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The Hayes, Pinders, and Morgan Families of Benson, Castleton, and Fair Haven, Vermont


By David Paul Christensen
October 1992
Revised 2006




TABLE OF CONTENTS



Acknowledgements and Introduction
The Vermont of our Ancestors
 Part one: The Pinders and the Morgans
  Chapter one: Edmund Pinders and Mary Doran
  Chapter two: James Morgan and Catherine Pinders
  Documentation, Maps, and Photos
 Part two: The Hayes and the Pendors
  Chapter one: Martin Hayes and Bridget O'Connell
  Chapter two: Micheal Pendors and Julia Hickey
  Chapter three: Jane Hayes and Thomas Pendors
  Documentation, Maps, and Photos
 Part three: The Hayes of Fair Haven
  Chapter one: Thomas Martin Hayes and Mary Agnes Morgan
  Chapter two: Three Generations of Descendents
  Documentation, Maps, and Photos
  Hayes Address Book
  Quick Reference Pedigree Chart


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank all of my sources for this paper and especially the two greatest sources; my mother, Mary "Babe" Hayes Christensen, whose steel trap memory was the basis for all research; and Mary Therese Hayes, who started off our correspondence with the statement, "I'm afraid I'm not a very good source," and then went on to be a source for at least a quarter of this paper. I would also like to thank those who have helped with the considerable financial burden of this research. I am also indebted to the research of David Larson and Lisa Dougherty for much of the new information in this 2006 revision.

INTRODUCTION

I began researching the Hayes and Morgan genealogies in 1988 with the very specific goal of finding out where my ancestors came from in Ireland. As I progressed in my research, my goals changed as I got to know about the generations closer to me. The project brought me in contact with the extended family I had always missed and I've gained personal insight and strength from my new familial relations and my understanding of my families of origin. Nothing has been a more important result of this research than the relationships I've formed with my larger family.

I have interviewed, for varying lengths of time, twenty relatives, seven in-laws, and seven people who are sources of local history for this project. It was a pleasure making the acquaintance of these people and we are indebted to them for any "meat" you may find on the "bones" of the dry statistics of the written records.

The records I have consulted to write these chapters are many. I have likely exhausted all civil and church records in the United States that will give us a clue as to the origins of our families in Ireland. I have also studied Irish records available to me. Some of these records include: Town Hall and town meeting notes; Irish and Vermont church baptismal, marriage, dispensation, and burial records; U.S. Census records; Irish Census and land valuations; town histories; military and W.P.A. records; naturalization records; obituaries; cemetery records; and Veteran and Mental Hospital's records.

With all this digging I inevitably discovered what some might consider "family secrets". These circumstances and tragedies happen in every family and, from a historical point of view, were often turning points and landmarks in those families' lives. From a literary point of view they let future generations identify with their heritage in a human and empathetic way and are the most interesting passages in the family story

As a trained historian, former practitioner in the field of psychology, and responsible family member, I will try to walk in balance and neither offend the living or deny those yet to come of their heritage. At times I may repeat gossip, (there is little else to repeat when primary sources have been dead for 40 to 100 years) but it will be identified as such. Remember, all texts, written or oral, rely on the same sources and all sources unconsciously interpret what they have experienced for their own subjective uses. The vast amount of age discrepancy from census to census gave me a quick lesson on the overrated sanctity of written over oral sources...and yes, gossip is a secondary oral source. Enjoy.

THE VERMONT OF OUR ANCESTORS

Although there are three towns (Castleton, Benson, and Fair Haven) that our ancestors settled in, our ancestors were all introduced to Vermont life nestled along the mill stream between Glen (Corkscrew) Lake and Lake Bomoseen in the hamlet of West Castleton.

Castleton

The town of Castleton was first settled in 1770 and in 1775 provided a meeting place for Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys before their capture of Fort Ticonderoga. Later a British fort was built at the hamlet of Hydeville, and that held the town for most of the rest of that war. The area of Castleton is 23,360 acres. The land west of Lake Bomoseen is suitable for forestation and the rest for dairy farming. In the 1800's the town contained the hamlets of Castleton, Castleton Corners, Hydeville, West Castleton, and later Cookville. Castleton's population peeked in the 1870's.1

The railroad came about 1850 and with its arrival new markets were opened for Vermont slate. The slate industry boomed at Hydeville and West Castleton. Experienced and ambitious Welshmen were lured from the slate district in Northern Wales. They quickly purchased ledgey farms with slate deposits and applied their knowledge of efficient large scale quarrying. The Welsh were followed by the Irish.

Ireland also has slate deposits, but not to the extent of Wales. One large slate producing area was the Arra Mountains in the western part of Co. Tipperary. This area looks like, and has the same "feel" as Castleton, Vermont. The grave stones in the Catholic cemetery in Fair Haven attest a number of "Arra mountain folks" that transplanted to West Castleton. Later, French and Slavic immigrants joined the Welsh and Irish.2

When our ancestors came to West Castleton, there was only one slate company in town -- The West Castleton Railroad and Slate Co. The company had many of its own quarries and processed (milled) the slate from small private quarries in the area. Business was good supplying the demand for roofing tiles, fireplace mantles, billiard tables, blackboards, and tombstones. Where slate was readily available in surface deposits, it was used as foundations and steps of the new company town of West Castleton.

Slate mining was hard and dangerous work. Early quarries used blasting, manual labor and animals to remove slate, rubble, and water. Workers were sometimes killed by collapsing rock or blasting accidents. The men worked ten-hour days for less than two dollars. In West Castleton the company owned housing, sold food and clothing, provided transportation, and generally controlled the workers' lives through its hold on their credit. The Catholic Church in Fair Haven established a mission, St. Josephs, in 1879, but even social institutions like the church and school relied on company support.

By 1888, slate was being quarried and milled for floor tiles, sinks, and wash tubs. The name and ownership of the mills changed and other companies started up in the following 70 years

Lake Bomoseen was also developing a tourist trade and its shore eventually became completely developed into residences and resorts. In the 1930's Alexander Wolcott, the famous "man of letters", owned the lake's island, Neshobe Island. His group of friends, Harpo Marx among them, became known as the "Neshobe Circle."

Throughout the early 1900's, the slate industry profited, but in 1929, the Lake Shore-West Castleton mill closed. Demand for roofing had declined, the quarries were nearly exhausted, and water and rubble removal had become difficult. Labor shortages during WWI, subsequent strikes, and the depression may also have contributed to the closure of the mill.

West Castleton was literally abandoned. The village remains as cellar holes, quarry gabbles, and mills scattered among twisted grapevines, goldenrod, and maple saplings. The area was donated by the heir of the last mill owner to the State of Vermont and is now the Bomoseen State Park. An excellent Booklet, "The Slate History Trail" (from which many of the preceding paragraphs were freely borrowed) is available at the ranger station and provides an excellent self-guided tour of the area.

Benson

The town of Benson is located in the northwestern corner of Rutland County. The Hubbardton River flows through the southeast corner of the 25,509 acre town. The town is suited for dairy farming with intensive cultivation. Benson contains the hamlets of Benson and Benson Landing and reached a peak in population in 1860 with 1256 souls.

In 1870, considerable interest was taken by the town in a project for a railroad line along Lake Champlain's shore. Nothing came of this project and dairy farming is still the only industry in town.3

Fair Haven

Fair Haven served as the market town for West Castleton and Benson. Its church served the Irish Catholics in the area and later most West Castleton families migrated to the town. Traditionally, its industries involved slate and marble quarrying and processing, and there was a small clothing manufacturing core in the town for years.4

One social perception, passed down through the years, that played to the ego of the (none too wealthy) Hayes family was that, no matter how poor you were, if you lived on the business district's side of Fair Haven's railroad tracks, you were always "a bit better than those on the other side of the tracks."5

PART ONE: THE PINDERS AND THE MORGANS

Chapter one: EDMUND PINDERS AND MARY DORAN

The Name Pinders in Ireland and Vermont

The name Pinders is one of many shortened versions of the name Prendergast. Indeed, some of the baptismal and census records of our own Pinders family in Ireland used the name Pendergast. The ancestor of the Prendergast families in Ireland was an Anglo-Norman magnate, Maurice de Prendergast, who came in the 12th century invasion and acquired considerable estates in Ireland. One branch of his descendants remained in the southeast where they are still found in Co. Waterford, while another settled in Connaught, where Prendergast families are found mainly in Mayo.6

Throughout my records search in Ireland and Vermont there were so many spelling variations of the Pinders name (Pender, Pindar, Pendars, etc.) that spelling seems to be of no use in keeping family relations straight. There were at least three, probably unrelated, branches of Pinders families living in Rutland Co., Vermont in the late 19th century. Naturalization records of the two families that spent time at Castleton shows that one family came from Co. Cork and one from Co. Clare. Coincidentally, the Hayes of Fair Haven are descended from both of these families and, in an effort to distinguish between the two, I will use the spelling of the family names from their Fair Haven tombstones (the final word so to speak) to identify them in this paper. The Cork family being "Pinders" and the Clare family being "Pendors." It should be noted, however, that most modern descendents of the Clare family go by "Penders."

Edmund and Mary

Edmund Pinders was born sometime around 1814 and he lived in the townland of Lower Macroney, in the Civil Parish of Macroney, which is located on the northeast corner of Co. Cork where Cork borders on Co. Tipperary and Co. Waterford.7 The parish was described thus in the 1885 publication The Topographical Dictionary of Ireland:

"Macroney, a parish, in the Barony of Condons and Clangibbon, County of Cork, and Province of Munster, 2 miles (N.N.E.) from Kilworth, on the road to Lismore, contains 2788 inhabitants. The land, though in general of an inferior quality, is chiefly under tillage, a large portion of the mountain waste having been lately brought into cultivation; there is a small portion of bog. Limestone raised in the adjoining parish is generally burnt for manure, and slate was formerly worked in the vicinity. The river Araglyn, which separates this parish from Leitrim, winds through a vale covered on both sides with oak. There are two small cornmills on the river employed in grinding oats. Where the Counties of Cork, Tipperary, and Waterford meet, there is a station of the constabulary police. Castle Cooke, the seat of W. Cooke Collis, Esq., is beautifully situated on the Araglyn. The Roman Catholics are a part of the Union of Kilworth, and (the Catholics) have a small plain chapel in Coolmahon."

Edmund Pinders married Mary Doran, who was probably from a neighboring parish, in 1842. Mary was born around 1815. The couple had at least five children while living in Ireland; Catherine in 1843, Thomas in 1845, Mary in 1848, Edmund in 1851, and Hanna in 1853. From at least 1851 through 1853 the family co-rented, with Edmund Doran and Johanna Pindar (no doubt relatives), a tract of land from the Earl of Kingston. Sometime around 1854 the family immigrated to America. Their daughter, Mary, is not found in any Vermont records and is presumed to have died between 1851 and 1856.8

The family came to the slate company town in West Castleton, Vermont. They had another daughter, Mary, in 1857. Having declared his intention to become an U.S. citizen in 1856, Edmund was granted citizenship on Oct. 2, 1858. In 1860 Edmund was working as a "ledgeman" in the West Castleton quarries and his children were schooled in that town. At that time they were housed in company housing and Edmund had about $50 in personal assets. In 1861 Edmund and Mary sponsored the baptism of a neighbor's child, James White.9

In March of 1862, Edmund and his family embarked on a big change in life from the dangerous work of slate quarrying and the constricted control of a company town. Edmund purchased, for $700, 25 acres of dairy land (from David Potter) in the neighboring town of Benson. He bought an additional 9 acres from Potter in April of 1867. Edmund's property now straddled a section of the road that leads from the village of Benson to Orwell in the north. In 1870 he purchased an additional 65 acres.10

The biggest news ever to hit Benson was the proposal, in 1870, of a railroad laying tracks around Lake Champlain and going through the town. After much debate in a town meeting, it was voted to raise a levy to help the railroad. Edmund had to pay $9.50, a small amount compared to most of his wealthier neighbors. The railroad plan fell through and the biggest thing to happen to Benson never happened.11

The 1870 Census found Edmund, Mary, and the three youngest children on the Benson farm. His farm was valued at $1500 and Edmund had $500 in the bank. His self-estimation of his literacy was that he could read but not write. By 1879 all of Edmund's mortgages had been paid off.12

By 1880 only one of their children, Edward, was living with them. A grandchild, Catherine's daughter, Hanna Morgan, was also staying with them. Edmund Pinders died of pneumonia on Dec. 9, 1882. Miraculously, he managed to sell the 130 acre farm to his son (no doubt to avoid probate expense and the division of the land) the day after he died! Mary Doran Pinders succumbed to heart failure on Dec. 16, 1891. Edmund and Mary are buried in the Catholic cemetery in Fair Haven with three of their children.13

The Pinders Children

(The information contained below was gleaned during the search for my direct lineage and is by no means exhaustive.)

Catherine Pinders was baptized in Ireland on Nov. 22, 1843. She married James Morgan and had 12 children with him. For more information on her and her family please refer to part two of this chapter.

Thomas Pinders was born in Ireland in Sept. of 1845. Per the Kilworth Parish register, he was baptized at Kilworth chapel on Sept. 20 and his godparents were John Sweeney and Bridget Doran. He was out of school, probably working in the quarries or as a farm hand, by the age of 13. He married Catherine O'Connell at St. Mary's in Fair Haven on Feb. 9, 1867. In 1870 he was living in West Castleton with his wife and sons, Edward (b. 11/7/1868) and Michael (b. 4/14/1870), and was working as a painter. Another child, Abigail, was born in West Castleton on 7/9/1872. By 1876 the family had moved to Benson where, in that year, Thomas Jr. was born. In 1880 Thomas was still living and working, as a laborer, in Benson. His oldest son had been "farmed out" to a neighbor. Thomas' wife, Catherine, died in 1891.14

He moved to the town of Poultney and took a new wife, Mary, around 1895. Per the Rutland Herald, Thomas died in Poultney on April 13, 1914. The fate of his children is unknown to me except the death of his boys Michael and Thomas in 1888 and 1908 respectively.15

Mary Pinders was born and baptized in Kilworth, Ireland in May of 1848 and her godparents were Thomas and Julia Doran. She was still living in 1851 per the census of Ireland. She is presumed to have died by the time her sister, and namesake, was born in 1857.

