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Famille Royal de France

1. FERREOLUS-

b.c.390
m. SYAGRIA, b.c.390, d. of Flavius Afranius Syagrius, Consul

Issue-

2I. TONANTIUS FERREOLUS- b.c.420, m. PAPIANILLA (b.c.415), d.c. 475

Ref:

Continuite Gentilice et Continuite Familiale Dans Les Familles Senatoriales Romaines A L'epoque Imperiale, Mythe et Realite- Christian Settipani, Prosopographica et Genealogica, Addenda I-III (July 2000, october 2002)
Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne- Christian Settipani, Editions Christian, 1989


2I. TONANTIUS FERREOLUS (FERREOLUS 1)

b.c.420
m. PAPIANILLA (b.c.415), niece of Emperor Avitus
d.c.475

Tonantius was the Praetorian Prefect for Gaul from 451 and was either related to or connected through relatives with Sidonius Apollinaris and was associated with Thaumastus in the impeachment of Arvandus.

Issue-

  • 3I. TONANTIUS FERREOLUS- b.c.440, d.c.515

    Ref:

    Continuite Gentilice et Continuite Familiale Dans Les Familles Senatoriales Romaines A L'epoque Imperiale, Mythe et Realite- Christian Settipani, Prosopographica et Genealogica, Addenda I-III (July 2000, october 2002)
    Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne- Christian Settipani, Editions Christian, 1989


    3I. TONANTIUS FERREOLUS (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2)

    b.c.440
    m. INDUSTRIA, ?d. of Flavius Probus, Gallo-Roman Senator. d.c.515

    Tonantius Ferreolus was a Gallo-Roman Senator who lived in Narbonne (Narbo) between c.479 and his death. he was also present in Romer in 469 and 475 and was a friend and relative of Sidonius Apollinaris. Tonantius married Industria whose mother, Eulalia, was a first cousin of Sidonisu Apollinaris.(1)

    Norbo was in the realm of the Visigoths and Tonantius Ferreolus likely remained loyal to Euric and Alaric prior to the Battle of Vouille. After the fall of Alaric's kingdom, southern Gaul, including Narbo was briefly under the control of the Italian Ostrogoths. After the fall of the Burgundian kingdom in the early 530's the Austrasian Franks under Theodoric took control from Burgundy to Provence as far as the Mediterranean from Uzes to the Italian border, leaving Narbo in the hands of the Visigoths.

    Tonantius Ferreolus was a witness when Sidonius Apollinaris, then bishop of Clermont, between 461 and 467, sent a letter to his friend, Donidius, describing a visit he made, a "most delightful time in the most beautiful country in the company of Tonantius Ferreolus (the elder) and Apollinaris, the most charming hosts in the world". Tonantius was on the estates of his father when Sidonius Appolinarius visited between 461 and 467. As Sidonius relates, "at Prusianum, as the other (estate) is called, (the young) Tonantius and his brothers turned out of their beds for us because we could not be always dragging our gear about: they are surely the elect among the nobles of our own age". He was visited by his cousin Saint Apollinaris of Valence in 517.(2)

    Issue-

  • 4I. FERREOLUS- m.1. c.530 _____-, 2. Saint DODE
  • II. Ruricius- d.c.507. Bishop of Uzes
  • III. Firminus- d. 11 Oct. c.553. Bishop of Uzes
  • IV. Fidentius- father of St. Ferreolus, Bishop of Uzes and Saint Tarsicia or Rodez.

    Ref:

    (1) Continuite Gentilice et Continuite Familiale Dans Les Familles Senatoriales Romaines A L'epoque Imperiale, Mythe et Realite- Christian Settipani, Prosopographica et Genealogica, Addenda III (October 2002)- p. 13; The Ecclesiastical Aristocracy of Fifth Century Gaul: A Regional Analysis of Family Structure- Ralph Whitney Mathisen, PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1979- p. 274
    (2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonantius_Ferreolus_(senator)#cite_note-1


    4I. FERREOLUS (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3)

    m.1. c.530 _____- d. of Chlodwig I
    2. Saint DODE, d. of King Chloderic or the Ripuarian Franks

    Ferreolus was a senator of Narbonne and father of the Gallo-Roman senator Ansbertus. Settipani cites Paul the Deacon concerning the Bishops of Metz where Agilulf, Bishop of Metz, brother of Ansbert and uncle of Arnoald, Bishop of Metz was referred to as the "son of a senator". Metz was in Austrasia which controlled Provence which included Uzes. Based on his reading of Paul the Deacon and the fact that Ferreolus was associated with the name Ansbert in two Autun Bishops in a Burgundian see that was both hereditary and had ties with the Syagri-Ferreoli caused him to accept the account that the senator mentioned was Ferreolus. Settipani also suggests that Ferreolus married a daughter of the Frankish Ripuarian royal family which had survived through the clemency of Theoderic of Austrasia.(1) Of course there is disagreement concerning all this and Julia Smith states that "The Carolingian dynasty...appropriated the Roman past into its ancestry by a genealogy that claimed that its sainted (and historically attested) founder, Arnulf of Metz (d.c. 643) was the grandson of the (mythical) Merovingian princess Blithild and her (equally mythical) husband Ansbert, hailed as a Roman senator."(2)

    Issue-

  • 5I. ANSBERT- m. BILICHILDIS
  • II. Aigulf- Bishop of Metz
  • III. Babon-
  • IV. Deotarius- Bishop of Arisitum
  • V. Ragenfred-

    Ref:

    (1) Continuite Gentilice et Continuite Familiale Dans Les Familles Senatoriales Romaines A L'epoque Imperiale, Mythe et Realite- Christian Settipani, Prosopographica et Genealogica, Addenda I (July 2000)- p. 221
    (2) Europe after Rome: A New Cultural History 500-1000- July M. H. Smith, Oxford University Press, 2005


    5I. ANSBERT (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4)-

    m. BILICHILDIS, d. of Clotaire I, King of the Franks and Ingundis

    The "Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names "Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania" when recording his marriage. The Liber Historiae Francorum records that Clotaire had seven children by Ingunde, six of whom are named by Gregory of Tours and a marginal note adding Blitchildim as the seventh child and specifying that she married Ansbert and by him was the mother of Arnoul.(1)

    Issue-

  • 6I. ARNOUL-
  • II. Feriolus-
  • III. Modericus-
  • IV. Tharsicia-

    Ref:

    (1) Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude- "Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France"- Vol. III, p. 522; Genealogiae Karolorum I- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. XIII, p. 245;Liber Historiae Francorum 27- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" rer Merov- Vol. II, p. 285; see also "L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des genealogies carolingiennes"- Christian Settipani, in Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval- Katherine Keats-Rohan & Christian Settipani, Eds., Prosopographica et Genealogica- Vol. III, pp. 185-229


    6I. ARNOUL (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5)

    The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Arnoldum" as the son of "Ansbertus" & his wife.(1) The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names (in order) "Arnoldum primogenitum…Feriolum…Modericus…Tharsicia" as the four children of "Ansbertus" & his wife.(2) A 9th century genealogy names "primogenitus Arnoaldus…" as oldest son of Ansbert & his wife.(3)

    Issue-

  • 7I. St. ARNOUL- Bishop of Metz, m. DODE, d. 641

    Ref:

    (1) Liber Historiae Francorum 27- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" rer Merov- Vol. II, p. 286
    (2) Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" Peotae Latini aevi Carolini- Vol. II, p. 143
    (3)Genealogiae Karolorum I- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. XIII, p. 245


    7I. St. ARNOUL, Bishop of Metz (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6)

    m. DODE
    d. 18 July 640 Remiremont, bur. Basilica of Saint-Arnoul, Metz

    Saint-Arnould- chapelle Sainte-Glossinde

    A 9th century genealogy compiled at Metz names "beatum Arnulfum espiscopum" as the son of Arnold, however, this genealogy was compiled from the late 8th century onward to glorify the ancestry of the Carolingian dynasty by establishing their descent from the Merovingians and also from a family of the Roman Senate.(2) The Vita Sancti Arnulfi was written shortly after the saint's death and states that he was of Frankish ancestry from "sufficiently elevated and noble parentage, and very rich in wordly goods" without making any claims to royalty.(4)

    Arnoul entered the service of Theodebert, King of Austrasia as dux at the Schelde and together with Warnachir, maior domus of the palace of Burgundy he helped King Clotaire II defeat King Sigebert II and his great-grandmother Queen Brunechildis in 613. She was defeated, tortured and executed.(1) Arnoul held the position of maior domus in Austrasia and was elected Bishop of Metz in 613. He was advisor to Clotaire's son Dagobert. He was evidently not satified with his position at court and as bishop her was involved in the murder of Chrodoald in 624 a leader of the Agilolfings family and a protege of Dagobert. He retired to the monastery of Remiremont, Vosges in 629. His friend Romaric whose parents were killed by Brunechildis had preceeded him to the mountains and with Amatus establised the monastery there. After his death he was canonized and in French is known as St. Arnoul or Arnoulf or in English, Arnold. He is portrayed with a rake in his hand, his feast day is July 18th and he is the patron saint of brewers.

    Three legends are associated with St. Arnoul:

    The Legend of the Ring

    Arnulf was tormented by the violence that surrounded him and feared that he had played a role in the wars and murders that plagued the ruling families. Obsessed by these sins, Arnulf went to a bridge over the Moselle river. There he took off his bishop’s ring and threw it into the river, praying to God to give him a sign of absolution by returning the ring to him. Many penitent years later, a fisherman brought to the bishop’s kitchen a fish in the stomach of which was found the bishop’s ring. Arnulf repaid the sign of God by immediately retiring as bishop and becoming a hermit for the remainder of his life.

    The Legend of the Fire

    At the moment Arnulf resigned as bishop, a fire broke out in the cellars of the royal palace and threatened to spread throughout the city of Metz. Arnulf, full of courage and feeling unity with the townspeople, stood before the fire and said, “If God wants me to be consumed, I am in His hands.” He then made the sign of the cross at which point the fire immediately receded.

    The Legend of the Beer Mug

    It was July 642 and very hot when the parishioners of Metz went to Remiremont to recover the remains of their former bishop. They had little to drink and the terrain was inhospitable. At the point when the exhausted procession was about to leave Champigneulles, one of the parishioners, Duc Notto, prayed “By his powerful intercession the Blessed Arnold will bring us what we lack.” Immediately the small remnant of beer at the bottom of a pot multiplied in such amounts that the pilgrims thirst was quenched and they had enough to enjoy the next evening when they arrived in Metz.(3)

    Issue-

  • I. Chlodulf- m. Childa, d. 8 May 697, bur. Basilica of Saint-Arnoul, Metz. Bishop of Metz, canonized as St. Cloud, feast day June 8th.
  • 8II. ANCHISES/ANSEGISEL- m. BEGGA of LANDEN (d.694), d. 685
  • ?III. Walacho-

    Ref:

    (1) Frankish Kingdoms Under the Carolingians 751-987- R. McKitterick, Longman, London, 1983- p. 22
    (2) "L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des genealogies carolingiennes"- Christian Settipani, in Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval- Katherine Keats-Rohan & Christian Settipani, Eds., Prosopographica et Genealogica- Vol. III, p. 186
    (3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnulf_of_Metz
    (4) Vita Sancti Arnulfi- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum", rer. Merov. II, p. 432; Die Karolinger- R. Schieffer, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1997


    8II. ANCHISES MARTEL (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7)

    m. BEGGA of LANDEN (d. 694), d. of Pepin of Landen (d. 630) and Itta (d. 652)
    d. 685

    Ansegisel is named in several charters.(1) He served King Sigbert III of Austrasia as a duke and "domesticus". He was killed in a feud with Gundewin. Begga founded the Abbey of Andenne, near Namur in 691 with nuns from the Abbey of Nivelle.

    Issue-

  • 9I. PEPIN D'HERISTAL- m. ALPAIS, d. 714
  • II. Chrothechildis- m. Theoderic III, King of the Franks (d.c.690), d. after 692

    Ref:

    (1) "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, No. 22, p. 22 and No. 29, p. 28


    9I. PEPIN D'HERISTAL (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES MARTEL 8)

    m.1. Plectrudis, d. of Hugobert (d. after 717)
    m.2. (bigamously) ALPAIS, sister of Count Dodo
    d. 714

    St. Hubert of Liege offers his services to Pepin d'Heristal- c.1463 by David Aubert, Bruges

    Pepin "le Gros" or "d'Herstal" was duke of Austrasia in 675 and fled from the palace in 679 after opposing Maior Domus Ebroin (who was assassinated in 681). A civil war with Neustria broke out and Pepin defeated the Neustrians at Tertry, Somme in June 687 before becoming maior domus of Austrasia in 689. He was maior domus of Neustria in 688 after the murder of maior domus Berchar.(1) At this point he began calling himself "dux et princeps Francorum" Pepin donated property to the church of Saint-Arnulf, Metz by charter 20 Feb. 691.(2) Fredegar states that Pepin defeated Radbod, Duke of the Frisians at Duurstede c.695(3) He also subdued the Alemanni and Franconians.

    According to Fredegar, after Pepin's death Plectrudis "took everything under her control". She was regent for her grandson Theodebald, but was opposed by her stepson Charles Martel who she imprisoned. After he escaped he defeated her forces at Vinchy, near Cambrai 28 May 717.(4) Charles evidently had gained the favor of the Austrasians due to his military ability and his ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests.

