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killed 965

Duncan was Abthane of Dule, abbot of Dunkeld and Governor of Strathclyde. The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad the abbot of Dun Caillen" was killed in 965 in "a battle between the men of Scotland themselves".(1)


·  2I. DUNCAN-


(1) Annals of Ulster- 965.4, p. 405


Duncan was mormaer of Atholl and Abthane of Dule.


·  3I. CRINAN- b.c.975, m.c.1005 BETHOC, d. 1045


m.c.1005 BETHOC/BEATRIX, daughter of King Malcolm (see MACALPIN)
d. 1045

Crinan was the hereditary lay-abbot of Dunkeld and Seneschal of the Isles. His parentage is not certainly known but, his grandfather was probably Duncan, abbot of Dunkeld who was killed in 965 and his mother or grandmother may have been a daughter of one of the last Kings of the Isles.(1)

Dunkeld Abbey

In early times celibacy of the clergy was unknown and down to the reformation the dignity of a mitred abbot was equal to that of a bishop.

Crinan held the territory called the "Abthania de Dul" part of which is now the parish of Dull in Atholl.

It is possible that Crinan was King Malcolm's minister of state as was usual for churchmen who alone were educated.

Crinan married King Malcolm's daughter Bethoc as given in the "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" from 1175. It lists "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as the mother of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani".(4) The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts from 1177 gives "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as the parents of King Duncan.(5) John of Fordun states that King Malcolm had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"(6)

Five years after Duncan was killed Crinan was killed in battle in an attempt to avenge his son's death and to obtain the restoration of the throne to his grandchildren. The Annals of Ulster record that "Crónán abbot of Dún Caillen" was killed in 1045 in "a battle between the Scots themselves".(2) The Annals of Tigernach record that “Crínan abbot of Dunkeld” was killed during “a battle between the men of Scotland on one road”(3)


·  2I. DUNCAN-

·  3II. MALDRED- b.c.1002, m.c.1024 EALDGYTH (see DUNBAR)


(1) "The Scots Peerage"- Vol.III, pp.239-40
(2) Annals of Ulster- 1045.6, p. 484
(3) Annals of Tigernach- Vol. II, p. 277
(4) Skene- Vol. XXI, Genealogy of King William the Lyon- p. 144
(5) Ibidi- Vol. XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177- p. 152
(6) John of Fordun- Book IV, XXXVIII, p. 173

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880


m. SIBYLLA, cousin of Siward, Jarl of Northumberland(3)
killed in battle near Elgin or Burghead 14 Aug. 1040
bur. Iona

Duncan succeeded as King of Strathclyde in 1018. Upon the accession of Duncan as King of Scotland in 1034 there were only five districts left to the Scots in the north. A considerable part of the territories of the northern Picts also remained unconquered by the Norwegians. During Duncan's reign the Scots enjoyed tranquility. The Annales Dunelmenses states that in 1039 he beseiged Durham without success.(1) In 1039 Duncan took advantage of Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney's absence to recover some of the territories of the Scots which were taken by the Norwegians. He advanced as far as Moray without any resistance, but the Gaelic people never admitted to his right to the throne even though he was a chieftan of their own district. In 1040 under Macbeth the Maormor of Moray they attacked Duncan at Bothgowanan near Elgin, defeated and killed him.(2) Macbeth seized the crown which he claimed in right of his cousin Malcolm. Duncan's sons left the country with Malcolm Canmore taking refuge in Northumberland and Donald Bane in the Hebrides. The story of Duncan's assassination in Shakspeare's "Macbeth" seems to have been an invention of Hector Boece.