Edward Pinders was born in Ireland in April of 1851. He was baptized at Kilworth chapel on April 24 and his godparents were Mike Quirk and Mary Sweeney. Edward was a student at the school in West Castleton until at least 1860 and he moved with his family to Benson in 1862. He lived with his parents until he "inherited" the family farm on his father's death in 1882. He ran the farm with his mother until her death. Edward married Josephine Sullivan in 1890. Together they had four children: Mary A., born 8/2/1892; Edward B., born 5/4/1894 (died as an infant); Edward M., born 8/13/1895; and Paul, born 1/3/1898. Edward built up the family farm, and upon his death in 1907, its 239 acres and 23 cows were valued at $2875. Immediately after his death, Edward's widow, Jossie, sold the house and farm to George Jackson and the Jackson family lived on it until 1983. It was sold to Dick Tracy Mobile Homes and that company tore down the house. A barn still stands on the site with some mobile homes, and other mobile homes are dispersed along the roadside.16

Jossie Pinders moved, with her children, to a 15 acre property in Benson, on the Orwell border, on the road that is now known as Highway 22a. Jossies' daughter, Mary "Frances" eventually moved away and ended up living in Ballaporozo, Indiana where she owned and operated a newspaper. She never married. The rest of the family remained in Benson until, during the great depression, Edward decided that there was not enough money to go around to support both himself and his brother Paul's growing family. He left the house one day and was never heard from again. Paul went on to raise his three children but he was never the same after his brother left and he was plagued with bouts of despondency. Paul died in 1949 and is buried in the family plot in Fair Haven. His children: Allen Pinders of Springfield, Vermont; Eddie Pinders of Windermire, Florida; and Jane Underwood of Greenwich, Connecticut. Allen has three children and Jane has two.17

Hanna Pinders was born in Ireland in 1853. She attended school in West Castleton and lived with her parents until at least 1870. I have no other information about her.18

Mary Pinders was born in Vermont in 1857. She lived with her parents until at least 1870. In 1880 she worked as a servant for Henry Wright in Orwell, VT. She married and in 1926 she was living in Wisconsin under the name of Mary McDonald.19

Chapter two: JAMES MORGAN AND CATHERINE PINDERS

James Morgan was born circa 1842 in the county of Armagh, Province of Ulster, Ireland. It is not known who his parents were, if he had any siblings, or what his parish of birth is. The name Morgan is a common Welsh surname (ranking among the 50 most common English and Welsh surnames) that was brought over to Ireland by settlers who established themselves in all four provinces, with a majority in Ulster. There were 122 Morgan families in Co. Armagh alone in 1864. The County of Armagh holds the ecclesiastical center of the country, and in the 17th and 18th centuries, it was the center of Ulster's linen industry. This industry and other farming activities made the county relatively prosperous and one of the most densely populated on the island. The county was less affected by the great famine of 1845-47 than most other counties, but even so its population was reduced by 15% between 1841 and 1851.20

James Morgan immigrated to Vermont in the mid 1850's. It appears that James had no family in Vermont and that he made his way by working on farms. Although he remained, by self-report, functionally illiterate all his life, it seems that James attended school in West Castleton for a little while. In 1860 James was in Hubbardton Township as a live-in farm hand for William Bailess. Living with Mr. Bailess were his wife, his son Fredrick, and a domestic servant. James remained employed in Hubbardton until the American Civil War called him away.21

In Hubbardton, on Aug. 18, 1862, an officer named Captain Joseph Jennings enlisted James as a private into his unit as one of Lincoln's nine month volunteers.22 As Vermont was one of the best (per capita) represented states in the Union Army, James had a lot of company. By Sept. 3, 1862, James had joined other recruits from Fair Haven, Castleton, and Hubbardton, and on the 8th they entered camp in Brattleboro as Company F of the 14th Regiment of Vermont Infantry. They were brigaded with the 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Regiments as the Second Brigade, and then placed under the command of Brigadier-General Edwin H. Stoughten. (He was subsequently captured and Brigadier-General George T. Stannard was assigned to the command until the expiration of the brigade's term of service.)

The Second Brigade went to Virginia and found a good camping ground on an estate called "Spring Bank." There was timber nearby for fuel and this proved to be valuable because the winter opened early in Virginia that year. Five inches of snow lay on the ground on the night of November 7th (this was a month earlier than snow fell in Vermont that year). Spring Bank was soon called "Camp Vermont."

The main duty of the brigade was the picketing of a portion of the line encircling Washington, D.C. This line extended from a point on the Potomac, two miles north of Mount Vernon, and continued six miles to the north, to the vicinity of the Orange and Alexandria railroad. To this job was added fatigue duty on the outworks of Fort Lyon (half a mile north of Camp Vermont) for which 1500 men from the brigade were detailed daily. The men prepared for winter by building barracks of oak logs, but few had been finished before orders came to leave them.

While in Camp Vermont the 14th Regiment exchanged the old French and Belgian muskets with which the government had armed them on leaving Vermont, for Austrian and Enfield rifles. On the 28th of November, the 14th Regiment was sent to the neighborhood of Union Mills, to picket the line of the Occoquan and Bull Run and guard the railroad. On December 5th the 14th Regiment returned to Camp Vermont at nightfall amidst a heavy snowstorm. Being without tents, they were glad to find shelter in the tents and quarters of the other regiments. The brigade remained at Camp Vermont for a week longer, doing picket duty in rain and snow and sometimes on frozen ground with the mercury 18 or 20 degrees below freezing.

On the 11th of December, the brigade was ordered to replace a corps that had moved up to support Gen. Burnside in his ill-fated Fredericksburg Campaign. The brigade moved to Fairfax Court House, Virginia on the 12th. The men started this march in excellent spirits (though many were sorry to leave the comfortable log huts which they had just completed) and marched twenty miles in ten hours. The roads were slippery as the frozen ground thawed under the sun, but even with heavy knapsacks there was little straggling. At four in the afternoon the regiment halted and they camped among the pine trees near Fairfax Court House where the full regiment remained for three months.23

While still in the early morning of this march, a tree limb poked James Morgan in his right eye. Although he did not go to the hospital at this time, he attributed this injury to his later blindness of the same eye. At the time Morgan had been under the impression that the march was being driven by activities of rebel Cavalry Commander J.E.B. Stuart.24

The brigade now had to picket a front of five or six miles, along Bull Run and Club Run Creeks, in the outer line of infantry pickets around the defenses of Washington. In front of the pickets Union cavalry were posted.

The station at Fairfax was a military village of sheds and store tents, and was the base of supplies for the thousands of troops at Centreville, Fairfax Court House, Union Mills, and other points in the vicinity. Heavy rainstorms proved too much for the roads in the area to handle, and in addition to picket duty, the regiment had to turn out and corduroy the roads, leading from Fairfax Station to Wolf Run Shoals, in order to make them passable for the loaded army wagons. What with this labor, the digging of rifle pits to guard the fords across the Occoquan, the stockading of their tents, and the leveling of some confederate fortifications on the south side of the river, the men did not languish much in idleness. They were so busy that drills were abandoned for a time.25

It was in April and May of this spring that James Morgan claimed to have developed "rheumatism" in his right knee that in later life continued to his hip, back, and shoulders.26

The picket duty of the 14th Regiment was uneventful except for raids by a Confederate partisan (formerly of J.E.B. Stuart's command), named Mosbey, whose cavalrymen harassed the Union roads of the area.

March to Gettysburg

On June 23, 1863, General Stannard was notified that his brigade had been attached to the First Corps of the Army of the Potomac; that he was to hold his line till all the rest of the army had passed on; and then he was to follow the column to the north towards Pennsylvania. On the 25th the brigade was concentrated at Union Mills and, starting at 3:00 PM, marched eight miles and bivouacked nine miles beyond Centreville. The troops and long trains of artillery and wagons of the Sixth Corps passed the regiment and the regiment followed them, forming the rear guard of the army. They moved to Herndon Station, along the Alexandria and London Railroad, past Guilford Station, and that afternoon crossed the Potomac on the pontoon bridges at Edwards Ferry and marched nearly to Poolesville, MD. On June 28th the brigade started at 8:00 AM, crossed the Monocacy at its mouth at noon, and marched hard to two miles beyond Adamstown, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The marching was so hard that many soldiers discarded knapsacks and blankets on the way. Moving again, in a steady rain which lasted all day of the 29th, the brigade halted for three hours at Frederick City. The march was telling on some of the men. Because the chief quartermaster did not think it worthwhile to issue new shoes to troops whose term of service was so soon to expire, most of the men had blistered and bleeding feet. Ninety disabled men were left at Fredrick City. Marching due north, the brigade bivouacked that night near Cregertown. Here a rumor that the rebels had sacked Harrisburg stirred the blood of the tired soldiers.

On June 30th, after another hard day's march in the mud, the brigade reached Emmittsburg, two miles from the Pennsylvania line. It had marched 120 miles in six days, which was doing well for troops unused to marching. The next morning the Corp Commander, General Reynolds, was assigned to command the left wing of the army and he turned the command of the First Corps over to Major General Abner Doubleday (the same Abner Doubleday who later invented baseball!) The second Vermont brigade had been attached to Doubleday's Third Division and his vacated command was filled by Brig. General T.A. Rowdy. Everyone in the camp understood there would be a pitched battle the next day. The Armies of the Potomac and of Northern Virginia were about to engage in the bloodiest and most momentous battle since Waterloo. General Meade of the Union Army had 91,000 men and 327 guns, while the Confederate General Lee had 80,000 men and 268 guns. The numbers that actually took part in the fighting, however, were about equal.

Gettysburg

When the first shot of the Battle of Gettysburg was fired at 9:00 AM of Wednesday, July 1, 1863, the Second Vermont Brigade, with James Morgan, was lying where it had bivouacked, a little outside the village of Emmittsburg. At eight o'clock the third division got its order to move towards Gettysburg. At nine o'clock half the division's regiments were ordered to guard baggage trains while the 14th Division (James Morgan's) continued its march north.27

On the evening of the 2nd of July the remaining regiments of the brigade were moved to the front line, to fill the place of troops that had been shattered by the onslaught of the enemy. Upon arriving the 13th Regiment made a "gallant" charge and retook a Union gun position that the Confederates had just then captured. The front line was reestablished and the brigade would hold it for twenty-six hours. At about two o'clock on the third of July, the Confederates again attacked. The Vermonters' position was subjected to an hour and a half of the severest cannonade of the whole battle from nearly one hundred guns. The enemy charged with a heavy column of infantry aimed directly towards General Stannard's command in the center of the brigade's line. Due to the goodly amount of fire from that position the enemy column changed its course to the right of General Stannard. Under Stannard's orders, other regiments quickly took advantage of the enemy's exposed flank and fired at close range until the majority of the column surrendered. Almost immediately another column advanced to Stannard's left, directly at the 14th Regiment. The 14th Regiment offered them devastating fire and an identical flank maneuver forced the enemy column to be taken prisoner en-mass by the Vermonters. The 16th Regiment, who had performed both textbook executed flank maneuvers, took the regimental colors of the second Florida and eighth Virginia regiments, and the battle flag of another rebel regiment.

In General Stannard's words, "Officers and men behaved like veterans...the movements were executed in the open field under a heavy fire of shell, grape, and musketry, and they were performed with the promptness and precision of battalion drill. They ended the contest on the center and substantially closed the battle."

The total killed in the brigade was reported as thirty-nine, and wounded two hundred and forth-eight; of these James Morgan's regiment, the 14th, lost the most with seventeen killed and sixty-eight wounded. The brigade was transported back to Vermont and its regiments were mustered out. James Morgan left the army on July 30th, 1863.28

Soon after returning home, James Morgan paid $65 in promissory notes to buy a 30 acre farm in Benson Township. After waiting for the previous occupant to leave, James moved to the farm in 1864. On April 9, 1866, at the beautiful marble church of St. Bridget's in West Rutland, James Morgan married fellow Benson resident Catherine Pinders.29

Catherine Pinders was the first child of Edmund Pinders and Mary Doran. She was born late in 1843 in the townland of Lower Macroney, Macroney Parish, Co. Cork on the Waterford-Cork border. She was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church of St. Martin in Kilworth Parish and her godparents were Michael Doran and Norry Buons. She was joined by a brother, Thomas, in 1845, a sister Mary in 1848, and another brother Edmund in 1851. By 1855 the family, with a new member, Hanna, who was also born in Ireland, had sailed to Vermont and were living in West Castleton. The next year Catherine's last sibling, another girl named Mary, was born.30

During her years in Vermont, Catherine attended the school in West Castleton but, probably due to her late start in schooling and her sporadic attendance, never recognized herself as fully literate (as evidenced by census). In 1859, at the age of 14, a West Castleton school attendance book shows that she attended 14 days of school between May 9th and August 27th and she was tardy on half of these days. This can be compared to her younger siblings' attendance of 74.5 days during this same time period. In the 1860 census, Catherine was not enumerated with her family and was probably "farmed out" as a household servant. It seems she returned to her family when her father, who had been working in the slate quarries, bought a farm in Benson Township in March of 1862. Although she might have known James Morgan as schoolmates, their relationship developed into a marriage when they became Benson residents together.31

At their wedding, Catherine's brother, Thomas, served as James' best man and an old West Castleton friend, Ann Minogue, was Catherine's bridesmaid.32

The newlyweds wasted no time in building a family and Fredrick Thomas Morgan was born in January of 1867. (The child's first name might have derived from the son of James' previous employer, Mr. Bailess, but the child would soon be called Thomas F. Morgan). The child's godparents were Catherine's brother, Tom, and sister Hannah.33

In August of that same year James and Catherine refinanced their 30 acre farm and paid off the old promissory notes. They now, however, took an even larger mortgage, probably to finance improvements or another land purchase. Soon afterwards, the couple cosigned the mortgage on a fifty acre farm that was situated in all three of the towns of Benson, Hubbardton, and Castleton. (As far as I can tell the house and buildings of this dairy farm were on Moscow Road, a road heading directly north from West Castleton to Hubbardton. The house was just on the Castleton side of the town boundaries and the foundations of house and buildings can still be seen at a point on Moscow road where the Castleton snowplow turns around.)34

The neighbors in this part of West Castleton were Ulstermen, like James Morgan, but they came from County Armagh's neighbor, the County Down. Collectively they were jokingly referred to as "the Far Downers" by the other West Castleton Irishmen.35 Although it was the law that anyone serving in the Union Army received U.S. citizenship, James applied for citizenship in 1868 anyway. The couple's second child, Mary was also born that year. The census of 1870 found James and Catherine with their two children, but later in that same year another son, John Edward, was born. The family grew steadily with James C. being born in February 1873, Anna in May 1874, Francis in 1876, and Catherine in 1877.36

1878 was a tragic year for the Morgans as diphtheria took three of the Morgan children ill. The doctor ordered that parents were not to give the children liquids even though they were crying out for drink. After his daughter, Mary, and son, Francis, died in agony, James decided to let his other daughter die with the comfort of water to drink. Facing a fever and dehydration, the water saved the child.37

Despite this setback the family continued to grow with the birth of Mary Agnes in April 1880. Two months later, when the census taker came, the family was still all together except their daughter Anna, who was living with her grandparents and uncle in Benson.