    Issue- first two children by Plectrudis, third child by Alpais, last by his mistress.

  • I. Drogo- m. Adaltrudis, d. 24 Mar. 708, bur. Saint-Arnoul, Metz
  • II. Grimoald- m. Theodesindis, d. of Ratbod, Duke of the Frisians, murdered Apr. 714 Liege
  • 10III. CHARLES MARTEL- b. 689, m. ROTHRUDE, d. 741
  • IV. Childebrand- Count of Burgundy, Duke of Provence.

    Ref:

    (1) Fredegar, Book IV, 5, "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" rer Merov II, p. 171
    (2) "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 2, p. 92
    (3) Fredegar Continuator, 6, "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" rer Merov II, p. 172
    (4) Ibid- 8, p. 173


    10I. CHARLES MARTEL (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9)

    b.689
    m.1. ROTHRUDE- (d.724)
    2. Suanachildis-
    mistress 1. Chrothais
    2. ______-
    d. 22 Oct. 741 Quierzy-sur-Oise, bur. Saint-Denis

    Map of the Frankish Empire 481 to 814

    Charles Martel "the hammer" was imprisoned by his father's first wife after his father's death.(2) The Neustrians revolted against Plectrudis, Charles escaped and was at first defeated at the battle of Cologne (the only defeat in his career)by the Neustrians but then won the battle of Ambleve near Liege in 716. This battle of Ambleve set his military pattern for the remainder of his career. First, he would appear where his enemies least expected him while they were marching home and far outnumbered him. He also attacked when they least expected, at midday when armies typically were at rest. He attacked them by feigning a retreat to draw his enemy into a trap. This was a traditionally eastern tactic and required great discipline on the part of the troops and exact timing. Charles was victorious at Vinchy, near Cambrai on 28 May 717 after which Chilperic the king of Neustria fled leaving Charles to succeed as Maior Domus in Austrasia. He then turned back and took Cologne and his step-mother Plectrude who he treated with kindness, a rare event in the Dark Ages. He conquered the Saxons in 718 and the Frisians in 719 and captured Utrecht. He conquered the Neustrians again along with their ally Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine in 719 at the Battle of Soissons. He released and recognised Chilperic as king in Neustria. Theoderic, king of the Franks, confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis on Charles' request by charter 1 Mar. 723.(1) Charles deposed Rigobert, Archbishop of Rheims and replaced him with his supporter Milo. Charles then marched against Radbod and pushed him back into Frisia (Holland). Charles sent Willibrod, Bishop of Utrecht the "Apostle of the Frisians" and converted the people. He also sent Saxons back over the Weser, the Lippe and the Ruhr and defeated them in the Teutoburg Forest. The Neustrians rebelled again under Ragenfrid who were defeated in 724. Charles continued to fight numerous battles to assure his authority over the Germanic tribes, fighting in Bavaria where the Agilolfing dukes were in alliance with Liutprand the Lombard. He brought back the Agilolfing princess Swanachild as his mistress. He marched agains Lantfrid, duke of Alemannia and killed him in battle.

    The next problem came from the Moors. In 721 the Emir of Cordoba had built up a large army from Morocco, Yemin and Syria to conquer Aquitaine. The Moors besieged Toulouse and Duke Eudes left to find help. Upon his return he launched a surprise attack and completely scattered it on 9 June 721. Charles realised he needed a full time professional army to fight the Muslim heavy cavalry so he seized church lands and property and used the funds to pay his soldiers. The church officials were not pleased to be sure, however, in light of the Muslim invasion they softened their view. The Umayyads were not aware of the strength of the Franks or that they were building a professional army instead of the untrained barbarian hordes that had dominated Europe after Rome's fall. The Arab Chronicles show that they became aware of the situation only after their catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Tours. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi learned from his mistakes and this time the Umayyad cavalry was ready for Duke Eudes where were badly defeated at the Battle of the River Garonne prior to the sacking of Bordeaux in 732. Duke Eudes ran to Charles for help which he granted provided that Eudes acknowledged Charles as his overlord which he did. Charles Martel defeated the Muslim invaders under Abd-al-Rahman bin Abd Allah al-Ghafiqi, Governor of Andalucia, at Moussais near Poitiers on 25 Oct. 732.(3) Many historians believe that had he failed to win the Battle of Tours that Gaul would have been overrun with the Moors and probably the rest of Western Europe. This battle is considered one of the few of world changing importance. The battles with the Arabs continued and fought off the naval attack by Abdul Rahman's son at Narbonne in 736. He also retook Montfrin, Avignon, Arles, Aix-en-Provence, Nimes, Agde, and Beziers from the Moors.

    Charles extended his sphere of influence to Aquitaine in 736 when Duke Hunald swore allegiance to him and he subjugated Burgundy and Provence in 736 to 738. He also fought again with the independant Frisians and, of course, continued to battle with the Saxons. In 737 he failed to nominate a successor upon the death of King Theoderic IV thus effectively ending the Merovingian monarchy. He spent the final few years of his life compelling the Saxons of Westphalia to pay tribute, and in 739 he stopped a revolt in Provence. He made four dioceses in Bavaria and appointed Boniface as Archbishop. In 739 Pope Gregory III asked Charles to fight against Liutprand, which Charles ignored.

    Suanachildis instigated the marriage of her stepdaughter to Odilo, Duke of Bavaria and after the death of Charles she incited her son to rebel against her stepsons. She was defeated and was sent to the monastery of Chelles, Seine-et-Marne.

    Tomb of Charles Martel- Saint Denis

    Issue-First three children by Rothrude, maternity of next two children uncertain, next child by Suanachildis, next child by Chrothais, last two children by second mistress.

  • I. Carloman- d. 4 Dec. 754, bur. Vienne, Isere
  • 11II. PEPIN The Short- b.714, m. BERTHA of LAON (d. 783), d. 768
  • III. Chiltrudis- m. Odilo, Duke of Bavaria (d. 18 Jan. 748, bur. Kloster Gengenbach, Hostenhoven), d. 754, bur. Kloster Gengenbach
  • 12IV. LANDRADE- m. SIGRAMNUS
  • V. Aldana- m. Theoderic, Comte d'Autun
  • VI. Grifo- killed in battle of Saint Jean de Maurienne 753
  • VII. Bernard-
  • VIII. Hieronymus- Abbot of Saint-Quentin
  • IX. Remigius- Bishop of Rouen

    Ref:

    (1) Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum- No. 93- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- p. 82
    (2) Fredegar, IV, 8, "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum" rer Merov II, p. 173
    (3) Histoire générale de Languedoc- E. Dulaurier, Toulouse, 1875- Vol. II, note LXXXIV, p. 204


    11I. PEPIN The Short, King of France (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10)

    b. 714
    m. BERTHA of LAON (d. 12 July 783, bur. Saint-Denis), d. of Charibert, Comte de Laon d. 24 Sept. 768, bur. Saint-Denis

    Denier of Pepin "the short"- Troyes mint

    Pepin succeeded his father jointly with his brother Carloman they depriving their half-brother Grifo of his inheritance and defeated him when he rebelled. In the division of lands Pepin governed Neustria, Burgundy, Provence, Metz and Trier. Pepin and Carloman had to deal with revolts in Frisia, Bavaria, Alemannia and Aquitaine. They nominated Childeric III as the Merovingian King in 743, however, Pepin deposed Childeric at Soissons in Nov. 751 with the approval of Pope Zacharius. Pepin had appropriated the province of Alemannia for himself in 745. Pepin was anointed King of the Franks at Saint-Denis on 28 July 754 by Pope Stephen III who had come to France to seek help against the Lombards. He gave him the additional title of Patrician of the Romans. During his foray into Italy the next year Pepin forced the Lombards to accept the independence of Rome thus marking the beginning of the Papal State. Pepin captured Narbonne from the Muslim invaders in 759 and conquered Aquitaine after the death of Duke Waifar in 768. Pepin died during the campaign of 768.

    Pepin tried to divorce Bertrada, however, was convinced not to by Pope Paul I in 762. After his death, Bertrada assumed a prominent role in the government and tried unsuccessfully to reconcile her sons, meeting Carloman in Seltz and travelling to Italy in 770. She brought back Gerberga from Lombardy as a wife for Carloman.

    Issue-

  • 13I. CHARLEMAGNE- b. 742, m. HILDEGARDE of SWABIA (b. 757, d. 30 Apr. 783), d. 28 Jan. 814 Aix-la-Chapelle
  • II. Carloman- m. Gerberga, d. of Desiderius, King of the Lombards, d. 4 Dec. 771 Laon, bur. Saint-Remi, Reims
  • III. Gisela- betrothed to Emperor Leon of Byzantium, contract broken 766. Abbess of Chelles
  • IV. Pepin- d.s.p.762
  • V. Chrothais- d.s.p.
  • VI. Adelais-
  • ?14VII. BERTHA- m. MILON, Count of ANGLERIA (d. 800)

    Ref:

    Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories-B. Rogers, University of Michigan Press, 2000- 781- pp. 39-40; Annales Einhardi 741- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. I, p. 135;


    13I. CHARLEMAGNE (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11)

    b. 742
    m.1. ______- d. of Desiderius, King of the Lombards- Charlemagne sent her back to her father after repudiating her in 770
    2. HILDEGARDE of SWABIA (b. 757, d. 30 Apr. 783), d. of Gerold, King of Swabia and Emma of The Alamans
    3. Oct. 783 Worms, Fastrada (d. 10 Oct. 794 Frankfurt-am-Main, bur. St. Alban, Mainz), d. of Count Radulf
    4. Liutgard (d. 4 June 800 Tours, bur. Saint-Martin) mistress 1. Himiltrud
    2. ______-
    3. Madelgard-
    4. Gerswinda-
    5. Regina-
    6. Adelindis-
    d. 28 Jan. 814 Aix-la-Chapelle

    Charlemagne- Albrecht Durer- 1512

    At the coronation of his father Charlemagne was anointed by Pope Stephen III. Upon his father's death he received the larger part of Austrasia, Neustria and western Aquitaine and became joint king of the Franks along with his brother Carloman and was crowned at Noyon on 9 Oct. 768. He and his brother suppressed a revolt of Hunald of Aquitaine in 769 over which the two of them had some disagreement. Charlemagne met Carloman, however, Carloman refused to participate and returned to Burgundy. Charlemagne marched to Bordeaux and Hunald fled to the court of Duke Lupus of Gascony, however, Lupus didn't want to tangle with Charlemagne and turned Hunold over in exchange for a peace treaty.

    Charlemagne married a Lombard Princess, daughter of King Desiderius, however, he soon repudiated her and sent her back to her father and married Hildegard of Swabia. Desiderius was outraged and was going to ally himself with Carloman against Charlemagne, however, Carloman died before war broke out and Carloman's wife, Gerberga, fled to the court of the Lombards with her children. After the death of his brother in 771 Charlemagne ignored the rights of his nephew and became sole king of the Franks.

    Throne of Charlemagne at Aachen Cathedral

    Einhard in his Vita Karoli Magni gives us an idea of Charlemagne's appearance:

    He was heavily built, sturdy, and of considerable stature, although not exceptionally so, since his height was seven times the length of his own foot. He had a round head, large and lively eyes, a slightly larger nose than usual, white but still attractive hair, a bright and cheerful expression, a short and fat neck, and he enjoyed good health, except for the fevers that affected him in the last few years of his life. Toward the end he dragged one leg. Even then, he stubbornly did what he wanted and refused to listen to doctors, indeed he detested them, because they wanted to persuade him to stop eating roast meat, as was his wont, and to be content with boiled meat.(1)

    Einhard also discussed his manner of dressing:

    He used to wear the national, that is to say, the Frank dress: next to his skin a linen shirt and linen breeches, and above these a tunic fringed with silk; while hose fastened by bands covered his lower limbs, and shoes his feet, and he protected his shoulders and chest in winter by a close-fitting coat of otter or marten skins. He wore a blue cloak and always carried a sword with him. The typical sword was of a golden or silver hilt. He wore fancy jewelled swords to banquets or ambassadorial receptions. He despised foreign costumes, however handsome, and never allowed himself to be robed in them, except twice in Rome, when he donned the Roman tunic, chlamys, and shoes; the first time at the request of Pope Hadrian, the second to gratify Leo, Hadrian's successor.(2)

    Charlemagne's military dominance was based on the cavalry revolution started by his grandfather Charles Martel, however, the stirrup which made the lance charge possible was not introduced until Charlemagne's time. His military success was also due to new siege technologies and his excellent sense of logistics. However, the large number of horses used by the Franks in their campaigns provided a quick methol of transport for his troops critical to maintaining such a large empire.

    Charlemagne defended Pope Hadrian against the Lombards and conquered their kingdom in 773 with his uncle Bernard, and used the title "rex Francorum et Landgobardorum" from 5 June 774 and "atque patricius Romanorum" after 16 July 774. Desiderius was sent off to the abbey of Corbie and his son Adelchis died in Constantinople. Charlemagne was back fighting in Italy in 776 against the rebellious dukes of Friuli and Spoleto who he defeated.

