reign of Elizabeth, when it was
          confiscated by the English and given to Trinity College.

          The Eile
          The Eile were originally a tribe of western King’s County (Offaly), where place-names recall their early
          residence in that region. After the battle of Druim Derge (A.D. 516), at which battle they were decisively
          defeated by the expanding southern Ui Neill, they migrated to the area known after them as "Ely" in the
          south of Offaly and including northeast Tipperary. Their chief families in later times were the O’Carrolls
          of Ely, the O’Mahers, the O’Riordans and the O’Flanagans.

          The O’Carrolls (O Cearbhaill) descend from Cearbhaill, Lord of Ely, who was one of the leaders at the
          famous battle of Clontarf in 1014. The head of the O’Carrolls was originally lord of all Ely, but after the
          Anglo-Norman invasion their power was restricted to South Offaly, which was subsequently called Ely O’Carroll.

          The Ui Cairin or O’Mahers (O Meachair) are of the same stock as the O’Carrolls, and were lords of Ui
          Cairin, now the Barony of Ikerrin, in the old Ely territory in Tipperary. After the Anglo-Norman invasion,
          Ikerrin was added to Ormond, but The O’Maher (chief of the sept) was left in control of the territory as
          tributary to the Butlers, the Anglo-Norman earls of Ormond, under whom they flourished.

          The O’Riordans (O Rioghbhardain) are a branch of the O’Carrolls of Ely, and probably descend from
          Rioghbhardan, son of Cucoirne O Cearbhaill, Lord of Ely, who fell at the battle of Sliabh gCrot in 1058.
          As late as 1576 a "Gaven O Rewrdane" was a "freeholder" in Ely O’Carroll, and one of the most
          important followers of Sir William O’Carroll. By this time branches had spread into Leix and Kilkenny,
          but even earlier the greater portion of the sept had removed to Cork and Limerick. In 1597 Maurice
          O’Riordan of Croome was attainted by the English, his lands being given to a George Sherlocke.

          The O’Flanagans (O Flannachain) are of the same stock as the O’Carrolls of Ely, and were chiefs of a
          territory known as Cineal Arga, now the barony of Ballybrit, in southeast Offaly.

          The Ui Faitghe
          The Ui Failghe, closely related to the Eile, had probably separated from them by A.D. 516, the year of
          the defeat of the Eile at Druim Derge by the Southern Ui Niell. The Ui Failge descend from Failge
          Berraide, who a few years earlier had won the battle of Fremainn Mide (A.D. 510). This victory probably
          accounts for their being able to remain in the more northerly portion of Offaly while their cousins, the
          Eile, were forced to migrate south. The chief families of the Ui Failghe include the O’Connors of Offaly,
          the O’Mooneys, MacColgans, O’Hennesseys, O’Holohans, O’Dempseys and O’Dunnes.

          The O’Connors (O Conchobhair) of Offaly were a powerful and warlike sept of the northeast of what is
          now County Offaly. They descend from Conchobhar, son of Fionn, Lord of Offaly, who died in A.D. 979.
          From their stronghold at Dangan, now Philipstown, they successfully defended their territory from the
          English of the Pale (i.e. County Dublin) for more than 300 years. They were finally dispossessed by the
          English about 1550. The O’Mooneys (O Maonaigh) of around Ballymooney in County Offaly are a
          branch of the O’Connors.

          The Clann Cholgan included the families of MacColgan, O’Hennessy and O’Holohan. The MacColgans
          (Mac Colgan) were chiefs of the territory around Kilcolgan in the extreme northeast of County Offaly.
          The O’Hennessys (O hAonghusa) shared the lordship of Clann Cholgan (i.e., their clan-name was
          applied to the territory they possessed) with their kinsmen the O’Holohans (O hUallachain). Their
          territory comprised the present barony of Lower Philipstown, a district adjoining the hill of Croghan,
near Kilbeggan, and lying just east of the
          O’Connors in northeast Offaly. A branch of the O’Hennessys were chiefs of Gailenga Beg, the district
          between Dublin and Tara, until they were dispersed into Offaly as a result of the Anglo-Norman
          invasion. Some of the O’Hennessys spread early into Tipperary and Glare. In County Glare they are
          now known as Henchy or Hensey.

          The Clann Mhaolughra or O’Dempseys (O Diomasaigh) were chiefs of the territory known after them as
          Glann Mhaolughra on the River Barrow, which comprised the baronies of Portnahinch in Leix and Upper
          Philipstown in Offaly. They were very powerful, and owing to the friendly terms they had with the
          English during the reign of Elizabeth I (ca. 1590), their lands escaped confiscation until after the fall of
          James II (ca. 1690). Their patron saint was St. Evin, who established the church at Monasterevan.

          The Ui Riagain or O’Dunnes (O Duinn) were chiefs of Ui Riagain in the northwestern corner of County
          Leix. They were, along with their kinsmen the O’Connors and O’Dempseys, one of the chief families of
          Leinster. A branch of the family possessed a territory around Tara until dispersed about the same time
          as the O’Hennesseys of that area (see above). The clan-name Ui Riagain, Anglicized Iregan, may
          reflect some relation to the sept of O’Regan (O Riagain) of the Southern Ui Neill, one of the Tribes of
          Tara, which settled in Leix after the Anglo-Norman invasion.

          The Feara Cualann
          The Feara Cualann, or "Men of Cuala," originally inhabited the territory of that name, Cuala, which
          included a large portion of the present counties of Dublin and Wicklow. Their chief representatives in
          later times were the O’Cullens and O’Mulryans.

          The O’Gullens (O Cuilinn) were chiefs around Glencullen in County Wicklow, in which area they have
          dwelt to this day. Though they were overshadowed as a power in the area by the O’Byrnes and
          O’Tooles about 1300, Cullen of Gullenstown was counted as one of the leading gentry of County
          Wexford as late as 1598, and they appear to have retained considerable influence. Kilcullen, on the
          Wicklow border of County Kildare, is named for them.

          The O’Mulryans (O Maoilriain) originated in Leinster, but settled around the north Tipperary-Limerick
          border sometime during the thirteenth or fourteenth century. They became very numerous and powerful
          in their new home, the territory which is now the baronies of Owney in Tipperary and Owneybeg in
          Limerick. In the year 1610, William Ryan surrendered to the King of England all his rights to the lands
          of "Owney O Mulrian," in order to receive them back as a royal grant, by letters of patent. These land
          were later lost, however, in the mass confiscations of the seventeenth century. The name is numerous
          and respectable in Limerick and Tipperary.

The Ui Ceinnsealaigh
          The Ui Ceinnsealaigh were the most powerful tribe of Leinster, and usually held the provincial
          overkingship until the time of the AngIo-Norman invasion (which their representative, King Dermot
          MacMurrough of Leinster, helped bring about). The center of their power lay around the Diocese of
          Ferns, in northern Wexford. Their chief families were the Kavanaghs, Kinsells, O’Murphys and
          O’Morchoes.

          The Kavanaghs (Caomhanach) descend from Domhnall (Donal) Caomhanach, son of Diarmaid Mac
          Murchadha (Dermot MacMurrougb), King of Leinster at the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion (died
          1171). He was called "Caomhanach" as a result of his having been fostered by the Co-arb
          (blood-related successor) of St. Caomhan at Kilcavan near Corey. The adoption by his descendants of
          Kavanagh (i.e., "belonging to St. Caomhan") as a family name is unusual: It is, like Kinsella below, one
          of the very few non-patronymic names used among the pre-Norman Gaelic population. The patrimony of
          the family included extensive districts in counties Carlow and Wexford, where the name is very
          common.

          The Kinsellas (Cinnsealach,) descend from Enna Cinnsealach, brother of Domhnall Caomhanach
          (Kavanagh) and son of Dermot MacMurrogh. They possessed most of the barony of Gorey in the north
          of County Wexford, where they remain to this day, but they remained much less numerous than their
          kinsmen, the Kavanaghs. Their lands were formerly referred to as "the Kinsellaghs." A branch of the
          Kinsellas, the O’Murphys (O Murchadha) of Muskerry, settled early in County Cork, where they
          became connected with the barony of Muskerry in the west-central part of that county.

          The O’Morchoes, or O’Murphys (O Murchadha) were chiefs of Ui Feilme, now the Barony of
          Ballaghkeen in the northeast of County Wexford, all along the coast. They maintained their
          independence and identity as a clan down to the first part of the seventeenth century, and are now very
          numerous throughout Leinster.

          The Ui Dunlainge
          The Ui Dunlainge anciently inhabited the Liffey Plain, the territory around the River Liffey, just to the
          northwest of the Wicklow Mountains. They were very important in north Leinster, and held the provincial
          overkingship of Leinster itself from 738 to 1042, alternating it between their chief clans, the Ui
          Dunchada, Ui Faelain and Ui Muiredaig. Their representatives in later times were the O’Byrnes and
          O’Tooles.

          The Ui Faelain included the O’Byrnes (O Broin) and their kinsmen the MacKeoghs or Kehoes (Mac
          Eochaidh) of Leinster. The O’Byrnes descend from Bran, son of Maolmordha, King of Leinster in 1014.
          Maolmordha died fighting on the side of Earl Sigurd of Orkney against Brian Boru, High-King of Ireland,
          at the battle of Clontarf in 1014).

The O’Byrnes originally possessed what is now the northern half of County Kildare, which was called
          after the Ui Faelain. They were driven from this territory by the Normans, soon after the Anglo-Norman
          invasion, after which they retired to the fastness of the nearby Wicklow Mountains. Here they became
          very powerful, and at the head of the Wicklow clans they terrorized the invaders, first the
          Anglo-Normans, and later the English, both of whom they defeated in many a fierce engagement. Their
          territory in these times was known as Criochbhranach, and Included the Barony of Newcastle with
          parts of the baronies of Ballinacor and Arklow.

          The Ui Muireadhaigh or O’Tools (O Tuathail) descend from Ughaire, King of l.einster (died 956), and
          were chiefs of what is now the southern half of County Kildare, which bore the designation of Ui
          Muireadhaigh after their clan-name. They were driven from this territory by Walter de Riddlesford soon
          after the Anglo-Norman invasion, afterwards retiring to the mountain fastness of Wicklow, like their
          O’Byrne kinsmen. Here their new territory comprised first Ui Mail on the western slope of the
          mountains, and later Feara Cualann, in the north. Here, in alliance with their kinsmen the O’Byrnes,
          they carried on incessant warfare with the invaders, Anglo-Normans and later English, which continued
          over more than 400 years. They maintained their independence as a clan down to the close of the reign
          of Elizabeth I (ca. 1600), after which the whole of Fercuolen was confiscated by the English. The
          O’Tooles however retained considerable property for a time, and a branch of the family settled as well
          in west Connacht, where they became numerous.

          The Ui Maine
          The Ui Maine were the great Laiginian tribe whose original territory comprised adjoining parts of what
          are now the counties of Galway, Roscommon, Clare and OfaIly. The Ui Maine were closely related to
          the Oirghialla, for their ancestors were the same as those of the Oirghialla, being the ancient Laiginian
          allies of the great tribe of the North Gaels (the names of three of their respective original sub-tribal
          groups duplicate each other- the Cann Bhreasail. or Ui Breasail (Macha); the Ui Fiachrach Finn, or Ui
          Fiachrach Arda Stratha, and the Clann Chearnaigh. The Ui Maine separated from the Oirghialla at the
          same time that the Ui Neill differentiated from their North-Gaelic kinsmen, the Connachta (see Chapter
          IX). As the Ui Neill and their Oirghialla allies moved eastward into the rest of Ulster, the Connachta
          moved southwards into the rest of Connacht, and thus did their L.aiginian allies, the Ui Maine, acquire
          what would become their tribal patrimony.

          The O’KelIys (O CeaIlaigh) were chiefs of the Ui Maine, and as such ruled over a large area in Galway
          and Roscommon down to the reign of Elizabeth I, at the end of the sixteenth century. They came to be
          regarded as one of the "Three Connachts" along with the North-Gaelic tribes of Ui Fiachrach and
Ui Briuin, although they were Laiginian (the original "Three Connachts" included the Ui Neill, who
          branched eastwards and started a new and separate dynasty in the early 5th century A.D.). The
          MacKeoghs (Mac Eochadha) are a branch of the O’KeIlys, and were formerly chiefs of Moyfinn in the
          Barony of Athlone in County Roscommon.

          The O’Fahys (O Fathaigh) were chiefs of a territory known as Poblewinterfahy (Pobal Mhuintir Ui
          Fhathaigh), which lay in the Barony of Loughrea in south-central Galway. They remained in possession
          of these lands down to the Cromwellian confiscations of the mid-seventeenth century. Fahysvillage, in
          Loughrea, recalls their presence there.

          The O’Horans (O hUghroin; later O hOghrain) are a branch of the Ui Maine, and were originally seated
          around Clonrush in the south of County Galway, where they remained numerous and held large estates
          down to the Cromwellian confiscations of the mid seventeenth century. A branch migrated early to
          County Mayo, where they became co-arbs (hereditary successors) of St. Mochua at the abbey of
          Balla.

          The O’Sheehans (O Siodhachain) are a Ui Maine sept of Galway that in the High Middle Ages
          (tenth—thirteenth centuries) were hereditary trumpeters to The O’Kelly. They later spread into
          neighboring County Clare, and became attached to the ruling dynasty there, under the Ui
          Toirdealbhaign or O’Briens, and as a result came to be regarded as Dalcassian.

          The Clann Bhreasail were settled in southeastern County Galway between Lochrea and Ballinasloe.
          Their chief family was that of O’Donnellan (O Domhnallain), the head of which family resided at his
          castle at Ballydonnellan in the clan territory. The family was famous as ollavs (professors), and
          produced several famous poets, mentioned in the Annals.

          The Clann Uadach or O’Fallons (O Fallamhain) were lords of a territory in the barony of Athlone which
          comprised the parishes of Camma and Dysart, in the south of what is now County Roscommon. The
          ruins of their castle are at Milltown, in the parish of Dysart.

          The Siol nAnmchadha or O’Maddens (O Madain were of the same stock as the O’Kellys, from whom
          they separated and became independent about 1050. They descend from Madadhan (slain A.D. 1008),
          son of Gadhra Mor, chief of the Ui Maine from 1014 to 1027. The clan-lands, called after them Siol
          nAnmchadha, comprised the modern barony of Longford in the southeast of County Galway, and also
          the parish of Lusnagh in County Offaly, on the other side of the Shannon. They held these lands under
          the Burke overlordship and remained in possession down to the Cromwellian confiscations of the mid
          seventeenth century (some of their confiscated estates were restored to them under the Act of
          Settlement in 1677). In 1612, Donal O’Madden, "captain of his nation," settled all of his estates,
          including his manor and castle of Longford, on his son and heir, Anmchadh, or Ambrose, O’Madden, in
          tail male.

The Ui Diarmada included the O’Concannons (O Concheanainn) and O’Mullens (O Maolain). The
          O’Concannons were chiefs of Corca Mogha (Corcamoe) in the northeast of County Galway. Their chief
          resided at Kiltullagh, in the parish of Kilkerrin, which is also called Corcamoe after their territory. The
          O’Mullens are of the same stock as the O’Concannons, and their territory bordered on that of
          O’Concannon, in northeast County Galway.

          The Ui Fiachrach Finn included the O’Mullallys (O Maolalaidh)—"grandson of the speckled chief") and
          O’Naghtens (O Neachtain). The Ui Fiachrach Finn originally inhabited the fertile plain of Maonmhagh,
          being the area surrounding Loughrea in south-central Galway, but were dispossessed by the Burkes
          soon after the Anglo-Norman invasion, and forced to seek territory elsewhere.

          The O’Mullallys settled in the parish of Tuam in northern Galway, their new territory comprising the
          lands known as Tulach na Dala (Tullaghnadaly), or Tolendal, four miles north of the town of Tuam. The
          O’Mullallys were ardent Jacobites, adhering to the Stewart cause in the wars of the seventeenth
          century. James Lally of Tullindaly sat as representative of Tuam in King James’s parliament of 1689.
          After the Jacobite defeat he retired to France with his brother Gerald. Gerald married a noble French
          lady, and their son and grandson became famous in Europe under the title Count Lally de Tollendal.
          The O’Naghtens were chiefs of Maonmhagh before the Anglo-Norman invasion, after which they
          removed to the Feadha, or Fews, of Athlone in South Roscommon, where they formed a distinct clan
          down to the reign of Elizabeth I (ca. 1580).