·  4I. MALCOLM- b.c.1024, m.1. c.1060 INGIOBORGE (m.1. Thorfinn, Jarl of Orkney), 2. c.1070 St. MARGARET of Scotland (d. 16 Nov. 1093), killed at Alnwick, 13 Nov. 1093



(1) Annales Dunelmenses 1039- MGH SS XIX, p. 508
(2) Mariani Scotti Chronicon 1040- MGH SS V, p. 557; Annals of Ulster- 1040.5, p. 480; Annals of Tigernach-Vol. II, p. 271; John of Fordun- Book IV, XLIV, p. 180; Skene- XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152
(3) John of Fordun- Book VI, XLIV, p. 179
"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880


m.1. c.1060 INGIOBORGE, d. of Earl Finn Arnason (m.1. Thorfinn Sigurdson, Earl of Orkney (d.c.1060))
2. c.1070 St. MARGARETd. of Edward the Exile (d. 16 Nov. 1093 Edinburgh Castle, bur. Dunfermline, moved to El Escorial, Madrid, her head bur. at the Jesuit College, Douai)
killed at battle of Alnwick, 13 Nov. 1093
bur. Tynemouth, then moved to Dunfermline Abbey and then to the Escorial, Madrid

When Malcolm's father Duncan was murdered by Macbeth in 1039 Malcolm "Ceann Mor" or "Big Head" fled to Cumberland and his brother Donald Bane went to the Hebrides. At the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1043 Malcolm Canmore became a resident at the English Court while his followers tried to defeat Macbeth. During one of these attempts Malcolm's grandfather Crinan, Abbot of Dunkeld was killed in 1045. In 1054 Malcolm obtained the assistance of the English army and marched into Scotland led by Earl Siward. Macbeth lost the battle and fled north leaving Lothian in Siward's possession. In 1056 another English army was sent to Malcolm's aid. Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney sailed with his troops south, but were destroyed by a storm. Macbeth now deprived of Thorfinn's help could not withstand the attack and was driven north to Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire where he was killed 5 Dec. 1056. His step-son Lulach tried to take the crown, but was defeated and killed at the battle of Essie in Strathbogie 25 Apr. 1057. Malcolm was soon after crowned at Scone and in 1059 visited Edward the Confessor. He was also a friend of Tostig, Earl of Northumberland brother of King Harold, but a dispute arose and in 1061 Malcolm invaded Northumberland. Upon Thorfinn's death in 1059 the Norwegian Kingdom in Scotland fell to pieces. Malcolm married Thorfinn's widow, but this did not advance his cause in the north. The Chiefs formerly in subjection to the Norwegians refused to acknowlege his sovereignty and chose Donald, Maormor of Moray as King. It took Malcolm more than 20 years to conquer the northern districts. The Saxon Chronicle states that in 1077 he defeated Maolsnechtan, Maormar of Moray, son of Lulach and in 1085 he killed both of his rivals.

Two years after the battle of Hastings Edgar Atheling, grandson of Edmund Ironside and heir of the Saxon line, with his mother, Princess Agatha and his two sisters Margaret and Christina arrived in Scotland and were received by Malcolm at his Royal Tower at Pittencrieff near Dunfermline, Fifeshire. He soon after married Margaret who improved the rude character of the Scottish court. Malcolm had much admiration for her worth and piety and being unable to read he was in the habit of kissing her prayer books which he had bound with gold and precious stones. She encouraged trade with foreign countries and introduced the wearing of tartan. She increased the number of Royal servants and made sure the King's public appearances were accompanied by more ceremony than before. Malcolm placed her in charge of religious matters and anxious for the reformation of the church she held frequent conferences with the clergy. She made them celebrate Lent during the proper season, restored the celebration of the Lord's supper and made them keep the Sabbath sacred with previously had been scarcely distinguishable from any other day of the week. Margaret was canonised in 1250 and her feast day in Scotland is Nov. 16th.

St. Margaret

In Sept. 1069 Malcolm, the Danes, Edgar Atheling and the Northumberland nobles led by Gospatrick invaded England and took the castle at York. King William however gave Gospatrick the Earldom of Northumberland and he bribed Osberne the Danish commander so Edgar and Malcolm did not have a large enough army to continue the advance so they returned to Scotland.