There is a record, recorded in Benson in 1882, of James Morgan borrowing a large sum of money from his brother-in-law, Edward, and guaranteeing it with his land. This was probably to finance another farm expansion because in 1881 James Morgan purchased 250 acres, located in the towns of Hubbardton, Castleton, and Benson bringing his total acreage to over 300 acres. In 1882 a daughter, Elizabeth, was born. It was also in that year that Catherine's father died. Catherine's brother, Edward, assumed ownership of the Pinders farm and took care of her mother.38

In 1883 it is obvious that the Morgans were having difficulty paying off their mortgage and they got a second mortgage from Horace Ellis, who was a neighbor and a man who seems to have been on friendly terms with James Morgan. In the agreement James took on the added burden of fire insurance on his buildings. Later Mr. Ellis would die and his heir, a New Yorker, would not have those "friendly ties" with James.39

Between 1882-1889 it is believed that Catherine had two children; one that died shortly after birth, and one named Ellen, born 17 April 1886. During the same period James Morgan became increasingly unable to perform routine tasks because of rheumatism, blindness in one eye, and hemorrhoids. In 1889 he applied for a disability pension from the army, claiming that his problems all had their origin in the service during the war. It was concluded by the government that he was partially disabled.40

Also around this time James began to sell and lease tracts of his land, possibly hoping the rents would help him pay his mortgages.41 In 1890 came another child (and mouth to feed), Margaret. The family's financial problems worsened. To add to the bad news Catherine's mother died in 1891. Towards the end of 1893, a court hearing, that Morgan did not attend, foreclosed on all of the family's property. In November 1894 they were forced to leave their home. They still had at least four of their daughters living with them. After the loss of the farm, James again applied for a disability pension and was awarded an $8 monthly pension. In June 1898 James entered the Vermont State Soldiers Home in Bennington Village.42 Catherine Pinders took over management of a boarding house for quarry workers in West Castleton and the 1900 census found her and four daughters living with a large number of boarders.

In July of 1902 James Morgan left the Soldiers Home and came to live with his daughter, Mary Agnes (Morgan) Hayes on Creek Road, Hydeville. James Morgan died of a cerebral hemorrhage at that location nine months later on April 20, 1903.

James Morgan left his family no estate and Catherine was entirely without means other than her manual labor and help from her children.43 Because her daughter Margaret was still a minor she was able to receive a widow's pension from the government in 1903. At this time she was living with Margaret at 29 Grape Street in Fair Haven. By 1910, Margaret had moved out and Catherine's daughter Anna had moved in with her family. Margaret died in 1916. Anna's husband died in 1919 leaving the two women to raise Anna's children. Catherine Pinders Morgan died on October 6, 1926. James, Catherine, and Margaret are buried next to Catherine's parents' grave under stones marked "Father," "Mother," and "Margaret" on the northwest side of St. Mary's Cemetery in Fair Haven, Vermont.

There is nobody now alive who knew James Morgan to testify to his looks, his ways of daily living, or his personality. We do have two separate army records that attest that he was 5 feet 8 inches tall with dark complexion, eyes, and hair. We know, from a West Castleton Hazzard Slate Co. store ledger, that at one time in 1883, he purchased kale, a barrel of flour, and two "shorts".

Of James Morgan's personality we have only the following to relate. His obituary, in the "Fair Haven Era", states that he was an industrious man and well thought of by his friends. While that does not say much, it is clear from his double and triple mortgaging of property to expand his farm, he was at least an ambitions man.

There is a story attributed to James Morgan by a West Castleton historian, Peter Patten, that Margaret Vaughn, James' granddaughter, stated was very similar to stories that she heard from her father about her grandfather.

The story relates to the group of farmers who used to meet periodically on the steps of the Hazzard Slate Company Store. They would sit and gab for hours, but as night was coming, one of their members, James Morgan, would try to break up the group. The other men would tarry, to egg him on, because they knew he was afraid of the dark road home (because the "fairies" or "Little People" were supposed to be active at night) and he was also afraid to leave the assembled group in fear that they would talk about him behind his back.

Family lore (gossip if you will) says that, as he aged, James Morgan became slightly mentally unbalanced.44 Considering Morgan's disabling physical illnesses, his foolhardy farm expansion, his need for the Soldiers Home care, and the above story, it is probably fair to say he was at least a local character.

In 1992, when this paper was first published, there were still people around who remembered Catherine Pinders and there are even two photographs of her with some of her grandchildren in existence. All sources agreed that she was very lady-like and Mary T. Hayes remembered her as always pristine in her full length, black dress with a high Victorian neckline, a spotless white linen apron, and a white hand-made shawl. Mary T. said that in her later years she seems to have made a decision to become "a lady of leisure" and her daughter, Anna, waited on her hand and foot. Margaret Vaughn remembered that she spent many hours teaching her grandchildren, whom she always had time to see, to read aloud while she sat in her rocking chair and knitted. The knitting supplied all of her grandchildren with a yearly supply of socks and mittens.45 Mary T. remembered two of the many old sayings she loved to use were; "There are plenty who are married that don't keep a good fire." and "When you talk untruths about someone, it's like opening a pillowcase" (you can never get all of the feathers back in). Mary T. went on to say that her grandmother encouraged learning in her family (despite her own poor school attendance!) and that she gave Mary an example of independence and a perspective that happiness in the life you live is what is important.

The Morgan Children

(The following information was brought to me while investigating my direct lineage and the research involved was by no means exhaustive.)

Thomas Fredrick Morgan was born in Benson in January 1867. He was baptized at St. Mary's in Fair Haven and his godparents were Tom and Hanna Pinders. He lived with his family until at least 1880.46 Thomas married Mary A. Sloan (a local Vermont/Irish girl) in 1892. The couple moved to Bangor, PA where Thomas worked in the slate industry there. In 1900, Thomas was working as a foreman in a slate mill in Bangor, PA, but according to his father's obituary, he was again living in Castleton in 1903.

No grouping of Thomas' complete family was found in the 1910 census, but we do find him in the Bronx, NY...and it appears he remarried. The Bronx census describes Thomas Morgan as a 43 year old marble worker from Vermont with Irish born parents, with a wife named Pauline (born in PA), and three daughters; Mary 11 yrs, Sena 10 yrs, and Marrina 6 yrs. None of the daughters were Pauline's. Two of Thomas' children were living in Fair Haven, VT in 1910. As it was clear in the 1900 census that that Mary Sloan had born only 4 children, we must assume that "Mary" is Leona. Thomas Frederick Morgan died in Manhattan, NY on January 9, 1919. His death certificate identifies his parents by name and states that he was a marble cutter and was buried in the Bronx.

Thomas' and Mary's children were:

  1. Henry Patrick "Harry" Morgan was born on June 24, 1892 in Bangor, PA. He married Mary Gerzmokinsky in Bronx, NY on February 22, 1914. They had three children: Helen "Dorothy" Morgan (1915-1939), Florence Anna Morgan Maier (1917-1999), and Henry Thomas "Hank" Morgan (1919-1982). Florence had a daughter, Linda, and Henry had three children: Henry ("Brad"), Mark, and Maureen. Jobs that Harry performed over the years were: freight checker, chauffer, foreman, and building superintendent. At the time of his brother's death in 1959 he was living in Bronx, NY. Henry P. Morgan died on February 18, 1973 in Philadelphia, PA.
  2. Thomas "Earl" "Pete" Morgan was born September 23, 1893 in Bangor, PA. He married Helen Russett but they did not have children. In 1910, the census taker found Earl living with his aunt Mary Morgan Hayes in Fair Haven, VT. Earl served in the Army in World War I and then lived in Hartford, CT for 40 years. At the time of his death on January 29, 1959, he had worked for the States Company for 35 years and was an "assembler."
  3. Helen Morgan (Stern) was born in February 25, 1897 in Bangor, PA. She was with her family in the 1900 census but was living in Fair Haven, VT with her aunt Mary Morgan Hayes in 1910. Mary T. Hayes, her cousin, believed that Helen left school in Fair Haven in 9th grade to marry a man named Freedman in New York. From her brother's obituary, we know that she was married to William Stern and lived in Long Island in 1959. It is believed that she died on Long Island on the 13th of February of 1994. They had two children.
  4. Leona M. "Mary" Morgan (Fitzgerald) was born in Bangor, PA on July 31, 1899. At the time of her brother's death in 1959, she was married to Frank Fitzgerald and lived in New York City. They had five children and the oldest child was Frank Jr.
  5. Margaret "Honey" Morgan (Johnson) was born after 1899. She was married to Albert Johnson and lived in New Jersey in 1959. They had three children.
  6. Sena (b. 1900) or Marrina (b. 1904). It is not clear which of Thomas' daughters lived to be known as Mrs. Margaret Johnson. Kathrine Pinders' obituary in 1926 implied that only five of Thomas' children were alive at that time.46

Mary Morgan was born on the Moscow Road Farm in 1868. She was baptized that year and her godparents were Edward Pinders and Johanna Finnegan. She lived on Moscow Road all her life and died of diphtheria on June 26, 1878.47

John Edward "Ed" Morgan was born on the Moscow Road Farm on December 16, 1870. His godparents were Edward and Mary Pinders. He was baptized in the West Castleton mission church of St. Joseph's on the 30th of June, 1903. His wife, Mary Larken, was born in Rutland in 1876. She would later work as a cook at Castleton College. John worked in quarries and as a carpenter.48 When John's father died in 1903 his obituary reported that John was living in "the West". Later John lived in Fair Haven and had quite a reputation as a tightwad, an exponent of conservative politics, and a very intelligent man. He had a very good friend in Mary Lawlor Hayes. He would visit with her almost daily after having his regular argument about the New Deal with his nephew Harold. His thrift caught up with him when coal gas, caused by poor ventilation due to his fear of costly heat loss, overcame him one day. This weakened his heart considerably. While at Mary Lawlor Hayes' bedside, after she had given birth, he felt weak and asked Harold to take him home. When they got to his house he died in Harold's arms. The couple had no children. J.E. Morgan died in 1937 and his wife died in 1939. They are buried at St. Mary's Cemetery.49

James C. Morgan was born at West Castleton on February 14, 1873. His godparents were John Burns and Kate Connell. He never married and for many years he had a garden patch in the countryside and he would sell his vegetables from a wagon in Fair Haven. His nephew Paul Hayes, who used to work for him for $.75 a day, said that he was a nice man and never worried about money if a person was too poor to pay. He was also a professional photographer. One story goes that during WWI James was going door-to-door promoting his photography, when one of his potential customers scolded him for being a slacker when there was a war on. James was a big fan of the "legitimate theater" and in particular the Barrymore family. James died of T.B. in his sister Kate's care at Orwell on December 31, 1933 and left his estate to his siblings.50

Anna (Morgan) Nolan was born at the farm on May 23, 1874. In 1880 she was living with her grandparents in Benson. Anna Morgan married Patrick Nolan (1871-1919) on October 12, 1904 and they had two children:51

  1. Francis Nolan, born in 1907, became a house painter who worked for his aunt's husband, Harry Sullivan, and was a very well liked man in town. He never married and lived with his mother all his life. He died of asthma in 1951.52
  2. Charles Morgan Nolan was born on January 10, 1910. He married Lexina LaRoque, of Rutland, and the couple had three children: Patrick (b. 1937), Richard (b. 1945), and Judy (b. 1948). While in Vermont, Charles was a baker by trade and worked a baker's hours (night). The family moved to California in 1957 and he was employed as a maintenance man. Charles died in 1989 in California.53

By 1910, Anna and Patrick, who was a stationary engineer at a slate quarry, had moved, with their family, into her mother's house on Grape Street and Anna took care of her mother. Anna's husband died of diabetes in 1919. When her mother died in 1926, she supported herself by sewing shirts at home for a shirt factory in Fair Haven. She would sometimes use shirt scraps to sew her godchild, Mary T. Hayes, a dress. Her son Francis helped her out with the bills. Anna was a member of the Catholic Daughters and liked to play bridge and babysit the grandchildren. She was a good person and always strong in a family crisis. In 1957, she went to California to live with her son. She died on August 26, 1961 and is buried (next to her son) in Queen of the Angeles Cemetery in Covina, California.54

Francis Morgan was born in 1876 and his godparents were Barney Ridy and Mary Fitzgerald. He died of diphtheria at the age of two on June 26, 1878.

Catherine (Morgan) Ryan was born on November 7, 1877. Her godparents were Patrick and Mary Burns. In 1900 she was living with her mother in West Castleton. At one time she waited tables at the Allen House in Fair Haven. She married Robert Ryan, a mail carrier, in 1920, but had no children. She and her husband lived in Orwell, VT and had a summer cottage on a Benson lake. Robert Ryan was a wonderful kind-hearted man but his wife was not so well liked. It seems she had a real "thing" about cleaning and would become very upset over the smallest mess. She would treat her guests like royalty but they had better be neat. After her husband retired she started to drink a bit. When her husband died in 1948, she had to sell her property and move in with her nephew Charles Morgan Nolan. She stopped drinking as much and became more socially appropriate. She died on August 1, 1961 and is buried at St. Paul's Catholic Cemetery in Orwell.55

Mary Agnes (Morgan) Hayes was born in April of 1880. She married Thomas Hayes in 1898 and they had 10 children. She died in 1958. For further information on Mary Agnes Hayes and her descendants please refer to her chapter later in this volume.

Elizabeth E. (Morgan) Sullivan was born on the Moscow Farm on April 18, 1882. She was living with her mother in 1900. She married Harry Sullivan, a well respected, charming, and much-loved man in Fair Haven, on June 28, 1911. Harry had a remarkably long career as a house painter. They had three children:

  1. Mary (Sullivan) Bird (b. April 27, 1912) married Joe Bird and they had one daughter, Mary Anne "Nancy" Bird. Joe owned and operated a filling station. He died in 1990. Mary died on April 1, 1994 and is buried in Fair Haven.
  2. George Sullivan (b. 1913) worked for his father in the painting business. He never married and died on November 6, 1971.
  3. Margaret (Sullivan) Vaughan (b. March 5, 1917) married Rodney Vaughan and they had four children together; William (b. 1941), John (b. 1944), Tom (b. 1946), and Mary Kaye (b. 1949). Rodney worked as a machinist in Springfield, Vermont until he had to leave due to health reasons. Margaret died on July 24, 2001 and is buried in Fair Haven.