          The Oirghialla
          The Oirghialla were closely related to the Ui Maine, as mentioned above. They were the Laiginian allies
          of the North-Gaelic tribe of Ui Neill, which virtually monopolized the high-kingship of Ireland during the
          post-fifth century historical period. The Oirghialla helped the Ui Neill effect the conquest of most of
          Northern Ireland from the Ulster Erainn, and later they settled a vast territory there including the
          counties of Louth, Armagh, Monaghan and Fermanagh, a territory which is called after them, Oriel. so
          important were they in the Ui Neill political sphere that they were given an honorary traditional descent
          (which was nonetheless fake and thinly disguised) from the great-grandfather of Nial of the Nine
          Hostages, ancestor of the O’NeilIs of the line of Conn. Their representatives in the later Middle Ages
          include the MacBradys, O’Boylans, O’Flanagans, O’Mulroonys or Moroneys, Maguires, MacKernans,
          MacAuleys, O’Cassidys, O’Corrigans, MacManuses, MacMahons, MacCanns, O’Hanraghtys,
          O’Hanlons, O’Lynns, MacEvoys, MacDonalds, MacDonells, MacAlisters, Maclans, MacSheehys,
          Maclntyres, MacDougals, and Conns.

          The MacBradys (Mac Bradaigh) were a powerful family of Breffny (Cavan and West Leitrim), being
          chiefs of Cuil Bhrighed or Cuil Bhrighdein, which comprised the district around Stradone in County Cavan, a few miles to the east of Cavan town. They
          are traditionally a branch of the O’Carrolls of Leitrim, which family had been lords of all Oriel until the
          twelfth century Anglo-Norman invasion. The MacBradys are now numerous throughout Ulster.

          The Ui Chremthainn anciently inhabited the territory between Lough Erne and the River Blackwater, in
          what is now County Fermanagh and the north of County Monaghan. The chief branches of the Ui
          Chremthainn include the Clann Lugain, and also the O’Mulroonys or Moroneys and the O’Boylans.

          The O’Boylans (O Baoigheallain) were of the same stock as the O’Flanagans (O Flannagain) of
          northwest Fermanagh. The O’Boylans were, after the Anglo-Norman invasion, lords of all Oriel, a
          widespread territory stretching from Fermanagh to Louth. Later, in the thirteenth century, their power in
          Oriel was subdued by the MacMahons, and their territory was reduced to what is now the barony of
          Dartry in the west of County Monaghan, an area then known as Dartraighe. They did, however, remain
          powerful, and in O’Dugan’s fourteenth-century "Topographical Poem" they are called "the bold kings of
          Dartry," and are praised for their horsemanship and their blue eyes.

          The O’Mulroonys (O Maolruanaidh) were the leading clan of Fermanagh before the rise of the Maguires,
          who subjugated them about 1300. A branch of the O’Mulroonys afterwards settled in the northeast of
          County Galway, where they were chiefs of Crumhthan (Cruffan), a district comprising the modern
          barony of Killyan and part of the adjoining barony of Ballimoe. For the Galway branch, the name has
          changed to Moroney.

          The Clann Lugain included the Maguires, MacKernans, MacAuleys, O’Cassidys, O’Corrigans and
          MacManuses. The Maguires (Mag Uidhir) are first mentioned in the Annals in A.D. 956. They rose to
          great power in the later part of the thirteenth century, and became lords of Fermanagh, where the town
          and castle at Maguiresbridge recalls their importance there. They were long one of the most powerful
          and influential families in Ulster, and produced many great soldiers and ecclesiastics. During the reign
          of James I, in the first part of the seventeenth century, much of the territory of the Maguires was
          included in the vast confiscation of Ulster which followed the English conquest of the north. More land
          loss followed in the Cromwellian and Williamite confiscations, for the Maguires were ardent Jacobites,
          and later they were prominent among the "Wild Geese" in the service of France and Austria. As barons
          of Enniskillen their chiefs were accepted as nobility at the Court of France until the title became extinct
          about 1795.

          The MacManuses (Mac Maghnuis) descend from Maghnus, son of Donn Maguire, chief of Fermanagh,
          who died in A.D. 1302. The head of this family resided at Senadh Mic Maghnusa, now Bell Isle, on
          Lough Erne. The O’Cassidys (O Caiside) were a distinguished medical family, being the
hereditary physicians to the Maguires. They also provided ollavs (professors or learned men) to the
          Maguires, and one, Rory O’Cassidy, Archdeacon of Clogher, is said to have participated in the
          compilation of the Annals of Ulster under Cathal Maguire in the fifteenth century. The first literary figure
          of the name was Giolla Moduda O Caiside, who died in 1143, and whose Gaelic poetry is still
          preserved. Before the end of the sixteenth century, branches of the family had settled in the Midlands
          around County Westmeath.

          The O’Corrigans (O Corragain) were an ecclesiastical sept closely related to the Maguires, and men of
          the name long filled abbacies and other church offices in County Fermanagh. By the sixteenth century
          the name had already spread into Connacht and the Midlands. Other branches of the Maguires include
          the Clann Fearghaile or MacKernans (Mac Thighearnain) , chiefs of the territory called Clann Fearghaile
          in central Fermanagh, and the MacAuleys (Mac Amhlaoibh), who gave their name to the barony of
          Clanawley in west-central Fermanagh. A branch of the latter settled in Connacht under the form
          Gawley (Mag Amhlaoibh).

          The MacMahons (Mac Mathghamhna) were one of the most powerful and influential families in Ulster.
          They rose to preeminence in Oriel on the decline of the O’Carrolls of Leitrim in the thirteenth century,
          having subdued the O’Boylans in the process. They maintained their rank as lords of Oriel down to the
          reign of Elizabeth I in the late sixteenth century, and retained considerable property in County
          Monaghan as late as the Cromwellian wars of the mid-seventeenth century. Their last chief, Hugh
          MacMahon, was betrayed and arrested for complicity in the plot to seize Dublin Castle in 1641, and
          sent to the Tower of London. Three years later he was beheaded at Tyburn. Besides many
          distinguished chiefs, the family produced many eminent ecclesiastics as well.

          The Ui Breasail Macha or Clann Bhreasail were originally seated in what is now the barony of Oneilland
          East, in the extreme northeast of County Armagh. Their chief clan, the Cineal Aonghusa, of which the
          MacCanns (Mac Anna) were the chief family, inhabited the south shore of lough Neagh in County
          Armagh.

          The Ui Meath Macha, of which the O’Hanraghtys (O hAnrachtaigh) were the chief family, originally
          inhabited the north of County Louth, the O’Hanraghtys being lords of North Louth. They were pushed as
          a result of the Anglo-Norman invasion into County Monaghan, where they settled in the modern barony
          of that name, Monaghan, County Monaghan.

          The Ui Niallain, of which the O’Hanlons (O hAnluain) were the chief family, inhabited the territory of that
          name, Ui Niallain, now the baronies of Oneilland in the northeast of County Armagh, and at one time
          also the territory of Oirthear (now the baronies of Onier), in the east and southeast of the same county.
          The O’Hanlons were long known as lords of Oirthear. They were a powerful clan, and had many valiant
          chiefs mentioned in the Annals.

They maintained their independence as a clan down to the year 1587, when the then chief, Sir Oghie
          O’Hanlon, surrendered his lands to the English Crown, in order to have them re-granted by letters of
          patent in tail male (to be held of the Crown), thus abolishing the chieftaincy. The O’Hanlon was
          afterwards hereditary royal standard bearer north of the River Boyne, and owing to his loyalty to the
          English, retained most of the clan-lands down to the Cromwellian confiscations of the mid seventeenth
          century.

          The Ui Tuirtre of South Derry moved eastward across the River Bann as their lands were absorbed into
          the expanding Ui Neill over-kingdom of Cineal Eoghain in the eighth century. They kept their western
          lands (the present barony of Loughinsholin) as a tributary kingdom to the Cineal Eoghain, but resided
          in Lough Beg, which lay strategically between their new and old territories. East of the Bann they were
          allies of the Dal nAraidi, though they profited by their decline. They were also sometimes overkings of
          Ulidia. The medieval representatives of the Ui Tuirtre were the O’Lynns (O Floinn or O Loinn) of South
          Antrim, who defeated the Norman John de Courcy when he attempted to invade their territory in 1177.
          They maintained their independence until about 1368.

          The Ui Macc Uais Mide were a branch of the Ui Macc Uais of what is now the Barony of Upper
          Strabane in the northeast of County Tyrone. They settled in Mide (what is now County Westmeath with
          part of Offaly) and came very early to be treated as a sub-kingdom of the Southern Ui Neill (North
          Gaels), just as the Ui Macc Uais of Tyrone were treated as a sub-kingdom of the Cineal Eogain clan of
          the Northern Ui Neill.

          The chief family of the Ui Macc Uais Mide was that of MacEvoy (Mac Fhiodhbhuidhe), who were
          anciently lords of Ui Macc Uais in County Westmeath, now the barony of Moygoish. Later, at some
          time before 1563, they settled in what is now Leix (formerly Queen’s County). Here they were known
          as Muintear (or Tuath) Fhiodhbhuidhe, being lords of a territory in what is now the barony of Stradbally
          which comprised the parishes of Mountrath and Raheen. They came to be regarded as one of the
          Seven Septs of Leix. In 1609 the chief men of the family were transplanted by the English to County
          Kerry as were the leading members of the other Leix Septs. The rest of the clan remained in the home
          territory, however, where they remain to this day.

          The Cineal nAlbanaich were a branch of the Oirghialla that settled in the northwest Highlands and
          Islands in very early times. Their chief clans descend from Godfraidh Mac Ferghusa (i.e., "Fergus"), a
          prince of the Oirghialla in Northern Ireland who came to Scotland, or Albany, in the ninth century as an
          ally of Kenneth MacAlpin, first king of the united kingdom of Picts and Scots. The Cineal nAlbanaich
          settled north of Argyle in the Hebrides, in the area of Skye, where they acquired Pictish and later
          Worse connections. The chief clans which branched from the Cineal nAlbanaich are the Clann
          Dhomhnuill and the Clann Dubhghaill.

The Clann Dhomhnuill or MacDonalds (Mac Dhomhnuill) descend from Dhomnuill, or Donald, son of
          Reginald (or Ranald) mac Somerled, King of the Isles and Lord of Argyle and Kintyre (1164—1207).
          Ranald’s mother was the daughter of Olav, Norse King of Man and the Isles. It was from her that he
          derived his titles in the Isles, his paternal grandfather Somerled being already Lord of Argyle (the
          Lordship of the Isles was under the control of the King of Norway until 1266).

          The Clann Dhomhnuill includes the families of MacDonald of Clan Donald and Islay, the MacDonells of
          Keppoch and MacDonnells of Antrim, the MacIans, MacAlisters, MacSheehys, and the Clan Ranald.
          The MacDonalds of Clan Donald, or Clann Uistein, the chief family of the clan (now represented by
          MacDonald of MacDonald, and his cadet, MacDonald of Sleat, both of Skye), were the leaders of the
          most powerful tribal organization in Scotland, and were long vested in the Lordship of the Isles (the last
          Lord of the Isles died in 1503, the title being taken over by a jealous House of Stewart, see Chapter IV).
          They descend from Donald, son of John, first Lord of the Isles (from 1354) and his second wife, a
          daughter of Robert II of the House of Stewart.

          The MacDonalds of Islay and MacDonnells of the Glens of Antrim, the Clan Ian Vor, descend from lain
          Mor, or "Big John" the Tanist, a younger full brother of Donald, second lord of the Isles who married the
          MacEoin or Bissett heiress of Antrim about 1400, thus inheriting lands in Antrim, which were settled by
          them in ernest during the first part of the sixteenth century. The Clan Ranald of Lochaber, or
          MacDonells of Keppoch, (between Loch Lochy and Loch Spean in Lochaber, or southern
          inverness-shire) descend from Alasdair, another younger full brother of Donald.

          The Conns, an old Aberdeenshire family, traditionally descend from William Con, son of Donald of the
          Isles, chief of Clan Donald in the first part of the sixteenth century. They took the name of Conn from
          the traditional ancestor of the Clan Donald (see above under Oirghialla). The Conns appear under the
          appellation "of Auchry" before 1539, and appear in the district from 1522. They were a prominent
          Roman Catholic family in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but were driven into exile soon after
          1642 (George Con was the Pope’s agent at the court of the Queen of Charles I).

          The MacDonalds of Clanranald, captains of the great Clan Ranald "proper," descend from Ranald, son
          of John, first Lord of the Isles and his first wife, the heiress of the MacRuaris of Uist Isle and Garmoran,
          the mainland district between Skye and Argyle (from Loch Hourn to Loch Sunart), both of which they
          inherited (the MacRuaris descended from another son of Reginald mac Somerled). Their younger
          branch, the MacDonells of Glengarry (just east of Garmoran) descend from Donald, himself the son of
          Ranald, ancestor of the Clan Ranald.

          The Clann an tSaoir, or Maclntyres (Mac an tSaoir) are also a branch of the Clan Ranald. They settled
          in Loin, or North Argyle, sometime during the fourteenth century, having come from the Hebrides in a galley "with a white cow," to settle in Glen Oe
          (or Noe) just south of Loch Etive. There they were hereditary foresters to the Stewart lords of Lorn. A
          branch settled in Badenoch under MacKintosh protection in the fifteenth century, and became
          members of the Clan Chattan Confederacy.

          The Maclans (Mac lain), or MacDonalds of Glencoe (just east of Appin in the north of Argyle), also
          known as the Clan Ian Abrach, descend from John Og, son of Angus Og, Chief of Clan Donald in the
          time of Robert the Bruce (early fourteenth century). The Maclans (MacDonalds) or Clan Ian of
          Ardnamurchan (the peninsula just west of Garmoran) descend from Angus MacIan, one of the relations
          of John, first Lord of the Isles, who was granted Ardnamurchan by King David II. The Clan Alister, or
          MacAlisters (Mac Alasdair) of the Loup in Kintyre descend from Alasdair, or Alexander, younger son of
          Donald mac Reginald mac Somerled, King of the Isles and eponymus ancestor, or name-founder, of
          the Clan Donald.

          The MacSheehys (Mac Sithigh) descend from Sitheach, great-grandson of the same Donald. They
          were a famous gallowglass family (galowglasses were heavily armed foot-soldiers) employed as hired
          bodyguards by various tribal kings in Ireland, as per Gaelic aristocratic custom. They are first
          mentioned in the Annals in 1367, having taken part in a battle that year between two factions of the
          Royal O’Connors of Ui Briuin in Connacht. In 1420 they settled County Limerick as constables to the
          Earl of Desmond, and built their castle of Lisnacolla, or Woodfort, located in the parish of Clonagh,
          about four miles west of Rathkeale in north-central Limerick.

          The Clann Dubhghaill or MacDougals (Mac Dubhghaill) descend from Dubhghaill, King of the Hebrides
          and Lord of Lorn (North Argyle) who was the son of the great Somerled and brother of Reginald (or
          Ranald), ancestor of the Clann Dhomnuill, or MacDonalds. Lorn was held by Dubhghaill under the
          Scottish crown, while the Hebridian islands under his control were held of the King of Norway. Dunollie
          Castle in Oban Bay was the principal stronghold of the MacDougal chiefs, whose power declined after
          their defeat at the hands of King Robert I the Bruce in the Pass of Brander in 1309. The MacDougals
          were related by marriage to the Bruce’s rivals, the Cummins, and thus backed them during the period
          leading up to the battle of Bannockburn in 1314. As a result, the MacDougals were forfeited and lost
          their vast island territories, although they were later restored to the mainland Lordship of Lorn by King
          David II (after their seventh chief married a granddaughter of Robert I). Eventually the MacDougalls lost
          the lordship of Lorn, which (like many other old Scottish Dignities) passed almost inevitably to the
          covetous House of Stewart. The family further suffered as a result of their support for the Jacobite
          cause during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Nevertheless, based upon their proverbial
          connection with Lorn, the family has ever been known, both officially and informally, as the
          MacDougalls of Lorn.