In 1070 Malcolm invaded Cumberland, destroyed Teesdale, defeated the English at Hinderskell and advanced into Cleveland destroying everything in sight returning to Scotland with many prisoners. In 1072 William invaded Scotland and a treaty was made at Abernethy where he did homage to William the Conqueror thus abandoning the cause of Edgar Atheling. Edgar received a large pension from William and went to live in Rouen, Normandy. Malcolm's son Duncan was one of the hostages and lived many years at the English court.

Malcolm received many exiles from England and thereby strengthened his power. Even Gospatrick returned to Scotland. In 1079 while William was in Normandy Malcolm invaded Northumberland again and to stop these attacks William built the fortress at Newcastle.

The Castle at Newcastle

At the request of Queen Margaret the Abbey of Dunfermline was founded.

Dunfermline Abbey

Due to the fact that King William Rufus had been witholding Malcolm's lands in England, he advanced as far as Chester in May 1091, but retreated upon the approach of a superior English army and did fealty to the English king after a peace was negotiated. William invaded Scotland, but a treaty was signed without a battle being fought. In 1092 William Rufus began to fortify Carlisle, but Malcolm objected and a meeting took place at Gloucester 24 Aug. 1093. Malcolm was so insulted by William at this meeting that he invaded Northumberland again and laid seige to Alnwick castle, but on 13 Nov. 1093 he was surprised by Robert de Moubray and his army and Malcolm and his oldest son were killed. Malcolm's son Edgar escaped and returned to Edinburgh where his mother was dying. She asked: "How fares it with your father and your brother Edward?" Edgar was silent. "I know all" she said, "I adjure you beg this holy cross and by your filial affection that you tell me the truth." He said: "your husband and your son are both slain". She then replied: "Praise and blessing be to thee, Almighty God that thou hast been pleased to make me endure so bitter anguish in the hour of my departure, thereby as I trust to purify me in some measure from the corruption of my sins. And thou Lord Jesus Christ who through the will of the Father hast enlivened the world by thy death, O deliver me!" and she died.(1)

Alnwick Castle

Issue- first two children by Ingioborge, last eight by Margaret.

·  6I. DUNCAN- b.c.1060, m. Etheldreda of Dunbar, d. 12 Nov. 1094

·  II. Donald- killed in battle 1085

·  III. Edward- d. 16 Nov. 1093 battle of Edwards Ilse near Jedburgh

·  IV. Edmund- d. Montague, Somersetshire. Edmund was Prince of Cumbria and afterwards a monk.William of Malmesbury states that "Edmund was the only degenerate son of Margaret" and "Partook in his uncle Donald's crime and ... had been accessory to his brother's death and was doomed to perpetual imprisonment... on his near approach of death, ordered himself to be buried in his chains".(2)

·  V. Ethelred- d. before 1107, bur. Kilrimont. Earl of Fife, Abbot of Dunkeld.

·  VI. Edgar- d.s.p. 8 Jan. 1106/7 Edinburgh Castle. Succeeded in 1097 as King of Scotland.

·  VII. Alexander- m. Sybilla, illegitimate daughter of Henry I of England (12 July 1122 Loch Tay), d. 23 Apr. 1124 Stirling, bur. Dunfermline. Alexander "the Fierce" was King of Scotland

·  7VIII. DAVID- b.c.1080, m.c.1113/4 MATILDA of Huntingdon (m.1. Simon de St. Liz, d. after 1147), d. 24 May 1153 Carlisle, bur. Dunfermline

·  21 IX. MATILDA- m. 11 Nov. 1100 HENRY I, King of England, d. 1 May 1118- See NORMANDY

·  X. Mary- m. 1102 Eustace, Count of Boulogne, d. 31 May 1116, bur. Bermondsey Priory


(1) Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon- p. 32; Annals of Ulster, 1093.5- p. 529
(2) William of Malmesbury- ch. 400, p. 349

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol. 1, pp.1-2
"Sketches"- General Stewart of Garth- Vol. I, p.20


m. Ethelreda of Dunbar (m.2. Waltheof)
d. 12 Nov. 1094 Monthechin
bur. Dunfermline Abbey

Historians have generally considered Duncan to have been an illegitimate son of Malcolm, but according to the Orkneyinga Saga it seems that his father married Ingioborge and therefore was by Saxon law heir to the throne.(1) Celtic law, however, preferred brothers to sons therefore his uncle Donald Bane was considered to have a right to the throne upon Malcolm's death in 1093.