Elizabeth kept a lovely rock garden and was considered quite a proper lady. She died in 1952. Harry Sullivan died in 1986 at the age of 98. Both are buried at St. Mary's Cemetery in Fair Haven.56

Ellen Morgan was born on April 24, 1886. She was said to have run away from home in her teens and went to New York City to live. She remained estranged from the family, but was very fondly remembered by her sister, Mary. When James Morgan applied for a disability pension in 1898 she was not listed as one of his surviving children.57

Margaret C. Morgan was born on the Moscow Road farm on May 15, 1890. She was raised ostensibly by her mother and had moved out of her mother's house by 1910. She was reportedly a sickly child but was smart, able, and a nice girl. She could embroider, sew, and even make lace. She became an excellent teacher who had infinite patience and made all learning fun. She was engaged to be married when she died at the age of 26 in 1916. She is buried with her parents in St. Mary's Cemetery.58



DOCUMENTATION

  1. A: Castleton: Scenes of Yesterday and Today and B: W.P.A. Census Population Summary.
  2. Comments from local historian Peter Patten and genealogist, Mary Yungfleish.
  3. W.P.A. Record Survey of Benson
  4. Beers Maps (circa 1869-1873), and common community knowledge
  5. Mary T. Hayes.
  6. A: Irish Family Names by Brian de Breffny. B: In 2002, Allen Pinders, a great grand son of Edmund Pinders, donated his DNA for a study the author was conducting. We have since been contacted by an Australian man named Maurie Prendergast who has a very close (25 out of 25 markers) genetic match to Allen. Maurie claims we are also closely matched (23 out of 25 markers) with a man claiming to be a direct descendent of Maurice de Prendergast. I have not examined the evidence for this claim. Maurieís family came from Clonmel, Co. Tipperary which is close to Kilworth, Co. Cork.
  7. Birth date derived from census, death record, and tombstone inscription. The establishment of Irish origin followed this path: A complete search of Vermont and U.S. records, for place of origin, turned up a naturalization record for Edmund Pinders of Castleton in a Rutland Court. The record states that Edmund was from Co. Cork, Ireland. A search of a comprehensive land valuation for all Irish land holders (Griffith's Valuation 1853) showed that there were only four parishes with Pinders families in Co. Cork, and only two of those parishes had Dorans in them. A letter to Kilworth church found correct age and names of Pinders children in baptismal book. (Edmund's birth predates the earliest register) A rare scrap of the burned 1851 Census of Ireland survived for this parish and shows a positive family grouping compared to Vermont Censuses.
  8. A: As no marriage record existed in Kilworth, it was assumed that the bride's parish (traditional host to weddings) was a neighboring parish. B: The first four children's christenings were found in Kilworth's books. The last child was listed as born in Ireland in the 1860 U.S. census (Vermont). C: 1853 land valuation shows the three families on one lease from the Earl of Kingston. D: 1860 census reports a seven year old born in Ireland and land valuation sets emigration after 1853, but naturalization record, which requires six year residency would place emigration at 1852. As it was not unheard of for witnesses to lie at naturalization hearings (if a political party was trying to register voters) I will assume the naturalization document is in error.
  9. A: 1860 U.S. census B: 1900 U.S. census C: Benson birth records D: Benson land records
  10. Benson land records
  11. Benson town meeting and special taxation record of 1870.
  12. 1870 U.S. census and Benson land records
  13. A: 1880 U.S. census B: Benson death record C: Benson land record D: Benson death record
  14. A: 1860 U.S. census B: St. Mary's marriage register C: 1870 U.S. census, Castleton birth records D: Benson birth records E: 1880 U.S. census F: gravestone
  15. 1900 U.S. census and gravestone
  16. A: 1860 U.S. census B: Marriage date 1900 U.S. census C: Benson birth records D: Benson land records
  17. A: Benson land records B: Interview with Allen Pinders
  18. 1860 U.S. census & 1870 U.S. census
  19. 1860 U.S. census, 1870 U.S. census, & 1880 U.S. census, & Catherine Pinders Morgan's 1926 obituary
  20. A: County of birth derived only from naturalization record from Rutland Court. B: Information from, Irish Records, Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, Irish Families, and Griffith's Valuation.
  21. A: The conclusion that James Morgan came to America alone is supported by statistics that show most Famine Immigrants were young, single, and traveled on ships without other family members. However, the conclusion was reached for the following reasons: A) there are no references to Morgan relatives in any civil document. B) Census returns show no other Morgans from Ireland in towns adjacent to Hubbardton. C) There were no Morgan relatives who sponsored James' children at baptisms. Without the names of siblings or parents, any Irish baptismal record candidate would be impossible to confirm. On top of this, the total recorded "year of birth" possibilities for James Morgan spans a seven year period and, with over 100 families named Morgan in Armagh during that period, it would be futile to try an Irish record search based on birth year. Nonetheless!... A search was commissioned from Armagh Ancestry to search the surviving parish records that existed around the time of Jamesí birth. Three possibilities were found, and each set of "candidate parents" had one name that was shared with the name of one of Jamesí children. (Irish tradition was to name children after parents). The author also reviewed all Morgans found in the Tithe Applotments (1820-30s) and the Griffiths Valuation (1864) (both "census substitutes") for Co. Armagh. Through an evaluation process that took into account: 1) the number of Morgan families in a parish in the census substitutes, 2) the number of Morgans with first names in common with Jamesí children in the census substitutes, 3) the completeness of parish records, and 4) the findings of the parish records, the author came up with a best guess for James Morganís home parish. If we can pretend, for a moment, that all of this is actually meaningful, the authorís best guesses are the Civil Parishes of: Armagh (city), Derrynoose, Forkill, and Jonesborough. B: An affidavit by West Castleton resident, James Fox, on behalf of Catherine Pinders' widow pension application, states that "(James Morgan and the affiant)" were schoolmates". C: 1860 U.S. census of Hubbardton.
  22. James Morgan's "Muster in Role" for infantry
  23. Liberally adapted and plagiarized from the books The History of Rutland County (H.P. Smith & W.S. Rann, 1886) and Vermont in the Civil War (G.G. Benedict, 1886-1888)
  24. From 1889 pension application and 1890 Special Census of Union Veterans
  25. See 23
  26. See 24
  27. Mary T. Hayes' mother told her that her own father (James Morgan) was at Gettysburg.
  28. See 22 and 23
  29. A: Benson Land record from Town Clerk's Office. B: Marriage record from St. Bridget's of West Rutland.
  30. See 7 and 9
  31. Marriage record at St. Bridget's identifies "Catherine Pinders of Benson"
  32. See 29B
  33. Benson birth register and Our Lady of the Seven Dolors (St. Mary of Fair Haven) baptismal book
  34. A: James Morganís obituary said he died at his daughterís house but the death record (with informant Thomas Hayes) says he died at the Solders home. B: See 29A
  35. Interview with West Castleton historian, Peter Patten, in 1989.
  36. A: Rutland Naturalization Records B: St. Mary's baptismal records C: Castleton vital records at Town Clerk's Office.
  37. Mrs. Paul (Billy) Hayes supported by Castleton death records. As conveyed to her by Mary Agnes Hayes.
  38. Castleton land records and vital statistics book.
  39. Ellis had accompanied James Morgan to witness other transactions James had made.
  40. 1900 U.S. census implies two births between 1882 and 1900 and one birth, Ellen's, is found in Castleton register.
  41. This is implied in foreclosure papers as there were co-defendants listed as occupying James' land when James was taken to court.
  42. 1900 U.S. census (Vermont), James Morgan's death record, and records at the Soldiers Home all confirm this.
  43. Catherine's widow's pension application.
  44. Mary Hayes Christensen, Harry Sullivan as reported by Mary T. Hayes and Margaret Vaughn, and Mr. Larmey, a mean-spirited neighbor of Mary T. Hayes.
  45. Paul Hayes, Mary T. Hayes, Ned Hayes, Margaret Vaughn.
  46. Thomas F: Morgan: Mormon IGI and James Morganís 1889 pension application for birth date, St. Maryís parish register, and 1880 U.S. census. 1900 U.S. census (Bangor, PA). Marriage year derived from 1900 U.S. census response, Sloan last name from Earl Morganís death certificate. Because of the odd 1910 U.S. census (Bronx, NY) (a new wife and three unknown daughters), two separately compiled data bases for the 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, & 1920 U.S. censuses were checked for a "Thomas Morgan born VT 1867" and there is no indication that there were two people who fit this description. Henry P Morgan: 1900 U.S. census, marriage record (NY) & death record (PA) both have birth date. Marriage record (NY). Helenís death certificate and recent family knowledge from Maureen Morgan Larson for birth and death dates of Henryís children. Jobs: H.T. Morganís birth record, 1920 census, marriage record, & 1930 census (respectively). Location in 1959 & death: "Earl" Morgan and Harry Morganís obituaries. Thomas Earl Morgan: obituary, Mary T. Hayes, & death certificate (CT). Helen Morgan: 1910 U.S. census (VT), exact birth and death date from Social Security Death Index., Earl's obituary, & Mary T. Hayes. Leona Morgan: 1900 U.S. census and Earlís cbituary. Exact birth date from North Hampton Orphanís Court birth record. Birth record states her middle initial is "M." which would explain her being listed as Mary in the 1910 U.S. census. Margaret Morgan: Earlís obituary. "Honey" from Mary T Hayes. Margaretís first name from Florence Morgan Maier. General: The names and numbers of the sisterís children came from their niece, Florence Morgan Maier, and were passed to Maureen Morgan Larsonís family.
  47. Castleton vital statistics.
  48. A: Castleton records & Mormon IGI B: St. Joseph's register C: Billy Hayes D: Ned and Paul Hayes and 1900 U.S. census.
  49. Compilation Mary Christensen, Mary T. Hayes, and Ned Hayes.
  50. A: Birth date from James Morgan's Fair Haven records
  51. Mary Christensen
  52. Lexina Nolan and Mary Christensen
  53. Fair Haven death certificate (for husband) and compilation of interviews from Lexina Nolan, Mary Christensen, Mary T. Hayes, and Billy Hayes. On-line California Death Database at www.ancestry.com for Anna's birth and death date.
  54. A: Birth date from James Morgan's 1889 pension application. Compilation of interviews with Mary Christensen, Bernadette Hayes Yoder, and Mary T. Hayes. B: Orwell and Fair Haven records.
  55. Compilation of interviews with Margaret Vaughn, Mary T. Hayes, Mary Bird, Mary Christensen, and Billy Hayes.
  56. Castleton record. Billy Hayes as conveyed to her by Mary Agnes Morgan.
  57. Father's pension application. Fair Haven Era and Mary T. Hayes (whom she taught in grade school)



Rutland County resources OFF SITE


photo: Morgan gravestones photo: Pinders gravestone
The Morgan and Pinders graves
Fair Haven
photo: James Morgan naturalization document
James Morgan's Naturalization Document
photo: James Morgan enlistment record
From James Morgan's Army Record
photo: Edmund Pinders naturalization document
Edmund Pinders' Naturalization Document


PART TWO: THE HAYES AND THE PENDORS

Chapter one: MARTIN HAYES AND BRIDGET O'CONNELL

The Hayes and O'Connells of Ireland and Vermont

The name Hayes is one of several Anglicized versions of the common Irish surname O'hAodha. There were about a dozen O'hAodha septs with there homelands spread all over Ireland. Around the time of Martin Hayes' immigration to America, there were 430 Hayes' households in his home county of Tipperary.

Tipperary is an inland County with an area of just over 1 million acres, 80 percent of which is arable agricultural land. The Hayes name is the eighth most common surname in the county. Tipperary was relatively badly affected by the Great Famine of 1845-47. The population reached a peak of 436,000 in 1841. In the years 1845-47, the population declined rapidly. Almost 70,000 people died in the famine and about 190,000 people are estimated to have emigrated from Tipperary between 1841 and 1891.

The O'Connells were less numerous than the Hayes, with only 8 families in Tipperary. More common were "Connells" and these two names were often interchangeable by the record keepers of the day and the families themselves.

In mid 1800s Castleton, Vermont, we find that no less than five large Hayes families came from Tipperary roots. Several other individuals with the name Hayes lived in Castleton but were from Cork, Clare, or of unknown origin. At least one of the Tipperary Hayes families, the Cornelius Hayes Family, came from the Arra Mountain parish of Youghalarra. That parishís main townland produced slate and shipped the milled product down the Shannon River. There is a strong verbal tradition in the Con. Hayes family, and our own, that they were not related to Martin Hayes. There is, however, reason to believe that Martin Hayes shared their Arra Mountain origins and that he did not come to America without familial connections.

It is known that Welsh quarriers were recruited to work in West Castleton and it looks, from the numbers of Arra Mountaineers that came to that town, a similar arrangement with the slate workers in Ireland might have existed. It is said that even the terrain of these two locations is similar. The fact that Martin Hayes chose the "backwater" town of Castleton to emigrate too, and that he took to this type of work (rather than farming), might imply that he knew where he was going before he left and that he knew he could do the work. It is also noteworthy that the only other name sharing Martin Hayes' headstone in Our Lady of Seven Dolors (St. Mary's) Cemetery is that of "Mike Hayes of Co. Clare." It is common sense to assume that people that share a gravestone are probably related. In the Irish society, as well as most societies before the transportation revolution, close relatives were usually not more than a few miles away from a central point of origin. The fact that one relative was from Clare, and the other from Tipperary would suggest that both lived somewhere near the boarder between these two counties and, in fact, the Arra Mountains of Tipperary lie across the River Shannon from Co. Clare.

Besides Mike Hayes, Martin had close relationships with other Hayes in Vermont. A "Jane Hayes" sponsored Martin's child, Jane, at her baptism in 1858. Other baptisms were sponsored by Catherine Hayes, Julia Hayes, and two were sponsored by Mike Hayes. Whether there were three separate Mike Hayes or just the one is not known.

There were several O'Connells living in the Castleton (Rutland County) area but there are fewer known ties to Tipperary. It is clear, however, that Martin and Bridget Hayes knew one of them, Catherine Connell, well enough to make her a godparent of their child and knew another, James Connell, well enough to be chosen as godparents to his daughter.

A search was made of Arra Mountain region Catholic parish registers for birth records of Bridget and Martin. No records were found for a Bridget Connell, and the only Martin Hayes found was more or less ruled out because his father's name, Daniel, was not in common with any of (our) Martin Hayes' known or suspected relatives. Yet this is still inconclusive because most of the parish registers in the Arra Mountains post date the years that Martin and Bridget were born.

Martin and Bridget

Martin Hayes and Bridget O'Connell came from Co. Tipperary, Ireland to Castleton, Vermont sometime in the mid 1850s. Martin was born sometime between 1824 and 1840 and Bridget was born between 1827 and 1836. Bridget's father was James O'Connell. It is not known if the couple was married in Ireland or North America. Both Martin and Bridget probably had some family members in Vermont.

Martin found employment as a laborer in the slate quarries and mills of West Castleton. In 1856 Martin served as godparent to Holleman and Rachel Yause's son, George. Martin and Bridget's first child, Jane, was born on April 30, 1858 and she was baptized in the Church of St. Bridget's in West Rutland. In 1860 Martin, Bridget, Jane, and another daughter, Margaret (b. 1859, d. before 1870), were living in one of the slate companyís "shared dwellings." 1860 was also the year that Martin became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

The couple continued to have more children with James being born in 1861, Michael in 1862, Mary in 1864, Bridget in 1865 (she died with jaundice in 1868), and Johanna "Julia" in 1869. When the census taker visited the family in 1870, they were together in a single dwelling home in West Castleton. In 1865 the couple had been made godparents to James and Catherine (Sullivan) Connell's daughter Margaret.