IX. The Gaels

The original ethno-tribal invaders known as the Gaels were the last of a series of Celtic invaders that
          would come to be considered native to the Emerald Isle after the beginning of the historical period
          (about A.D. 500—see Chapter III.) They arrived in Ireland sometime during the first century B.C., and
          brought a distinctive language, the ancestor of modern Gaelic, which would come to dominate the
          hybridized Gaelic culture that emerged from the prehistoric melting pot of Ireland (hence the later
          general appellation "Gaels" which was applied to all Gaelic-speaking people of Ireland—and later
          Scotland). Two great tribal nations of Gaels emerged in the light of the historical period: The North
          Gaels and the South Gaels or Eoghanach. Between about A.D. 1 and 400 the North Gaels expanded
          their foothold in the northwest of Ireland and established themselves as Sacral ("totemistically" sacred)
          High-Kings at the ancient site of Tara near Dublin with the aid of their allies, the Laiginian tribe of
          Oirghialla. These events are enshrined in the heroic tales of the Ulster Cycle of literature or Red
          Branch, one of the three great collections of early Irish literature along with the Finn Cycle and the later
          (medieval) Cycles of the Kings (as opposed to ordinary folk-tales). Because of the royal tribal
          preeminence of the North Gaels, clans representative of other ethno-tribal groups sometimes tried to
          affect genealogical connection to their sacred ancestral tribal stem as a kind of "social climbing," but
          only the unstudied were fooled by these generally half-hearted attempts. Similar circumstances
          prevailed in the South, among the long dominant Eoghanacht.

                                   The North Gaels

          Connachta
          The North Gaels divided into two great branches in the mid-fifth century A.D.: the Connachta and the Ui
          Neill. Afterwards the tribal leadership of the Connachta itself divided into three great dynasties, known
          as "the three Connachts." These soon spread over the entire western region of Ireland, which they gave
          their name to: The province of Connacht. After the decline of the Ui Ailello in the eighth century,
the remaining two Connachts included the tribes of Ui Fiachrach and Ui Briuin, notwithstanding the
fact that the Laiginian tribe of Ui Maine came, with its rise to power in the
          southeast of County Galway, to be regarded as filling the remaining traditional "third" of Connacht (the
          Ui Maine originated as allies of the Ui Briuin akin to the Oirghialla, and thus were of relatively late
          introduction in Connacht. (See Chapter VIII).

          The Ui Fiachrach descend from Fiachra, brother of Nial of the Nine Hostages, ancestor of the Ui Niell.
          Fiachra’s son and grandson were both High Kings in the second half of the fifth century, though after
          that the High Kingship of Tara was vested in the Ui Neill. Afterwards the Ui Fiachrach
were the royal tribe of Connacht, although in the early seventh century they began alternating the rather
          nominal provencial kingship of Connacht with their Ui Briuin kinsmen until about A.D. 700. After this
          time the Ui Briuin monopolized the kingship of Connacht, and in time molded it into an effective
          over-kingdom. The Ui Fiachrach, however, continued as the most influential Connacht family until the
          middle of the eighth century; then they divided into two great branches, the Ui Fiachrach Muaidhe (of
          the Moy) or Northern Ui Fiachrach, and the Ui Fiachrach Aidhne or Southern Ui Fiachrach.

          The Northern Ui Fiachrach were seated in what are now the counties of Mayo and Sligo. The chief
          family of the tribe was that of O’Dowd (O Dubhda), whose chiefs were known as "Kings of the Moy"
          from their dominance of the Moy estuary in north Mayo. Before the Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht
          in 1237 the O’Dowds were the ruling family in all lower Connacht, including the greater part of counties
          Mayo and Sligo. They were also a great seapower, like the O’Malleys of Iar Connacht, which was
          unusual among native Irish families, for seapower was generally given over to the Viking clans of the
          Irish Sea. In the fourteenth century the O’Dowds had a series of able chiefs in immediate succession,
          and drove the Anglo-Norman settlers out of their territory, though they never regained quite the regal
          preeminence they had formerly held. The family suffered in the confiscations of the seventeenth
          century. Branches of the family settled in Kerry before the end of the sixteenth century, and are now
          known as Doody.

          The O’Finnegans (O Fionnagain) were chiefs in the area of the Galway-Roscommon border, where two
          places called Bally-Finnegan recall their presence in the baronies of Ballymoe and Castlereagh. The
          O’Keevans (O Caomhain) of Sligo and Mayo were an important family among the Ui Fiachrach
          Muaidhe, and it was the privilege of their chief to inaugurate The O’Dowd in the chiefship of Ui
          Fiachrach. The O’Bolans (O Beollain) were seated at Doonaltan, in what is now the barony of Tireragh
          in West Sligo.

          A branch of the Ui Fiachrach Muaidhe, the Fir Ceara of central Mayo, included the O’Kearneys (O
          Cearnaigh) and O’Quigleys (O Coigligh). The O’Kearneys held extensive tracts of land around Balla and
          Manulla in central Mayo, and a branch of them became leading ecclesiastics among the Dalcaisians,
          while another became established as erenaghs of Derry. The O’Quigleys were anciently lords of the
          barony of Carra (from Fir Ceara) in central Mayo. After the Anglo-Norman encroachment they were
          dispersed throughout Ireland, and are later to be found mostly in western Ulster, but also as far away
          as Wexford where the name is spelled Cogley (Kegley is used in Meath).

          The Southern Ui Fiachrach, or Ui Fiachrach Aidhne were settled in the district of Aidhne in the extreme
          southwestern part of County Galway, on the border of County Clare. This district was co-extensive with
          the diocese of Kilmacduagh. They had been pushed into this more restricted area by the expansion of
          the Ui Briuin Ai into central Connacht, an action which divided them from their northern cousins, and at the same time forced the Ui Maine of west-central Galway to
          encroach upon their territory. The O’Shaughnessys (O Seachnasaigh) were the chief family of Cinel
          Aodha in the district of that name (Kinelea), being the territory around Gort in southern Galway. They
          alternated the kingship of the southern Ui Fiachrach with the O’Heynes, and became famous in the
          wars of the seventeenth century, but lost their lands as a result of the confiscations following the last
          Jacobite war towards the end of that century.

          The Cineal Guaire included the families of O’Heyne (O hEidlun) and O’Cleary (O Cleirigh). The
          O’Heynes descend from Maolruanaidh O hEidhin, lord of Aidhne, who fell (as co-commander of the
          Connacht army with The O’Kelly of Ui Maine) at Clontarf in 1014. He was the first to bear the name of
          O’Heyne. The O’Heynes’ illustrious seventh-century ancestor was Guaire Aidhne (hence their
          clan-name of Cineal Guaire), last Ui Fiachrach King of Connacht, celebrated for his hospitality. The
          O’Heynes shared the lordship of Aidhne and the chiefship of the Southern Ui Fiachrach with their
          O’Shaughnessy kinsmen, being themselves chiefs of a territory in the north of the present barony of
          Kiltartan, around Kinvara (where the fortress of Dunguire recalls the name of their illustrious ancestor).
          The Abbey of Kilmacduagh is known as O’Heyne’s Abbey. The O’Shaughnessys and O’Heynes have
          kept possession of large tracts of their respective original patrimonies in South Galway.

          The O’Clearys descend from Cleireach, who flourished about A.D. 850 and was seventh in descent
          from the celebrated Guaire the Hospitable, king of Connacht mentioned above. The O’Clearys were
          originally the chief family of the Cineal Guaire, but lost power early in the eleventh century, and by the
          thirteenth century they were driven out of Aidhne altogether. After that they are found chiefly in Mayo,
          Kilkenny, and Cavan. The Mayo branch was set-tied in Tirawley just west of the Moy estuary. From
          there they spread to Donegai, where they succeeded the famous O’Scingins as poets and chroniclers
          to the O’Donnells by marriage to the daughter of the last O’Scingin ollav (professor) towards the end of
          the fourteenth century. That family of ollavs being.. extinct, the O’Clearys inherited their patrimony and
          were granted other lands besides by their O’Donnell patrons, and had their chief seat near
          Ballyshannon, the castle of Kiibarron. The O’Clearys won lasting fame as the compiler, of the Annals of
          the Four Masters and other invaluable works on Gaelic history, the former being the most distinguished
          work of its kind.

          The O’Houlihans (O hUallachain) were originally chiefs in County Clare, where their arms and their
          proximity to Aidhne suggest a clan affiliation with the O’Shaughnessys (both the O’Shaughnessys and
          the O’Heynes had important medieval branches settled in just over the Clare border in Limerick). The
          O’Houlihans were in any case pushed by Cromwell into Connacht, though; some were dispersed
          southward to County Cork, where they adopted the form "Holland," by which name they are still known. In Roscommon and Mayo the name became
          Nuallachain, and was Anglicized as Nolan. The O’Scanlans (O Scannlain) of south Galway and Clare
          are kinsmen to the O’Shaughnessys and O’Heynes, and a branch of them spread southward as an
          ecclesiastical sept, being formerly erenaghs of Gloyne in Gounty Gork.

Ui Briuin
          The Ui Briuin descend from Brion, who was the brother of Fiachra, ancestor of the Ui Fiachrach, and of
          Nial, ancestor of the Ui Neill; all mentioned above. The Ui Briuin divided into several branches, including
          the Ui Briuin Ai, Ui Briuin Breifne, and the Ui Briuin Seola. These tribes, or more accurately their
          respective tribal dynasties, alternated the kingship of Connacht, much as their ancestors had formerly
          done with the Ui Fiachrach (this had not been a regular alternation: Sometimes the kingship would
          alternate between branches of the Ui Briuin or Ui Fiachrach themselves in immediate succession
          before going over to the other tribe). The real expansion of the Ui Briuin dates from about the middle of
          the eighth century, from which time they began to extend their power beyond their various sub-tribal
          centers in central and northeastern Gonnacht.

          The Ui Briuin Ai rose in the late eighth century to firmly take possession of Cruachu and the
          overlordship of the subject tribes, or "alien tuatha" of Connacht. This they accomplished from their
          relatively narrow strip of original patrimony, which lay south of Cruachu in north-central Roscommon,
          and extended over the upper reaches of the River Suck into central Connacht. Their chief dynastic
          family, which was also the chief dynastic clan of the whole Ui Briuin, were the Siol Muireo.dhaigh
          (Silmurray), who derived their name from their ancestor Muiredach Muillethan, King of Connacht, who
          died in 702.

          The Siol Muireadhaigh included a number of very important families, chief amongst them the O’Connors
          (O Conchobhair). The O’Connors descend from Conchobhair, king of Connacht, who died in 882 (their
          name is more directly taken from a namesake of Conchobhair’s in the late tenth century). They
          separated into three great branches, the O’Connors of Sligo; the O’Connors of central Roscommon, the
          head of which family was known as O’Connor Roe (the Red O’Connor); and the Royal O’Connors
          themselves, kings of Connacht, the head of whom is still known as the O’Connor Don (the Brown
          O’Connor). Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, the first to take the family name, was High King of Ireland in
          the mid twelfth century.

          The O’Malones (O Maoileoin) are a branch of the O’Connors, and were long distinguished
          ecclesiastical family at Clonmacnoise, of which several were abbots and bishops. Several of the family
          were prominent Jacobites in the wars of the seventeenth century. The O’Mulconrys (O Maolchonair)
          also are a branch of the O’Connors. They were a great literary family, and served as hereditary poets
          and chroniclers to their clan, the Siol Muireadhaigh. Their chief seat was at Clonahee, near Strokestown, County Roscommon, where they had considerable land
          holdings in right of their profession. A branch settled in Glare, and became famous for their learned
          teaching in history, one of them being described as the "chief teacher in history of all the men of Erin in
          his own time." The family also produced a number of eminent ecclesiastics.

          The O’Beirnes (O Birn) first appear as stewards to their kinsmen the Royal O’Connors, and later, after
          driving the O’Monaghans out of Tir Bhriuin in north-central Roscommon (a rich territory lying between
          Elphin and Jamestown) about the middle of the 13th century, they ruled that territory for over 300
          years. The O’Sheridans (O Sirideain) were an ecclesiastical family who were erenaghs (hereditary
          abbots) of Granard in County Longford before becoming devoted followers of the O’Reillys. Still later, in
          the seventeenth century, the family rose to eminence on the literary fame of its members. One of them,
          Thomas Sheridan, was secretary of state under James II.

          The Clann Chathail, a branch of the Siol Muireadhaigh that gave two kings to Connacht during the ninth
          century, included the families of O’Carry and O’Flanagan. The O’Carrys (O Carthaigh) were a literary
          family of Roscommon, three of whom attained the distinction "chief poet of Ireland," being described as
          such in the Annals during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The family later spread into Longford,
          Sligo and Donegal. The O’Flanagans (O Flannagain) were the chief family of the Clann Chathail, and
          long served as hereditary stewards to the kings of Connacht. They were chiefs of a territory called after
          them Clann Chathail, which lay near Elphin in northeastern Roscommon,

          The Clann Mhaolruanaidh included the MacDermots (Mac Diarmada) and their branch-families, the
          MacDonoghs and O’Crowleys. The MacDermots were the second most powerful family of the Siol
          Muireadhaigh next to the O’Connors, and derived their clan-name of Clann Mhaolruanaidh from
          Maolruanaidh, son of Tadhg O’Connor, king of Connacht who died in 1097. From Diarmaid, the
          grandson of Maolruanaidh, who died in 1159, they took the family name of Mac Diarmada. About the
          middle of the fourteenth century they divided into three branches, each with a chief of its own, namely:
          MacDermot of Moylurg, overlord of the MacDermots, who had his fortress at the Rock of Laugh Key
          near Boyle; MacDermotroe, or the Red MacDermot, who was chief of Tir-Thuthail (the parish of Kilronan
          centered at Alderford) in County Galway, and MacDermot Gall, (the Anglicized MacDermot) who early
          fell in with the English. The MacDermots of Moylurg retained their rank as lords of the territory of
          Moylurg, now represented by the parishes of Frenchpark and Boyle in northwest County Roscommon,
          down to the end of the sixteenth century, after which time they continued to hold considerable property
          as princes of the adjoining Sligo territory of Coolavin.

          The MacDonaghs or MacDonoughs (Mac Donnchadha) are a branch of the MacDermots of Moylurg,
          and were chiefs of Tirerrill and Corran in County Sligo and had their chief seat at Ballymote in the center of that county. The O’Crowleys
          (O’Cruadhlaoich) are also a branch of the MacDermots of Moylurg in County Roscommon, Connacht.
          They settled in County Cork as fighting men, or gallowglasses, to the MacCarthys.

          The MacCarthys were the leading family of the Eoghanacht and were thus the chief family of the
          Cork-Kerry area. Gallowglasses, being heavily armed soldiers (as opposed to kerns, the lightly armed
          and armored soldiers from the clan-lands, whose usual occupation was farming), were commonly
          imported as chiefs’ bodyguards (and to provide a nucleus of professional soldiers), especially from the
          western Highlands of Scotland (the name gallowglass means "foreign youth").

          The O’Mulvihills (O Maoilmhichil) are an early branch of the Siol Muireadhaigh, being descended from
          Maolmhichil, chief of Siol Muireadhaigh in 866. They were originally chiefs of the district of Corca
          Sheachlainn in the east of County Roscommon, but lost power at some time prior to the fifteenth
          century, though they remained common in the area. Branches settled in counties Clare and Galway in
          the sixteenth century, where they are known as Mulville or Melville. The O’Duigenans (O
          Duibhgeannain) were a distinguished literary family seated at Kilronan, County Roscommon. They were
          hereditary chroniclers or historians to their MacDermot kinsmen, and also to the O’Farrells and
          MacRannells.