In 1072 Duncan was a hostage at the court of William the Conqueror to keep peace with England. He was kept in Normandy and Robert "Curthose", Duke of Normandy released him after his father's death in Sept. 1087, knighted him and allowed him to leave Normandy.(2) Duncan was knighted by William Rufus and was retained in his service. Duncan invaded Scotland with an army of English and Norman knights in 1094, expelled Donald Bane and made himself King. The Celts considered Duncan an usurper so in an effort to win their support he told the English and Normans to leave the Kingdom. His half brother Edmund entered into a conspiracy with Donald Bane and the English, and Duncan was assasinated by Malpedir, Maormor of Moern after a reign of six months. Donald Bane again became King and Edmund was put in prison by the King to avoid fulfilling his part of the compact which was to give Edmund part of the Kingdom.(3)

A charter granted by Duncan to the monks of St. Cuthbert is said to be the oldest Scottish charter in existence. At the beginning of it he calls himself "Dunccanus filius Regis Malcolumb, constans hereditarie Rex Scotie."

Issue- first child by Ethelreda.

·  I. William- m. Alice, daughter of Robert de Rumely. William was the father of the "Boy of Egremont", claimant to the throne.

·  ?22II. MAELMUIRE- d. after 1135


(1) "Orkneyinga Saga"- translation by Hermann Palsson & Paul Edwards, Penguin Books, Ltd., Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1981, chapter 33
(2) Annals of Ulster, 1072.8- p. 510; Florentii Wigomensis Monachi Chronicon- p. 21
(3) Annals of Ulster, 1094.7- p. 530; Florentii Wigomensis Monachi Chronicon- p. 35; Skene- XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251- p. 175; John of Fordun- Book V, XXIV, p. 213

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol. 1, pp.2-3
"Highlanders of Scotland"- Skene, Vol.I, p.126
"Diplomata"- Anderson, No. IV


d. after 1135

The Complete Peerage states that Maelmuire was the son of King Duncan, however, no primary source for this has been identified. The only reference to Maelmuire is an undated charted of King David granting protection to the clerics of Deer which was witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d'Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d'Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed". From the names given it is unlikely that this charter dates any earlier than 1135 which makes the timing off for him to be either the son of Duncan or the father of Maddad. (1)


·  ?8I. MADDAD- m.1. ?, 2. c.1133 Margaret of Orkney (m.2. Erland Ungi (killed 1156)) Ref:

(1) Early Scottish Charter- CCXXIV, p. 181

The Complete Peerage- Vol. I, p. 304


m.1. ?
2. c.1133 Margaret of Orkney (m.2. Erland Ungi (killed 1156)), d. of Hakon Paulsson, Jarl of Orkney

At the end of David I's reign Maddad was granted the Earldom of Athole either because the exclusion of that family from the throne could not deprive them of the original property of the family to which they were entitled or as a compensation for the loss of the crown.

Maddad's parentage is suspect as the timing is off. He was a witness to a charter of King Alexander to Scone Abbey from c.1115. He also witnessed charters dated 1120, 1128, 1130 and 1135.(1)

Issue- first child by first wife, second child by Margaret.


·  Harald- b.c.1134, d. 1206. Harald was Jarl of Orkney.