Bridget had two more children in the 1870s; a second Bridget, born 1873, who only lived for a few months, and third Bridget, born in 1875, who died in 1877. A few months after the third Bridget's death, Bridget's oldest child, Jane, had a baby, Thomas Martin (Pendors) Hayes. Bridget cared for Jane's child and later adopted him as her youngest. In 1880, the family, except for Jane who had moved to Saratoga, NY, was still together. Martin was still working full time, year round, and now his sons James and Mike were working for the slate company and bringing in income.

Although functional as a worker up to 1880, Martin Hayes is recorded to have had difficulties in 1881. The selectmen of Castleton had petitioned the court in Fair Haven to have Martin committed to the insane asylum in Brattleboro, VT. No reason was recorded for this request but the possibilities are many: a late psychotic break that soon dissipated, a Manic or Depressive cycle, and back in the 1800s even chronic alcoholism or general unpopularity could lead to a commitment. The record shows that the petition was not granted because of "lack of prosecution". The Judge at Fair Haven says this could mean that the prosecutor hadn't prepared his case, hadn't shown up, or a deal might have been made with Martin's family around his behavior or care. (Perhaps, like in modern times, the threat of a commitment was often sufficient to modify the offending behavior)

Martin's son, James, took on more responsibility in the family from that point on. In 1882, James and Bridget purchased a house, and a plot of land, in Cookville for a hundred dollars. In 1893, Bridget purchased an adjacent piece of land from Ann Sheehan. The property had a small house, on a hill, a back yard, and an apple tree with a bench under it. It also had an acre of garden patch. Using slate from the small quarry that was on the land, James installed a slate walkway from the road. It is not known if Martin Hayes recovered from his illness or if he continued to live with his family. The Brattleboro Asylum claims that few early records exist and it had no record of Martin Hayes staying there. The Town of Brattleboro has no death record of Martin Hayes which means he did not die at the asylum. There is no death record for Martin Hayes in Fair Haven either, but his tombstone there states that he died on Sept. 10, 1893.

In 1900, Bridget was living in her mortgage free home with her three sons and a granddaughter, Jannie, who was presumably her daughter, Julia Keating's, child. By 1910 it was only her and her sons, James and Mike, in the Cookville house. In her last years Bridget showed signs of senility and her daughter, Julia, came from Connecticut to take care of the household. Bridget died on July 4, 1917 and was buried in Fair Haven, presumably with her husband as there is no tombstone with her name.

There is no one alive who knew Martin Hayes or remembers much about Bridget Hayes. We know they lived a hard life in the slate town of West Castleton and the census tells us they were neither fully literate (Martin could read) or wealthy. An old Hazard Company Store Ledger, in the possession of Peter Patton in Fair Haven, tells us that the Hayes had an account there. The items that they purchased there were sugar, coffee, tea, flour, pork, crackers, salt, smoking tobacco, a broom, cloth, a needle, "C. Lacte" and "1 Church". Makes you wonder where they put that church, doesn't it?

The Bridget Hayes Estate laid as "family" property for years, with different family members and renters living in the little house with its roadside garage. In the 1960's, after a period of disuse, a group of "hippies" moved in. At the request of a family member the hippies were evicted, but the house was burned down, presumably as revenge, shortly after. Ned Hayes and his siblings continued to pay taxes on the land until 1990 when, after 73 years, the land finally went to probate to determine title. Paul, Mary T., and Ned Hayes were awarded title and the land was sold soon afterwards. At this writing it still lies undeveloped behind a car turn off and next to an abandoned road on the west side of the road between St. Matthew of Avalon Mission Church and Bomoseen State Park. The slate cellar hole and old quarry can still be seen after entering the woods that have grown up on the property.

The Hayes Children

(Research on the Hayes children was not my prime objective and is, therefore, not extensive. All baptismal information was extracted from St. Mary's Church.)

Jane (Byrne) Hayes was born in West Castleton. For more information on her, read the chapter below.

Margaret Hayes was born in 1859 in West Castleton. She was baptized on August 10 of that year and her godparents were Mike Hayes and Catherine Hayes. Margaret was recorded in the 1860 census but is assumed to have died before 1870.

James Hayes was born in 1861 and baptized that same year. His godparents were Patrick Malone and Catherine Williams. He attended school in West Castleton, but was working in the quarries by 1880. He took the role as family head after his father's illness, and his nephew (adopted brother), T. M. Hayes, considered him a father figure. He was a somber, responsible man of substance, who rarely showed emotion. Mary T. Hayes remembers he presented her with a necklace when she was a child. When Julia Keating moved back home to help with the household, he also became the primary male figure in her children's life. After his motherís death, he continued to live in Cookville until throat cancer caused him to need care. He moved to Saratoga, NY where his sister Jane's daughter, Elizabeth Byrne, cared for him until his death on Oct. 24, 1937. He is buried at St. Peter's Cemetery, with his sister Jane, in Saratoga. James never married.

Michael Hayes was born in 1862 and was baptized on Dec. 28 of that year. His godparents were Mike Hayes and Julia Hayes. By 1880 Mike was working in the West Castleton slate mill as a sawer. Mike was well known as a portly, happy-go-lucky jokester and his "mucking about" earned him the nickname "Muckler Hayes". Mary T. recalls that he would become roaring drunk once a year and sleep it off at Catherine Pinders Morgan's house in Fair Haven. His nephew, Paul, remembers that he would always have trinkets for the children on his infrequent visits to his "brother" Tom's house. Mike worked for different slate companies all of his life and lived, a bachelor, with his mother and brother in Cookville. While ice fishing at Avalon Beach, on April 11, 1920, Mike fell through the ice and drowned in eight feet of water.

Mary "Mame" (Lawrence) Hayes was born in 1864 and was baptized that same year. Her godmother was Mayanta Clifford. She was still living with her parents and going to school in 1870, but was not with her family in 1880. She married John Lawrence, a man from a wealthy family, and they moved to New Haven Connecticut. They had three children:

  1. Frances Lawrence taught arts and crafts at the University of Vermont and would visit Fair Haven in the summers. She married Sammuel Bennet late in life and had no children. She left New Haven and lived in Palo Alto, California for many years. She is presumed to have died in the late 1980s.
  2. Thomas and...
  3. ...John Lawrence both served in the military during WWI. Thomas died and John developed T.B. while in the service. John died in the Cookville house while there to convalesce.

Bridget Hayes (1) was born in 1865 and was baptized on Nov. 26 of that year. Her godmother was Catherine Connell. Her death certificate reports that she died of jaundice in 1868.

John "Jack" Hayes was born in 1867 and was baptized on June 16 of that year. His godparents were John Hogan and Ann White. He was still living in West Castleton in 1880 and was an unmarried, sawer in a slate mill there in 1900. He married and had at least one child, Margaret. Mary T. Hayes remembers only that her uncle Jack had a disease that caused his body to bloat and that he lived near Boston (possibly Watertown or Dorchester). Mary T. last heard from Jack's family when she was in her teens. According to his brother Mike's obituary, Jack died prior to 1920.

Johanna "Julia" (Keating) Hayes was born on July 17, 1869. She was baptized that same year and her godparents were Cabech Dellahanty and Julia Quyler. She was raised in Cookville, but moved to New Haven, Connecticut.

She married John Keating and they had four children: John Jr., who died June 29, 1977; Edward, who sired a son, David; Jane, who took nursing as a profession; and William, a friendly and talkative man whose death in 1989 ended his generation. William did the lion's share of raising his nephew, David, but had not heard from David for four years prior to 1989. (David, whose whereabouts are unknown, was the only Keating of his generation.)

Julia's husband, John, left her in the early 1900s and Julia came to Cookville, with her children, to live and care for her mother. After her motherís death, she moved back to New Haven, but continued to visit the Castleton area in the summer. Julia was a dominant Irish mother whom, in Mary T.'s opinion, would have made a good politician in a more modern era. She certainly ruled the roost in her own home. She was a ball of fun to be with and loved dancing. She had one career after another, including a canteen job at Yale University. She died at an old age in New Haven.

Bridget Hayes (2) was born in Oct. 1873 and died two months later on Dec. 12 1873.

Bridget Hayes (3) was born in 1875 and died in 1877.

Chapter two: JANE HAYES AND THOMAS PENDORS

Because genealogy is the study of genetic relations, I have included this chapter on the biological parents of Thomas Martin Hayes. Neither of these two people had much, if anything, to do with the raising and social or cognitive development of T. M. Hayes and, therefore, the research on these two has not been as extensive as for other ancestors.

Jane Hayes was born in Castleton on April 30, 1858 to Martin Hayes and Bridget O'Connell. She was baptized on May 15 at the West Rutland church of St. Bridget's and her godparents were John Walsh and Jane Hayes. She appears in the 1860 census, with her parents and baby sister, in a shared dwelling in West Castleton. By 1870 she was going to school and living with her increasing number of siblings. The next record we have of her is for the birth of her first child, Thomas Martin Hayes on Oct. 24, 1877. Thomas Pendors, a laborer born in Vermont, had fathered the child. The circumstances around Jane and Thomas' relationship are unknown, but they were neighbors of the same age who almost certainly knew each other at school.

Thomas Pendors was the fifth child of Michael Pendors and Johanna "Julia" Hickey. In about 1850, Michael entered Vermont from Co. Clare Ireland with at least two, and possibly as many as four, siblings. Mike (b. approx. 1825) and Johanna (b. approx. 1830) had six children in Vermont between 1852 and 1860: John, in 1852; Bridget, in 1853; Michael, in 1854; Henry, in 1856; Thomas, in 1858; and Margaret, on Oct. 9, 1859. We know that Henry was born in Brandon, Vermont, but we know nothing else about the familiesí movements that brought them to Rutland by 1859.

In 1860 Mike was living in Rutland with his wife, children, and his younger brother, Henry. The other brother (that we are sure about), Thomas, was living with his new bride down the street. All three men were working as quarry hands.

By 1870 the whole family had move to Castleton, with Mike in West Castleton and Henry and Thomas living in Hydeville. All three had large families. Mike and Johanna had two more children by then: Johanna, born in 1861, and James, born in 1866. After 1877, and despite a good search, Mike and Johanna disappeared from records until Mike's death on March 26, 1900. His obituary, and later his wife's death record, list his name as Thomas, but it is clear, from his own death record and the familial relations in his obituary, that it was Mike. Johanna Hickey Pendors, who was living apart from her husband when he died, moved into her daughter's house in 1901. She died there on July 3, 1911.

Mike's brother, Henry, went on to have a family with eight children and was living in Rutland in 1880. He died while living in Proctor in 1899. Mike's other brother, Thomas, married twice, sired 14 children between two wives, and his family moved to Cohoes, NY, near Albany.

We know little of the fate of Mike Pendors' children, and nothing of the movements or fate of his son Tom. We do know that Mike's oldest, John, died of T.B. in 1876. It is his gravestone, in Fair Haven, that gave me the spelling that I am using for this family's surname. Although his name is alone on the headstone, it is assumed that the grave sight is also the resting-place of his parents. Mike's son, Henry, married in 1878, but we know nothing else about him. Finally, we know that Mike's daughter, Bridget, married Patrick H. Downs in 1875. The couple had 8 children and lived the rest of their lives in Castleton. She cared for her father, at least on his deathbed, and later took in her mother for the last ten years of her life. Bridget died in 1912, a year after her mother.

Getting back to Jane Hayes, we know that she left her son with her mother, and went to live in Saratoga Springs, New York. In 1880 she was living, as a domestic servant, at the home of a jeweler named Robinson C. Brown. She returned to Cookville in 1881 to marry Maurice Byrne, who was, reportedly, also from Castleton.

Moving back to Saratoga Springs, the couple had six children:

William E. 5/22/1882 - 5/8/1912
Martin E. "Matt" 11/2/1884 - 11/19/1947
twins 9/12/1885 - 9/12/1885
Mary 3/12/1887 - before 1900
Elizabeth 5/28/1892 - 5/30/1979

In 1900 Jane, her husband, and their three surviving children were still living in Saratoga. Her oldest, William, was a clerk, while her two youngest were still in school. Her husbands occupation was listed as "Athlete" and as Saratoga's claim to fame is horse racing, it can be conjectured that he was some how involved with that sport.

When the census was taken in 1910 Jane's husband was away, and her son, "Matt" Byrne, had moved out of the house. Jane's husband died in 1911 and her son William died a year later.

Jane lived with her daughter, Liz, and they ran a gambling parlor and boarding house during racing season. Jane would sometimes visit Fair Haven in a chauffeured limousine, provided by her son Matt. Matt had become wealthy by running a "Speak Easy", The Chicago Club, with his partner, the famous gangster, Lucky Luciano. Jane died on Oct. 29, 1927 and Matt died in 1947. Liz, who worked in a local factory, continued a life as a devout Catholic in Saratoga until her death in 1979. The family is buried at St. Peter's Cemetery in Saratoga Springs. The children that Jane Hayes had with Maurice Byrne had no children of their own.



DOCUMENTATION

Each footnote refers to all information in the paragraph (and sometimes paragraphs) preceding the notation. Points needing documentation will be addressed in the order that they appear in the paragraph. More specific documentation can be had by requesting it from the author.

  1. P#s 1+2+3; Irish Family Names by Brian de Breffny; Irish Records; Griffith's Valuation of Co. Tipperary 1850-52.
  2. A: 1860, 1870, and 1880 U.S. census, and naturalization records in Rutland B: Margaret Hayes Warren, Mary Yungfleisch (descendents of Con. Hayes) and Topographical Dictionary of Ireland (1865) C: Our tradition confirmed by the oldest generation of our family and theirs by M.H. Warren.
  3. A: "Welsh Quarriers...", Slate History Trail by St. of VT. B: "Terrain", Mary Yungfleisch
  4. P#1: Baptisms at St. Mary's. P#2: Census and naturalizations and St. Mary's baptisms.
  5. A: Martin and Bridget's Tipperary origins are confirmed by the following records: 1) Martin's naturalization record and tombstone; 2) Bridget's death record; and 3) the birth records for their children Margaret and James say that both parents were from Tipperary. B: Approx. B-Days taken from ages given on census, tombstone, naturalization, and death records. Because of familial relation evidence on all of Bridget Hayes' records, there is no doubt that they all refer to one person, but with the wide spread of possible birth dates on Martin, it called into question who the naturalization record and tombstone belonged to. In other words, were there two Martin Hayes in town? If there were two Martins, then the "commitment" record of 1881, which gave only the man's name and hamlet, could also have been for another Martin than ours. A fairly good record search of the town showed no other contemporary Martin Hayes. A census confirmed that our Martin was naturalized and, as no other naturalizations for a Martin Hayes were in Vermont, which means the record in existence was for our guy. The fact that a Mike Hayes sponsored two of Martinís children, and a Mike Hayes shares the tombstone, gives reasonable support that the tombstone is our Martin's tombstone. The fact that Bridget and James made the land purchases in Cookville, and not Martin, support the idea that Martin's responsibilities as head of the household had declined due to mental instability. C: Bridget's father's name comes from Bridget's death record. D: Search of Vermont State and Local (Rutland County) civil marriage records, and Catholic Church marriage records in Rutland Co., turned up no marriage record. A search of North Tipperary Parishes in Ireland was also negative for a marriage record. Because most of the Irish west of the Green Mountains entered Vermont via Canada, a Canadian marriage is possible. More probable is a Vermont marriage that was never recorded, or recorded and lost, or recorded in a church parish register outside Rutland Co. but never transferred to a civil repository.
  6. A: All records referring to Martin Hayes' employment call him a laborer. B: St. Bridget's and St. Mary's books, 1860 census, and Castleton birth records.
  7. St. Mary's books and Castleton birth records.
  8. See chapters on Jane Hayes and Thomas Martin Hayes.
  9. A: Record in Fair Haven Probate Court, with used to have jurisdiction over commitments. B: My own practical experience as a mental health worker.
  10. A: Castleton land records B: Description from Mary T. Hayes.
  11. A: 1900 census. B: Bridget's death record. C: Mary T. on Keatings. D: Burial permit for Fair Haven.
  12. Info. for James derived from U.S. censuses, tombstone, and general information from Mary T. Hayes.
  13. A: "Muckler Hayes" from Peter Patton supported by old group photo. B: U.S. censuses, death record, and Obituary in Fair Haven Era.
  14. Information from Mary T. Hayes and letter from Frances Lawrence in Elizabeth Byrne's probate file in Ballston Spa, NY
  15. 1900 census. Mary T. used to correspond with Margaret in her teens.
  16. Information from Mary T. Hayes and William Keating's parish priest. The priest claims that, having heard from no relatives after William's death, the family affects were tossed out.
  17. Combination of Mary T. and Billy Hayes.
  18. The following (extraordinarily long) end note will set down the arguments, and process of research, that went into determining the identity of the biological father of the man who became known as Thomas Martin Hayes.