          Finally among the Siol Muireadhaigh were the Muintear Rodhuibh, or MacGeraghtys (Mag
          Oireachtaigh) , who descend from Oireachtach O Roduibh, one of the "four royal chiefs" under the
          Royal O’Connors in the latter part of the twelfth century ("Oireachtach" means "a member of the court,
          or assembly"). The MacGeraghtys were originally of County Roscommon, where they were important
          chiefs over a territory in the barony of Athlone named from their clan-name "Muintear Rodhuibh." About
          the middle of the sixteenth century they were dispossessed as a result of the first stages of the
          English conquest. However, they still formed a distinct clan in neighboring County Galway as late as
          1585.

          The Ui Briuin Seola originally inhabited the plains around Tuam in central Galway until pushed from that
          area in the eleventh century by the expansion of the royal ancestors of the O’Connors. Their chief clan
          was the Muintear Mhurchadha or O’Flahertys (O Flaithbhearthaigh) who after the expulsion from the
          Tuam area settled on the east side of Lough Corrib in what is now the barony of Clare, but which was
          known after their clan-name as Muntermorroghoe. They were pushed from this territory by the
          Anglo-Normans in the thirteenth century, and afterwards became lords of Iar-Connacht, the western
          part of Connacht on the other side of Lough Corrib and Galway City (the mostly Norman inhabitants of
          that city had an inscription on one of the city gates: "From the fury of the O’Flahertys, Lord-God deliver
          us"—a prayer originally used by churchmen against the Vikings of earlier times). A branch of the O‘Flahertys, the Clann Choscraigh, included the families of MacGarry (Mag Fhearadhaigh) and
          also the MacHughs (MacAodha). The MacGarrys or Garrihys were seated at Moygarry in County Sligo
          as late as 1585. The name spread into Roscommon and Leitrim as well, and in some cases became
          O’Garriga (O Gearaga or O Giorraighe), and was mistranslated from this form into English as Hare. The
          MacHughs were seated in the old O'Flaherty territory in the barony of Clare, County Galway.

          Another branch of the Ui Briuin Seola, of which the O'Lees (O Laoidigh) were chiefs, also settled in
          western Connacht. The O'Lees were erenaghs, or hereditary abbots, of Annaghdown, and produced a
          number of distinguished ecclesiastics. They are better known as a medical family, and were for many
          centuries hereditary physicians to the O‘Flahertys, and sometimes to the Royal O'Conners as well. As
          early as the fifteenth century the family had produced a complete course in medicine, written in Latin
          and Gaelic. They were widely disbursed towards the end of the sixteenth century, and in north
          Connacht used the form MacLee.

          The Ui Briuin Breifne carved out a territory for themselves between Lough Allan and the river Erne in
          central Fermanagh in the late eighth century. They expanded east of the Shannon and into the
          wastelands of Cavan in the ninth and tenth centuries, and afterwards played an everincreasing role in
          the politics of the midlands. Their chief families were the O'Rourkes (O Ruairc), kings of West Breffny
          (County Leitrim), and the Muintear Mhaolmordha or O’Reillys (O RaighailIigh), lords of East Breffny
          (County Cavan). The O'Rourkes were, prior to the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman invasion, overlords of
          the Ui Briuin Breifne in Leitrim and Cavan, and ruled over a territory which at its widest extent stretched
          all the way from Drumcliff in Sligo to Kells in Meath. Three of their chiefs, in the tenth and eleventh
          centuries, were kings of Connacht as well. After the Anglo-Norman invasion, their cousins the O’Reillys
          became lords of East Breffny, which became known as Breffny O’Reilly, while the O'Rourkes were
          lords of West Breffny, thenceforward known as "Breffny O’Rourke." The O’Rourke kings took a leading
          part in the wars against Elizaheth I in the late sixteenth century, from which wars they suffered
          severely. They did, however, retain considerable property down to the Cromwellian confiscations of the
          mid-seventeenth century, after which many of them rose to distinction in the military service of
          continental powers, especially Poland and Russia.

          The Teallach Dhunchadha (Household of Dunchadh) or MacTernans (Mac Tighearain), also known as
          Tierans or MacKierans (Mac Thighearnain) descend from Dunchadh, eighth-century ancestor of the
          O’Rourkes. Their clan name was given to their territory, now the Barony of Tullyhunco in the west of
          County Cavan. The Teallach Eachach or MacGoverns (Mag Shamhradhain, also known as Magaurans,
          descend from Eochaidh, son of Maonach (Maonach was a brother of the Dunchadh mentioned above).
          The patrimony of the

          Note received from Hugh McKiernan
          You may like to correct a small error in the last paragraph regarding Dunchadha. He wasn't an
          ancestor of the Ruarc - a quo O'Rourke - but of the teallach Dunnchadha or Mac Thighearnain line. One
          must go back another few generations to find a common ancestor - Feargna, son of Fergus. Feargna's
          two sons , Breanainn and Aodh Fionn begat Dunchadha and Ruarc respectively, Dunchadha having
          lived and died several generations before Ruarc.. The (unaspirated) Mac Tighearnain were the even
          more distant Clann Fergaile closely related to Maguire (Fergal a quo clann Fergaile was the king of
          Fermanagh) and a third sept, also Mac Tighearnain were descended from Tigearnan O'Connor great
          grandson of Turlough Mór, the high king of Ireland. MacGoverns lay in the northwest off County Cavan, and was called after them "Tellach Eachach," now
          the Barony of TuIlyhaw, where there is a townland called Ballymagauran.

          The MacShanlys (Mac Seanlaoich), long allied with the Royal O’Conners, are of the same stock as the
          Mac Governs, and were seated in Corca Achlann, also called Corca Seachlan, in the east of County
          Roscommon, and also at Ballymacshanly in the south of County Leitrim, where their chief was known
          as MacShanley of Dromod. In Leitrim they were often at feud with their neighbors the MacRannalls.
          The MacClancys (Mac Fhlamichadha) are an ancient family in the north of of County Leitrim, they
          appear from their arms, traditional Milisian descent (see Chapter III) and long identification with Leitrim,
          to be collateral kinsmen to the O’Rourkes of the Ui Briuin Breifne.

          The O’Reillys were lords of Cavan, and in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries they extended their
          dominion into parts of Meath and Westmeath, being sometimes lords of all Breffny as well. They
          maintained their independence as a clan down to the time of James I in the early seventeenth century,
          though they suffered heavily under the Cromweliian confiscations. Many O'Reillys rose to high
          ecclesiastical rank, and five of them were primates of Armagh.

Ui NeiIl
          The Ui NeiIl were the great royal tribal dynasty of the North Gaels. Having separated from the royal
          kinsmen, the Connachta, shortly alter the career of their illustrious fifth century ancestor Niall of the
          Nine Hostages, they set out from a base in Sligo and soon (by the beginning of the sixth century)
          monopolized the Sacral High-Kingship of Tara, which for hundreds of years they alternated between
          their own two illustrious branches, the Nrorthern Ui Neill and the Southern Ui Neill. The Northern Ui
          Neill divided into three great clans, the Cineal Eoghain. Cineal Conaill and Cineal Cairbre.

          Northern Ui Neill
          The Cineal Eoghan were the Royal Clan of the North Caels, associated with the High-Kingship of Tara,
          though in the early period they alternated the overkingship of the north with their Cineal ConaiII cousins,
          by the end of the eighth century they had monopolised the overkingship of Ulster and with it the
          northern representation in the High-Kiiigship, aided by the fact that they had, with their centrally
          dominant fortress of Aliech in northeast Donegal, the strategic advantage, together with the energy and
          will to exploit it. Their original patrimony included the modern baronies of Raphoe and lnishowen in
          Donegal, but from their center at the great fort of Ailech in Inishowen, they soon spread throughout
          Derry and much of Tyrone as well (Tyrone, Gealic "Tir Eoghain", the land of Eoghain, is named for
          them).
Until the mid-thirteenth century the leading family of the Cineal Eoghain was MacLoughlin (Mac
          Lochlainn) of lnishowen; in 1241 they lost a decisive battle to their kinsmen the O’Neills, and
          afterwards they declined in power, though a branch became established in County Leitrim under the
          O’Rourkes.

          The great O’Neills (O Neill) themselves descend from Niall Glundubh, High-King of Ireland, who fell
          fighting against the Vikings near Dublin in 919. His grandson Domhnall, who flourished about 943, was
          the first to bear the dynastic name of O’Neill. They were the chief family of the Cineal Eoghain from
          1241, and as overlords of Tir Eoghain (which included the modern counties of Tyrone, Derry and those
          northeastern parts of Donegal), and kings of Ulster they make a very distinguished group in history
          from the eleventh to the seventeenth century. Such O’Neill magnates as Conn, Shane the Proud, Sir
          Phelim and Owen Roe are all outstanding figures. A powerful branch of the family settled in Antrim and
          Down in the fourteenth century, where they were known as Clann Aodha Bhuidhe, or the O’Neills of
          Claneboy. Other branches of the O’Neills include the O’Branigans (O Branagain) of Derry, who provided
          eranachs (hereditary abbots) to the churches of Derry in County Derry and Derryvullan in County
          Fermanagh; the O’Rahillys (O Raithile) of Kerry, a literary family that settled early in County Kerry near
          Killarney, and the MacMartins (Mac Mairtin) of County Tyrone.

          The O’Cahans (O Cathain) were a great family in County Derry, sub-kings of the Cineal Eoghain,
          whose heads were privileged to be one of the hereditary inaugurators of the O’Neill. They rose to great
          power during the twelfth century, and were lords of Keenaght, being possessed of the greater part of
          what is now County Derry until their lands were confiscated by the English in the Ulster Plantation of
          the sixteenth century. A branch settled in Thomond (northeast Munster). There is a sixteenth-century
          O’Cahan knight’s effigy at Dungiven in County Derry. The Monros (Mac an Rothaich), derive their name
          from a place at the foot of the River Roe in Derry, and according to the Clan Donald tradition, they
          came into Scotland in the train of a daughter of the O’Cahan that became a MacDonald princess. They
          possessed the vast district of Foulis on the Cromarty Firth in Ross, and also lands in Strathoykell.

          The Roses (Rois, Ros) take their name from the district of Ross in northern Scotland, and are
          connected with the O’Cahans by the Clan Donald seanachies (historians). Hugh Rose of Geddes
          witnessed the foundation charter of Beauly Priory by the Bissets. They acquired their principal
          holdings, the Barony of Kilvarnock in Nairnshire, by marriage with an heiress. They may have acquired
          their O’Cahan connection win the same way, by marriage, and may originally have been of Norman
          origin.

          The Siol Gillivray included the families of MacLachlan (Mac Lachlainn), Lamont (Mac Laomainn),
          MacSorley (Mac Somhairle), MacNeil (Mac Neill) and MacEwen, and also the MacSweeneys of Ireland
          and MacSweens of Skye. They descend from Anrothan O’Neill, the Ulster prince who in the first half of the eleventh century married the joint heiress of the Cineal Comhgall (after whom Cowall is named)
          and their collateral kinsmen the Cineal nGabrain of Knapdale. His two grandsons, Donnshleibhe
          (Dunsleve) and Domhnall (Donald) O Neill are the ancestors of the branches of the clan. From
          Dunsleve, lord of Knapdale in the early thirteenth century are descended the MacLachlans, Lamonts,
          MacSorleys, MacSweeneys, MacQueens or MacSweens and the MacEwens. The MacLachlans
          inhabited Strathlachlan in Argyle, and had their stronghold, Castle Lachlan, on the south shore of Loch
          Fyne. In 1230 the then chief Gilpatrick, son of Gilchrist (ancestor of the MacCilchrist branch of the
          family, lords of Glassary—see under Scrymgeour) witnessed a charter granted to Paisley Abbey by
          Laomainn, his cousin, ancestor of the Lamonts.

          The Lamont territory was in Cowall, where they were the most powerful family until the great massacre
          of several hundred of their men, women and children by the Campbells in 1646, an act of revenge for
          the Lamonts’ complicity in the murder of several Campbells by MacDonnells from Antrim a few years
          earlier. After foolishly surrendering their castles of Toward and Ascog (on the southern extremity of the
          eastern and western peninsulas of Cowall, respectively) the garrisons, now at the mercy of the
          Campbells, were cruelly tortured and put to death, and the castles burnt and razed. The grandfather of
          Laomainn was the brother of Gilchrist, ancestor of the MacLachlans.

          This grandfather, Ferchar, had two sons, Malcolm, father of Laomainn, and Duncan, ancestor of the
          MacSorleys (Mac Somhairle) of Glassary in West Cowall, the majority of whom later assumed what
          became the mutual clan-family name of Lamont. The Lyons of Glamis in the Strathmore district of
          Angus descend, according to tradition, from a scion of the Lamonts of Cowall. John the son of Lyon
          (Johannes fihius Leonis) and Hugo the son of Lyon (Hugo filius Leonis) were members of an inquest on
          the lands of Rostinot in 1321—1322. John Lyon had a charter of lands in Perthshire ca. 1342—43 from
          David II. Another John Lyon (or "Lyoun") appears, possibly the son of the former, as clerk and
          secretary to David II. He was known as the "White Lyon," which suggests an epithetic allusion to the
          "White Lyon on Blue" of the arms of the Lamonts, his own arms being a reversal of those colors. He
          was later granted the thanage of Glamis as a free barony by King Robert II ca. 1371—72, and soon
          afterwards married the king’s daughter. This family later became barons of Glamis (1445) and earls of
          Strathmore. Some small broken clans in Angus are recorded as petitioning to "be allowed to take the
          name of Lyon, and be counted clansmen of the Strathmores."

          The MacSweeneys (Mac Suibhne) of Donegal and MacQueens or MacSweens (Mac Shuibhne)
          descend from Suibhne, son of Dunsleve O’Neill, Lord of Knapdale. His grandson Murchadh was a
          captain of Gallowglasses, or West Highland mercenary guards (see above under Ui Briuin Ai), and was
          active in Ireland by 1267. Early in the fourteenth century the MacSweeneys made a permanent settlement in Tirconnell (County Donegal) where they served as Gallowglasses to the ruling
          O’Donnells. There were three great branches of the MacSweeneys: MacSweeney of Fanad who had
          the castle of Rathmullin on a large tract of land in the northeast of the barony of Kilmacrenan, itself in
          the northwest of County Donegal; MacSweeney of Baghnagh, now the barony of Banagh in the west of
          County Donegal, and MacSweeney, Lord of Tuatha Toraighe, or Tory Island. A branch of the first
          mentioned family settled in the barony of Musketry in central County Cork, where they served as
          captains of Gallowglasses for the MacCarthys. They had several castles in this area, and were known
          for their hospitality. There is a sixteenth-century MacSweeney knight’s effigy at Killebegs, County
          Donegal, and another at Sligo, County Sligo dated 1577, but under the variant form of O’Sweeney (O
          Suibhne), which is rare. Branches of the family remained in Knapdale around Castle Sween (probably
          founded by their ancestor Suibhne), and later also appear at Garafad in Skye, which they held for the
          nominal annual price of a salmon as trusted vassals of the MacDonalds of Clanranald.

          The "Clan Revan" MacQueens of the Clan Chattan Confederacy were proprietors of lands in
          Strathdearn, where they held Corybrough, and also in Strathfindhorn. They descend from Revan
          MacQueen, who accompanied Mora MacDonald of Moidart when she went to the Clan Chattan country
          to wed the tenth chief of the MacKintoshes in the early fifteenth century. Revan later fought under The
          MacKintosh at the battle of Harlow in 1411.

          The MacEwens (Mac Eoghainn) and MacLeays or Livingstones (Mac Donnshleibhe) both represent
          early branches of the line of Suibhne; the former were allied with the MacLachlans, while the latter were
          followers of the Stewarts of Appin. A branch of latter family was important hereditary ecclesiastics as
          keepers of the pastoral staff of St. Moluag and the Castle of Achandan on the Isle of Lismore off the
          coast of Appin. Their adoption of the English name of Livingstone during the mid-seventeenth century
          was influenced by the fact that the Isle of Lismore was at the time under the authority of a branch of
          the Lowland House of Livingston (see Chapter X). The difference in spelling is now significant to family
          identification, though in earlier times Livingstone was synonymous with Livingston.