(1) Early Scottish Charters- XXXVI, p. 28; LXXIV, p. 61; XCIV, p. 76; CI, p. 80; Liber Ecclesier de Scon, Munimenta vetustiora Monasterii Sancte Trinitatis et Sancti Michaelis de Scon- I, p. 1

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"Highlanders of Scotland"- Skene, Vol.II, p.139


m.1. ?
2. Hextilda of Tynedale (m.1. Richard Comyn)

Malcolm, 3rd Earl of Athol gave the monks of Scone the church of Logen Mabed with the four chapels and to the abbey of Dunfermline the tithes of the church of Moulin which was witnessed by "H filio meo"(1). He also made a donation to the priory of St. Andrews of the patronage of the church of Dull.(2)

Issue-children by first wife

·  10I. HENRY- d.c.1210

·  II. Duncan- d. after 1179


(1) Bannatyne Club- Liber Cartarum Abbatiæ Benedictine S. S. Trinitatis et B. Margarete Regine de Dunfermelyn - Edinburgh, 1842, - 147, p. 85.
(2) St. Andrew's Priory- pp. 220, 245

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880


m. MARGARET ______

Henry succeeded his father as Earl of Atholl in 1190. He confirmed the donation of the church of Dul to St. Andrew's priory by an undated charter witnessed by "Comitissa Margareta sponsa mea, Alexandro de Setona, Malisio judice, Colino nepote meo"(1)

Church of Dull



·  I. Isabel- m.1. before Jan. 1211 Thomas of Galloway (d. 1231), 2. Alan de Lundin

·  12II. FERNELITH- m. before 1242 DAVID de HASTINGS, d. before 1254


(1) St. Andrew's Priory- pp. 232, 246

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880


m.c.1113/4 MATILDA (m.1. Simon St. Liz, d. after 1147), daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon and Judith de Lens (Boulogne)
d. 24 May 1153 Carlisle (5)
bur. Dunfermline

After the death of his father his uncle Donald Bane usurped the throne and David and his brothers Edgar and Alexander went to England and lived with their maternal uncle Edgar Atheling. David remained in Cambria even after his brother Edgar had ascended the throne and probably stayed there until the end of his brother Alexander's reign. By his marriage to Matilda, David acquired a large amount of land in Cumbria and received the Province from his brother Edgar at his death in Jan. 1107 as a fief under England. David ruled Cumbria as an independant prince all through Alexander's reign making his home at Selkirk. He founded the abbey at Selkirk by charter in 1120.(2) In 1116 David appointed several people to inquire about the lands belonging to the See of Glasgow. Upon his brother's death 27 Apr. 1124 David succeeded to the throne and introduced the feudal system of government to the northern part of the Kingdom and abolished Tanistry. He remained on friendly terms with his brother-in- law Henry I whose court he frequently visited. King David founded many religious houses including the monasteries of Kelso c.1120 (3) and Holyrood in 1128. For the canons of Holyrood he built a mill in a place which became Canonmills and granted them the right to build a burgh between the abbey and the town of Edinburgh which became Canongate. David also founded the abbeys of Melrose, Newbattle, Cambushkenneth, Dryburgh, Kinloss and Jedburgh, the priory of Lesmahago and the Cisterian convent of Berwick. During his reign a royal invitation was sent to the Anglo- Normans, Northumbrians, Flemings and Bretons to settle in the kingdom.(1)

Upon Henry I's death in 1135 the throne was usurped by his nephew Stephen, Earl of Boulogne. David raised an army to support the rights of his neice Matilda and attached Cumberland and Northumberland and met Stephen at Durham where a treaty was signed and all occupied towns were returned and Stephen ceded Huntingdom castle and the Earldom of Huntingdon as well as lands in Doncaster to David's son Henry.(4) Stephen also promised to examine Prince Henry's claim to the Earldom of Northumberland who claimed it as grandson and heir of Waltheof. The peace was short lived and David invaded Northumberland while King Stephen was in Normandy, but was talked into a truce by the Archbishop of York. Stephen on his return rejected David's demands and David again invaded Northumberland and burned all the towns, villages and churches. Stephen then pursued the Scots as far as Roxburgh and David again invaded the south and destroyed Norham castle. David continued southward joined his nephew William who had ravaged Lancashire. David met Stephen at the battle of the Standard at Cutton Moor near Northallerton on 11 Aug. 1138 and the Scottish army was destroyed. After regaining his army David destroyed Wark castle. By the beginning of 1139 a peace was concluded and the Earldom of Northumberland was granted to Prince Henry. The Highlanders did not like the idea of hereditary succession to the throne to the exclusion of Tanistry and many outbreaks occured. In 1130 Angus, Earl of Moray invaded Forfar, but he was killed and his army destroyed. In 1141 Wimond, Bishop of the Isle of Man and supposed son of Angus, Earl of Moray along with his father-in-law Somerled, Thane of Argyle invaded the Scottish coast. David was forced to make a treaty with him and grantend the monk some lands, but he was soon after mutilated by his followers and his eyes put out. David imprisoned him in Roxburgh castle and then sent him to the abbey of Byland in Yorkshire where he died. After King Stephen's defeat and capture at Lincoln Feb. 1140 David went to London to give Queen Matilda advice, but while with her at Winchester castle the castle was captured by Stephen's brother, the Bishop of Winchester and he barely escaped with his neice. Prince Henry remained in possession of Northumberland which was confirmed by Queen Matilda's son Henry II when he was knighted at Carlisle 22 May 1149. His son Henry died before him and at David's death in 1153 his grandson Malcolm became King of Scots.