    He accepted the submission of Saxony at Paderborn in 777 after mutliple campaigns capturing and converting the people to Christianity in Engria, Paderborn, Westphalia, Sigiburg, Eastphalia, Westphalia, Eresburg, and Karlstadt. He sent forces into Bohemia and subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the Elbe Valley. The conquered Slavic peoples became loyal allies. In 780 Charlemagne decreed the death penalty for all Saxons who failed to be baptised, who didn't keep Christian festivals and who cremated their dead. In 782 he instituted a code of law and appointed Saxon and Frankish Counts. The draconian laws on religious issues did not sit well with the people and Duke Widukind led a new revolt and their defeat. In response Charlemagne ordered the beheading of 4,500 Saxons at Verden who had been caught practicing their religion. This triggered three more years of bloody revolt after which they were defeated by Charlemagne. Rebellions occured again in Westphalia, Eastphalia, Nordalbingia, and Engria which were all finally defeated by 804. Einhard states:

    The war that had lasted so many years was at length ended by their acceding to the terms offered by the King; which were renunciation of their national religious customs and the worship of devils, acceptance of the sacraments of the Christian faith and religion, and union with the Franks to form one people.

    In 788 Charlemagne claimed that Tassilo was an unfit ruler, charles were trumped up and he was deposed and put in the monastery of Jumieges and in 794 was forced to renounce any claim to Bavaria for himself or his his family (the Agilolfings).

    The Muslim historian Ibn al-Athir states that the Diet of Paderborn received representatives of the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, Girona, Barcelona, and Huesca as their rulers had been cornered by Abd ar-Rahman, the Umayyad Emir of Cordoba. These Moorish rulers offered their homage to Charlemagne in return for military support. In 778 Charlemagne led the Neustrian army across the Western Pyrenees and the Austrasian, Lombard and Burgundian forcers crossed the Eastern Pyrenees. During his campaign in Spain in 778 he captured Pamplona and Zaragoza, Huesca, Barcelona and Girona all swore allegiance to him. However, as the opposing Muslims had the upper hand he decided to retreat and as he was going through the Pass of Roncesvalles the Basques attacked his rearguard and baggage train and destroyed it killing his seneschal Eggihard, the Count of the Palace Anselm, and the warden of the Breton March, Roland which inspired the creation of the Song of Roland, the oldest surviving major work of French literature.

    A large part of Charlemagne's success as emperor can be traced to his emphasis on learning. The Carolingian Renaissance saw a flowering of scholarship, literature, art and architecture brought from numerous cultures, especially Spain, Anglo-Saxon England, and Lombardy. He greatly increased the provisioning of the monastic schools and scriptoria and most presently surviving works of classical Latin were copied and preserved by scholars at this time with many earliest manuscripts of ancient texts being from the Carolingian period. He ordered his children and grandchildren be well educated and studied himself, being fluent in Latin as well as a working knowledge of Greek and Arabic. He learned grammar from Paul the Deacon (a Lombard), rhetoric, logic and astronomy from Alcuin (an Anglo-Saxon from York), and and arithmetic from Einhard (a Frank). Einhard states that Charlemagne's great scholarly failure was his inability to write. In 800 Charlemagne enlarged the hostel at the Muristan in Jerusalem and added a library to it. Despite is inability to write himself he encouraged the unification of handwriting under the direction of Alcuin at the scriptorium in Aachen.

    Charlemagne and his son Pepin were very occupied with dealing with the Saracens in Italy as well and conquered Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. Charlemagne had contact with Hurun al-Rashid, the caliph of Baghdad who presented Charlemagne with an elephant named Abul-Abbas and a clock.(3)

    The struggle against the Moors in Spain continued throughout the rest of his reign. They extended Frankish control in the Catalan region and the Frankish border extended with Gerona, Cardona, Ausona and Urgel uniting into the new Spanish March within the old duchy of Septimania. Barcelona fell to the Franks in 797, however, was retaken in 799 by the Umayyads. Louis of Aquitaine marched his entire army across the Pyrenees and besieged the city for two years until it surrendered in 801. The Franks took Tarragona in 809, Tortosa in 811 and brought them to the mouth of the Ebro giving them access to Valencia which caused the Emir Al-Hakam to recognize their conquests in 812.

    Charlemagne's Sword- "Joyeuse" on diplay in the Louvre

    Charlemagne had his sons crowned king of the Lombards (Carloman) and king of the Aquitainians (Louis) by Pope Adrian I in Rome on 15 Apr. 781. He then incorporated Bavaria and Carinthia into the kingdom in 787 followed by Thuringia, Hessen and Alemannia in 797. He assisted Pope Leo III in re-establishing himself in Rome in 799 (after the Romans tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue) and was crowned Charlemagne, Emperor of the Romans at St. Peter's on 25 Dec. 800. The Pope justified this as the vacancy of the imperial throne could not be occupied by a woman (Empress Eirene at Constantinople). Although he probably wanted Charlemagne as emperor due to the religious conflicts with the Empress Eirene and the fact that Charlemagne would increase the influence of the papacy and help solve the constitutional issues of the time. The Byzantine ambassadors from Emperor Mikheal I Rhangabes recognised Charlemagne as emperor, although NOT Roman Emperor, at Aix-la-Chapelle in 812. The Byzantines still held territory in Italy including Venice, Reggio Calabria, Brindisi and Naples. In his official charters Charlemagne preferred the title "Karolus serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus magnus pacificus imperator Romanum gubernans imperium". "Charles, most serene Augustus crowned by God, the great, peaceful emperor ruling the Roman empire".

    Charlemagne Denier- Mayence Mint c.812

    Charlemagne also reformed the monetary system, abolishing the gold standard and establishing the livre carolinienne which was based on a pound of silver which was worth 20 sous or 240 deniers. During this time only the denier was minted. This system was used by Britain until the 1970's, 12 d to the shilling, 20 shillings to the pound. Charlemagne also instituted the Capitulare de Villis of 802 which laid down strict rules of accounting practices in which income and expenses were recorded. Lending of money for interest was prohibited. He also carried out a number of microeconomic reforms including direct control of prices and levies on certain goods and commodities. King Offa of Mercia adopted similar reforms and after Charlemagne's death the continental coinage degraded and most of Europe used the high quality English coins until about 1100.

    Charlemagne also was involved in suduing the Huns or Avars of Hungary starting in 788. He marched down the Danube into their territory and ravaged it to the Raab. A Lombard army under Pepin marched into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia. The great Ring of the Avars, their chief fortress, was taken twice and the booty sent to Aachen and redistributed throughout the realm. Soon the Avars surrendered and went to Aachen to subject themselves to Charlemagne as his vassals and became Christians. One chief, baptised Abraham was given the ancient title Khagan and sent back to Avaria however, in 800 the Bulgarians under Khan Krum conquered the Avar state. The Pannonian Croats under Duke Vojnomir aided Charlemagne in his wars against the Avars and the Franks made themselves overloards of the Croatians of northern Dalmatia, Slavonia and Pannonia.

    At the assembly of Thionville on 6 Feb. 806 Charlemagne decided the division of his lands amongst his sons. Charlemagne kept his daughters at the court at Aix-la-Chapelle refusing to let them marry. Bertha was banished from the court by her brother Louis upon his accession to the throne. Charlemagne banished his son, Pepin the Hunchback, to the monastery of Prum in 792 due to insubordination. After the death of his two older sons he made Louis the Pious associate emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle on 11 Sept. 813. Louis went back to Aquitaine and Charlemagne spent the fall hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 Nov. In Jan. he fell ill with pleurisy and took to his bed on 21 Jan. and died on the 28th after taking communion. He was buried on the same day in Aachen Cathedral.

    The "Planctus de Obitu Karoli" or "Lament on the Death of Charles" was written by a monk of Bobbio at the time of his death:

    1. From the rising of the sun to the sea-shores
    where it sets, lamentation beats upon the hearts of men.
    Alas for me in my misery!

    2. Beyond the ocean-reaches men have been touched
    by immense sadness and extreme sorrow.
    Alas for me in my misery!

    3. The Franks, the Romans and all believers
    are tormented by grief and great distress.
    Alas for me in my misery!

    4. Children, old men, glorious bishops
    and matrons lament the loss of the emperor.
    Alas for me in my misery!

    5. Rivers of tears are now endless,
    for the world bewails the death of Charlemagne.
    Alas for me in my misery!

    17. O Columbanus, hold back your tears,
    pour forth prayers on his behalf to the Lord—
    Alas for me in my misery!

    18. so that the father of all, lord of mercy,
    may grant Charlemagne a place of great splendour!
    Alas for me in my misery!

    19. O God of the hosts of all mankind
    and of the heavens, lord over hell—
    Alas for me in my misery!

    20. O Christ, receive into your holy dwelling
    among your apostles the pious Charlemagne!
    Alas for me in my misery!

    The Shroud of Charlemagne- Byzantine

    Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen during the reign of Otto III claimed that he and the Emperor Otto opened Charlemagne's tomb and found the emperoro seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre. In 1165 Frederick I opened the tomb and put the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the cathedral. In 1215 Frederick II re-interred him in a casket of gold and silver.

    Charlemagne's Tomb- commissioned by Frederick II

    The beatification of Charlemagne has been acknowledged by the church and is celebrated on 28 Jan. In Dante's Divine Comedy the spirit of Charlemagne appears to Dante in the Heaven of Mars among the other "warriors of the faith".

    And of course Indiana Jones in "The Last Crusade" after using his umbrella to cause a flock of gulls to smash through the glass cockpit of the German fighter in pursuit states: "I suddenly remembered my Charlemagne: 'Let my armies be the rocks and the trees and the birds in the sky'"... unfortunately, there is no evidence that Charlemagne actually said this.

    Issue-First nine children by Hildegarde, next two children by Fastrada, next child by Himiltrude, next by his second mistress, next child by Madelgard, next child by Gerswinda, next two children by Regina, last child by Adalindis.

  • I. Charles- d.s.p. 4 Dec. 811
  • II. Adelais- d.s.p. 774 Italy
  • III. Hrothrudis/Rotrud- betrothed to Emperor Constantine VI, contract broken 787, mistress of Rorico (d. after 1 Mar. 839/40), d. 6 June 810
  • 16IV. PEPIN/CARLOMAN of ITALY- b.c.777, d. 8 July 810, Milan
  • 15V. LOUIS/HLUDOWIC- b. 778, m. JUDITH of ANDECH, d. 834
  • VI. Lothair- d.s.p.780
  • 17VII. BERTHA/BERTRADA- b. 776, m. ANGILBERT "the Saint", Count of PONTHIEU, (d. 18 Feb. 814, bur. Eglise du Saint-Sauveur et Saint-Richard, Saint-Riquier), d. 826
  • VIII. Gisela- d. after 814
  • IX. Hidegard- d. June 783, bur. Saint-Arnoul, Metz
  • X. Theodrada- Abbess of Notre-Dame d'Argenteuil and Abbess of Zurich
  • XI. Hiltrud- ?mistress of Richwin, Count of Padua
  • XII. Pepin- d. 811 Abbey of Prum
  • XIII. Chrothais- d. after 814
  • XIV. Rothildis- Abbess of Faremoutiers
  • XV. Adaltrud-
  • XVI. Drogo- d. 8 Dec. 855 Bourgogne, bur. Saint-Arnoul, Metz. Bishop of Metz
  • XVII. Hugo- killed in the battle of Angouleme 14 June 844. Hugo was a monk at Charroux, abbé de Saint-Quentin, Abbé de Lobbes, Abbé de Saint-Bertin, Abbé de Noaillé, Arch-chancellor to Emperor Louis I and Arch-chaplain to Charles "le Chauve".
  • XVIII. Theoderic- d after 818

    Ref:

    (1) Charlemagne: Father of a Continent- Alessandro Barbero, translated by Allan Cameron- University of California Press, Berkeley, 2004- p. 116
    (2) Ibid
    (3) When Worlds Collide: Exploring the Ideological and Political Foundations of the Clash of Civilizations- Gene W. Heck, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007- p. 172
    Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories-B. Rogers, University of Michigan Press, 2000- 781- pp. 40-7


    15I. LOUIS I, King of France (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12)

    b. 778 Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, Vienne
    m.1. IRMENGARDE of HASBAYE (d. 818)
    2. JUDITH OF ANDECH (b. 800, d. 843), d. of Guelph, Count of Andech and Edith of Saxony
    mistress- Theodelinde of Sens
    d. 20 June 840 Ingelheim, bur. Metz, eglise abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul

    Louis the Pious c.826 depicted as a Miles Christi (Soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus

    During his reign as King of Aquitaine (he was crowned as a child in 781) he spent his time defending the Empire's southwestern frontier. In 794 Charlemagne gave four Gallo-Roman villas to Louis, Doue-la-Fontaine in Anjou, Ebreuil in Allier, Angeac-Charente and Cassinogilum. Charlemagne wanted his sons to be brought up as natives in their respective territories, wearing the national dress of the area and ruling by the local customs. He re-took Barcelona from the Moors in 801 and also re-establised Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques region south of the Pyrenees in 813. In addition to Aquitaine, Charlemagne added Septimania, Provence and part of Burgundy to Louis' kingdom.

    Louis succeeded in 814 as Emperor Louis I "der Fromme/le Pieux". Upon hearing of his father's death, Louis hurried to Aachen and crowned himself and proclaimed Imperator Ludovicus. Hludowic did not use the titles King of the Franks or King of Italy in order to emphasise the unity of the empire. He was crowned again in 816 by Pope Stephen IV when he visited Reims.