          The MacNeills descend from Domhnall O’Neill, mentioned above. They eventually separated into two
          great branches, the MacNeils of Barra and the McNeills of Gigha (both islands off the west coast of
          Scotland, the latter lies just off the coast of Cowall). Both families were originally folrowers of the
          MacDonalds as vassals of the lords of the Isles (from whose Clanranald branch the MacNeils inherited
          the Island of Barra in the Outer Hebrides about 1400), but after the downfall of the MacDonald lords in
          the late fifteenth century, the Barra branch followed the MacLeans of Duart, while the Gigha branch,
          who also held lands in northwest Cowall, subsequently followed the MacDonalds of Islay. The two
          branches were afterwards found fighting on opposing sides in the clan-wars between the MacLeans and MacDonalds. A fourteenth-century branch of the
          MacNeills settled in Antrim and Derry.

          The O’Creans (O Croidheagain) of the Cineal Eoghain, also known as the Creghans or Crehans,
          originally inhabited the Cineal Eoghain lands in Donegal, but later removed to Sligo, where they
          became wealthy merchants and landowners. They were one of the few early merchant families of native
          (pre-Viking-and-Norman) stock. The O’Donnellys (O Donnghaile) are descended from Donnghal, fourth
          in descent from Domhnall, King of Ailech, who was himself the brother of Niall Glundubh, eponymous
          ancestor of the O’Neills. The O’Donnellys were originally seated at Drumleen, north of Lifford in County
          Donegal; but were expelled from there by the Cineal Connell, and afterwards settled at Ballydonnelly,
          now called Castle Caufield, west of Dungannon in County Tyrone. Here the famous Shane O’Neill was
          fostered by the O’Donnellys, who were hereditary marshalls of The O’Neill’s forces.

          The O’Hegartys (O hEighceartaigh) of the Cineal Eoghain were chiefs in the present barony of
          Loughinsholin in the south of County Derry, and by about the beginning of the seventeenth century
          some of them settled in the baronies of Barrymore and Carbery West in County Cork. The family was
          numerous in the Irish Brigades of France, and several O’Hegartys were, during the eighteenth century,
          particularly distinguished in that service.

          The Cineal Moen or O’Gormleys (O Goirmleaghaigh) were a sub-clan of the Cineal Eoghain originally
          seated in what is now the barony of Raphoe, County Donegal. They were expelled from Donegal, as
          were their kinsmen the O’Donnellys, in the thirteenth century, and afterwards settled on the opposite
          side of Lough Foyle, between Strabane and Derry. They held considerable property until the
          confiscations attendant to the Plantation of Ulster in 1608.

          The O’Hagans (O hAgain) of the Cineal Eoghain descend from Tighearnach, who was a son of
          Muireadhach mac Eoghain, and thus a grandson of Eoghain, the eponymous ancestor of the clan.
          They were divided into two groups: The main being chiefs of Cineal Fearghusa, a territory around
          Tullaghoge or Tullahogue in County Tyrone (Tir Eoghain), and the other being chiefs of Cineal
          Tighearnaigh in County Derry, where their presence is recalled by the place called Ballyagan (there is
          another Ballyhagan in Antrim). It was the hereditary privilege of the O’Hagans to inaugurate The O’Neill
          at their seat of Tullahogue (along with the O’Cahans).

          The O’Beolairts (O Beollain) or Gillanders (Giolla Aindreas) of the Cineal Eoghain were co-arbs
          (hereditary abbots) of St. Maelrubha at Applecross in Ross-shire, as discussed in Chapter IV. They
          were a powerful princely family, and became earls of Ross in the early thirteenth century. Towards the
          end of the fourteenth century they inherited the chiefship of the Clann Aindreas, or Clann Giolla
          Aindreas (Clan Gillanders), a native Pictish tribe related to the MacKenzies and Mathesons and among
          whom they had long been ecclesiastical and secular leaders. At about the same time they were
          artificially dispossessed of the Earldom of Ross by the King of Scots, and afterwards the family adopted as a
          surname what had for some time been the descriptive epithet of (de) Ross. They are also known by the
          patronymic of MacAndrew (Mac Gille Aindreas) from the clan name, while the original family name of O
          Beollain survives as MacBeolain, following Scottish prefix usage. A branch of the O’Beolains became
          hereditary abbots (erenaghs) of the Columban church at Drumcliffe in Sligo, and were famous for their
          hospitality. Some of the MacAndrews settled in the Clan Chattan country, and sought the protection of
          the MacKintosh about 1400. The MacBeolains occupied Glenshiel and the south side of Loch Duich as
          far as Kylerhea. Fearcher MacTaggart (Mac an tSagairt—"the son of the priest") of Applecross was
          created Earl of Ross in 1234.

          It is interesting that the "three lions rampant" in the arms of the O’Beolain earls of Ross are unique in
          Scotland, and in Ireland occur only in the arms of families with ecclesiastical affiliations with the
          Connacht area (witness the arms of the O’Scanlans, O’Horans, O’Garas and O’Kearneys). Even the
          "three lions passant" of the Dalcassian O’Briens may reflect a Connacht connection. We need only
          consider the short genealogy of the Ui Toirdealbhaigh, their late acquisition of Dalcassian leadership
          (which was based on the success of the Ui Toirdealbhaigh against the Vikings), and also the fact that
          a number of Connacht families spread south as either ecclesiastical (O’Scanlan) or temporal (O’Heyne
          and O’Cahill) families. A number of medieval families considered "Dalcassian" are known to have
          origins in Connacht, including the O’Heaneys, O’Hehirs, O’Markahans and O’Kearneys. Though their
          primary identification was with Cashel in Munster, the O’Kearneys also had connections with the
          Columban foundations at Derry and Drumcliffe.

          The Cairneys or Cairdeneys (Cardanaigh) of Foss in Perthshire descend from Sir John de Ross, son of
          the Earl of Ross, who came south in the train of Euphemia de Ross in anticipation of her marriage to
          Robert The Stewart in 1355. Not long after the accession of Robert and Euphemia as King and Queen
          of Scots in 1371, John de Ross received a grant from the King of the barony of Cardeney near Dunkeld,
          in which charter he is styled dilectus consanguineus foster. He assumed the epithet "de Cardeney" to
          replace that of "de Ross" (Ross was not yet a surname), and it was apparently his son William who
          married Rinald MacNair (Mac an Oighre), the heiress of Foss in nearby Rannoch. Another son, Robert
          de Cardeney, was bishop of Dunkeld in the early fifteenth century, and a daughter, Mariota, was
          mistress to Robert II. Mariota gave the King a number of natural children (Alexander Stewart of
          Inverlunan, James Stewart of Kinfaus, and John Stewart of Cardeney) and also had natural issue by
          Alexander MacNaughton, chief of the MacNachtans. This last was Dr. Donald MacNaughton, dean of
          Dunkeld during the tenure of his uncle (Robert de Cardeney) whom he succeeded as bishop.

          Foss was in the Appin (abbey land) of Dull which was granted about 1200 to the Priory of St. Andrews
          by the then bishop of Dunkeld. The MacNairs are the first family found in possession of Foss after the abbey lands were secularized in the early
          fourteenth century. The name Mac an Oighre has a coarbial ring to it (like Mac an tSagairt above and
          Mac an Aba Oighre — "the son of the heir of the abbot"—the Gaelic style of the MacNabs of Inchewin
          in Glendochart, the old senior line of the MacNabs dispossessed by Robert I), and probably refers to
          the heir of the abbey lands of Dull, centered at the mouth of Glen Lyon and the north end of Loch Tay
          (see page 9). As the MacNaughtons were also settled here before they were set up as keepers of the
          King’s castle on Loch Awe about 1250 (their collaterals the MacLeans, who share with them the
          armorial quartering of the "hand holding a blue cross" of the Lismore co-arbial kindred, also returned to
          Loin under royal patronage about this time), the MacNairs may represent a twelfth-century
          ecclesiastical branch of the clan. In this case, William Cardeney’s connection with Foss may have
          precipitated Mariota’s liaison with the chief of the MacNaughtons. The MacNairs remained in Rannoch
          until the time of the reformation, by which time Foss had passed from the Cairdeney lairds to the
          Stewarts. After that the MacNairs are found with the MacNaughtons in Argyle. The Cairdeneys held
          lnchewan (by Dunkeld) and other lands in Perthshire, remained Roman Catholic, and adhered to the
          Stewarts, as did the MacNaughtons, who were forfeited for their Jacobite sympathies in 1691. John
          Cairny, son of Robert Cairfly of Tulcho in Perthshire, appears in the 1678 muster roll of the King’s Life
          Guard of Horse under (the younger) Murray of Atholl.

          The Cineal Cairbre or Clann Chairbre descend from Cairbre, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. Their
          patrimony was in what is now the barony of Carbury, in the north of County Sligo. One of their line,
          Tuathal Maelgarb, was High-King of Tara in 544. But their main representative in later times was the
          family of O’Brolan (O Breollain), descended from Ainmire, brother of King Tuathal, being the son of
          Cormac Caoch, son of Cairbre, eponymous ancestor of the clan.

          The Cineal Conaill descend from Conall Gulban, son of Nial of the Nine Hostages and were possessed
          of the territory of Tirconaill (the land of Conall), now County Donegal. They provided High-Kings of Tara
          alternately with their Cineal Eoghain cousins until the end of the eighth century, the Cineal Eoghain
          being dominant as overlords of the Northern Ui Niell from the end of the eighth century onward. This
          state of affairs was contributed to by the geographical disposition of the. Cineal Conaill in mountainous
          and remote west Ulster. In this relatively isolated position, the Cineal Conaill in Donegal lacked the
          strategic geographical advantage enjoyed by the Cineal Eoghain at Ailech and in County Derry.

          The Clan Dalaigh or O’Donnells (O’DomhnaiU) of Tirconaill originally possessed the patrimony of Cineal
          Luighdheach (the descendants of Lugaid, son of Setnae, uncle of St. Columba), their original
          clan-name, it having been applied to the mountainous district between the River Swilly and the River Dobhar in north-central Donegal: The territory around Kilmacrenan. They derive their clan-name from
          their ancestor Dalach, Lord of Tir-conaill, who died in 868, and who was the first of their immediate
          ancestors to become Lord of Tir-conaill, a dignity continued by his son Eigheachan, father of their
          eponymous ancestor Domhnall. They did not, however, again become chiefs of the Cineal Conaill until
          the thirteenth century, when they rose on the downfall of some of their Cineal Conaill kinsmen, the
          O’Canannains or O’Cannons (O Canannain) and O’Muldorys or O’Mulderrys (O Maoldoraidh). Both of
          these families are now very rare.

          Afterwards the O’Donnells established themselves as the ruling family of the Cineal Conaill and all
          Donegal, and continued as such for centuries, until the final submergence of the Gaelic order in the
          seventeenth century. The O’Donnells, as princes of Donegal, were consistently one of the most able
          families in the Gaelic aristocracy, and not only successfully defended their territory against both the
          English and native adversaries alike, but they also made their power respected throughout the north
          and west of Ireland. Their most famous chief was Hugh Roe (Red Hugh) O’Donnell, who escaped his
          treacherous imprisonment by the English at Dublin Castle (he was rescued, after his bold escape, by
          The O’Hagan, and with the assistance of the Wicklow clans) and later fought at Kinsale. Rory
          O’Donnell was with The O’Neill in the Flight of the Earls at the beginning of the seventeenth century,
          while other famous O’Donnells distinguish the pages of Irish and Continental history during the
          seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A branch of the family (descended from Shane Luirg, son of
          Turlough O’Donnell of the Wine, Lord of Tir-conaill in the early fifteenth century) became established in
          Limerick and Tipperary.

          The O’Friels (O Firghil) descend from Eoghan, nephew of Sedna, ancestor of the Clann Dalaigh, and
          brother of the illustrious and sanctified prince of the Cineal Conaill who established Iona in the sixth
          century: St. Columba (also known as St. Columcille—see Chapter IV). The O’Friels were hereditary
          abbots (erenaghs) of Kilmacrenan in the old Clann Dalaigh country in Donegal. The O’Freil had the
          privilege of inaugurating The O’Donnell as chief of the Cineal Conaill and lord of Tirconnell (Tir-Conaill).

          Also closely related to the Clann Dalaigh, being of the same stock within the Cineal Conaill, are the
          O’Boyles (O Baoighill), O’Cullinans (O Cuileannain) and the Cineal Edna. The O’Boyles were one of the
          principal families of the Cineal Corinail. Originally chiefs of the Three Tuaths in the northwest of County
          Donegal, when these lands passed into the hands of the MacSweeneys, The O’Boyle became chief of
          Tir-Ainmhireach in the west of the same county. This territory was afterwards known as Crioch
          Bhaoigheallach, or O’Boyle’s country, now the barony of Boylagh. During the wars attendant to the
          reign of Elizabeth they spread into different parts of Ireland. The O’Cullinans (the name was changed
          after about 1700 to the form Cullen) were chiefs around Mullinashee in what is now the Barony of Raphoe, County Donegal. Several of the family, sons of the
          Chief, were important ecclesiastics at the end of the sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth
          centuries, Of these, Glaisne O’Cullinan (1558—1584), Cistercian Abbot of Boyle, was martyred (that
          is, murdered by the English) and Dr. John Cullinan (1585—1653) was Bishop of Raphoe and suffered
          much persecution, ending his career as a prominent supporter of Rinnuccini at the Confederation of
          Kilkenny.

          The Cineal Enda or O’Dohertys (O Dochartaigh) were originally settled in Ardmire (Ard Miodhair) in the
          barony of Raphoe, but about the beginning of the fifteenth century they became lords of Inishowen in
          the northeastern corner of County Donegal. Afterwards they were one of the most influential families in
          Tirconnell (Tir-Conaill), retaining their position as lords of Inishowen down to the reign of James the
          First in the early seventeenth century, at which time their lands were confiscated as a result of the
          rebellion of Sir Cahir O’Dogherty. The O’Gallaghers (O Gallchobhair) descend from Maolchobha,
          High-King of Tara in 615. They were powerful in Tir-Conaill, and as marshalls of O’Donnell’s forces, they
          took a prominent part in all the military actions of the Cineal Conaill during the fourteenth and
          subsequent centuries. Many of them were distinguished bishops of Raphoe and Derry.

          The Cineal Conaill in Scotland were known as the Kindred of St. Columba, the great saint who founded
          lona. This epithet was applied to all the descendants of St. Columba’s great-grandfather, Conall
          Gulban, but was especially applied to branches within the clan devoted to ecclesiastical pursuits,
          especially in Scotland. Thus the Kindred was comprised of several early saints, and also of the
          hereditary abbots of Iona, Kells, Derry and Dunkeld, some of whom were descended from the Saint
          Columba’s brother. The Kindred of St. Columba remained closely connected to the Abbey at lona
          despite changes in political control and the distance from the Cineal Conall homeland in Donegal. In
          1164 King Somerled of the Isles (see under MacDonald) invited the chief co-arb (see Chapter IV) of St.
          Columba to accept the Abbacy of lona; but the Cineal Connaill would not allow the Columban primacy
          (which first went from lona to Kells, and then to Derry in Donegal, the homeland of the Kindred) to pass
          from Derry back to the Hebrides.

          The Abbacy was then offered to members of the O’Brollaghan branch of the Cineal Eoghan, a
          Derry-based ecclesiastical family with splendid masonic skills, but their talented representative at Iona
          died in 1203. This left a void at Iona, an absence of the Columban Kindred, and so Ranald, next King of
          the Isles had no choice but to follow the Scottish example at Scone and install a foreign order, in this
          case the Benedictine Order, at lona. This inevitably led to high-strung local dissension by those who
          preferred the native way of the (Celtic) Columban church, which had had hereditary, non-celibate
          abbots of the Kindred administering the abbey estates. Finally, in 1204, the Cineal Conaill, led by two
          bishops and two abbots all of the Kindred of St. Columba, raided Iona and demolished a monastery erected on Columban land by the new Benedictine abbot, and
          proclaimed the then Abbot of Derry, who was a descendant of St. Columba’s brother, to be Abbot of
          Iona as well.