    There are two main theories of who T. M. Hayes' father was. The first, and the one I believe is true, is that Thomas Pendors, son of Mike Pendors and Julia Hickey Pendors, fathered the child. Circumstantial evidence alone would point to this Thomas because: 1) he was the same age as Jane Hayes, 2) they were almost certainly schoolmates together, and 3) the families, as substantiated by an 1877 land record, were living across the street from each other at the time of T. M. Hayes' birth. The simple fact is, the vast majority of teen-age pregnancies involve two teens, but it is the only written documentation of T. M. Hayes' birth, which clinches this argument. The birth record, at Castleton Town Hall, states that the father was a laborer, named Tom Penders, who was born in Vermont. We know, from census records, that there were only three Thomas Pendors (four if you count the fact that Mike Pendors might have at times been referred to as Thomas) who were in the area, and of fathering age, that could have fathered the child. Only one, Mike Pendors' son, was born in Vermont. Two more records support the Vermont origin of T. M. Hayesí parents. The 1900 and 1910 censuses has T. M. Hayes, himself, reporting that both of his parents were born in Vermont. This would also support Paul Hayes' belief that his father, T. M. Hayes, knew of his true parentage as a young adult and certainly before his biological mother died in 1927.

    (The 1880 census, when he was 3yrs old, and the 1920 census, when he was 43 and had ten children, say that both of his parents were born in Ireland. On his marriage record he claimed Martin and Bridget Hayes as his parents, and on his death record his wife claimed his parents were James and Bridget. In the case of all of those records, we know that at least half, and for some all, of the information is erroneous because we know his real parent's names (from his birth certificate), and we have Jane's birth certificate proving she was not born in Ireland but Vermont. I would suspect that the attempt to raise T. M. Hayes to be, in the public eye, the "legitimate" son of Martin and Bridget Hayes is responsible for the great deal of misreporting.)

    T. M. Hayesí daughter, Margaret Hayes Wolfersdorf, put the other theory forth as fact. She claimed, to some of T. M. Hayes' grandchildren, that she had discovered that T. M. Hayes' father was no other than his wifeís uncle, Thomas Pinders. She also claimed that, as first cousins, they had received a dispensation from the Catholic Church to marry.

    One of the strongest factors supporting this theory was the fact that, despite Margaret's dubious reputation as a fabricator, some of T. M. Hayes grandchildren were absolutely convinced that Margaret was right about this. It is known that the offspring of first cousins often show some accented traits, and these grandchildren knew the children of T. M. Hayes to have such traits (i.e. high intelligence, quick tempers, ... etc.). I would suggest, as a mental health practitioner, that there are plenty of genetic traits in normal matings (especially among the Irish) and certain environmental factors that were in place (such as 10 children vying against each other for parental attention) that will soundly explain the pathology of any accented personality traits that the Hayes children might have shared.

    As for a dispensation being granted for the "cousins" to marry; the Burlington Diocese says that, indeed, a dispensation would be needed for first cousins to marry and that, in theory, only the bishop could grant this. The diocese archives has no record for such a dispensation and the actual marriage record, from the parish registry of St. Joseph's Mission in West Castleton, had no dispensation recorded. The archivist said that a dispensation would always be recorded with the marriage record.

    What I believe happened is that Margaret overheard from someone, or saw from the Castleton record, that her biological grandfatherís name was Thomas Pendors, and she jumped to the conclusion that it was her great uncle who was her father's father. She could not have known about the other Pendors families that had moved from the area before she was born, and she probably didn't realize that her great uncle would have been living in Benson, married with four children, and 13 years older than Jane Hayes, when her father was born. All those who knew Margaret indicated that it would not have been inconsistent with her manor or personality to jump to such conclusions. Indeed, some said she made a habit of simply making things up to improve a story.

    Every effort to find confirmation of both of these theories was made. In hopes of finding a baptismal witness that might confirm either Pendors relation, a search was made of every Rutland County Catholic church in existence in 1877 for T. M. Hayes' baptismal record. The record was never found. A search for birth announcements in local papers and in town meeting notes turned up negative. Another avenue explored revolved around the story that T. M. Hayes had been required to prove his American birth to work on a government-related project. He had trouble because his birth record had him named Thomas Pendors yet all of his other records had him named Thomas Martin Hayes. He was required to bring his neighbors from Cookville into the Castleton Town Hall to swear affidavits that the recorded birth was his. There is a notation on the original record to confirm this story. I to wrote Castleton and Fair Haven town halls, the Works Projects Administration records office, and the tool making factory of Jones and Lamsons, where T. M. Hayes worked during WWII, to get a copy of those affidavits. None of those repositories had them.

    Attempts were made to find people close to T. M. Hayes who might know the truth behind this question. I asked some members of old time West Castleton families that local historian, Peter Patten, had referred me to, but none of them knew.

    In 1989, I asked the four surviving children of T. M. Hayes what they knew about their paternal grandfather. Tom Morgan Hayes didn't know anything about him. Thomas Edmund "Ned" Hayes seemed to know more than he was saying.

    When I visited Ned Hayes, I began to talk about his mother's family, the Pinders of Benson. Upon hearing the name, "Pinder", he immediately said, "Oh, he took off right after(wards), David." As he knew that, of late, I had been inquiring about his grandfather's identity, that startling, and reflexive, statement only made sense to me in the context of preempting an inquiry about Tom Pendors. An hour and a half later, as I was leaving, I pulled him aside to ask him what he knew about Tom Pendors. He said "That was all before my time, David, before my time." If I may be allowed to second guess my notoriously sly great uncle, I think he was referring to Tom Pendors and the statement, "He took off right after", would indicate the young Pendors boy who had left the county, with his family, by 1880. (I hope I'm not grasping at straws folks)

    Mary T. Hayes has officially refused to discuss the topic, but she let me know, directly, that she had never heard of the "first cousin" theory, and has let me know, indirectly, that she has no revelations on the subject. Paul Hayes thanked me for giving him so much new information on the matter and said he thought he had heard that his grandfather was a "peddler". Although a traveling peddler named Thomas Pendors is a possibility, Paul also admits that he might have misheard "Pendors" as "peddler." Other grandchildren of T. M. Hayes had no information on this subject.

    Through genealogy research I ran across another person investigating the Hayes families of West Castleton. She referred me to her aunt, Eleanor Hayes Warren, who was a member of the Con. Hayes family who, while neighbors of Martin and Bridget Hayes, were of no relation. She told me that, in the 1930s, her mother, Isabella "Mary" Williams Hayes, was on her death bed when she revealed that T. M. Hayes was really the son of Jane Hayes and a man named Pendors. She remembers nothing else about Pendors except she thinks he lived in a town north of Fair Haven. This would seem to support the "cousin theory" because that family lived in Benson and later Proctor, but, because of an un-indexed 1880 census and a 1890 census that was destroyed, nobody knows were Mike Pendors' family was between 1878 an 1899. Perhaps they lived near Mike's brother, Henry, in Proctor. Who knows? I just think that every scrape of non-flawed written evidence, and common sense, tells us that Mike Pendors' son is our ancestor and that Margaret's conclusions are not to be trusted.

  19. P#1: Combination of census records, Mike's brother Thomas' naturalization record, and Henry's marriage record that tells us that he was born in Brandon. P#2: Census information. We know the brothers were brothers because of: the large number of baptisms they sponsored for each other; very similar naming patterns for their children, and; the presence of members from both Henry's and Thomas' families at Mike's funeral (obituary).
  20. 1870 census and the death record of Johanna Hickey Pendors.
  21. U.S. censuses, baptismal records, civil birth records, Catholic cemetery in Proctor, Mike Pendors' obituary.
  22. Castleton death record and tombstone, St. Mary's marriage record, census records, obituaries, and death records.
  23. A: 1880 census B: Records from a funeral home report that Maurice Byrne was born in Hydeville on 12/5/1857 and his parents were Patrick and Elizabeth. As there was no marriage in Saratoga, it makes sense that they were married in West Castleton. The records of St. Josephs of West Castleton are missing for 1881. Marriage date from 1900 census. Family grouping derived from civil records and census records.
  24. Census information and dates from family tombstone.
  25. "Limousine" - Ned Hayes. "Chicago Club" - Paul Hayes. "Liz Byrne" - Mary T. Hayes.


PART THREE: THOMAS HAYES, MARY MORGAN, AND DESCENDENTS

Chapter one: THOMAS MARTIN HAYES AND MARY AGNES MORGAN

Thomas Martin Hayes was born to Jane Hayes and Thomas Pendors in Cookville, Castleton, VT. on October 24, 1877. Soon afterwards, Jane moved to Saratoga N.Y. Tom's grandmother, Bridget Hayes, who just lost her youngest daughter a few months before, adopted Tom as her own.1

Thomas grew up in a small, neatly kept house in Cookville. The yard had slate steps leading from the road, over a small stream, and into the yard. The back yard had an apple tree with a bench beneath, and a small slate quarry that was used to build the slate cellars of their house and the neighboring house. There was also an acre of garden land. Thomas lived with his grand parents, his uncles James, Michael, and John, and his aunt Julia. Although there was never a legal guardianship awarded, Thomas was raised as the youngest son of the family, and he knew his uncles and aunts to be his siblings.2

Thomas' natural grandfather, Martin Hayes, seemed to have become mentally incapacitated in 1881 and there is evidence to suggest that he might have remained at least partially that way until his death in 1893. Thomas' oldest "brother" James, a man of substance and gravity, stepped into the father's role. Even Thomas' death record lists James as his father.3

Thomas attended school at Cookville in Castleton School District #12, and attended church at the now demolished St. Joseph's of West Castleton. Thomas was young when he started working at the local slate quarry with the rest of his family. Most of the time they received vouchers for pay that could only be redeemed at the company store. Sometime in the 1890s, on Scotch Hill, Thomas fell in love (reportedly at first sight) with his future wife, Mary Agnes Morgan.4

Mary Agnes Morgan was born on April 4, 1880, on Moscow road in West Castleton. Mary was the 8th of 11 children born to James Morgan and Catherine Pinders Morgan. The Morgan farm was situated on the junction of the boundaries of Castleton, Hubbardton, and Benson and her neighbors were Ulstermen like her father. She attended school at West Castleton in school district #9. In 1893 the family farm was lost due to over mortgaging and her father and mother lived with their children.5

A story in the family states that the Morgans, for whatever reason, objected to the marriage of their 18yr old daughter to Thomas. It would seem, however, that it might have been the Hayes family that objected, as the couple was married, with no witnesses, on the very day Thomas reached his legal majority to be able to marry without parental consent. That was his 21st birthday, Oct 4, 1898.6

The couple spent their first years on Creek Road in Hydeville in Castleton, while Thomas worked at several jobs, including working at the slate quarries, on a excursion boat that cruised on Lake Bomoseen, and in the local meat market. In 1899 their first child, John Harold Hayes, was born. Over the next 20 years it is said that Mary Agnes Morgan had fifteen pregnancies, including twins that did not survive.

The children that were carried to term are as follows:

John Harold 1899-1952
Katherine 1901-1901
Mary Therese 1904-2001
Thomas Edmund 1907-1992
Paul James 1910-1997
Margaret Elizabeth (Gaer) 1912-1964
Katherine Ann (Connely) 1913-1964
Hellen Dorothy (Perry) 1915-1977
Margaret Leona (Wolfersdorf) 1916-1975
Thomas Morgan 1917-1989
Bernard Joseph 1919-1939 7

While still in Hydeville, Mary's father left the old solders home in Brattleboro to live with her and Tom. He died at their house in 1903. Soon afterwards Thomas and his family moved to a farm on Scotch Hill in Fair Haven. The farm was wired for electricity in 1911. Almost all of Mary's relations, including her mother, now lived in Fair Haven. Thomas continued to work at the slate quarries while running his farm. Mary would resourcefully run her ever-increasing household (including a farm hand and two of her brother Thomas' children), work in the barn and fields, and make butter to sell at the company store. Thomas would sometimes take his children to visit their "grandmother" in Cookville and would hitch up the Surrey for the trip. Bridget Hayes died during the 4th of July celebrations, of 1917, while Tom and his family were visiting.8

In September of 1918 Thomas registered for the draft and his draft card stated that he worked as a blacksmith helper at the Slate Milling Company in Poultny. Although only 40 years old, the draft card states his hair was grey.7

In 1920 the family sold the farm for $4000 and moved to a $5000 house on West St. in Fair Haven. There, Thomas, and his son, Harold, continued to work in the slate quarry. Thomas bought a 23 acre wood lot in the north woods of Fair Haven in 1922 and by 1923 he had paid off his house. Just as things were looking up, the house burned down.9

The story goes that one Sunday in the fall of 1923, some of Tom's boys were burning yard leafs. Thinking that they had extinguished the fire, the family left the house and when they returned it was engulfed in flames. Some of their furniture was saved but all of their clothing was destroyed. They relied on their neighbors for clothing and places for the children to stay while Thomas and Mary scrambled for a permanent living arrangement. By July of 1924 a solution had been reached. With the insurance money from the house (it wasn't fully insured), and a $1700 mortgage, Thomas bought a house from an elderly man named Fred St. Louis. In the bargain, Mr. St. Louis stayed in the house and was cared for by Mary. Meanwhile, in November of 1923, their oldest child, John Harold, had married and Tom and Mary had their first grandchild, Mary Celestine, in 1925. Mary Agnes' mother died in 1926.10