    Louis quickly enacted a "moral purge" in which he sent all his unmarried sisters to nunneries to avoid any problems that a powerful brother-in-law might cause. He sent his father's cousins Adalard and Wala to the monasteries of Noirmoutier and Corbie.

    Louis' chief counsellors included some of his father's ministers such as Elisachar, Abbot of St. Maximin near Trier and Hildebold, Archbishop of Cologne, he also received counsel from Bernard, Margrave of Septimania and Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims. He also reformed the Frankish church with the help of Benedict of Aniane ensuring that all religious houses in the realm adhered to the Rule of Saint Benedict.

    Denier of Louis the Pious

    He issued the Ordinatio Imperii at Worms in 817 which laid out plans for an orderly succession. Lothair was proclaimed and crowned co-emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle by his father and would be overlord; Bernard, son of Charlemagne's son Pepin of Italy, was confirmed as King of Italy; Pepin was made King of Aquitaine, including Gascony, the march around Toulouse, Carcassonne, Autun, Avallon and Nevers; Louis, the youngest son was made King of Bavaria. If one of the subordinate kings died was was to be succeeded by on on his sons, if he died without children Lothair would inherit his kingdom. If Lothair died without any sons, one of the younger brothers would be chosen by the people to replace him. His nephew Bernard, King of Italy was left in an uncertain and subordinate position in the Ordinatio Imperii and thus rebelled against his uncle. Bernard was intimidated by his uncle's quick action and met Louis at Chalon and surrendered. He was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle where he was tried and condemned for treason, however, Louis communted the sentence to blinding which was carried out, however, Bernard did not survive the ordeal and died after two days of agony. Theodulf of Orleans was also accused of having supported the rebellion and was thrown into a monastic prison where he was poisoned. The brutal treatment of Bernard caused Louis to atone in a public act of self-debasement in 822 before Pope Paschal I and a council of ecclesiastics and nobles who had been convened for the reconciliation of Louis with his three younger half-brothers, Hugo, who was made Abbot of St.-Quentin, Drogo, who was made Bishop of Metz, and Theodoric. This act of contrition had the effect of greatly reducing Louis' prestige as ruler for he also recited a list of minor offences which no ruler at the time would have taken any notice and he made the error of releasing Wala and Adalard from their monastic confinements.

    Denier of Louis the Pious- Sens mint c.820

    Louis also had to contend with being harrassed on his borders by the Danes, Obotrites, Slovenes, Bretons, Basques, Sorbs, Pannonia, Bulgarians, Beneventoans, and Gascons.

    After the death of Ermengarde, Louis re-married Judith, daughter of Welf, Count of Altdorf and had a son Charles, born in 823. Attempts by Louis to provide for his fourth son met with resistance from his older sons and led to many years of civil war. In 829 Louis gave Charles Alemannia, part of Lothair's territory. Lothair, with the urging of Wala and the help of his brothers, he accused his step-mother Judith of adultery with Bernard of Septimania. Ebbo and Hildwin abandoned the emperor at this point, Agobard, Archbishop of Lyon and Jesse, Bishop of Amiens also joined the rebels. In 830 Wala insisted the Bernard of Septimania was plotting against them and Pepin of Aquitaine led an army to Paris. At Verberie, Louis the German joined him. Louis the Pious returned from a campaign in Brittany and got as far as Compiegne before being surrounded by Pepin's army and captured. Judith was locked up at Poitiers and Bernard fled to Barcelona. Lothair set out with a large army, but, Louis promised Louis the German and Pepin of Aquitaine a greater share of the inheritance which prompted them to shift loyalties in favor of their father. When Lothair called a general council of the realm at Nijmegen the Austrasians and Rhinelanders came forth with any army and the disloyal sons were forced to free their father. Lothair was pardoned, but in disgrace was banished to Italy. Pepin returned to Aquitaine and poor Judith was forced to humiliate herself with a solemn oath of innocence and returned to Louis' court. Wala was sent back to a secluded monastery on Lake Geneva, Hilduin, Abbot of Saint Denis was exiled to Paderborn and Elisachar and Matfrid were deprived of their honors.

    Scene two began only two years later when Pepin was summoned to his father's court where he was so poorly received that he left against his father's orders. Suspecting that Pepin was starting an uprising and desiring to reform Pepin's morals, Louis sent his army to Aquitaine, BUT, Louis the German sent his army of Slav allies and conquered Swabia before the emperor could react. Again Louis re-divided his kingdom and declared Charles, King of Aquitaine and deprived Pepin, retored the rest of the empire to Lothair. Lothair had not yet become involved in this squabble, however, he was interested in usurping his father's authority and his ministers had been in contact with Pepin and may have convinced him and Louis the German to rebel, promising him Charles' kingdom of Alemannia. Lothair, with the support of Pope Gregory IV, joined the revolt in 833. Louis was at Worms putting together a new army and Lothair marched north. The armies met on the plains of Rothfeld. There Pope Gregory met the emperor and sowed dissension in the ranks so much so that Louis' army evaporated and he ordered his few remaining followers to go because "it would be a pity if any man lost his life or limb on my account". The emperor was taken to Saint Medard at Soissons, his son Charles to Prum, and the queen to Tortona. The horrible show of disloyalty earned the site the name Field of Lies or Lugenfeld. On 13 Nov. 833 Ebbo of Rheims presided over a synod at the Church of Sainte-Marie in Soissons which deposed Louis and forced him to publicly confess to crimes he never committed. In return Lothair gave Ebbo the Abbey of Saint Vaast. Rabanus Maurus, Louis' younger half-brothers Drogo and Hugh, and Judith's sister Emma, Louis the German's new wife, urged the younger Louis to make peace with his father for the good of the empire. The humiliation to which Louis the Pious was subjected turned the loyal barons of Austrasia and Saxony against Lothair who was forced to flee to Burgundy and Louis the Pious was restored on 1 Mar. 834. On Lothair's return to Italy, Wala, Jesse, and Matfrid, count of Orleans, died of a pestilence and on 2 Feb. 835 the Synod of Thionville deposed Ebbo, Agobard, Bernard, Bishop of Vienne and Bartholomew, Archbishop of Narbonne. In 836 the family made peace and Louis restored Pepin and Louis the German and deprived Lothair of everything except Italy and gave it to Charles in a new division at the diet of Cremieu.

    While all this was going on the Vikings terrorised and sacked Utrecht and Antwerp and went up the Rhine as far as Nijmegen with their King Rorik demanding wergild. Louis sent a massive force and they fled, however, they of course, would be back.

    And the family squabbles continued in 837 when Louis crowned Charles King over all of Alemannia and Burgundy and gave him a part of Louis the German's lands. Young Louis promptly revolted and the emperor redivided the realm again at Quierzy-sur-Oise giving all the King of Bavaria's land, except Bavaria itself, to Charles. When Pepin died in 838 Louis declared Charles King of Aquitaine. The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II starting civil war number III. The spring of 839 saw Louis the German invading Swabia, Pepin II and his army fighting all the way to the Loire and the Danes returned to ravage the Frisian coast. Lothair threw in his towel with his father and pledged his support at Worms in exchange, of course, of a re-division of the inheritance. Louis gave Bavaria to Louis the German and disinherited Pepin II and left the remainder of the empire to be divided into eastern and western parts with Lothair chosing the eastern, leaving the western to Charles. Louis quickly conquered Aquitaine and had Charles installed at Clermont-en-Auvergne in 840. Louis then went to Bavaria and forced the younger Louis into the Ostmark. He finally returned to Frankfurt am Main in July and disbanded his army, the final civil war was over. Louis promptly fell ill and went to his summer hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine near Ingleheim and died on 20 June 840. He was buried in Saint-Pierre aux Nonnains in Metz.

    Sesquisolidus of Louis the Pious

    Issue- first six children by Irmengarde, next two by Judith, last two by Theodelinde

  • 50I. LOTHAIR- b.c.795, m. IRMENGARD, Comtesse de Tours, d. 29 Sept. 855 Pruem, Rheinland
  • II. Pepin- m. Ingeltrude, d. of Theodobert, Count of Madrie, d. 13 Dec. 838, bur. Sainte-Croix, Poitiers
  • III. Adelaide-
  • IV. Rotrude- m. Gerard
  • V. Hildegard/Matilda- m. Gerard, Count of Auvergne
  • 16VI. LOUIS- b. 806, m. EMMA of ANDECH, d. 876. King of Germany
  • 17VII. CHARLES- b. 823, d. 877
  • 18VIII. GISELA- m. EVERHARD, Count of FRIULI, d. 876
  • IX. Arnulf of Sens-
  • X. Alpais-

    Ref:

    Vita Hludovici Imperatoris- anonymous, c. 840- see text at: http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/~db/bsb00000712/images/index.html?id=00000712&seite=292
    Prosopographie de l'Entourage de Louis le Pieux (781-840)- Philippe Depreux, Thorbecke, Sigmaringen, 1997
    Charlemagne's Heir. New perspectives on the reign of Louis the Pious (814-840)- Peter Godman & Roger Collins, Eds., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990
    Past Convictions : The Penance of Louis the Pious and the Decline of the Carolingians- Courtney Booker, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009


    16I. LOUIS the German (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13)

    b. 806
    m. EMMA of ANDECH (d. 31 Jan. 876, bur. Regensburg, St. Emmeran), d. of Guelph/Welf, Count of Altdorf and Edith/Heilwig of Saxony
    d. 28 Aug. 876 Frankfurt-am-Main, bur. Kloster Lorsch

    Seal of Louis the German

    Louis was involved in the family squabbles with his father and brothers in the rebellions in 831 and 833. In the settlement of 833 he received Alemannia, Alsace, and Rhetia as well as Thuringia and Saxony. However, his father obliged his to leave these territories in 839 and confined his rule once more to Bavaria. After his father's death in 840 and the assession of his brother Lothaire as emperor he allied himself with his brother Charles "le Chauve" and they defeated Lothaire and their nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre on 25 June 841. In June 842 the three brothers met on an island in the Saone to negotiate a peace and each appointed 40 representatives to finalize the boundaries of their kingdoms. Under the division of land by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug. 843 Louis became Ludwig II "der Deutsche", King of the East Franks.

    In addition to the family feuds Louis had to crush a rebellion of the stellinga in Saxony in 842, of the Obotrites in 844 and had campaigns against the Bohemians, Moravians and had to deal with the Vikings.

    When Charles "le Chauve" was faced with rebellion against his cruel misrule and again his brother invaded his kingdom in Aug. 858 but was defeated on 15 Jan. 859 in Laonnais and had to withdraw. In 865 he agreed with Charles "le Chauve" to the future division of the lands of Lothaire II, King of Lotharingia, however, upon Lothaire's death in 869 Charles invaded Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights (his army was fighting the Moravians). A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug. 870 where Ludwig received Alsace and some other territory along the Rhine and succeeded as Louis I, King of the East Lotharingia.

    The last years of Louis the German was troubled by rebellion by his sons, Carloman in 861, and in 863 his son Louis joined by his brother Charles. In 864 Louis the German was forced to grant Carloman the kingdom of Bavaria, in 865 he gave Louis the Younger Saxony with Fanconia and Thuringia and he gave Charles the Fat Swabia and Raetia.

    Louis was getting ready for anther war when he died on 28 Aug. 876 in Frankfurt and was buried at Lorsch Abbey. His sons respected the division of the estate and each contented himself with his own kingdom.

    Issue-

  • I. Hildegard- d. 23 Dec. 856, Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main near Wurzburg.
  • 43II. CAROLOMAN- m. LITWINDE of CARINTHIA, d. 880
  • III. Ermengardis- d. 16 July 866 Frauenworth. Abbess of Buchau am Federsee
  • IV. Gisela-
  • V. Ludwig- d. 20 Jan. 882 Frankfort-am-Main, bur. Kloster Lorsch. Succeeded his father as King of East Lotharingia.
  • VI. Berta- d. 26 Mar. 877. Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main
  • VII. Charles- m. Richardis, d. of Graf Erchanger, divorced 887 (Richardis m.2. Gauzelin), d. 13 Jan. 888 Neudingen an der Donau, bur. Kloster Reichenau. King of the East Franks.

    Ref:

    La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- Christian Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouck, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- pp. 285-6


    43I. CAROLOMAN of GERMANY (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13, LOUIS 14)

    m. ______, d. of Ernst, Graf im Nordgau (d.s.p.)
    mistress LIUTSWINDIS of CARINTHIA (d. before 9 Mar. 891)
    d. 29 Sept. 880 Altötting

    The three sons of Louis the German swearing an oath to him- Carloman, Louis the Younger, and Charles. Louis the German is shown here as a French king wearing the fleur-de-lis. From the 14th century Grandes Chroniques de France

    Karloman revolted against his father in 861 and again in 864 and captured a large part of his father's kindom as far as the River Inn but was expelled by his father.(1)

    Carloman succeeded his father in 876 as King of the East Franks receiving Bavaria, Pannonia, Carinthia, Bohemia and Moravia under the partition agreement with his brothers. Upon the death of Emperor Louis II, King of Italy, he was called to Italy by Queen Engelberga and others of the nobility. He was able to expel Charles II "le Chauve" and enterered Pavia in Oct. 877, however, he had a stroke and returned to Germany where he was deposed by his brother Louis "le Jeune" in 879.