·  I. Malcolm- strangled by Donald Bane as a child, age 2. "cruelly murdered by the iron fingers of a certain wretched clerk"(6).

·  II. Claricia- d.s.p.

·  III. Hodierna- d.s.p.

·  13IV. HENRY- m. 1139 ADA, daughter of the Earl of Warenne (d. 1178), d. 12 June 1152, bur. Kelso


(1) "Royal Highness"- Sir Ian Moncrieffe, p.23
(2) Early Scottish Charters- XXXV, p. 26
(3) Kelso charters- Tome I, 1, p. 3
(4) The Complete Peerage- Vol. VI, p. 641
(5) Chronique de Robert de Torigny, 1153- p. 274; Skene- XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots, 1251- p. 175
(6) Orderic Vitalis- Vol. IV, book VIII, p. 275

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol. 1, pp.3-4


m. 1139 ADELA (d. 1178 (2) ), daughter of William, Earl of Warenne & Surrey and Isabelle de Vermandois
d. 12 June 1152
bur. Kelso Abbey

Prince Henry who was described as one of the most virtuous and accomplished princes of the age died before his father. He succeeded to the Earldom of Huntingdon in Feb. 1136 upon his father's resignation of the earldom and was created Earl of Northumberland in 1139 by King Stephen as part of the peace settlement which followed the Battle of the Standard.

Henry died the year prior to his father. Ada made donations to the Priory at St. Andrews for his soul and for lighting the church for his soul.(1)


·  I. Malcolm- b. 20 Mar. 1141/2, d.s.p. 9 Dec. 1165 Jedburgh, bur. Dunfermline Abbey. Malcolm "the Maiden" was King of Scots from 1153 until his death.

·  14II. WILLIAM- b.c.1143, m. 5 Sept. 1186 Woodstock, Ermengarde de Bellomonte (d. 11 Feb. 1233/4, bur. Balmerino), d. 4 Dec. 1214 Stirling, bur. Arbroath

·  15III. DAVID- b.c.1144, m. 26 Aug. 1190 MAUD of Chester, d. 17 June 1219 Jerdelay

·  IV. Ada- m. 1161 Florent III, Count of Holland (d. 1 Aug. 1190 Tyre), d. after 1205, bur. Middlebury Monastery

·  V. Margaret- m.1. 1160 Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, 2. Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 3. either conde don Pedro Manrique de Lara, Vicomte de Norbonne or William FitzPatrick of Greenlaw

·  VI. Matilda- d.s.p. 1152

·  VII. Marjory- ?m. William or John de Lindsay (m.2. Alienora de Limesay, d.c.1200)

·  20VIII. ______- m. GILCHRIST (3) OGILVIE


(1) Bannatyne Club - Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree in Scotia - Edinburgh, 1841- p. 207; St Andrew´s Priory- pp. 209, 247
(2) Chronicle of Melrose, 1178- p. 20