          The Kindred of St. Columba had come into the Crown of Scotland in earlier times, when Bethoc,
          daughter of Malcolm II, King of Albany married Crinan (ca. 975—1045), Thane (temporal lord) and
          (hereditary) Abbot of Dunkeld, and Seneschal (household officer or administrator) of the Isles. Crinan’s
          line was probably a branch of the Cineal Luighdheach, mentioned above (Moncreiffe 211). The Cineal
          Luigheheach were heads of the Columban church in Scotland since the removal of that primacy from
          Jona to Dunkeld several generations before (see Chapter IV). The sons of Bethoc and Crinan were King
          Duncan I of Albany (killed in 1040), whose descendants bore arms of the colors red on gold; and
          Maldred, Ruler of Cumbria, who married the daughter of the Earl of Beornicia, and whose descendants
          bore arms of the colors red on silver (white). From Maldred’s son Gospatric, Earl of Beornicia (which
          passed from English to Scottish control during his tenture, and whose original Saxon House is
          represented in the male line by the Swintons of that Ilk), are descended the families of Dunbar, Dundas
          and Moncreiff.

          The Dunbars descend from the above mentioned Gospatrick, who was also known as Earl of
          Northumbria and who was forced to flee that earldom, but was later given the barony of Dunbar in East
          Lothian by his cousin Malcolm III, Ceann-Mor ("great-head"), who was killed in 1093, Later his line
          acquired additional lands in what is now southwest Scotland. His descendants, the earls of Dunbar,
          thus became the head of an important Lowland family. In the fourteenth century their then chief married
          the heiress of the Randolf earl of Moray, and by 1579 the Privy Council describes the Dunbars of
          northwest Moray as a clan. The Dundases descend from a son of Gospatrick of Northumbria who was
          given a charter of the lands of Dundas in West Lothian about the mid-twelfth century. They became an
          important landed family around Edinburgh. John de Dundas acquired a charter of the barony of Fingask
          in Perthshire in 1364—65.

          The Moncreiffes take their name from the lands of Moncreiff in the parish of Dunbarny in southeast
          Perthshire (Strathearn) on the north side of the River Earn near its mouth. From their arms (coat of
          arms) and early history they appear to be a branch of the House of Dundas. Sir Mathew of Moncreiff
          obtained a charter from Sir Roger de Mowbray, Sheriff of Edinburgh, Linlithgow and Haddington of the
          lands of Moncreiff and Balconachin, which in 1248 were confirmed to him and erected into a free
          barony by a subsequent charter from Alexander II. He also held the lands of Culdares and Duneaves on
          the northeast side of Loch Tay in Atholl, which appear to have been his family’s earliest possessions.
          John de Moncreiff was granted a charter of Moncreiff by Alexander III between 1250 and 1286, and all
          these lands, including those in Atholl and Strathearn, were formally incorporated into the barony of Moncreiffe in 1455. William Moncreiff of that ilk rode with the earl of Atholl on a raid into
          Northumberland in 1296.

          The Clann Donnachaidh or Robertsons (Mac Raibeirt) descend from Conan, bastard only son of Henry,
          Earl of AthoIl (died in 1210), who granted Conan wide lands in the Rannoch district of western AthoIl.
          Henry was a descendant of King Duncan I, mentioned above. The Robertsons take their clan-name,
          which means "children (descendants) of Duncan," from their early fourteenth-century chief Duncan of
          Atholl. They take the family name of Robertson from their fourth chief, Raibeirt Riabhach, "Grizzled
          Robert" Duncanson, whose lands were erected into the barony of Struan in 1451 by King James II as a
          reward for the previous capture of Sir Robert Graham, slayer of James I (see under Graham). The
          Robertsons were a vast and powerful clan in Rannoch, and very important in the history of the district.
          The Serpent and Dove supporters on the arms of their chief, Straun Robertson, allude to their belonging
          to the Kindred of St. Columba, whose name means "dove" of the church (there is an old proverb found
          on the privy seal of King Alexander III, a cousin of the line of Conan, which translates "be as wise as
          the serpent and gentle as the dove").

          The Clan MacDuff descends from Gillemichael mac Duff, Earl of Fife in about 1133. But the
          significance of the name Duff (Dubh) goes back to the line of Duff, King of Albany in 967, whose
          descendants’ patrimony was in Fife (the "kingdom" of Fife). His line, the Clan Duff, was collateral with
          the line of King Duff’s brother, King Kenneth II, and the two lines alternated the High-Kingship of Albany
          until 1034, as both lines had their ultimate origin in sons of King Malcolm I of the line of the Cineal
          Gabhran who had inherited the Picto-Gaelic crown (hence their traditional descent, in the female line,
          from Conall Cearnach, traditional ancestor of the Cruithne).

          Both of these lines ended in heiresses about the year 1034: The Line of Kenneth II ending in Bethoc,
          who married Crinan, hereditary Abbot of Dunkeld, of the Kindred of St. Columba, mentioned above; and
          the Line of Duff ending in Gruoch, who married Gillacomgan, Mormaer (King) of Moray, of the line of the
          Cineal Loam. Their son, Lulach, was thus Chief of Clan Duff (in those presurname times of Picto-Gaelic
          succession) and King of Moray, and was as well a rival King of Albany. His daughter and heiress, the
          Princess of Moray and heiress of Clann Duff appears to have "married" Eth (Aedh, later Aodh, Gaelic
          form of Aethelred), Last Abbot of Dunkeld, who himself was the eldest of the four royal sons of Malcolm
          III (whose father was Duncan I, mentioned above, heir of the Royal line collateral to the Clan Duff) by
          his second wife, St. Margaret, a daughter of the Saxon King of England (Duncan II, son of Malcolm III
          by an earlier marriage, was the ancestor of the famous "MacWilliam" claimants).

          Eth seems to have been debarred from the throne, which could have been because of a blemish (a
          taboo) or perhaps because he was already an Abbot. He was nonetheless the first earl of Fife, probably in right of his wife. His sons included Angus, King of
          Moray (killed 1130), and also Duff, Malcolm and Gillecoimded. These sons had a number of important
          inheritances to consider. There was the Kingship of Moray, and also the chiefship of the Clann Duff,
          and in the male-line, also the senior descent of, or position of precedence within, the royal Kindred of
          St. Columba in Scotland. The descendants of Duff (who predeceased his father Eth) took the latter two,
          as the senior line, while the descendants of Malcolm and Gillecoimded "MacEth" threw in their lot with
          the Moray-men, whose Gaelic laws would prefer the succession of the living brothers of their king,
          Angus, over his living nephews, the descendents of Duff. On the death of Eth (Aedh), the Moray-men
          rose under King Angus and his brother Malcolm MacEth (Mac Aedh) in an attempt to put Angus on the
          throne of the Scots (as a son of the Abbot-Earl Eth, and as representative of the dispossessed Clan
          Duff). This was a reaction in part to the Normanizing influence at the Scottish court of David I, and in
          fact they were defeated and Angus killed by David’s Norman mercenaries. Malcolm (called "Jan" or
          ruler of Moray by the Norwegians) married a daughter of Somerled of the Isles, and carried on the
          struggle until one of his sons, Donald MacAedh, was captured by the forces of King Malcolm IV in
          1156.

          At this point Malcolm became nominally reconciled with the King of Scots, and was made Earl of
          Ross, a post he held till his death in 1168. His grandson, Kenneth MacAedh, made a final attempt at
          the crown of the Scots in 1215, but was defeated and beheaded by the ancestor of the Ross clan, who
          subsequently became Earl of Ross (see Chapter IV). During these struggles, in about 1163, King
          Malcolm IV attempted to deprive Malcolm MacAedh of the earldom of Ross in order to give it to his own
          foreign brother-in-law, the Count of Holland (many knightly Flemings had already settled in Moray).
          Accordingly, the King transported many of the Moraymen extramontanas Scociae, that is, beyond the
          mountains of Scotland into Caithness, which was still under Norse control (Moncreiffe 145). The Jarl of
          Orkney and Caithness at the time was Harold, son-in-law of Earl Malcolm MacAedh.

          It is in the extreme northwest of Scotland, in the district known as Strathnaver in western Caithness,
          that the later MacAedh chiefs appear in the early thirteenth century, and here the MacAedh chiefs gave
          rise to a very important clan, later known as the Clann Aodha or MacKays (Mac Aodha, earlier
          MacAedh), whose chiefs held Strathnaver for many centuries. They were also known as the Clan
          Morgan, Morgan having been a favorite name in the royal house of Moray. They adopted their current
          arms in the seventeenth century to reflect their traditional kinship with the Forbes clan, but their original
          arms were three blue stars on silver, with a hand in chief, that is, the Royal arms and colors of the
          Kingdom of Moray, surmounted by a hand symbolizing "true family." They also share the "butcher’s
          broom" plant badge (a symbol of tribalism) with their successors in the Kingdom of Moray, the Murrays
          and Sutherlands. A branch went early to Ireland as gallowglasses (see under O’Crowley), the name being
          Anglicized there as MacCoy.

          Duff mac Eth himself had two sons, Constantine MacDuff, second Earl of Fife, and Gillemichael
          MacDuff, third Earl of Fife (ca. 1133). From Gillemichael are descended the later earls of Fife (which
          earldom they held "by the grace of God," allodially, and not by feudal charter from the King of Scots),
          allies of the kings of Scots of the line of David I. As the descendants of Eth, first Earl of Fife, they bear
          as a coat of arms the Royal Arms of the King of Scots undifferenced, that is, without the "Royal
          Tressure" (double flory counterflory) that marks the arms of the line of King David 1, younger brother of
          Eth. This marks the heraldic seniority of their line to that of the kings of Scots themselves, as per
          Norman practice.

          These earls were the chiefs of Clan MacDuff, a clan-name combining the sense of "Clan Duff" and
          "Clan (Gillemichael) MacDuff." As the "senior" kindred and also as the heirs of the Sacred Family of
          Dunkeld, these earls held the most honored position of precedence in Scotland, an almost sacred
          position born of their lineage. The County of Fife is still referred to as the Kingdom of Fife, and the
          Earl’s Kindred were legally accountable under a special code of ancient Scots law known as "the Law
          of Clan MacDuff," which meant that they could literally "get away with murder" (for a fee, and if they
          could first make it to the sanctuary cross of MacDuff near Abernethy in Strathearn). The earls of Fife
          held rich lands in the Lowlands of Fife, Stirlingshire, East Lothian and Midlothian, and these Lowland
          tracts were the chief seat of their power, which was centered in Fife. Nonetheless they also held wide
          lands in the Highlands of Perthshire, Banffshire, Inverness-shire and Moray.

          The MacKintoshes, who inherited the chiefship of the Clan Chattan, are a branch of the Clan MacDuff
          (see under MacKintosh), as are the MacBuffs (MacDuibh), barons of Fandowie in the Strathbran
          district of Perthshire (a position they held as late as 1602). Alexander McDuff (sic), brother of the laird
          of Balanloan in Atholl, appears in a list of gentlemen on the Atholl estates who took part in the Rising
          of 1745. The MacDuffs of Bonhard in Perthshire are nineteenth-century representatives of this family.

          However, the most important branches of the House of Fife, including the main branch, the earls of
          Fife, never adopted the patronymic of MacDuff. Instead the various branches of the House of Fife
          adopted such names as Wemyss, Abernethy, Spens, and Scrymgeour. The Wemyss take their name
          from the lands of that name on the other Fife side of the Firth of Forth opposite the city of Edinburgh.
          The ancestor of the family was Sir John de Methkil, son of Michael de Methkil (a place in Fife), who in
          1228 witnessed a charter by Malcolm, seventh Earl of Fife, being himself descended of that house. He
          held land in east Lothian, and as John de Methkil he granted the church of Wemys (Wemyss) in Fife to
          House of Soltre sometime before 1240. His father was also known as Michael de Wemys. Sir David
          Wemyss was chosen ambassador to Norway in 1286. The family adhered to The Bruce during the Scottish War of Independence, and in
          1316 David de Wemys witnessed the homage of Duncan, Earl of Fife, to the Abbot of Dunfermline. On
          the failure of the male-line of the earls of Fife (the earldom was resigned to the House of Stewart by the
          last of the original line, a countess, in 1372), and the male-line of the House of Abernethy (by 1334),
          the head of the Wemyss family became the senior male-line representative of the House of Fife, and
          were later vested in the Undifferenced arms as chiefs of Clan MacDuff.

          The Abernethys descend from the hereditary abbots of the Culdee monastery at Abernethy, and were
          the senior cadet (branch) family of the House of Fife. Hugh, Abbot of Abernethy, died about 1150. He
          was succeeded by his son Orm de Abernethy, who appears as a charter witness for the Bishop of St.
          Andrews before 1162. He may have given his name to the lands of Ormiston in East Lothian, which are
          contiguous with those of Salton, which were in the possession of his descendants, under their title of
          Lord Abernethy (a title which passed through heiresses after 1334, and ultimately to the Hamiltons by
          the sixteenth century). The House of Abernethy possessed the right to inaugurate the King of Scots as
          ecclesiastical representatives of the House of Fife branch of the Kindred of St. Columba. Between 1189
          and 1196 King William the Lion granted the church of Abernethy to the Abbey of Arbroath, which had
          been founded in the early thirteenth century by King William the Lion (of the line of David I and the
          Kindred of St. Columba) as the seat of a new order in conjunction with the gradual secularization of the
          old Celtic abbeys, a task completed by about 1300 under King Robert Bruce. About the same time
          Lawrence, son of Orm de Abirnythy (sic), conveyed to the church and monks of Arbroath his whole
          right "In the advowson of the church of Abernethy." This can only refer to the kind of secularization of
          the old Celtic abbey-lands referred to in Chapter IV, for Lawrence de Abernethy retained the land and
          position of dominus or lord of Abernethy. The seal of Sir Alexander de Abernethy in 1296 bears the
          Abernethy coat of arms, a differenced version of the arms of the House of Fife, born on the breast of an
          eagle displayed (see under Lindsay).

          The Scrymgeours have long been an important family around Dundee and in the Kingdom of Fife, and
          in the late fourteenth century they inherited a vast territory in Glassary in Argyle from the MacGilchrist
          lords of Glassary. The Scrymgeours descend from Alexander Schyrmeschur, son of Colyn, son of
          Carin of Cupar, who obtained in 1293 a tack or lease of the land of Torr, or Torer, in the parish of Cupar,
          Fife from Thomas de Kylmaron (also in Cupar). He held the office of Royal Bannerman, and in 1298
          was made Constable of the Royal castle of Dundee by charter from the great Lowland war leader and
          Guardian of Scotland, Sir William Wallace. He was later executed by the English for carrying the Royal
          Banner for Bruce at the Battle of Methven. His ancestors appear in Coupar at least as early as the first
          half of the thirteenth century, and held the hereditary office of standard-bearer, or bannerman, of Scotland since the days of
          Alexander III (1249—1286).

          In earlier times the leadership of the van of battle, which the Bannerman represented, was held by the
          King’s royal Cineal Conaill cousins, the earls of Fife, chiefs of Clan MacDuff (as descendants of the
          last abbot of Dunkeld, also first earl of Fife). Taking into account the fact that the Scrymgeours arose in
          Cupar, the original demesne of the House of Fife, and also that they long held land in the barony of
          Dunkeld, it seems likely that the Scrymgeours inherited the sacred office of bannerman as a younger
          branch of the House of Fife. This would be consistent with the common practice of delegating
          hereditary duties to younger branches of the parent clan. This is supported by the arms of the family,
          which has the Royal "Lyon" of the House of Fife with the colors reversed (a common early method of
          marking cadetship or "cadency" in heraldry) and with the addition of a bent or "used" sword, as per the
          name. The name Scrymgeour is from the Old French "eskermisor"—"sword fighter" —a descriptive
          name which indicates that the original bearer was a skirmisher, that is, one who fights in the
          preliminary encounters of two opposing forces.

          The task of the Bannerman was to carry the vexillum regi urn—the Royal lion-banner of Scotland—in
          the van of battle. This was an ancient function, for before heraldry came into general use in the latter
          part of the twelfth century, the armies of the kings of Albany had been led into battle by an abbot
          carrying a sacred reliquary, or vexillum. The specific reliquaries concerned here were, naturally, those
          connected with St. Columba: St. Columba’s crozier, which was used in this capacity at least as late
          as 918, but more especially the "Brecbennoch" or "Battle-Victory" (Gaelic "Cath-Buaidh") reliquary of
          St. Columba (St. Andrew was the patron saint of the kingdom, that of Albany and its later acquisitions,
          but the Royal House had by this time long since regained its position as the chief family of the
          Columban Kindred in Scotland, and so St. Columba was of course its patron saint).