    Issue- by Liutswindis

  • 44I. ARNULPH- m. ODA of BAVARIA, d. 899

    Ref:

    (1) Annales Bertiniani- G.H. Pertz, Ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. III, p. 861


    44I. ARNULPH (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13, LOUIS 14, CAROLMAN 15)

    m. ODA of BAVARIA, d. of Theodore of Bavaria
    mistress- Winburg (d. after 18 May 898)
    mistress- Ellinrat (d. after 23 May 914)
    mistress- _______
    d. 8 Dec. 899, bur. Regensburg St. Emmeran.

    The Annales Ducum Bavariae records Carloman's death in 880 leaving Bavaria to "Arnolfo, filio suo ex concubina nobili de Karinthia".(1) Arnulf was invested in the marches of Pannonia and Carinthia in 870. During his father's illness he administered Bavaria, however, was obliged to transfer this territory to his uncle Ludwig III upon his father's death in return to receiving the Duchy of Carinthia with his chief seat at Mooseburg a few miles from one of the Imperial residences the Kaiserpfalz at Karnburg.

    In 882 Engelschalk rebelled against Aribo, Margrave of Pannonia and started the Wilhelminer War. By his support for him this ruined his relationship with his uncle the Emperor and put him at odds with Svatopluk of Moravia. Pannonia was invaded and Arnulf did not make peace with Svatopluk until 885.

    In 887 he led a powerful army of Carinthians and Slavs against Emperor Karl III in Nov. 887 and on 27 Nov. issued his first charter as Arunulf, King of the East Franks. Charles the Fat went peacefully into retirement asking only for a few villas in Swabia which Arnulf granted to him. Fulco, Archbishop of Reims came to Worms in June 888 to invite Arnulf to claim the kingdom of the West Franks, challenging Eudes who had only recently been elected king. In 889 Arnulf supported the claim of Louis the Blind to Provence after receiving an appearl from Louis' mother Ermengard who went to Forchheim to see Arnulf in May 889. Arnulf took advantage of the fighting that followed between Eudes and Charles in 894 taking territory from West Francia and adding it to his own. At one point Charles fled to Arnulf to ask for protection. Pope Formosus was forced to get involved as he was worried that a civil war in West Francia would make the place easy prey for the Normans. In 895 Arnulf summoned Charles and Eudes to Worms, however, Charles' advisors convinced him not to go and sent a representative instead. Eudes did appear with many gifts for Arnulf. Angered at Charles not showing up Arnulf welcomed Eudes at the Diet of Worms in 895 and supported his claim to the West Francian throne. At this same meeting he gave the crown of Lotharingia to his illegitimate son Zwentibold.

    Arnulf won a decisive victory against the Vikings at the Battle of Leuven on the River Dyle in Sept. 891 after which their raids in the eastern Frankish kingdom ceased.(2) The Annales Fuldenses states that the bodies of dead Norsemen blocked the run of the river. After his victory Arnulf built a new castle on an island in the Dyle River.

    Arnulf also had his eye of Great Moravia and obtained part of its territory, part of present day Hungary. In 895 Bohemia broke away from Great Moravia and became his vassal. In his attempt to conquer Moravia in 899 Arnulf invited the Magyars to assist in imposing some measure of control on Moravia.

    Arnulf was called by Pope Formosus to fight Guido, Duke of Spoleto, so he crossed the Alps in 894 and conquered northern Italy to the River Po, and forced the surrender of Milan and drover Guido out of Pavia where he was crowned King of Italy, but he was forced to withdraw. He returned to Italy after Guido's death in 895 took Pavia and had to take the city of Rome by force on 21 Feb. 896 and freed the Pope who was locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. Arnulf was greeted at the Ponte Milvio by the Roman Senate who escorted him into the city were the Pope received him on the steps of the Santi Apostoli. He was crowned as Emperor Arnulph at Rome on 22 Feb. 896 by Pope Formosus. He then went to the Basilica of Saint Paul where he received the homage of the Roman people who swore "never to hand over the city to Lambert or his mother Ageltrude". He then attacked Lambert of Spoleto, however, he had a stroke and was obliged to return to Bavaria.(3) His hold on Italy only lasted as long as he was there. In the same year Pope Formosus died and Lambert returned again to power and killed any officials who had been placed there by Arnulf. Because of his health Arnulf was unable to deal with the problems in the kingdom, Italy was lost, the Moravians and Hungarians were continually raiding his lands and Lotharingia was in revolt against Zwentibold and he was plagued with power struggles amongst the German nobility. Arnulf died in 899 and is buried at St. Emmeram's Basilica at Ratisbon.

    Issue-First two children by Oda, next by Winburg, next by Ellinrat, last child by his last mistress

  • I. Louis- d. 24 Sept. 911 Bavaria, bur. Regensburg. Louis succeeded his father in 900 as Ludwig IV, "das Kind" King of the East Franks and after his brother Zwentibold was deposed he became King of Lotharingia.
  • 45II. EDITH- m. OTHO, Duke of SAXONY
  • III. Zwentibold- , m. Oda of Saxony, killed in battle 13 Aug. 900.
  • IV. Ellinrat- mistress of Engelschalk, Markgraf in Pannonia, d. after 23 May 914
  • V. Ratold- d. after 896

    Ref:

    (1) Annales Ducum Bavariae 880- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. XVII, p. 366
    (2) Germany in the Early Middle Ages c.800-1056- T. Reuter, Longman, London, 1991- pp. 120-3
    (3) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- pp.290-2

    History of the Western Empire, From Its Restoration by Charlemagne to the Accession of Charles V- Robert Comyn, 1851- Vol. I, pp. 78-83
    The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages- Horace Mann, 1925- Vol. III, pp. 243-4, 376-382; Vol. IV, pp. 13, 50-1, 55-6, 66, 77, 80-4, 100
    Death and Life in the Tenth Century- Eleanor Duckett, Unviersity of Michigan Press, 1968- pp. 12-36


    17II. CHARLES, King of France (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13)

    b. 823
    m.1. 13 Dec. 842 Quierzy, ERMENTRUDE of ORLEANS (separated 867, d. 6 Oct. 869 Saint-Denis), d. of Eudes, Count of Orleans and Ingeltrude
    2. 12 Oct. 869 Richildis d. 6 Oct. 877 Avrieux, Savoie, bur. Nantua Abbey, transferred to St. Denis, Paris.

    Charles the Bald from his Psalter

    Charles was made Duke by his father in Alemania, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug. 829, thus leaving only Italy to his brother Lothaire causing the family squabbles which began in Mar. 830 when Charles' older brothers captured their father at Compiegne and forced him to revert to the agreement of 817. Charles was made King of Aquitaine by his father in Sept. 832 having deprived Charles' brother Pepin. Their father then restored Aquitaine to Pepin on 15 Mar. 834 at Quierzy-sur-Oise and he gave Charles the land between Frisia and the Seine at the Assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, Maine and the land between the Seine and the Loire in 838 and Francia between the Meuse and the Seine, western and southern Burgundy, Provence, Neustria, the march of Bretagne, Aquitaine, Gascogne and Septimanie at the Assembly at Worms 28 May 839. Under the division of lands under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug. 843 he became Charles II "le Chauve", King of the West Franks. He became King of Aquitaine in 848 when he deposed his nephew Pepin II. When Charles was threatened with widespread rebellion, due to his unpopularity, his brother Ludwig "der Deutsche" took advantage of the situation and invaded his kingdom in Aug. 858, but was defeated 15 jan. 859 in Laonnais and had to withdraw. In 865 Charles and Ludwig agreed to the future division of the territories of Lothaire, King of Lotharingia, however, upon Lothaire's death in 869 Charles invaded Lotharingia and proclaimed himself King of Lotharingia before Ludwig would assert his rights. A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug. 870 where Charles received the Meuse valley, Lyonnais, Viennois and Vivarais and retained the title of King of Lotharingia. He was crowned Emperor Charles II at Rome 25 Dec. 875 by Pope John VIII after the death of Louis II and elected King of Italy at Pavia in 876. Louis the German of course wasn't pleased with this situation and invaded Charles' dominions and Charles had to return to Francia. After Louis the German's death in 876 Charles attempted to seize Louis' kingdom but was defeated at Andernach on 8 Oct. 876. At the same time John VIII was being harrased by the Saracens and urged Charles to come to his defence which he did, however, he received little support from the nobles and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman, Louis the German's son, entered northern Italy and Charles, ill and in distress, started back across the Alps and died crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bains on 6 Oct. 877.

    A page from Genesis from a Bible presented to Charles the Bald c.872

    Charles was hastily buried at the Abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to stand the stench of the decaying body. His body was supposedly transferred to Saint Denis as there was a memorial brass there that was melted down during the Revolution.

    Besides fighting with his family Charles had to deal with rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons as well as the Vikings who devastated the country of the north and the Seine and Loire valleys. On several occasions Charles was forced to pay off the Vikings to get them to leave. By the Edict of Pistres of 864 he reformed the army and added a formidable cavalry and also ordered fortified bridges be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during the siege of 885-6.

    Denier of Charles the Bald- Bourges mint c.848

    Issue-all children by Ermentrude

  • 19I. LOUIS- b. 843, m. ANSGARDE, d. 879
  • 20II. JUDITH- m.1. Aethelwulf, King of Wessex (d. 13 Jan. 858), 2. Aethelbald, King of Wessex (d. 20 Dec. 860), 3. 13 Dec. 862 Auxerre, BALDWIN, Count of FLANDERS (d. 879)
  • III. Charles- m. ______ (m.1. Humbert, Comte de Bourges), d. 29 Sept. 866 Indre. King of Aquitaine.
  • IV. Carloman- Abbot of Echternach
  • V. Lothaire- Abbot of Saint- Germain, Auxerre
  • VI. Hildegardis-
  • VII. Ermentrudis- Abbess of Hasnon, near Douai
  • VIII. Gisela-
  • ?IX. Rotrudis- Abbess of Sainte-Radegonde, Poitiers
  • X. Rothildis- m. Roger, nephew of Hugues, Comte de Bourges, d. 22 Mar. 929
  • XI. Drogo- Pepin's twin
  • XII. Pepin- Drogo's twin
  • XIII. ____- d.s.p. immediately after being baptised
  • XIV- Charles- d. 877

    Ref:

    La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- pp. 302-6


    19I. LOUIS II, King of France (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13, CHARLES 14)

    b. 843
    betrothed to d. of Erispoe, King of Brittany- contract broken 857
    m.1. Mar. 862, Ansgardis, d. of Comte Harduin (repudiated 877)
    2. ADELAIS, d. of Adalhard, Comte Palatin d'Angouleme (d. 18 Nov. 901, bur. Saint Corneille, Compiegne)
    d. 10 Apr. 879, bur. Compiegne

    Louis was given the duchy of Mans and part of Neustria by his father and arranged his betrothal in Feb. 856. He was expelled from Brittany after the rebellion following King Erispoé's murder and took refuge with his father. He was an accomplise in the elopement of his sister Judith with Comte Baudouin and had to flee in 861. He revolted against his father in 862 at the instigation of the Rorgonid family. However, he was forgiven by his father and given Meaux in 862 and the governorship of Neustria with the title of king in 865, which title was taken away from him the following year. His father made him Comte d'Autun in 866 and King of Aquitaine in Mar. 867 after the death of his brother Charles. He succeeded his father in 877 as Louis II, "le Begue" (the Stammerer), King of the West Franks and as King of West Lotharingia and was crowned at Compiegne 8 Dec. 877 by Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims and at Troyes 7 Sept. 878 by Pope John VIII.

    Louis repudiated his first wife and married Adelais, however, the marriage was not recognised by the church which did not accept his separation from his first wife. The Pope refused to crown Adelais with her husband at Troyes in 878 as she was not considered his legitimate wife and her children were considered illegitimate by the church.(1)

    Louis was said to be physically weak and survived his father by only two years. His final act was to fight against the Vikings, however he died at the beginning of the campaign in April 879.

    Issue- first five children by Ansgardis, next by Adelais.

  • I. Louis- d. 5 Aug. 882, bur. Saint-Denis. King of the West Franks
  • II. Gisela- m. Robert, Comte Palatin de Troyes (killed in the Battle of Troyes Feb. 886), d. by 12 Dec. 884
  • III. Carloman- m. contract 11 Sept. 878, Engelberga, d. of Boso, Comte de Vienne, killed 6 Dec. 884 Bezu-la-Foret, near Andelys.
  • IV. Hidegard-
  • V. Ermentrud- mother of Kunigund, wife of Richwin, Comte de Verdun
  • 21VI. CHARLES- b. 879, m. EADGIFU of ENGLAND, d. 929
  • ?22VII. ADELAIDE- m. RAINULPH, Count of POITOU (d. 890)

    Ref:

    (1) Annales Bertiniani- G.H. Pertz, Ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. III, p. 878

    Genealogiae Comitum Flandriae, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum", Vol. IX, p. 303
    Frankish Kingdoms Under the Carolingians 751-987- R. McKitterick, Longman, London, 1983- p. 266
    La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- pp. 313-4


    21VI. CHARLES III, King of France (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13, CHARLES 14, LOUIS 15)

    b. 879
    m.1. Frederuna (d. 10 Feb. 917, bur. Saint-Remi, Reims), sister of Bovo, Bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne
    2. EADGIFU of ENGLAND, d. of Edward, King of WESSEX and Elflaed
    d. 7 Oct. 929 Peronne, bur. Abby of Saint-Fursy, Peronne

    Upon the death of Louis II, Emperor Charles III "le Gros" was elected King of the West Franks and upon his death in 888 Eudes Capet was made king. Charles "le Simple" sought refuge with Rannulf II, Comte de Poitou.(1) Fulco, Archbishop of Reims supported the accesseion of Charles as king in 892 in opposition to King Eudes.(2) He was crownd 28 Jan. 893 at Reims by Archbishop Fulco as Charles III, "le Simple", King of the West Franks. Eudes later agreed to appoint him as his successor which he did on 1 Jan. 898.