Using the cellar of the burned home as a storage area, Tom started an ice peddling business and supplied the ice boxes of Fair Haven with ice cut from the top of flooded quarry holes. He sold the business to a competitor in 1929 with the agreement he would not start up again. Ned Hayes claims that Tom had lost money on the ice business.(11) At the same time Tom was losing money on his business, the great depression was hitting the Fair Haven area pretty hard. The slate quarries of West Castleton and Fair Haven closed down and their workers were jobless. When the quarry laid off the 53yr old Thomas, the family turned to different ways to make ends meet. Mary took in laundry that her children would pick up and deliver. Her children had to do most of the housework. At Christmas time, the family made and sold wreaths to sell in town. In 1933 Tom's son, Ned, started a firewood business and Tom helped out. When Ned later bought an Ice business from his brother Paul, Tom was true to his word and did not help with that part of the business. In the end, at Mary's insistence, Thomas raised money by taking out a second mortgage on the family house in 1933. In 1934 the house was foreclosed on.(12) The entire family, except Ned, went to Bristol, Connecticut where Thomas' daughter, Katherine, was in nurses training and had found a place for them to live. Finding life too expensive in Bristol, they came immediately back to Fair Haven and rented a house on Caenarvon Street. Thomas was able to get by with his and Ned's income from the ice and wood business and odd jobs. In 1938, additional income started to come from various Works Projects Administration (WPA) jobs. These involved working as either a laborer or truck driver for road improvement, and flood damage repair. In 1939 their youngest child, Bernard, died as a result of an auto accident. His death would be a great blow to both of them but it was especially hard on Mary.(13) With the coming of World War II, Thomas' Son, Harold, moved his family from their house on Washington Street to Bellows Falls, VT. Thomas' son, Ned, bought this Washington Street house for his parents and they lived there for the rest of their lives. During the War (10/42 - 10/45) Thomas went to work at Jones and Lamsons in Springfield, VT. This was a precision tool making factory and, while there, he was a "trucker sweeper", sand blaster, and a "fireman's helper" He rented a room from one of his wife's nieces during the week and would come home weekends.(14) In 1945, at the age of 68, Thomas was semi-retired on a Social Security pension. He continued to work at times, including a job at his son Paul's resort, Hill Top, taking care of the boats from 1948 to 1951. He worked for the Town of Fair Haven (maintaining the park), at the Track and Seen, and, just before he died, as night watch man at Cedar Grove Resort on Lake Bomoseen. He was elected as town constable in the late 1940s and was jokingly called "The High Sheriff of Lower Hampton" by his cronies. Many folks loved him because of his way of enforcing court orders. When given a summons, he would call the people before his visit to try to get them to pay off a little of their debt so the fine would be smaller. He retained this duty until his death from a heart attack on June 15, 1956. He was 79yrs old. The whole town came to his funeral.(15) In her later years, Mary Agnes, had brought her daughter Dorothy's' boy, Joe Perry, into her house and was a second mother to him. Her arthritis became quite troublesome before she died on October 14, 1958. Mary A. and T. M. Hayes are buried together in St. Mary's Catholic Cemetery in Fair Haven.(16) Their children and grandchildren remember Thomas and Mary as two very different, but complementary, people. Thomas was a man with a warm smile, bushy beetle eyebrows, and a beard so heavy that the town barbers would often duck out when they saw him coming. He was a gregarious man of whom the whole town was fond. In his latter years, as a constable, he could be seen daily chatting with friends on the street corner and, at family get-togethers on the lake, he was always the life of the party. His grand children remember him as very lovable and he would often relent to their pestering and throw them some pennies from the back of the ice wagon. His warm eyes and sentimentality made his children and grand children feel special around him. One day, after working a very hard 12 hours, he came home to present his wife with a dozen yellow roses. Mary Therese feels that this story best epitomizes her father. Thomas was a good honest worker all of his life and never lived off anyone. His hobbies included fishing and hunting and he followed professional sports. He, with all his boys, was very vocal on his political opinions and Thomas was a New Deal Democrat through and through.(17) Mary, on the other hand, left an impression of being much more of a business minded pragmatist. As a household manager she could handle any task. It was not unusual, in the 1940s-50s, for twenty people to eat Sunday dinner at her house. She always made a little food go a long way. She did not show much outward affection (except for a few favorite children and grand children) but instead let her actions speak for her feelings. She kept a lot of her thoughts to herself and did not need to raise her voice for everyone to know she was displeased. Indeed, her success in getting other people to do her bidding would be enviable by any corporate executive, but her "in favor / out of favor" management of her family members left a few scars among them. Still, respect for this woman was universal. She was a very hard worker who brought in income by making butter and doing laundry, and she made a great deal of her families' clothing as well. She liked playing the card game, "bridge", and in her younger years she had been a member of The Catholic Daughters of St. Mary's Church. She was always a devout Catholic and attended Church often. She had a marvelous adventurous spirit and took trips, on a whim, at times. She was the nail that kept a large, argumentative, family together in difficult times, and her children and grand children all appreciated that fact.(18)

Chapter two: THREE GENERATIONS OF DESCENDENTS

JOHN HAROLD HAYES

John Harold Hayes was born August 3, 1899, on Creek Road in Castleton, to Thomas Martin Hayes and Mary Morgan. Around 1904 his family moved to a farm on Scotch Hill in Fair Haven.

Harold lived the first five years of his life as the only child and "king of the roost" in his house. When his siblings joined him later on, he continued to act as king and his authoritarian manner would remain through adulthood and mark him as a force to be reckoned with by his family and neighbors. When he entered high school in Fair Haven, he moved in with his motherís sister, Elizabeth Sullivan, to enable him to commute to school easier. Although he was reputedly a brilliant academic, he quit high school, after two years, to work in the quarries. In 1918 he was drafted into the army. His draft card states that he was working at the Old English Slate Company in Fair Haven before the draft. He got as far as training at Fort Devens, in Ayer, MA, when WWI ended in the summer of that year.19

After being discharged from the army, Harold went back to Fair Haven to work in the quarries. The 1920 Census shows him living with his family on the Scotch Hill farm. Soon after 1920, the family moved into Fair Haven (village) and Harold went to Springfield and Greenfield, MA, where he worked doing odd jobs. In 1922, Harold was doing construction work in Bellows Falls, VT. A friend of his, from the boarding house he was staying at, introduced him to Mary Lawlor who was working in the local Boston Store at the time. Mary was nine years older than Harold, but love has no eyes for age (sometimes), and they decided to get married. They married in Bellows Falls, in a double wedding with Mary's first cousin "Mamie" Real Delaney, on Nov. 27, 1922. The couple moved to Fair Haven and lived in a house on Washington St. (The sight of the house is now the parking lot of Our Lady of Seven Dolors "St. Mary's" Church.) Harold secured a job at the slate quarries in the town of Poultney as a crane operator or "stationary engineer". Harold's wife's first pregnancy miscarried around this time. The family moved to Union Street and the couple succeeded in having a baby, Mary Celestine, in 1925. A son, Tom, was born only 16 months after the first child. The small family lived fairly well at this time and Harold was even able to afford a boat on Lake Bomoseen. In the boat, named "Mary Celestine" after his daughter, he would take relatives and friends for rides. With the coming of the great Depression, in 1929, the slate business collapsed. The Poultney quarry kept Harold on as a night watchman for a while, but eventually had to let him go. Harold's father-in-law, who lived in Bellows Falls, VT., purchased a house on Washington Street and had his daughter and her family live there. President Roosevelt's Works Projects Administration (W.P.A.) provided Harold with a job on road construction in the area. Harold bought a dump truck and got a higher wage than most because he used it in hauling materials. On Saturdays, he would work for the town dragging a "road rake" over the less developed roads to prevent potholes and keep down the dust. This extra work was only available in the summer. To bring in extra winter income, Harold contacted a woman, on Long Island, who owned some woodland on the far side of Lake Glen from West Castleton. He was going to offer her some money for the privilege of harvesting firewood and even made a special trip down to ask her. She told him he could have the wood for free. Harold hired a couple of local men to cut and stack logs during the week, and on Saturdays and evenings, he would drive his truck, across the frozen lake, pick up the logs and take them back to the woodshed behind his house for splitting and cording. Sometimes he would even let his children drag behind the truck on sleds. This dangerous practice of driving on ice upset his wife but the income kept his growing family fed. Another way the family kept costs down was to keep their own cow. In the winter a cow, and some chickens, were kept at the Washington Street address. Harold's family would get the evenings milk while Harold's father would milk in the morning for his family. In the summer the cow would be pastured out on a local farm. He also farmed potatoes from the old "family" lot at Cookville. In 1937 Harold got a job working for the government (W.P.A.) controlling the Gypsy Moth caterpillar and blister rust in the local woods. Harold was the foreman of a motley crew that burned moth nests and pulled up gooseberry bushes. This job was in spring, summer, and fall only. In 1939 Harold's wife's mother died and his wife inherited the house and some money. This surprise income for the family actually excluded Harold from qualifying for W.P.A. jobs. For three years Harold would be unemployed and even his wood business had stopped. The inactivity was hard on Harold and his drinking became a problem for the family. He spent time improving the house and went for training in using and making precision instruments. They lived on his wife's inheritance and finances were very tight in the household. WWII brought a demand for factory goods and Harold, being too old for the army at 43 years, got a job at Bryant's Chuck and Grinder machine tool shop across the state in Springfield, VT. He would come home to Fair Haven on the weekends. Harold's wife was having difficulty controlling the children when he was away so in the summer of 1942 the family sold the house, to Harold's brother, Ned, and moved to Bellows Falls, which is a commutable distance from Springfield. They lived at 10 Underhill Ave. Harold was not in good health at this time and was forced to cut back to temporary jobs for a short while. One of these temporary jobs was working in a Bellows Falls paper mill. Harold had always had breathing problems with bronchitis and asthma. It is said his first glass of wine was offered to him by a neighbor as a help to his coughing. Many subsequent glasses of wine, and Camel cigarettes, had worsened his respiratory problems and had given him an ulcer. Harold's health improved enough so that, in 1943, he got a permanent job at Jones and Lamsons in Springfield. It was at this precision tool manufacturing plant that he became involved in the union movement.(20) Before he arrived at the plant, the eloquent and outspoken Harold was jokingly called "the W.P.A. Lawyer" because he was known as a brilliant orator who needed government assistance to survive. They stopped laughing when Harold became instrumental in starting the first labor union in Vermont, and succeeded in winning its members all kinds of benefits. He was absent from his tool making machine, (on union business), so often, that when a wood carver was commissioned to immortalize a machine in a wood statue, he used Harold's as a model because it was never in use. By 1945 Harold was elected president of the union and ceased being an employee of J. and L. The union didn't pay much, however, and his family, still living at 10 Underhill Ave. in Bellows Falls, was so hard up for money that some of his older children had to send the family money. Harold's health continued to deteriorate during this time. He was called to travel around the state to union meetings and as a speaker. One day Harold's ulcer perforated and only an emergency operation saved him from death. No longer able to serve as the union president, he still remained involved with the labor movement. Harold and his family returned to Fair Haven and moved to a house on Elm Street, two houses down from their old house that Ned had bought when they moved to Bellows Falls. Harold's wife, Mary, had broken her hip in Bellows Falls and was having a great deal of trouble with her legs in general. Harold's health also continued to decline. While in Fair Haven, Harold again got a job "running hoist" at a local quarry. On Dec. 25, 1952, Harold's ulcer perforated again and he died. He is buried with his wife at St. Mary's cemetery. Harold Hayes was a brilliant, self-educated man. He was an insatiable reader and a good writer and speaker. Although liberal in most of his views, his sister, Mary T. Hayes, thinks that Harold, like most of his contemporaries, viewed a wife's role in a marriage as one of subservience and that a wife should concern herself with producing offspring and serving her husband. His daughters concede this, but say he was supportive of their own educational and career goals. His sister-in-law, Billy Hayes, points out that he would come to the defense of his wife in a flash if anyone maligned her in anyway, and was known to physically push errant family members out the door for doing so. All of his life he had "artistic" temperaments, with moods swings from those of a recluse to an extrovert and little in between. His alcoholism in later life accented this and made it very difficult on his children. They would "snap to work" and have to "walk on eggshells" when he came home, because they never knew what mood he would be in. He and his teen age son, Tom, (who was his equal in elocution and argumentativeness) did not see eye to eye on things and that led to a good deal of tension in the family. Harold was a pure Democrat and was always arguing politics at local gathering spots. He loved to fish, was a good cook, and he is said to be the only member of the Hayes family that could carry a tune. Some of his children's fondest memories are of him singing, in his rich baritone, while his wife played the piano. His favorite songs were "You are My Sunshine", "South of the Border", "If I Had My Way", "I'll be Loving You Always", "A Little on the Lonely Side", and "I Love You Truly". What follows is an account of lives of his children: (21) A) Mary Celestine "Babe" Hayes was born in 1925 in Fair Haven, Vermont. She married Knud Christensen and they have seven children; Barbara, Jeanne, Mary, John, Doug, Barry, and David. (David, born in 1963, is the author of this paper) Mary lives in Rome, NY, and St. Pete Beach, FL. She retired from school teaching in 1988. B) Thomas Lawlor "Bud" Hayes was born in 1926. Thomas married Jennie Christie and they had three children; Richard, Leslie, and Kevin. He served the State of Vermont as the Chairman of the Vermont Education Board, as Lt. Governor, and State Supreme Court Justice. Tom died on May 5, 1987. C) Bernadette Frances Hayes was born in, 1929. She married John Yoder and has three children; Mary, John, and Matthew. She is now living in Prescott AZ. D) John Harold Hayes was born in 1931. He married Barbara McAllister and has three daughters; Heather, Allison, and Erin. He lives in Davidsonville, MD, where he retired from public school administration. E) Kathleen Ann Hayes was born in 1933. She had two children, Maureen and David. She lived and worked in the Fair Haven area all of her life. Kathleen died on December 22, 1981 and is survived by her daughter. F) Edward Joseph Hayes was born in 1935. He has two stepchildren and one biological child, Jennifer, from his first marriage to Alexandra Kurthy. He lives with his wife, Heather, in Laguna Woods CA G) Ann Marie Hayes was born in 1937. She married Richard Baark and they had three children together; Richard, David, and Jennifer. She was widowed and lives in Randolph NJ