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol. 1, pp.4-5


m. 5 Sept. 1186 Woodstock Palace, Oxford, Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, Vicecomes de Bellomonte (d. 11 Feb. 1233/4, bur. Abbey of St. Edward of Balmurinath)
mistress ______- d. of Robert Avenell
mistress ______- d. of Adam de Hythus
d. 4 Dec. 1214 Stirling
bur. Arbroath Abbey

William succeeded his father as Earl of Northumberland in 1152. William "the Lion" succeeded his brother to the Scottish throne and as Earl of Huntingdon in 1165. His first priority was to go to the English court to try to get Henry II to restore Northumberland which had been relinquished by Malcolm. After finding all the negociations fruitless he sent ambassadors to France in 1168 and concluded a treaty with the French against the English. In 1172 William joined with Richard the Lion Hearted against the King who promised to restore to him the Earldom of Northumberland and to give his brother David the Earldom of Cambridge. William invaded England and attacked Carlisle, Northumberland and Leicestershire. He was attacked by surprise by 400 Yorkshire cavalry dressed as Scots and was defeated and captured at Alnwick 12 July 1174 and sent to Richmond castle. William was taken in chains to Northampton where Henry ordered him to be sent to Falaise castle in Normandy.

William was released later in 1174 only after agreeing to pay homage to Henry for all his possessions and to give the English the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick, Jedburgh, Edinburgh and Stirling. Twenty barons including his brother David were retained as hostages. In 1175 William paid homage to Henry at York. In 1188 the Bishop of Durham was sent to Scotland to receive a contribution for the Holy War in exchange for the return of Roxburgh and Berwick castles. The clergy and barons refused.

After Henry's death in 1189 Richard the Lion Hearted returned all the confiscated property to William in the hopes of maintaining peace while he went on the Crusade. William in return gave Richard 10,000 marks and Scotland was again an independant Kingdom.

William remained a faithful ally and when Richard was imprisoned by the Emperor of Germany on his return from Palestine, William sent an army to assist the Regency against his brother John who had taken over the throne.

After Richard's death William demanded that King John return the three northern counties, but he refused. In 1209 their armies assembled on the border, but the barons interceeded and a treaty was signed.

King William granted Royal Burgh status to the city of Perth in 1210. The charter has recently been restored in honor of Perth's 800th birthday.

Grave of William the Lion at Arbroath Abbey

Issue- first four children by Ermengarde

·  I. Alexander- b. 24 Aug. 1198 Haddington, m.1. 19 June 1221 Princess Joan of England (d. 4 Mar. 1237/8 York, bur. Tarrant Keynstan, Dorset), 2. 15 May 1239 Maria de Coucy (m.2. Prince Jean de Brienne of Jerusalem, bur. Newbottle), d. 8 July 1249 Kerrera, bur. Melrose Abbey

·  II. Margaret- m. 1221 Hubert de Burgh, Justiciar of England and Ireland (d. 12 May 1243, bur. Black Friars, London), d. 1259, bur. Black Friars, London

·  III. Isabella- m. Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, d.s.p. after 1253, bur. Black Friars, London

·  IV. Marjory- m. 1 Aug. 1235 Berwick, Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke (d. 27 June 1241 Hertford Priory, bur. New Temple Church, London), d.s.p. 17 Nov. 1244, bur. Church of the Preaching Friars, London

·  V. Robert de London-

·  VI. Henry Galightly-

·  VII. Isabella- m.1. 1183 Robert de Brus, 2. 1191 Robert de Ros (d. before 23 Dec. 1226)

·  16VIII. ADA- m. 1184 PATRICK De DUNBAR (d. 31 Dec. 1232, bur. Eccles, Berwick), d. 1200

·  IX. Margaret- m. 1193 Roxburgh, Eustace de Vesci (killed Barnard Castle Aug. 1216)

·  X. Aufrica- m. William de Say (d. before 1 Jan. 1199)