    Charles spent the early part of his reign fighting against the Vikings which led to the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte with Rollo in 911 thus granting him the future duchy of Normandy. He was elected King of Lotharingia 1 Nov. 911 in succession to Ludwig IV "das Kind", King of the East Franks and Lotharingia and adopted the title King of the Franks and later King of France.

    Charles captured Alsace in 912 and fought the army of King Konrad of Germany in Lotharingia.(3) After 920 Charles unfortunately, fell under the influence of Haganon, a Lotharingian who was his cousin. This sparked a revolt by Robert, Marquis en Neustrie and other nobles during which Charles had to seek refuge with Heriveus, Archbishop of Reims. Charles was restored temporarily however, he awarded the monastery of Chelles to Haganon in 922 which triggered another revolt which led to Charles' deposition 30 June 922 and Robert was elected King of France with Charles fleeing to Lotharingia. He returned only to be defeated at Soissons 15 June 923 during which King Robert was killed. Raoul de Bourgogne was elected King on 13 July 923. Charles was tricked into capture by Heribert, Comte de Vermandois and imprisoned at Chateau Theirry and then transferred in 924 to Chateau de Peronne where he lived in captivity for the rest of his life.(4) Eadgfu fled with her son to England after Charles was deposed and returned to France after the death of King Raoul. Poor Charles was declared king briefly in 927 by Comte Heribert during his unsuccessful attempt to capture Laon.(5) Thietmar of Merseburg states that Heinrich, King of Germany, secured his release from prison and in return was rewarded with "the right hand of St. Denis and the entire kingdom of the Lotharingians".(6) Eadgifu married Heribert "le Vieux", Comte of Vermandois in 951.

    Issue-First six children by Frederuna, seventh by Eadgifu

  • I. Ermentrude- m. Gottfried, Graf im Jülichgau (d. after 949)
  • II. Frederuna-
  • III. Adelais- Raoul, Comte de Gouy
  • IV. Gisela- m. ROLLO of NORMANDY
  • V. Rotrude-
  • VI. Hildegarde-
  • 23VII. LOUIS- b. 920, m. GERGERGA of GERMANY (d. 969), d. 10 Sept. 954
  • VIII. Arnulf-
  • IX. Drogo-
  • X. Rorico- Bishop of Laon
  • XI. Alpais- m. Erlebold, Comte de Castres (killed in battle in 920)

    Ref:

    (1) Histoire des Comtes de Poitou- Alfred Richard, Princi Negue, 2003- Vol. I, p. 57
    (2) Reginonis Chronicon 892- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. I, p. 605
    (3) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- pp. 322-3
    (4) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera- J. France, N. Bulst, P. Reynolds, Oxford University Press, 1989- 1.5, p. 13
    (5) Frankish Kingdoms Under the Carolingians 751-987- R. McKitterick, Longman, London, 1983- p. 312
    (6) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg- D.A. Warner, Manchester Unviersity Press, 2001- 1. 23, p. 84

    West Francia: The Kingdom- Jean Dunbabin, in "The New Cambridge Medieval History 900-1024", Cambridge University Press, 2005- Vol. III, pp. 378-9


    23VII. LOUIS IV, King of France (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13, CHARLES 14, LOUIS 15, CHARLES 16)

    b.c.920
    m. GERGERGA of GERMANY (d. 969), d. of Henry of Germany and Matilda of Ringleheim
    d. 10 Sept. 954, bur. Saint-Remi, Reims

    Louis fled with his mother to England after his father's deposition in 923 and he was brought up at the court of Aethelstan, King of Wessex. He returned to France after the death of King Raoul in 936 and was crowned 10 June 936 at Laon by Artald, Archbishop of Rheims as Louis IV "d'Outremer", King of the Franks. Flodoard records this event:

    The Bretons, returning from the lands across the sea with the support of King Athelstan, came back to their country. Duke Hugh sent across the sea to summon Louis, son of Charles, to be received as king, and King Athelstan, his uncle, first taking oaths from the legates of the Franks, sent him to the Frankish kingdom with some of his bishops, and other followers. Hugh and the other nobles of the Franks went to meet him and committed themselves to him[;] immediately he disembarked on the sands of Boulogne, as had been agreed on both sides. From there he was conducted by them to Laon, and, endowed with the royal benediction, he was anointed and crowned by the lord Archbishop Artold, in the presence of the chief men of his kingdom, with 20 bishops.(1)

    Denier of Louis d'Outremer- Chinon mint

    Louis asserted his autonomy from Hugue "le grand" Capet who he made dux francorum and established himself at Laon in 937. Louis' reign was characterised by constant squabbles with his nobles, particularly Hugue "le Grand", Heribert, Comte de Vermandois, Arnoul, Count of Flanders and Guillaume "Longuespee", Comte de Normandie. He did capture Laon in 938 from Heribert, Comte de Vermandois and Rheims. He also temporarily held Amiens and Ponthieu. After a revolt in Lotharingia against Otto I "der Große" King of Germany, Louis was offered the crown of Lotharingia in 939 by Duke Giselbert, however, King Otto allied himself with Louis' enemies and raided Louis' kindom causing Louis to renounce Lotharingia. Heribert and Hugues besieged Reims and forced the restoration of Heribert's son as archbishop and then besieged Louis at Laon. Gerberga was active in the defence of Laon in 941 and of Reims in 946. After the murder of Guillaume "Longuespée", Comte de Normandie, Louis held his heir Richard, however, was himself a captive of the people of Rouen after Richard escaped. King Otto attacked again, but was defeated by the Normans. Louis was released by Hugues "le Grand" and transferred to the custody of Thibaut, Comte de Blois who held him captive until 946. Gerberga accompanied her husband on his expeditions to Aquitaine in 944 and Burgundy in 949 and was active during his imprisonment in 946. Louis gave Gerberga the abbey of Notre-Dame de Laon in 951. King Louis died after falling from his horse on his way from Reims to Laon. After his death Gerberga was Abbess of Notre Dame de Soissons.

    Issue-

  • I. Lothaire- d. 2 Mar. 986. King of the Franks.
  • 25II. MAUD- m. CONRAD, King of ARLES (b. 924, d. 993)
  • III. Charles- d. before 953
  • IV. ______- d. 948
  • V. Louis- d. before 10 Sept. 954
  • 26VI. CHARLES- b. 958, m. BONA of ARDENNES, d. 991
  • VII. Henri-

    Ref:

    (1) English Historical Documents- Dorothy Whitelock, Tr., London, 1979- p. 344


    26II. CHARLES, Duke of France (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13, CHARLES 14, LOUIS 15, CHARLES 16, LOUIS 17)

    b. 958
    m. ADELAIS de TROYES, d. of Robert, Comte de Troyes and Adelais de Bourgogne (see below)
    d. 12 June 991 Orleans, bur. St. Servatius, Maastricht

    Charles of Lorraine and his brother Lothair of France

    Flodoard records a war between Charles and Godfrid in 975.(1) Charles was banished from the Frankish court after accusing Queen Emma of adultery with Adalbero, Bishop of Loan. The council of Sainte-Macre at Fismes exonerated the queen and the bishop, but Charles maintained his claim and sought refuge at the court of Emperor Otto II who made him Duke of Lower Lotharingia in May 977 at Diedenhofen.(2) In Aug. 978 Lothaire invaded Germany and captured Aachen, however, Charles captured Laon in 978 during Emperor Otto's campaign against King Lothaire and devastated the land around Rheims and Soissons. Charles was proclaimed King of the Franks by Theudebert, Bishop of Metz and claimed the French throne after the death of his brother in 986 and of his nephew in 987. Lothaire and Hugh Capet then chased Otto and Charles back to Germany and retook Laon. Charles captured Laon again in May 988 and Reims in Sept. 989 with the help of his nephew Arnoul, Archbishop of Reims. Unfortunately, Charles was captured at Laon on 30 Mar. 991 with his wife and children and taken to Senlis were they were imprisoned. Hugue Capet, King of France then moved them to the Chateau at Orleans where Charles died in 991.

    Issue-

  • I. Otto- d. 13 June 1014, bur. St. Servatius, Maastricht
  • 27II. ERMENGARDE- m. ALBERT I, Count of NAMUR (d.c.1000), d. 1019
  • 28III. GERBERGA- m. LAMBERT I, Count of LOUVAINE (killed in the battle of Florennes 12 Sept. 1015), d. 1025
  • IV. Adelais-
  • V. Louis- d. after 993
  • ???24VI. CHARLES-

    Ref:

    (1) Historia Remensis Ecclesiae- Flodoard 953- G.H. Pertz, Ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. III, p. 402
    (2) Du nouveau sur un vieux thème: Les origines de la "noblesse" et de la "chevalerie"- K.F. Werner, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et des belles-lettres, 1985- p. 55; also Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. VII, p. 443


    12II. LANDRADE (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10)

    m. SIGRAMINE, Countess of Hasbaye

    Issue-

  • 29I. GUNDERLAND- d. 778

    29I. GUNDERLAND, Count of Hasbaye (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, LANDRADE 11)

    d. 778 Issue-

    30I. INGERAMUN-


    30I. INGERAMUN, Count of Hasbaye (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, LANDRADE 11, GUNDERLAND 12)

    This ancestry of Irmengarde I have seen on a number of web sites, however, I have yet to find any references for this information so I would therefore take all of this with a grain of salt (perhaps half a grain).

    Issue-

  • 31I. IRMENGARDE- m. LOUIS, King of France (b.778, d. 834), d. 818


    16II. PEPIN, King of Italy (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12)

    b.c.777
    m. Bertha
    d. 8 July 810 Milan, bur. san Zeno Maggiore, Verona

    Pepin was baptised in Rome 15 Apr. 781 by Pope Hadrian his name being changed from Carloman as his half-brother Pepin the Hunchback betrayed their father the royal name Pepin passed to him. Pepin was crowned King of Italy on 15 Apr. 781 in Rome and named King of the Lombards at Pavia ruling under the regency of Adalhard.(1)

    Pepin invaded the duchy of Benevento in 793. He had a victory against the Avars led by the Khagan in 796 and captured the great Ring of the Avars, their fortress.(2) A poem of celebration De Pippine regis Victoria Avarica was composed at Verona after the submission of the Avars.

    Upon the partition of the empire at Thionville in 806 Pepin was given Italy, Bavaria, Carinthia (except Nordgau), and Alemannia south of the Danube. He also subjugated Istria, Dalmatia and Venice in 810 but his army was ravaged by disease and he was forced to withdraw.(3)

    Issue-

  • 32I. BERNARD- b. 797, m. CUNIGUNDA (d.c.835), d. 17 Apr. 818, Milan
  • II. Adelais- m. Billung
  • III. Adula- d. after 814
  • IV. Guntrada-
  • V. Bertaide-
  • VI. Theodrada- m. Lambert, Comte de Nantes (d. 30 Dec. 836 Ticino)

    Ref:

    (1) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories-B. Rogers, University of Michigan Press, 2000- 781- p. 59
    (2) Tituli Sæculi VIII, XI De Pippini regis Victoria Avarica, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 116
    (3) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- p. 211


    32I. BERNARD, King of Italy (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, PEPIN 13)

    b. 797
    m. CUNIGUNDIS (d. after 15 June 835)
    d. 17 Apr. 818 Milan, bur. San Ambrosio

    Bernard was the illegitimate son of King Pepin and was brought up at Kloster Fulda. His grandfather sent him back to Italy in the fall of 812 giving him the title "Rex Langobardorum" in Apr. 813. Bernard was confirmed as King of Italy at Aix-la-Chapelle on 11 Sept. 813 as a vassal of the emperor and under the regency of Adalhard, abbot of Corbie.(1)

    Although Bernard swore allegiance to his uncle Emperor Louis "le Pieux" upon his accession in 814, and was a trusted agent of his grandfather, Louis passed the Ordinatio Imperii in July 817 which did not mention Bernard's royal status thus depriving him of any role in the government and of his royal title. Bernard rebelled unsuccessfully in Dec. 817 and was tricked into returning to France to ask his uncle's forgiveness, however, he was taken captive to Aix-la-Chapelle and was sentenced to death. He died three days after being blinded and Italy was then placed under the direct rule of the emperor.(2) (see article on Louis "Le Pieux" above)

    Issue-

  • 33I. PEPIN- b.c.815, d. 840

    Ref:

    (1) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories-B. Rogers, University of Michigan Press, 2000- 812 and 813, p. 95
    (2) Annales Xantenses 817- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. II, p. 224; Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris- 22 & 23- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. II, p. 596; La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- pp. 212-3


    33I. PEPIN, Count of Vermandois (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, PEPIN 13, BERNARD 14)

    b.c.815
    d. after 850

    Pepin was King of Italy, seigneur de Peronne and Saint Quentin. He supported Emperor Lothaire after the death of Louis "le Pieux" despite having sworn allegiance to Charles "le Chauve".