          The first-mentioned reliquary probably went back to Iona and then Ireland with the final exodus of the
          Columban clergy from Dunkeld, but the Brecbennoch stayed in the possession of the now unrivaled
          Royal representatives of the Cineal Connaill in Scotland, the House of Fife and the line of David I. In
          1211 William the Lion gave custody of the Brecbennoch to the monks of his newly founded monastery
          at Arbroath, granting along with it the lands of Forglen "given to God and to St. Columba and to the
          Brecbennoch" in return for service to the Royal army with the Brecbennoch. After doing such service,
          presumably with the Brecbennoch, at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 the Abbot of Arbroath granted
          hereditary custody of the Brecbennoch to Malcolm de Monymusk (an estate in Aberdeenshire) early in
          1315 "to be held by the said Malcolm and his heirs on condition that he and they shall perform in our
          name the service in the king’s army which pertains to the Brecbennoch, as often as occasion shall arise." His family came to an end before 1400, but in any case the
          Scrymgeours had long been in possession of the similar but more important office of Bannerman. It
          was the creation of this office for the Fife Kindred (later represented by the Scrymgeours) who already
          had charge of the Brecbennoch, that probably led to the Brecbennoeh being given to the Arbroth
          monks in the first place, as per the King’s wishes. Yet an at least partly aprocryphal story is told by
          Boece regarding the acquisition by the Scrymgeours of the post of bannerman of the vexillum regium
          and their name. In an early historical work, the Crnnikls, Boece asserts that in the days of King
          Alexander I (1107-1124) or, as an inconsistency, King Malcolm (Malcolm IV?- 1153-c.1175), the King
          traveled to Monymusk to fight his rivals for the Crown (the Moray-men) hut saw his bannerman
          "trembling for fear of enemies and not passing so pertly forward as he desired." At this point the King
          took the banner from him and gave it to one "Sir Alexander Carron," who was given the significant
          name Scrymgeour.

          Later in the same book Boece asserts that Sir Alexander Carron won his new surname by going
          forward in a skirmishing party of picked men, with the vexillion region, and defeating and killing the
          opposition. First of all, the date is far too early, as the family of Scrymgcour only held the office from
          the reign of Alexander III (1249 -1216), and the first of the name Scrymgeour does not appear until the
          career of Alexander, grandson of Carin, who fought bravely as Bannerman for both Wallace and Bruce
          in the Scottish wars of independence. It is clearly he that this romantic story is really about, the
          character Sir Alexander Carron being apparently a combination of his name with that of his earliest
          recorded ancestor, Carin of Cupar, with the added flavor of an older "Brechennoch" tradition connected
          with the struggles of David I against the "Moray-men." The story is probably meant to contrast the
          bravery of Sir Alexander with the relative ineffectiveness of those other vexillum-bearers, the monks of
          Arbroth, hence the mention of the relatively obscure estate of Monymusk.

          The Spens too are descended from the house of Fife, and appear to have branched off the main stem
          sometime after the family of Wemyss. They take their name from the office of Spence or Spense, from
          dispensa, Latin despensario, that of custodian of the larder or provision room, in this case apparently
          originally connected with Inchaffray Abbey in Strathearn. The post apparently evolved into a royal
          government office, in the same way that the Stewart or Steward of the King’s household (that is, the
          whole Kingdom) himself became a royal officer of realm-wide responsibility. Several persons named
          Spensa or Dispensa are mentioned as government officials from the thirteenth century onwards,
          including one in 1529 for whom there is entry in the royal accounts of livery for "John Spens at the
          cupboard." Roger Dispensator witnessed a charter by the bishop of Moray between 1202 and 1222.
          Thomas Dispensator witnessed excambion of time lands of Dolays Mychel (Dallas) in 1232. John Spens was baillie of Irvine, 1260, and Thomas de (a contemporary conventional
          form of Norman-French "le," also evident in Gaelic) Spensa witnessed a charter in favour of the Hospital
          of Soltre, Midlothian, between 1296 and 1324. One of these early Spenses was a scion of the House of
          Fife, and the office was probably hereditary in the family for a time. Thomas de Spensa and Laurence
          de Spensa appear as witnesses in Perth in 1375, and Henry Spens witnessed a charter by Robert,
          Earl of Fife, about 1390. Fergus de la Spens held a tenement in Edinburgh in 1392 and John de
          Spensa was a burgess of Perth in 1426 and had a grant of lands in the earldom of Mentieth. The family
          held considerable estates in mid and eastern Fife towards the end of the sixteenth century including
          that of Lathallan. Thomas Spens was an important bishop of Aberdeen in the latter half of the fifteenth
          century.

          Southern Ui Neill
          The Southern Ui Neill alternated the High-Kingship of Tara with their cousins of the Northern Ui Neill.
          They established themselves near Tara in the late fifth century, as several of the sons of Nial of the
          Nine Hostages settled in the east of the territory of Mide (Westmeath and North Offaly) just west of
          Tara. By the seventh century the Southern Ui Neill were masters of Brega (which included the sacred
          center at Tara in what is now County Meath) and were also firmly established as masters of the whole
          of the expansive territory of Mide (Westmeath and North Offaly). This territory stretched across the
          center of Ireland to the Shannon, and included Uisnech, the important traditional center of the Island,
          as meeting-place of the traditional "five fifths" of Ireland.

          Here the Clann Cholmain, a collateral line to the Sil nAedo Slaine (the Seed of Aed of Slane) of Brega,
          established themselves as overlords of Mide under the title of Rig Uisnef ("king of Uisnech"). The center
          of their power was in the heart of what is now Westmeath, and their royal residences reflect this, they
          being either on or by Lough Ennell in the center of Westmeath. Thus there were, through the tenth
          century, two overkingdoms of the Southern Ui Neill, the Sil nAedo Slaine of Brega (Meath with parts of
          Dublin and Louth) and the Clann Cholmain of Mide. The former were more important during the seventh
          century, and possessed the site of Tara, though their princes resided some five miles to the southeast
          at Lagore. Eight of their kings were also High-Kings of Tara, and with this monopoly went the
          overkingship of the Southern Ui Neill. But after the death of their king, Cinead, in 728, it was the
          ClannCholmain who monopolised the overlordship of the Southern Ui Neill (which included the right to
          alternate the High-Kingship of Tara with the Northern Ui Neill), except for a brief period between 944
          and 956.

          The Clann Cholmain thus became the royal clan of the Southern Ui Neill. They became established as
          kings in Mide (Westmeath and North Offaly) from the sixth century onwards. Their chief family in later
          times was that of O’Melaghhn, later MacLoughlin (O Maoilsheachlainn) of Meath (now counties Meath and Westmeath,
          with north Offaly). The O’Melaghlins were kings of Meath, and descended from Maelsheachlainn, or
          Malachy II, High King of Ireland (died 1022) at the time of the rise of Brian Boru (ancestor of the
          O’Briens of North Munster or Thomond). After the Anglo-Norman invasion, the territory of Meath fell
          under the control of the Norman Hugh de Lacy, and the territory of the MacLoughlins was restricted to
          the barony of Clonlonan in the southwest of what is now County Westmeath. They were, however, one
          of only five Gaelic families privileged to use English Laws, which meant protection under the law of the
          conqueror. Nonetheless the property of the family was yet further reduced by the confiscations of the
          seventeenth century, and they sank into relative obscurity.

          The Cineal Fiachach descend from Fiacha, son of Nial of the Nine Hostages. They were a great clan
          among the Southern Ui Neill, under the overlordship of Mide, and their original patrimony extended from
          Birr to the Hill of Uisneach in what is now County Westmeath. Their chief representatives in later times
          were the MacGeoghegans and the Feara Ceal ("the men of churches") or O’Molloys. The
          MacGeoghegans (Mac Eochagain) were chiefs of the Barony of Moycashel in the south of County
          Westmeath, though their ancient patrimony was much greater. They lost their estates in the
          Cromwellian confiscations of the mid-sixteenth century, and a branch of the family was transplanted to
          County Galway.

          The O’Molloys (O Maolmhuaidh) were of the same stock as the MacGeoghegans, being originally of
          the same clan. At some time during the period of about 950—1050 the Cineal Fiachach divided their
          territory between their two great branches, the MacGeoghegans retaining the norther portion under the
          original clan-name of Cineal Fiachach, and the O’Molloys becoming lords of the southern portion under
          the clan-name of Feara Ceall. This territory, called after them Fircall, comprised the modern baronies of
          Fircall, Ballycowan and Ballyboy in the north of County Offaly, and remained in the hands of the family
          down to the first part of the seventeenth century. Many of this distinguished family had friendly relations
          with the kings of England and the government of the Pale from the Anglo-Norman invasion onwards,
          and though several leaders of the clan were active in resisting English aggression in Ireland during the
          Tudor period during the mid-sixteenth century, the chief of the name was made Hereditary Standard
          Bearer of the English standard in Ireland.

          The Cineal Lao ghaire descend from Loeguire, son of Nial of the Nine Hostages. They were seated in
          what are now the baronies of Upper and Lower Navan near Trim, County Meath, and in ancient times
          fell under the overlordship of Brega. Their chief representatives in later times were the O’Quinlans (O
          Caoindealbhain), who descend from Caoindealbhan (died 925), chief of the Cineal Laoghaire in the early
          tenth century. The O’Quinlans were were dispersed as a result of the Anglo-Norman invasion, and some of them settled afterwards in
          Tipperary.

          The Fir Teathbha ("men of Teffia," an ancient semi-independent district covering a wide territory along
          the River Shannon and the north of Lough Ree in what is now the south of County Longford) trace their
          descent back to Maine, son of Nial of the Nine Hostages. Their original clan-territory embraced a great
          portion of what is now County Westmeath and also what is now the barony of Kilcoursey in the present
          County Offaly. Their chief representatives in later times were the O’Caharneys or Foxes of Muintear
          Tad hgain; also the Corca Adhaimh or the O’Dalys; also the MacAwleys; Muintear Mhaoilsionna or the
          MacCarons, and finally the O’Brennans.

          The Muintear Tadhgain (descendants of Tadhgain, ninth of the line of Maine), the O’Caharneys or
          O’Kearneys (O Catharnaigh) also known as the Foxes (Sionnach), were originally chiefs of all Teffia,
          but in later times (after the Anglo-Norman invasion) their territory was restricted to Muintear Tadhgain,
          now the barony of Kilcoursey in Offaly. They were known by the surname of Sionnach, or Fox, from the
          cognomen of their ancestor, Catharnach Sionnach (Caharney the Fox), who was slain in the year 1084.
          The head of the family was known by the title of "An Sionnach" or the fox. It was one of the men of An
          Sionnach that assassinated the Norman de Lacy for making unnegotiated encroachments into
          O’Caharney territory. In the sixteenth century the head of the family was knighted and fell in with the
          English under Queen Elizabeth I.

          The MacAwleys (Mac Amhalghaidh) were, prior to the English conquest of the sixteenth century, lords
          of a wide territory known as Calry (Calraighe) which in its broadest extent comprised land in the west of
          County Westmeath and north of County Offaly, but which was centered on Ballyloughloe in
          Westmeath. This territory was known to the English as MacGawley’s Country. The MacCarons (Mac
          Carrghamhna, formerly Mac Giolla Ultain) descend from Carrghamhain, grandson of Giolla Ultain,
          great-grandson of Maoilsionna (whose name means "chief of the Shannon"), from whom they get their
          clan-name of Muintear Mhaoilsionna. They thus originally commanded a terrritory on the east side of
          the River Shannon in Westmeath, and it is there that the MacCarons, or Growneys (O Gramhna, a
          corruption of "Mac Carrghamhna") are found in later times. Their territory was known by the name of
          Cuircne, now the barony of Kilkenny West in northwest County Westmeath. These lands passed into
          the possession of the Dillons not long after the AngloNorman invasion of the twelfth century, though the
          MacCarons maintained some independence as a clan down to the seventeenth century. In 1578 the
          English government granted one of them the office of "chief sergeant of his nation" along with lands in
          the "ploughland of Kilmacaron, which of old belonged to the chief of the nation of M’Caron."

          The O’Brennans (O Braonain) were once a powerful clan of the Fir Teathbha in County Westmeath, but were dispersed into Connacht as a result of the Anglo-Norman invasion. The
          Corca Adhaimh or O’Dalys (O Dalaigh), alias Corca Adam (race of Adam) are a branch of the Southern
          Ui Neill descended from Maine, son of Nial of the Nine hostages. They were originally seated in the
          present barony of Magheradernon in central County Westmeath. In later times they became a literary
          family of highest honor, and sent learned bards of their name to serve kings all over Ireland. The first of
          the family to become famous for his learning was Cuchonnacht na Scoile ("of the school") who died at
          Clonard in 1139. He was the ancestor of all the bardic families of the name. Beginning with
          Cuchonnacht, poetry and learning became a profession in the family, and he presided over a bardic
          school in Meath not far from, but connected with, the original territory of Corca Adhaimh.

          From Corca Adhaimh, then, the family sent forth poetic professors to various parts of Ireland, where
          they started new literary families. About 1250 a branch of the O’Dalys, descended from Donough More
          O’Daly, a famous bard, became hereditary poets to the O’Loughlins, and settled at Finavarra, in the
          Burren of County Clare. To this literary branch belong the DalIys of Galway, whose ancestor settled in
          Ui Maine (County Galway) in the latter part of the fifteenth century. Raghnall O Dalaigh settled in South
          Munster (Desmond) about 1150 and became chief ollav (professor) in poetry to the MacCarthy. Other
          branches served such great names as the O’Reillys of Cavan, the O’Neills of Ulster, and the O’Connors
          of Connacht.

          Another professional branch of the Fir Teathbha were the O’Shiels (O Siadhail), a famous medical
          family that established various branches in Ulster and Offaly, serving as hereditary physicians and
          surgeons in Oriel, Inishowen and Delvin-MacCoghlan. Owen O’Sheil, the "Eagle of Doctors," was
          physician to the armies of the Confederate Catholics of Ireland from 1642 to 1650.

          The Four Tribes of Tara were four princely families of the Southern Ui Neill, settled in the area of Tara in
          what is now County Meath. They represent the lineal descendants of the Sil nAedo Slaine kings of
          South Brega. From the beginning of the ninth century the Kingdom of Brega had divided into North and
          South Brega, with the kings of North Brega residing at Knowth some twelve miles northeast of Tara on
          the River Boyne, and the kings of South Brega remaining in the vicinity of Tara itself. The chief
          representatives of the original Four Tribes in later times were the families of O’Hart (O hAirt) and
          O’Regan (O Riagain).

          The O’Harts were dispossessed soon after the Anglo-Norman invasion of the late twelfth century.
          Afterwards they migrated westward to Sligo, where they became chiefs in what is now the barony of
          Carbury in North Sligo, where they possessed considerable estates down to the seventeenth century.
          The O’Regans were, prior to the Anglo-Norman invasion, kings of South Brega, and had taken a leading
          part in the wars against the Danes. They apparently alternated the Kingship of Brega with their northern
          cousins, for in the year 1029 the annalists record the victory of Mathghamhain O Riagain, King of Brega, over Sitric,
          Viking King of Dublin. The O’Regans were dispossessed soon after the Anglo-Norman invasion, and
          dispersed into what is now County Leix. Branches of the family later spread into County Limerick.

          The MacKennas or Kennys (Mac Cionaodha) were chiefs of Truagh, now the barony of Trough in North
          Monaghan, but they were traditionally "Meathmen" ("Meath" was an area primarily associated with
          what is now Meath, Westmeath and North Offaly) by origin, and are a branch of the Southern Ui Neill.
          Branches of this family settled in the seventeenth century in Down and in South Munster.

          The family of O’Higgin or Higgins (O hUigin) were a distinguished literary family of the Southern Ui Neill,
          originally settled in what is now County Westmeath. No fewer than eleven of them are mentioned in the
          Annals of the Four Masters as poets or professors of poetry between 1300 and 1617. A branch of the
          family settled early in Sligo, where they acquired large tracts of land in the southwest of that county.