·  ?XI. Alexander- d.s.p. 1229, a monk at Fusny

·  ?XII. Matilda- d.s.p. 1220, a nun at Lappion


"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol. 1, pp.5-6


m. 26 Aug. 1190 MAUD, daughter of Hugh de Kevilloc, Earl of Chester and Bertrade de Montfort
d. 17 June 1219 Jerdelay

David was the Earl of Huntingdon and Chester. David led a rebellion in England in 1174. He received Garioch in Aberdeenshire from his brother in 1174. He was Earl of Huntingdon in 1185 upon the resignation of his brother King William the Lion. David founded Lindores Abbey for the souls of his father and mother by charter dated before 1203.(1) Lindores is probably most famous as the earliest record of Scotch whisky is from a 1494 commission from James IV to Friar John Cor of Lindores Abbey to make aquavitae.

Lindores Abbey

David was deprived of all his English titles in 1215, but these were restored 13 Mar. 1218.(2)

David was probably married before his marriage to Maud as the charter for Lindores Abbey refers to the donation of his daughter Ada was was already married at the time and therefore considerably older than Maud's children. Some have suggested that she was illegitimate, however, that is unlikely as he named her after his mother.

Issue- first two children by first wife, next eight children by Maud, last four by mistresses.

·  I. Ada- m. Malise, son of Earl Ferteth of Strathearn

·  II. David- d. after 1200

·  III. Robert- d.s.p., bur. Lindores

·  II. Henry- d.s.p., bur. Lindores. Henry's father offered 1,000 merks for his marriage to Maud de Cauz in 1203, however, the marriage did not take place.

·  III. John- m. 1220 Helen of Wales (m.2. before 5 Dec. 1237 Robert de Quincy), d.s.p. 5 June 1237, bur. St. Werburg Abbey, Chester

·  17IV. MARGARET- m. 1209 ALAN De GALLOWAY (m.1. d. of Hugh de Lacy, d. 1234)

·  18V. ISABELLA- m. ROBERT De BRUS (d. 1245, bur. Guisburn Abbey)

·  VI. Ada- m. before 7 June 1237 Henry de Hastynges of Ashill, Norfolk

·  Matilda- d.s.p.

·  William-

·  Wakelin-

·  VII. Henry of Stirling- d.s.p.

·  VIII. Henry of Brechin- m. Juliana de Cornhill


(1) Chartulary of the Abbey of Lindores- J. Dowden, Ed., Publications of the Scottish History Society, Edinburgh- Vol. XLII (1903), II, p. 2; III, p. 7
(2) The Complete Peerage- Vol. VI, p. 647

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol. 1, p.4


d. 1099 Rescobie, Forfarshire
bur. Dunkeld Abbey, later moved to Iona

Donald was the Maormor of Gowrie and gave the lands of Liff and Invergowrie to his nephew Alexander. Upon Macbeth's usurpation Malcolm fled to Cumberland and Donald took refuge in the Isles where he was well received. After his brother's death in 1093 Donald, with the help of the Celts, took possession of the throne. According to Florence of Worcester he threw out all the English from the Scottish court. In 1094 Malcolm's son Duncan overthrew him with the help of the English and Normans and became King for a year before he was murdered in 1095 by Malpedir, thane of Moern.(1) Malcolm's other children took refuge in England under the protection of their uncle Edgar. After Duncan's death Donald returned from exile and again became King, but was again overthrown in 1098 by an army of English, Saxons and Normans led by Edgar and was taken prisoner. William of Malmesbury states that he was "dispatched by the contrivance of David, the youngest brother and the power of [King] William [II]".(2) He spent the rest of his life in a dungeon and had his eyes put out.(3)




(1) Florence of Worcester, 1093- p. 196; Early Scottish Charters- Vol. XIII, p. 11; Annals of Inisfallen, 1094.4- p. 249
(2) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest- Rev. J. Sharpe, Seeleys, London 1854- p. 349
(3) Skene- XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251- p. 175

"The Scottish Nation"- William Anderson, A. Fullarton & Co., Edinburgh, 1880
"The Scots Peerage"- Vol. 1, pp.2-3