    Pepin's wife is not known, however, Settipani suggested that she was the daughter of Theodoric, son of Nibelung, comte du Vexin which would explain how Pepin's descendants inherited estates in the Vexin.(1)

    Issue-

  • I. Bernard-
  • 35II. PEPIN- d. after 28 Jan. 893
  • 34III. HERBERT- b.c.840, m. BERTHA de MORVOIS, d. 902
  • IV. Cunegundis-
  • V. ______- m.1. Berenger, Comte de Bayeux, 2. Wido/Guy, Comte de Senlis

    Ref:

    (1) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- p. 215


    34I. HERBERT, Count of Vermandois (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNE 12, PEPIN 13, BERNARD 14, PEPIN 15)

    b.c.840
    m. ?BERTHA de MORVOIS, d. of Guarri, Count of Morvois
    murdered 902

    Héribert was at the court of Emperor Charles "le Chauve" in 877. He was made Comte de Soissons and lay abbot of Saint Crepin. He was also Comte de Meaux and de Madrie in 889 and became Comte de Vermandois in 896. In 896 Count Raoul disrupted the peace and took the property of Héribert and King Odo Saint Quentin and expelled Raoul's supporters and Héribert killed Raoul.(1)

    Héribert opposed King Eudes, but was reconciled with the king in 897 as Héribert's daughter married the king's nephew Robert.(2)

    Count Baudouin of Flanders invaded Vermandois and was driven out by 900, however, he reconquered it and killed Héribert in revenge for his brother's death.(3)

    Issue-

  • 36I. HERBERT- b.c.885, d. 943 St. Quentin
  • 37II. BEATRICE- m. ROBERT, Count of Paris (killed in the battle of Soissons 15 June 923) See BLOIS
  • 38 III. CUNIGNUNDIS- m. UDO I, Count of WETTERAU (d. 949)
  • IV. ?Adela- m. Gebhard, Graf im Ufgau (d. after 15 Jan. 947)

    Ref:

    (1) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- p. 220; Annales Vedastini 896- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. II, pp. 530, 633
    (2) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- p. 407
    (3) Medieval Flanders- D. Nicholas, Longman, London, 1992- p. 19


    36I. HERBERT II, Count of Vermandois (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, PEPIN 13, BERNARD 14, PEPIN 15, HERBERT 16)

    b.c.885
    m. HILDEBRAND/ADELA of FRANCE, d. of Robert, The Strong, Duke of France- See BLOIS
    d. 943 St. Quentin

    Héribert succeeded his father as comte de Meaux, de Soissons and de Vermandois. He was also lay abbot of Saint-Crepin and Saint-Medard at Soissons. Héribert was involved in the rebellion against King Charles "le Simple" in 922 and was the one who tricked him into capture. Héribert consolidated his power by arranging for his son (who was five years old at the time) to be made Archbishop of Rheims. In 924 he recieved Peronne from King Raoul. Héribert along with Arnoul, Count of Flanders, caputured the Viking stronghold of Eu and afterwards made an alliance with Count Rollo in 927 leaving his son Eudes as a hostage.(1) In that same year Héribert unsuccessfully attempted to capture Laon which he had demanded for his son Eudes after the death of Compte Roger de Laon.(2) He went with the king into Burgundy in 928 when his son Eudes was granted the county of Vienne by Ugo, King of Italy. In 930 Héribert took the castle of Vitry-en-Perthois from Boso, King Raoul's brother. With help from Hugues "le Grand", King Raoul entered Rheims and defeated Héribert's son Hugue and Artaud became the new Archbishop of Rheims. Within three years time Héribert lost Vitry, Laon, Chateau-Theirry and Soissons. By the intervention of his friend Henry the Fowler, he was able to restore his estates, except for Rheims and Laon, in exchange for submitting to the king.(2)

    In 939 Héribert joined the alliance against King Louis IV led by King Otto "der Große" of Germany who raided King Louis' territory and forced him to renounce his claim to the throne of Lotharingia. Héribert and Hugues "le Grand" besieged Rheims and forced the restoration of his son as archbishop and also besieged King Louis at Laon.

    Upon his death in 943 his lands were divided between his sons by their uncle Hugues "le Grand".

    Issue-

  • 39I. ROBERT- b.c.920, m. ADELAIDE of CHALON, d. 968
  • 40II. LEUTGARDE- m.1. Guillaume "Longuespee", Comte de Normandie, 2. THIBAULT, "Le Tricheur", Count of BLOIS (d. 978), d. after 16 Aug. 979
  • 41III. ALBERT- m. GERBERGA of LORRAINE, d. 8 Sept. 988 St. Quentin, Picardie
  • ?50IV. BERTHA de Vermandois- b.c. 920, m. GUILLAUME de BEC (b. 918, d.c.1000), d.c.990- See STANHOPE
  • V. Alix/Adela- m. Arnulf "the Old", Count of Flanders (murdered 27 Mar. 964), d. 10 Oct. 960 Brugge, Belgium
  • VI. Herbert- m. Eadgifu (m.1. Charles III,"le Simple", King of Franks, d. after 953), d. 982 Meaux, Seine et Marne
  • ?55VII. RENAUD- de Roucy, b.c.928, m. ALBERADE de LORRAINE (d. 15 Mar. 973 Roucy), d. 10 May 967 Roucy, Aisne
  • VIII. Hugues- Archbishop of Rheims
  • IX. Odo- d. after 19 June 946

    Ref:

    (1) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- p. 224; also the Annals of Flodoard of Reims quoted in Houts- p. 45
    (2) Frankish Kingdoms Under the Carolingians 751-987- R. McKitterick, Longman, London, 1983- p. 312

    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700- Frederick Lewis Weis, 7th ed., Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1992- 48-19, 49-19, 50-18, 118-18, 136-18
    Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten- Detlev Schwennicke, Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, Marburg, 1978- Vol. III, p. 49
    The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants to the American Colonies or the United States- Gary Boyd Roberts, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 2004- p. 565
    Descent of Gen. Douglas McArthur from Emperor Charlemagne- Marcellus D.R. von Redlich, NEHGR Vol. 97, No. 4 (Oct 1943) - p. 342


    39I. ROBERT of Vermandois (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNE 12, PEPIN 13, BERNARD 14, PEPIN 15, HERBERT 16, HERBERT 17)

    b.c.920
    m. ADELAIDE of CHALONS, d. of Giselbert, Count of Chalons, Duc des Bourguignons and Ermengarde de Dijon
    d. 29 Aug. 967 Vermandois, Normandie

    Robert witnessed a charter of "Gauzfredus comes" in July 940.(1) After his father's death in 943 the territories were divided and Robert became Comte de Meaux. He became Comte de Troyes in 956 after his father-in-law's death in right of his wife. Robert rebelled against King Lothaire and captured Dijon in 959.(2) The Chronicon Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensis states that Robert expelled "Ansegisum Trecarum episcopus" who sought refuge with King Otto in Saxony in 959.(3) King Otto sent his son Bruno to besiege Troyes and King Lothair attacked Dijon which fell in 960. (4)

    Issue-

  • 42I. ADELA- b.c.950, m. GEOFFREY I, Count of ANJOU (d. 21 July 987), d. 6 Mar. 974 Anjou
  • II. Herbert- Count of Troyes. m. ? d. of Stephanus, Comte de Gevaudan, d. 28 Jan. 995 Vermandois, Normandie
  • 56 III. ADELAIS- m. CHARLES (d. 12 June 991 Orleans, bur. St. Servatius, Maastricht), Duke of Lower Lotharingia (see above), d. after 991.
  • IV. Archambaud- d. 29 Aug. 968, bur. Sens Saint-Pierre-le-Vif. Archbishop of Sens.

    Ref:

    (1) Recueil des Chartres de l'Abbaye de Cluny- A. Bernard, A. Bruel, Eds., Paris, 1876-1903- Vol. I, 511, p. 496
    (2) Richer III.XI, p. 12
    (3) Chronicon Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensis- Spicilegium- Vol. II, p. 470
    (4) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- p. 231

    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700- Frederick Lewis Weis, 7th ed., Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1992- pp. 118-19
    Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten- Detlev Schwennicke, Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, Marburg, 1978- Vol. III, p. 49
    The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants to the American Colonies or the United States- Gary Boyd Roberts, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 2004- p. 565


    24VI. CHARLES, Duke of Lorraine (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNE 12, LOUIS 13, CHARLES 14, LOUIS 15, CHARLES 16)

    Charles pops up in several undocumented pedigrees concerning the ancestry of Baldric "the Teuton", however, I can't find any primary sources to confirm that Charles was Baldric's grandfather. The Historia Francorum Senonensis records his birth to Charles while he was in custody and that he escaped captivity, however, no further information is available.(1) All I can see is that Baldric had a brother Wigerius, however, no further information to confirm that their father also was of that name and a son of Charles has been found. Also, several pedigrees state that Charles was Duke of Lorraine which is also unconfirmed and appears bogus as Lorraine didn't even exist at this time (perhaps they're thinking of Upper Lotharingia?). Besides having Charles in this generation would make him older than his father! Another undocumented pedigree shows him as a son of Charles "le Simple", however, there is no evidence for this either, although the dates would work better. At this point I think this part of the pedigree is creative wishful thinking at its best.

    Issue-

  • ?46I. WIGELIUS de Courcie-

    Ref:

    (1) Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis- "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. XXV, p. 384


    ?47I.WIGELIUS de Courcie (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNE 12, LOUIS 13, CHARLES 14, LOUIS 15, CHARLES 16, CHARLES 17)

    Issue-

  • 47I. BALDRIC The Teuton- b. 969, m. ALIX de BRIONNE (b. 975, d. 1045), d. 1035
  • II. Wigerius-


    47I. BALDRIC (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13, CHARLES 14, LOUIS 15, CHARLES 16, CHARLES 17, WIGELIUS 18)

    b. 969
    m. ALIX de BRIONNE (b. 975, d. 1045), d. neice of Gilbert de Brionne
    d. 1035

    According to Orderic Vitalis "Baldricus Teutonicus" came to Normandy with this brother Wigerius to serve Duke Richard and married the neice of Gilbert de Brionne.(1) Baldric, "The Teuton", was Lord of Bacqueville-en-Caux.

    Issue-

  • 49I. GUNNOR- m. GILBERT CRISPIN- see STANHOPE
  • II. Nicholas de Bacqueville-
  • III. Fulk d'Aunou- Fulk contributed 40 ships towards the invasion of England in 1066.
  • IV. Robert de Courci-
  • V. Richard de Nevil-
  • VI. Baldric de Bocquence-
  • VII. Vigerius/Wigeric de Apulia-
  • VIII. Elizabeth- m. Fulk de Boneval
  • IX. Hawise- m. Erneis Tesson

    Ref:

    (1) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis- M. Chibnall, Ed., Oxford Medieval Tests, 1969-1980- Vol. II, (Book III), pp. 83-5


    50I. LOTHAIR (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNA 12, LOUIS 13)

    b.c.795
    m. IRMENGARD, d. of Hughes, Comte de Tours
    mistress Doda
    d. 29 Sept. 855 Pruem, Rheinland

    Lothaire was appointed by his father to govern Bavaria in Aug. 814 and in July 817 he was crowned joint Emporer with his father at Aachen. He was sent to Italy in 822 where he established court at Pavia and was crowned King of Italy by the Archbishop of Milan after the murder of King Bernard by Louis. He was again crowned emperor in Rome on 5 Apr. 823 by Pope Pascal I.

    Denier of Emperor Lothaire

    The rivalry in the family worsened by the unexpected death of his half-brother Charles in 823. Tension increased when Emperor Louis gave Charles Alemannia, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug. 829, thus reducing Lothaire's share to Italy. Lothaire and his brother rebelled against their father in Mar. 830 and captured their father at Compiegne and forced him to revert to the constitutional agreement of 817. However, Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijkmengen in Oct. 830, and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb. 831 and deprived Lothaire of his imperial title and sent him back to Italy. Another revolt by this children occured and again Louis was defeated by his children at Compiegne 1 Oct. 833 and this time he was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Medard de Soissons. Lothaire declared himself sole emperor 30 June 833, however, was forced to flee to Vienne by his brothers Pepin and Louis who freed their father who was restored 1 Mar. 834 and crowned once again at Metz 28 Feb. 835. Lothaire was arrested by his father's troops near Chouzy and was sent back to, yes you guessed it, Italy. Emperor Louis proposed another partition in favor of this son Charles as the assembly of Aachen in 837 which was implemented as the assembly at Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, with Lothaire taking all the land east of the River Meuse and Charles everything to the west and set aside the claims of his son Louis and the successors of his late son Pepin. Lothaire succeeded as sole emperor upon his father's death on 20 June 840. He tried to extend his base northwards from Italy across the Alps and deprive his half-brother Charles who had allied himself with his half-brother Louis and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 June 841. Lothaire retreated to Aachen and was forced out to Lyon in Apr. 842 by his brother who declared him incapable of governing the empire. Peace proposals were signed on the island in the Saone, near Macon 15 June 842 and led to the Treaty of Verdun on 11 Aug. 843 under which the empire was divided between the three brothers. Lothaire retained the imperial title and became the King of Lotharingia, a newly created territory covering a strip from the North Sea to Italy with its seat of government at Aachen. After maintaining peace with varying degrees of success over the next ten years Lothaire became seriously ill and abdicated in Sept. 855 at Kloster Schuller near Prum and divided his territories between his sons Louis, Lothaire and Charles.(1)

    Issue-first eight chidren by Ermengarde, last by Doda.