                                   The South Gaels

          Eoghanacht
          The South Gaels were known by the dynastic name of Eoghanacht (descendants of Eoghan). They
          rose to preeminence at Cashel in central Tipperary during the fifth century and were instrumental in the
          establishment of Gaelic as the dominant dialect in the South, much as the North Gaels were
          responsible for its establishment and prestige in the North (without the prestige of the Eoghanacht as
          the dominant group during the critical early centuries surrounding the establishment in Ireland of the
          Church—and hence of writing—the other Munster tribes, being a geographically remote pre—Gaelic
          population, would not have adopted Gaelic as a written lingua franca). The Eoghanacht had close ties
          with the church, and a number of abbots of the Eoghanacht line were elected to kingship during the
          Viking period in the ninth and tenth centuries.

          The true branches of the Eoghanacht descend from Conall Corc, their first great king, though some
          Munster tribes (such as the Ui Fidhgheinte of the Erainn) had themselves nominally tacked on to the
          traditional stem as descendants of Mug Nudat (alias Eoghan) , mythic traditional ancestor of Conall
          Corc. This, together with the fact that Mug Nudat means "the slave of Nuadu" (a divine pre—Gaelic
          ancestor figure) suggests that the Eoghanacht early consolidated their traditions with that of their
          subject-tribes in Munster.

          The MacCarthys (Mac Carthaigh) were the chief family of the Eoghanacht, being of the Chaisil (Cashel)
          branch, descended from Ceaillachan of Cashel, King of Munster in 954. As a result of the Anglo-Norman invasion they were driven from the plains of
          Tipperary into Cork and Kerry where they remained very powerful down to the end of the seventeenth
          century. They were divided into three great branches, the heads of which were known respectively as
          MacCarthy More (the Great MacCarthy) centered in Kerry, MacCarthy Reagh, Lord of Carbery in
          southwest Cork, and MacCarthy of Muskerry in west Cork. The MacAuhffes (MacAmhlaoibh) of Castle
          MacAuliffe in Cork were an important branch of the MacCarthys. Their territory stretched northwest
          from Newmarket to the borders with Kerry and Limerick. The O’Meehans (O Miadhachain) were a
          branch of the MacCarthys, seated at Ballymeehan in Leitrim.

          The O’Keeffes (O Caoimh) descend from Art Caomh, son of Finguine, King of Munster in 902, a cousin
          of Ceaillachan of Cashel. They were pushed by the Anglo-Norman invasion from the barony of Fermoy
          in north-central Cork westward into the northwest of the barony of Duhallow. They remained in
          possession of their new territory, called after them "Pobble O’Keeffe," to the end of the sixteenth
          century.

          The O’Sullivans (O Suileabhain) are also a branch of the Eoghanacht Chaisil. Their original patrimony,
          prior to the Anglo-Norman invasion, was along the River Suir in the plains of Tipperary, their principal
          seat being at Knockgraffon, about two miles north of Cahir. In 1192 they were forced out of their
          territory and settled in the mountains of Cork and Kerry, where they divided into several branches under
          chiefs, the most important of which were O’Sullivan More, possessor of the barony and castle of
          Dunkerron, near Kenmare; and O’Sullivan Beare, who owned Beare, now the baronies of Beare and
          Bantry on the southwestern peninsula of Cork and Kerry.

          The MacGiilycuddys (Mac Giolla Chuda) are a sixteenth-century branch of the O’Sullivan More branch
          of the O’Sullivans. They gave their name to MacGillycuddy’s Reeks, the mountain range in central
          Kerry, their chief being known as MacGillycuddy of the Reeks.

          The Ui Eachach Mumhan
          The Ui Eachach Mumhan (Munster) or Eoghanacht Raithlinn were an early branch of the Eoghanacht
          descended from Cas, son of Conall Corc. They inhabited the territory in Desmond between the upper
          reaches of the Lee and the Blackwater in the south of County Cork, and were thus somewhat isolated
          from the rest of the Eoghanacht, though they were nonetheless powerful. In the sixth century they
          divided into two great branches, the Ui Loegairi (later Cineal Lao ghaire) of the western part, and the
          Cineal nAeda (of whom Feidlimid was king of Munster in the late sixth century) farther to the east
          between the mouth of the Lee and the River Bandon. The main line of the Cineal nAeda gave rise in the
          late seventh century to the further sub-clan of Cineal mBecce (later Cineal mBeice), inhabiting the
          eastern part of the original territory (called after them "Kinelmeaky," now the barony of that name) between the Cineal Laoghaire in the west and the rest of the Cineal nAeda (later Cineal Aodha), under that name, in the east.

          The Cineal Aodha or O’Callaghans (O Ceallachain) later claimed descent from an Aodh (older "Aed") in
          the pedigree of the Eoghanacht of Cashel, and claimed Ceaillachan of Cashel himself as their
          ancestor, though admitting that they took their name from a namesake of his some generations later.
          They gave their clan-name to their original territory, now the barony of Kinalea in the south of County
          Cork between Cork and Kinsale, from which they were driven soon after the Anglo-Norman invasion by
          Fitzstephen and de Cogan. Afterwards they settled on the banks of the Blackwater, west of Mallow,
          where they became chiefs of a territory called after them "Pobul Ui Cheallachain." They held this land
          down to the Cromwellian confiscations of the mid-seventeenth century, after which the head of the
          family was transplanted to Clare.

          From the eighth century onwards the main representatives of the ruling Ui Eachac Mumhan were the Ui
          Loegairi and the Cineal mBecce. Their chief clan-families in later times were: Of the former, the Cineal
          Laoghaire, alias Clann tSealbhaigh, or O’Donoghues (O Donnchadha) of Desmond (South Munster),
          and of the latter, the Cineal mBeice or O’Mahonys (O Mathghamhna). The O’Donoghues take their
          name from their ancestor Donnchadha, son of Domhnall, son of Dubhdabhoireann, King of Munster.
          Domhnall commanded, conjointly with Cian, ancestor of the O’Mahonys the forces of Desmond at the
          battle of Clontarf in 1014, which culminated the Viking wars. The descendants of Domhnall assumed
          for a time the surname of O Domhnaill, but afterwards took their name from Donchadha. They take their
          clan-name of Cineal Laoghaire from Laoghaire, fourth in descent from their ancestor Corc. The original
          patrimony of the O’Donoghues lay in west Cork, but in the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion in the
          late twelfth century they were driven westward from their territory by the MacCarthys and O’Mahonys
          and settled in Kerry, where they became lords of all the country around the Lakes of Killarney, to which
          they gave the name of Eoghanacht Ui Dhonnchadha (Onacht O’Donoghue). The O’Donoghues divided
          early into two great branches: The O’Donoghues of Loch Lein, the head of which was known as
          O’Donoghue More (The great O’Donoghue) and resided at Ross Castle at the southern end of the
          Lakes (the castle was built by them in the fifteenth century), and the O’Donoghues of Glenflesk, the
          head of which was known as O’Donoghue of the Glen. The estates of O’Donoghue More were
          confiscated in the reign of Elizabeth, but O’Donoghue of the Glen retained considerable property into
          modern times, and is now known as "The O’Donoghue." The Moriartys (O Muircheartaigh) are an early
          branch of the O’Donoghues, and were originally chiefs of the territory lying at the end of Dingle Bay
          around Castlemaine in County Kerry. Although in 1210 their then chief, by way of alliance, married the daughter of a leading Fitzgerald, their influence was nonetheless reduced as a result of the encroachments of the Fitzgeralds.

          The Cirieal mBeice or O’Mahonys descend from Mathghamhain (slain at Clontarf in 1014) whose father
          Cian (son of Maolmuadh, King of Munster in 978) commanded the forces of Desmond at the battle of
          Clontarf in 1014 jointly with the ancestor of the O’Donoghues, and whose mother was a daughter of
          Brian Boru (see under O’Brien). They gave their clan-name to their territory, now known under the
          phonetically Anglicized form Kinelmeaky, an extensive district along the River Bandon in the south of
          County Cork. As a reaction to the pressure caused by the Anglo-Norman invasion of the late twelfth
          century, they expanded westward into the territory of their collateral kinsmen, the Cineal Laoghaire.
          Afterwards their power extended from Kinelmeaky southwards to the sea, where their fortified
          stronghold of Rosbrian lay off the coast of southwest Cork.

          The Eoghanacht Mag Geirginn inhabited the district in northeast Scotland between the Tay and the
          Dee, and were especially associated with Angus and what is now known as Kincardineshire (formerly
          "The Mearns"). They traditionally descend from Conal Corc, grandfather of Oengus, King of Munster
          (490), who is said to have sojourned in Albany, or Scotland, where he married the daughter of
          Feradach, King of Cruthentuath (Pictland), thus establishing the Eoghanacht of the district of Mag
          Geirginn. His descendants by her included his son Cairbre (or Coirpre) Cruithnechan ("Cairbre
          Pictling"), ancestor of the Mag Geirginn branch, also known as Cairpre "mac na Cruithnige" (the son of
          the Pictish woman), and also his son or grandson Maine Lemna, ancestor of the Lemnaig, later the
          ruling family of the Levenax (later Lennox). Thus established, the Eoghanacht maintained their
          individuality at least until the reign of Oengus mac Forggusso, King of the Picts (died 761), who was
          one of them, and may have been the "Oengus" after whom "Angus" is named.

          The district of Atholl (New Ireland) appears about the beginning of the eighth century, with a king of its
          own, and this may represent a later patrimony for the male-line representatives of the Eoghanacht in
          Scotland, in as much as they maintained their individual patrilineal traditions within still-matrilineal
          Pictland. That they did so is indicated by the traditional male-line descent of the medieval ruling family
          of the Lennox from Maine Lemna, son or grandson of Conall Corc. The nearby district of the Lennox
          apparently followed Atholl as this group’s patrimony as they emerge as its ruling dynasty in the early
          twelfth century, having been for some time its Mormaers and afterwards its earls (it is interesting to
          note the continuation of distinctively South-Irish royal names, such as Corc among the House of
          Lennox even as late as the fourteenth century). The family, known simply as "de Lennox," held the
          earldom until it passed to the Stewarts of Darnley through an heiress in the early fifteenth century (after the unjustified beheading of Duncan, the last earl of the House of
          Lennox by James I in 1425 for his relationship to the House of Albany). Afterwards, a family of the
          name of de Levenax (later "Lennox"), a branch of the House of Lennox, settled in South Galloway
          where they appear as early as 1508 as followers of the Earl of Cassilis and acquired wide lands in
          Kirkcudbright (Lennox is also one of the name-titles of the Gordon-Lennox dukes of Richmond, Lennox
          and Gordon, descendants of a natural son of Charles II).

          The MacFarlanes (Mac Pharlain) descend from Parlan, whose great-grandfather Gilchrist of Arrochar
          was a younger son of Alwyn, Earl of Lennox about 1200. On the death of Earl Duncan the chiefs of the
          MacFarlanes claimed to be chiefs of the whole kindred of the House of Lennox, as heirs-male to their
          kinsmen the earls. The earldom was granted to the Stewarts of Darnley, as mentioned, and the district
          was consolidated by the marriage of the MacFarlanes’ then chief, Andrew MacFarlane of Arrochar, to a
          daughter of the new earl. Their son, Sir lain MacFarlane, used the old-style chiefly title of Captain of
          Clann Pharlain, and led the warlike clan under the Earl of the Lennox at the battle of Flodden in 1513.
          The MacFarlanes were described by a contemporary as "men of the head of Lennox, that spake the
          Irish and the English-Scottish tongues, light footmen, well armed in shirts of mail, with bows and
          two-handed swords" (Moncrieffe 139). The MacFarlanes had island strongholds in upper Loch Lomond,
          while the chief’s residence was the primitive house at Arrochar on the shore of Loch Long.

          The Buchanans (Canonach) take their name from the barony of Buchanan on the eastern side of Loch
          Lomond. They were an ecclesiastical family devoted to St. Kettigern, their Gaelic patronymic being
          MacAuslan (Mac Absalon), from a local ecclesiastic of the early thirteenth century. Sir Absalon of
          Buchanan (buth chanain, "house of the canon") appears in the early thirteenth century as the temporal
          lord of what were probably recently secularized church-lands (see page 106). As Absalon son of
          Macbeth, he was granted the island of Clarinch opposite Buchanan by the Earl of Lennox in 1225.
          There is a family tradition connecting the Buchanans with Moray, or at least the Moray area. Both the
          name "Macbeth," and the original Buchanan arms of "three bears heads," could indicate a connection
          of their ecclesiastical line with the family known as "of the Aird" (see page 56). In any case, as the
          then laird of Buchanan appears as Steward of the Lennox in 1238, either he, or his father, probably
          married into the House of Lennox, for stewartrys were reserved for younger branches of the earl’s family
          (see under "Drummond" and in Chapter IV). In the early fifteenth century the Buchanan chiefs married
          into the discouraged House of Albany (Stewarts), and thus became the nearest lawful heirs of this
          house; hence the black royal "lyon" in the Buchanan arms—a symbol of mourning.

          Other branches of the House of Lennox include the Leckies or Leckys of Croy-Leckie, who descend from Corc, younger brother of Gilchrist of Arrochar, ancestor of the
          MacFarlanes (John Leckie of Croy-Leckie, the then head of the family, married a daughter of
          MacGregor of Glengyle by his wife, a Campbell of Glenfalloch, and thus became brother-in-law to Rob
          Roy, whom he joined at Sheriffmuir); and finally also the MacAulays (Mac Amhalghaidh) of Ardencaple
          in Dumbartanshire.

          The MacAulays were chiefs of the district along the east shore of Gare Loch, between Loch Long and
          Loch Lomond. They descend from Aulay Arngapill, or Ardincapill, of that Ilk who is mentioned in 1513.
          He himself descended from a long line of barons of Ardencaple (Morice de Arncappel rendered homage
          in 1296, Johannes de Ardenagappill was a charter witness about 1364, and Arthur de Ardincapel
          witnessed a charter by Duncan, eighth Earl of the Lennox about 1390). Though not originally
          descended from the House of Lennox, they seem to have inherited the leadership of some of the earls’
          kindred of the name of MacAulay, for the Aulay is distinctive to that family (the House of Lennox); that
          is, Amalghaidh mac Amhalghaidh (Aulay mac Aulay), son of Aulay, was a younger son of Alwin,
          second Earl of the Lennox about 1200. Furthermore, Alexander Ardincapple, Aulay Ardincapill’s
          representative in the reign of James V (1513—1542), adopted the surname of MacAulay in order to
          better represent the clan at the head of which he found himself, that of MacAuley: Alexander
          Ardincapple, "then the head of the family, took a fancy to call himself Alexander MacAulay of
          Ardincapple, from a predecessor of his of the name of Aulay, to humour a patronymical designation as
          being more agreeable to the head of a clan than the designation of Ardincaple of that Ilk" (Black 29).
          Alexander’s taking the name of MacAulay seems tantamount to acknowledging the name and line of
          the clan he represented, hence the inclusion of his family in the discussion of the Lennox kindred.
          Awla McAwla of Ardencapill appears in 1536, while another Awla McAwla was clerk of the watch of
          Queen Mary’s guard 1566. Getting back to the pre—Ardincapple MacAulay kindred, Sir Duncan
          MacAulay, son of Aulay mac Aulay, joined Robert the Bruce in the time before Bannockburn, and his
          son Aulay "de Faslane" was given the office of Tosheagor, or heritable bailie, by Malcolm, Earl of the
          Lennox. His son Walter was the Walter de Faslane who married the heiress of his kinsmen Donald,
          Earl of the Lennox, thus keeping the earldom within the House of Lennox for the time (this situation
          was analogous to the marriage, some 200 years later, of Mary Queen of Scots, heiress of the Royal
          House, with Lord Darnley, the Stewart heir-male). It is probably a cousin of the above family that
          appears as "Iwar McAulay in Lennox" in 1326. The stronghold of the MacAulays was Ardencaple
          Castle, sold in 1767 and now in ruins.