  • I. Louis II- b.c.822, m. Engeberge, d. 875. Holy Roman Emperor
  • II. Hiltrude- m. Berengar
  • III. ______- m. Giselbert, Graf von Maasgau
  • IV. Berta-
  • V. Gisela- Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia
  • 51VI. LOTHAIR II- b.c.826, m.1. Teutberga, 2. WALDRADA, d. 8 Aug. 869
  • VII. Rotrude- m. Lambert, Comte et Marquis de Nantes (killed 1 May 852)
  • VIII. Charles- d. 25 Jan. 863. King of Provence
  • IX. Carloman-

    Ref:

    (1) Annales Bertiniani- G.H. Pertz, Ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. II, p. 855

    Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook- John Morby, Oxford University Press, 1989- p. 122


    51 III. LOTHAIR (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNE 12, LOUIS 13, LOTHAIR 14)

    b.c.826
    m.1. c.855 Teutberga, d. of Boso, Comte d'Arles
    2. 15 Oct. 862 Lorraine, WALDRADA
    d. 8 Aug. 869 Lorraine, bur, Convent of San Antonio, Piacenza

    Seal of Lothaire II, King of Lotharingia

    The Annales Bertiniani states that the Emperor Lothaire gave Frisia to his son Lothaire in 855.(1) He succeeded his father as King of Lothuringia (Lorraine) in 855 with Aachen as his captial.

    Lothaire's reign was chiefly occupied by his attempt to annul his marriage in order to marry his mistress of many years, however, he was opposed in this by Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims and later Pope Nicholas I who ordered him to return to his wife 15 Aug. 865. He died of malaria in Piacenza 8 Aug. 869 while he was negotiating for a new decision with Pope Hadrian II.(2) Teutberga was the daughter of Boso "l'Ancien", Comte d'Arles. She was kept prisoner by her husband, however escaped in 860 and sought refuge with Charles II "le Chauve" who gave her the Abbey of Avenay in the diocese of Reims. The catalogue of the archbishops of Cologne records that Lothaire's concubine was "Waldradam, sororem Guntheri archiepiscopi Coloniensis" and that her brother encouraged Lothaire to leave his wife for Waldrada and was thus excommunicated by the Pope.(3) Waldrada later became a nun at Remiremont.

    The Lothair Crystal

    The Lothaire Crystal is a 4" piece of quartz engraved in intaglio depicting the story of Susanna and the Elders from the Book of Daniel. Susanna is shown being falsely accused and condemned for adultery by the elders. Daniel intervenes and uncovers the false witness and they are executed by stoning. In the final scene Susanna is declared innocent. The crystal is inscribed "LOTHARIVS REX FRANCORVM IVSSIT" (Lothaire, King of the Franks, caused this to be made). It is suggested that the crystal was probably made in 865 when Lothaire was forced to return to his wife, who, like Susanna, was falsely accused, and was to serve as a reproach to the king for his conduct and as a charm to protect the royal couple against evil (rock crystal was used by the Franks as an amulet). The history of the Lothaire Crystal is also interesting. In the 10th century it was pawned between a count and the Canon of Rheims in exchange for a horse. The Canon denied possession of the crystal, however, it was later discovered in his possession. In penance he founded the Abbey of Waulsort in Belgium where it was used to fasten the Abbots' copes during mass. In 1793 the French Revolutionary army sacked Waulsort and threw the crystal into the Meuse River. In the 19th century it appears in the hands of a Belgian dealer who claimed it had been retrieved from the river bed and sold it to a French collector for 12F. It then passed to a British politician, Ralph Bernal, who paid £10 for it. In 1855 Augustus Wollaston Franks purchased it on behalf of the British Museum for £267 at the auction of Bernal's collection.

    The Lothaire Cross

    Another interesting work of art from the time is the Cross of Lothair or Lotharkreuz which was made c.1000 (the base is 14th century) and is a wonderful example of medieval goldsmithing. The cross gets its name from the large engraved greenish rock crystal seal near its base bearing the portrait and name of Lothair, King of Lotharingia. It was actually made a century after Lothair's death and was donated to the Cathedral at Aachen. The cross is still used in processions today where on high feast days it is carried into Aachen Cathedral and placed next to the main alter during mass.

    Upon his death his lands were divided between Ludwig II "der Deutsche", King of the East Franks and Charles II "le Chauve", King of the West Franks, instead of being passed to his brother Emperor Louis despite the latter's objections.

    Issue-all children by Waldrada

  • I. Hughes- m. Friderada (m.1. Enguerrand, 2. Bernarius 3. Wicbert), d. after 895 abbey of Prum. Duke of Alsace.
  • II. Gisela- m. Gottfried, Prince of Denmark, d. 908
  • 58III. BERTHA- b.c.863, m.1. THEOBALD of ARLES (b.c.855, d.c.895 Arles, Bouches du Rhone), 2. Adalbert, Margrave of Tuscany, d. 8 Mar. 925 Arles, Bouches du Rhone
  • IV. Ermengarde- m. Berlion, Vicomte de Vienne

    Ref:

    (1) Annales Bertiniani- G.H. Pertz, Ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. II, p. 855
    (2) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens- C. Settipani, P. van Kerrebrouch, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993- p. 271
    (3) Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus Archiepiscopum Coloniensium 94-1230, Fontes rerum Germanicarum- Vol. II, p. 272

    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700- Frederick Lewis Weis, 7th ed., Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1992- pp. 145-16
    The Hauteville Ancestry- Charles H. Evans, TAG, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Jan. 1976)- p. 26


    55VII. RENAUD (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNE 12, PEPIN 13, BERNARD 14, PEPIN 15, HERBERT 16, HERBERT 17)

    b.c.928
    m. ALBERADE de LORRAINE (b.c.930, d. 15 Mar. 973 Roucy, Aisne), d. of Giselbert, Duke of Lotharingia and Gerberga of Germany.
    d. 10 May 967 Roucy, Aisne, bur. Abbaye de Saint-Remy

    The ancestry of Renaud remains questionable. Several suggest that his father was Herbert II de Vermandois. Peter Stewart rejects this hypothesis and suggests Ragenold the Dane as his father.(5) This theory depends on identifying him with the Viking Ragenold who was invading France at the time according to the Annalist Flodoard. Christian Settipani rejects both theories and suggests an Anjou connection with another Renaud as his father who was perhaps count of Soissons and is named 924 to 941 and may have been the nephew of Fulk I, count of Anjou. Most votes seem to be for Herbert II being his father... so he is very tentatively placed as his son in this work. Matilda and Alberada are named as daughters of Gerberga in the Continuator of Flodoard which states that Alberada was of Ermentrude, however, he does not name Alberada's husband.(2) Bouchard points to the absence of any proof that Alberada's husband was the Count of Roucy.(4) There is a history of the Abbey of Saint-Remi de Reims from 1659 which cites an old manuscript telling of a donation of count Gislebert, son of Renaud, Comte de Reims et de Roucy, during the time of abbot Arbodus (985-1005). Also, there is no proof stating that Ragenold the Dane and Renaud of Roucy were one and the same person... although Renaud pillaging a monastery in 944 certainly sounds like a Viking thing to do!

    Renaud was the military chief of Reims after the restoration of Artald as Archbishop of Rheims in 946 and built a fort at Roucy c.950. He first appears in 944 when King Louis IV granted him Montigny-Lengrain in Soissons and later that year was involved in pillaging the monastery of Saint-Medard de Soissons.(6) "Rainaldus Remensis comitis" is named in a charter c.950 concerning the foundation of Charlieu Abbey.(1) He was a supporter of King Lothair of France in his expedition at Aquitaine and the siege of Poitiers. Renaud was made Count of Roucy c.955 by King Lothair.

    There are two epitaphs in the church of St. Remy which may refer to Ragenolde and Albrada (they are buried next to each other), however, neither refers to the other:(3)

    "Plebis amor, procerumque decus, pietatis amator,
    Hic, Ragenolde, solveris in cinerem.
    Inter opes clarumque genus conspectus in armis,
    Prætuleras ferro pacis amore togam.
    Sol quinto decimo radiabat velleris auro
    Cum suprema tibi clauserat hora diem."

    And Albrada's epitaph:

    "Hoc, Albrada, locor de pulvere pulvis in antro
    Et genus heroum proteror hic miserum.
    De primo qualem contraxi pulvere sortem
    At causam sortis hæc monimenta ferunt.
    Particulas sol quinque means lustraret Aquari
    Hæc me cum tenebris obruit urna suis."

    Issue-

  • 56I. GISELBERT- b.c.951, m. d. of Lutaud de MACON, d. 990 Rheims, Marne
  • II. Ermentrude- b.c.958, m. Aubri de Macon (d.c.981), 2. Othon Guillaume, Comte de Macon et Nevers (d. 21 Sept. 1026 Dijon), d. Mar. 1005 Bourgogne
  • III. ______- m. Fromond, Comte de Sens
  • IV. Bruno- Bishop of Langres, d. 29 Jan. 1016

    Ref:

    (1) Recueil des Chartres de l'Abbaye de Cluny- A. Bernard, A. Bruel, Eds., Paris, 1876-1903- Vol. I, 730, p. 685
    (2) Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966) in "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. III, p. 407
    (3) Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France- L. Delisle, Ed., Paris, 1874- Vol. IX, p. 105
    (4) Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy 980-1198- C.B. Bouchard, Cornell Unviersity Press, 1987- pp. 169, 269
    (5) See http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/ragen000.htm
    (6) Flodoard- 944, 91, 93

    Les Comtes d'Anjou et Leurs Alliances- Christian Settipani, in "Family Trees and the Roots of Politics"- Katherine Keats-Rohan, Ed., Woodbridge, 1997- pp.211-267
    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700- Frederick Lewis Weis, 7th ed., Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1992- pp. 151-19
    Le Sang de Charlemagne- J. Saillot, Saillot, Angers, 1981
    The Hauteville Ancestry- Charles H. Evans, TAG, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Jan 1976)- p. 24
    The House of Cornewall- Compton Reade, Jakeman and Carver, Hereford, 1908- p. 206


    56I. GISELBERT, Count of Roucy (FERREOLUS 1, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 2, TONANTIUS FERREOLUS 3, FERREOLUS 4, ANSBERT 5, ARNOUL 6, St. ARNOUL 7, ANCHISES 8, PEPIN 9, CHARLES 10, PEPIN 11, CHARLEMAGNE 12, PEPIN 13, BERNARD 14, PEPIN 15, HERBERT 16, HERBERT 17, RENAUD 18)

    b.c.951 Roucy, Aisne
    m. _______ de MACON, d. of Lutaud de Macon
    d.c.997 Reims, Marne, bur. Abbaye de Saint-Remy

    The Acta Concilii Remensis ad Sanctum Basolum from 991 quoted Bishop Bruno as stating that he was the brother of count Gislebertum.(1)

    Pere Anselme states that the wife of "Gilbert Comte de Reims et de Roucy... semble avoir été de la maison de Poitiers" and they were the parents of Ebles, Liétard and Judith.(2) It is doubtful that this is correct as Judith, contess of Rethel must have been born in the 1020's to be consistent with the births of her descendants thus excluding her from being Giselbert's daughter. The other point is that the names Ebles, Liétard and Judith do not occur in this family. Jean Noël Mathieu feels that Giselbert probably had no children and that the father of these three was Ebles de Poitou and Emma de Blois based on the similarity of names and as a way to explain how the lands of Rumigny-en-Porcéan and Coucy came into the family. He also thinks that the mother of these children was another daughter of Ermentrude de Roucy, sister of count Giselbert, by her first husband Aubry, comte de Macon.(3) The other possibility is that Ebles and Eudes were Giselbert's sons, but that Lietaud and Judith were by a second marriage of their mother and not Giselbert's.

    Giselbert's epitaph is in Saint-Remi de Reims:

    "Militiæ titulus et sanguine clarus avorum,
    Gisleberte jaces, hoc cinis in tumulo.
    Vita fugax, ætasque brevis, malefida juventus,
    Divitiæ fragiles, consolidata tibi ..."

    Issue-

  • ?I. Ebles- Count of Rheims. b.c.976, m. Beatrix of Hainaut (divorced before 1021, m.2. 1021 Manasses de Ramerupt)d. 11 May 1033
  • ?II. Eudes- d. after 1021
  • ?57III. YVETTE/JUDITH- b.c.1020?, m. MANASSES de RETHEL (d. after 1081 Rethel)
  • ?IV. Lutaud- b.c.978, m. Mathilde

    Ref:

    (1) Acta Concilii Remensis ad Sanctum Basolum, auctore Gerberto Archiepiscopo 9- in "Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum"- Vol. III, p.661
    (2) Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la Couronne, de la maison du roy et des anciens du Royaume- Père Anselme, Paris, 1725-Vol. VIII, p. 862
    (3) 'La succession au comté de Roucy aux environs de l'an mil'- Jean Mathieu in "Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval" ("Prosopographica et Genealogica"), Katherine Keats-Rohan and Christian Settipani, eds.- Vol. III (2000), p. 79

    Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700- Frederick Lewis Weis, 7th ed., Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1992- pp. 103A-23, 151-20
    Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten- Detlev Schwennicke, Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, Marburg, 1978- Vol. III, p. 675A


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