MARY THERESE HAYES

Mary T. Hayes was born on October 15, 1904. One of Mary's first memories is that of her reading her brother Harold's books in the farm house on Scotch Hill with her back against the chimney. Even today, books and reading are her biggest pastime. A year before Mary would graduate high school, she left to work in a shirt factory in Fair Haven. A teacher, impressed by her abilities and yearning for knowledge, interceded with her family to let her return to high school and complete a diploma. She graduated in 1923. Although an excellent student, she declined to join the National Honor Society because at the time it was exclusive to minorities. Mary went to Castleton Normal School (Teachers College) at the sight of Castleton College. With only one year of Normal School (and having taught her younger brothers and sisters), Mary began teaching in 1924 at a rural school. For 25 years Mary worked on the Vermont Public School system, first as a teacher, then supervisor, and last of all, a demonstration teacher. She specialized in the lower grades and in particular, teaching the young to read. During these teaching years she attended summer school at the University of Vermont and receive a Bachelors degree in Education. She received her Masters degree in Education in 1951. Mary left Vermont to supervise schools in Concord New Hampshire. During the summers she worked at a resort. Mary went to Bath, Maine for a year to become an elementary supervisor. That same year Bath closed its shipyards and in her short time there she watched the town change quite a bit. She left Bath and taught education courses at the University of Maine for four years. During the summers she taught workshops in many places in the U.S. and Canada and twice taught at the University of Vermont Summer School. Mary then got a job editing children's textbooks for Ginn and Co. Although the benefits were good, Mary never liked this job. On one memorable project, she was loaned to the "Readers DigestĒ people to produce texts that would help teach illiterate veterans how to read. After she quit that job, she moved near her sister Liz in Westchester Co., N.Y. For two years Mary was a reading supervisor at public schools there. When her sister died in 1964, she decided to move back to Maine. Mary was hired as the head of the Education Department at Aroostic State College and she held that position for four years. She had a great time at that job. For two of those years she cared for her nephew, Jim Connely, whose mother, Mary's sister Catherine, had died in 1964. She moved to Massachusetts and the Administration of Worcester State loved her. She wrote her doctoral dissertation on the correlation of listening to reading and it was so well received that she received royalties from its publishing. She taught psychology and children's literature (that was her specialty) at Worcester State for eight years. Today she receives a pension from them. At the age of 69 Mary retired because her poor hearing was making teaching difficult. Mary went to Glen's Falls to live for eleven years. She them moved back to Fair Haven where she has lived for the last eight years. (2005 addendum) In 1994 she fell ill and lived in a Rutland Nursing home until her death on March 14, 2001 Mary has never been much of a "Club Joiner" and has the philosophy that accomplishments mean more to her if she does them on her own. She votes as a Democrat, but has never joined the party. She was once a member of the Women League of Voters while in N.H. and in her last year of teaching she joined a union. Mary was naturally good at most things she tried. She was great at planning conferences and giving workshops. In her summers she studied in places as varied as Columbia University and Colorado. She hardly took any time off in all of her working years, and her voracious reading and the legitimate theater took her leisure time. Looking back, she is proud of having done it all and for satisfying her need "to find out". (22)

THOMAS EDMUND "NED" HAYES

Ned Hayes was born on Scotch Hill on February 7, 1907. He attended school but did not continue past the sixth grade. He worked on his father's farm and then worked in the Slate quarries. When The Great Depression hit, Ned could not meet the W.P.A. entrance requirements, because he was not a head of a family, and instead he cut wood, picked apples, harvested crops, had an ice business, and did odd jobs for years. One relative described Ned as "Always working and always after the buck". In the Fall of 1942, Ned was drafted into the Army and ended up working the coastal defense in Rhode Island and Cape Cod. Just before the war he had bought a house on Washington Street, from Mary Lawlor Hayes, and moved his parents into the house where they stayed until they died. Ned got out of Army in 1945 and he went to work at "Stayso" (slate cutters and dryers) and later at International Paper in Ticonderoga N.Y. He continued to do weekend harvest work and in the early 1960's he fell off a ladder while picking apples. His leg was badly damaged and, after some operations, one leg was considerably shorter than the other was. He stayed with his sister Margaret while recuperating, but later stayed at a Veterans Hospital in Hartford, CN. Ned got a small Veteran's disability pension after the accident and after that he only worked "under the table" odd jobs for fear he would lose the pension. For a while, he was a town dump attendant and would scavenge and sell large items he found. Although Ned was a great saver, much of his money was spent on his mother's medical needs in her later years. Because of the family's long history of fiscal tightness, Ned became a "king of thrift" and quite ahead of his time as a recycler. He saved much scrape lumber and other items he found for reuse or resale and he got the lionís share of his personal clothing from acquaintances that had died. (23) He is still well remembered and missed in Fair Haven from when he did a daily round to local diners in his red pick-up truck. Ned had lots of friends and was a good neighbor. If a family was in need he would anonymously leave bags of groceries at their door and he made it a point to always remember flowers at funerals. He took on a great deal of responsibility in the family, including housing his parents and paying taxes on his great grandmother's estate. He was a great Boston Red Sox fan and hated the N.Y. Yankees with a passion. It is difficult to convey a flavor of this man without sounding demeaning, yet there was nothing ignoble about him. He was generous, secretive, humorous, conspiratorial, a Democrat through and through, a bachelor slob of stellar proportions, and welcome in any house in town. Ned was hospitalized when a case of chaffed feet turned into an infection. As a result, he was taken to a nursing home in Rutland in the winter of 1988, and would stay in nursing homes until his death, in Fair Haven, on February 9, 1992.(24)

PAUL HAYES

Paul was born at Scotch Hill on December 10, 1910. As a child he helped with farm chores that including picking berries. He had to walk a mile to school as a child, but he remembers in winter that sometimes his father had to take him by sleigh. When he was in the seventh grade, the family moved to Fair Haven Village. While attending high school he worked for his uncle Jim Morgan planting, weeding, and harvesting vegetables for Jim's vegetable wagon. He also worked with his father on the wood business. While in school Paul loved and played all sports. He was 5'4" and 108 pounds so he wasn't that great in all sports but he was good at tennis and baseball. Paul took violin lessons for a few weeks but realized he didn't have the aptitude for it. Paul graduated in 1928 at the age of 17. The year after school he ate many raw eggs (don't try this at home kids!) and grew to be 6 feet tall and 170 pounds. Paul went to college for one week before he decided he didn't like it and quit. He went to work peddling ice in Fair Haven until the depression forced him to look for a more profitable job. The man in the area who was letting teens into the Civilian Conservation Corps had been taking kickbacks for letting certain families work while others were excluded. Paul, although qualified, was not chosen. Paul went to see him, grabbed him by the collar and persuaded him, in no uncertain terms, that his family needed the money from the income he was proposing to make in the C.C.C. Upon entering the camp, Paul again ran across an officer who was using the federal moneys of the program to line his pocket. This one was giving the workers inferior amounts and quality food. Paul helped organize a strike and soon the workers were getting their whole food ration. For his leadership Paul was promoted to platoon leader. While in the C.C.C. (for 14 months) Paul helped build a road and a man made lake near Manchester, Vermont. An incident of note during this period was that Paul severely injured his leg when it rubbed against a moving machine belt. From the C.C.C., Paul was employed by the Works Projects Administration as a road crew foreman. A good recommendation from the W.P.A. got Paul a quarry job in the private sector. He supplemented this work by picking apples. Paul was married to Wilma "Billy" Charlton in 1936. In 1940 Paul went to the Delehenty Institute in Manhattan to become a mechanic. In 1941 he landed a job on the second shift at General Electric in Schenectady as a machinist building turbines for battleships. The union in the plant was Mafia controlled and they confronted Paul because he was working faster then the union wanted him to. As it were, Pearl Harbor had just been bombed and because Paul's brother, Tom, had been at Pearl Harbor, Paul told the Union that he would not be told to slow down where the war effort was concerned. Paul moved to Saratoga Springs, N.Y. and got a job at GE there. One day Paul received a parking ticket while he was running in and out of a place. Paul felt that the ticket was unjustified and chose to ignore it. Sometime later, a police officer came to Paul's house, handcuffed him, and took him to jail. The judge was going to fine Paul, but Paul refused to pay on a matter of principle over the criminal way such a minor offence had been treated. Instead Paul went to jail. Someone soon bailed Paul out, but the newspaper printed a story to the affect that "A Man Spends Night in Jail to Save a Few Dollars". Paul, greatly angered, wrote the paper about the way parking violators are not treated like burglars in the state of Vermont and that his was a protest on principle. Eventually he received much support and even gifts from the common people of Saratoga Springs. In 1944 Paul developed ulcers so he moved out to Saratoga Lake for some peace. Later that year he quit GE and went back home to Fair Haven and worked at "House Scales Quarry". In 1945 Paul got a job in Poultney at "William's Machine Shop". In 1948, Paul's sister, Katherine, secured a small resort hotel at Putman Station, New York and Paul took over its management. Along with managing the hotel, Paul bought some timberland and received a contract from the International Paper Mill at Ticonderoga to supply the mill with pulp trees. His father came up to take care of the hotel's boats on Lake Champlain. The resort did well for a couple of years but after a while business fell off and Paul concentrated on the lumber contract. In 1950 Paul turned the place back over to Katherine and got a job as a machinist at the International Paper Mill in Ticonderoga. He soon became president of the union, credit union, and Employee Mutual Benefit Association, and held those posts for several years. The management was impressed with Paul and offered to bring him into management. When Paul went to resign his union post the national union gave him a counter offer to work as a negotiator. Soon he was an employee of the Sulfide Paper Worker Union. The local national union representative had hired Paul to help him clean the Mafia out of the union. (At the time Kennedy was president and Bobby Kennedy, the attorney general was concentrating solely on the Mafia in the Teamster's Union). In Upstate New York, the Democratic Party was tied to the Mafia so it was very difficult to get political help. Paul's efforts were rewarded by phone taps, intimidation (large black cars circling the block) and finally with dismissal. Later Paul testified against the Mafia in a grand jury at Washington, D.C. Eventually everyone he testified against went to jail. After his dismissal from the Union, Paul worked as an independent business agent for local unions that he had worked for in the past. Eventually he was hired by the Federal Employees Union and worked with them until he retired in 1990 at the age of 80. He now lives with his wife in Glens Falls, NY. (2005 addendum: Paul passed away on May 18, 1997. His wife, Billy, died in 2004.) They have four children: (25) A) Margaret Alice "Peggy" Hayes was born in 1937. She married Albert Powvorznik but had no children. She works for a Social Security office and lives at Lake George, N.Y. B) Mike Charlton Hayes was born in 1938. He married Sally Ann Wickes and they have two children; Paul and Mike. Mike Sr. owns a vending business and lives in Queensburry, NY. C) Patricia Elaine Hayes was born in 1943. She married Noel Labonte and they had three children; Cristina, Lorrie, and Noel. Patricia, a widowand works in catering and as a seamstress. D) Mary Agnes Hayes was born in 1944. She married Thomas Ravida but they have no children. She has worked in baking, and as an assistant to her father for many years, and she lives in Cohoes NY.

MARGARET ELIZABETH "LIZ" (GAER) HAYES

Liz Hayes was born on June 15, 1912 in Fair Haven, Vermont. She graduated from high school and started at Castleton Normal School for teachers training. Because her family could not afford nice clothing, she felt out of place at the school and decided instead to attend a nursing school where a uniform and stipend were provided. She went to St. Elizabeth's Nursing School/Hospital in New Jersey and graduated at the top of her class with a 97% average. Later, her sister Katherine joined her at the school and after they had graduated, they lived and worked together in New York City. A man, Sam "Jack" Gaer, was dating Katherine but things didn't work out. Later he and Liz started dating and they married on August 31, 1939 in N.Y.C. The couple had two children and Liz became very active in the Parents Teachers Association. She was a high spirited, independent woman and she was very active in the Democratic Party, often canvassing door to door. She worked all of her life in nursing, and was still working six months before her death on August 31, 1964. Her children: A) Bernard Joseph Gaer was born on November 11, 1942. He married Jane Neeson and they had two children; Jennifer Anne and Elizabeth Denise. He later married Jane Annible and they had three children; Bernard Jr., Victoria, and Valerie. Bernard bred and raised dogs for a living before his death in July of 1980. He is buried in Fair Haven. B) Nancy Gaer was born in 1946. She married Richard Searles and had four children with him; Kristin, Matthew, Michael, and Richard. Nancy is an administrative assistant at Manhattanville College and lives in Katonah NY. (26)

KATHERINE ANN HAYES (CONNELY)

Katherine Ann Hayes was born in 1913 in Fair Haven,Vermont. She finished high school there and continued her education at a nursing school in Bristol Connecticut. She worked for a while in Connecticut but ended up day nursing in New York City. In 1949, Katherine met her future husband, Jimmy Connely, through his sister who worked with Katherine. Jimmy, a divorcee', was a handsome, charming man from a well off family but he had a history of heavy drinking and legal problems stemming from coning people of their money. Katherine was in love and was willing to overlook those problems. When Jimmy broke parole and was sent to Sing Sing Prison, Katherine waited for him to come out and they were married. She had her only child, James, in 1953, when she was over forty years old. In 1955 the family moved to Fair Haven where Katherine continued her nursing work and cared for her son. Jimmy Sr. got a job as an aluminum siding salesman ("Tin Man"). He left town with the down payments for several jobs and was not heard of again until he died in Albany, NY. in 1964. After her husband left, Katherine tried her best to raise her child in this difficult situation. For income, Katherine went to work at Rutland Hospital. Her drinking, which had been consistently heavy through her marriage, started to affect her mood and, with the added stress of being a single parent, she started taking pills. She died of kidney failure, in 1964, after moving to Hartford, CN to be near her sister. Katherine was known to be a wonderful nurse. Some think that it was her natural compassion, and drive to help others,that stressed her beyond her own coping skills into drinking. She was a pretty woman with many talents. She was well loved by her brother Harold's family, and her overnight vigilance, cuddling, feeding, and warmth is credited to have saved the life of Harold's daughter, Ann, whom the doctors had proclaimed doomed. Katherine's son, 11yrs old when she died, was cared for by his Aunts, including a year or so living with Mary T. The family eventually decided that he would be better off with two foster parents instead of one. He moved in with his Uncle Harold's son, Tom, and stayed with Tom and his wife in Washington D.C. and latter in Burlington, VT. He is now a well respected chef. He has no children. (27)

HELLEN DOROTHY HAYES (PERRY)

Dorothy Hayes was born on January 17, 1915 in Fair Haven, Vermont. She attended high school and graduated earlier than her classmates. She married John Perry and together they had two children. The oldest, Joe, lived with Dorothy's mother while Dorothy and John settled into married life. When Dorothy's brother, Bernard, died as a result of a car accident, Dorothy's mother was wanton to give up Joe. Sensitive to her motherís grief, Dorothy moved across the street from her mother to help raise the boy. In the meantime, she had another boy, Bobby, and the family saw quite a bit of each other. The family moved to Bellows Falls and later to Albany, NY, where John worked at General Electric and Dorothy worked as an operator for the phone company. Later, John sold aluminum siding and Dorothy worked for the New York State Department of Education in a middle management position. She retired at the age of 62 in 1977. Latter that year, on November 10, she was in a terrible car accident in which her granddaughter, Lisa, was killed and her grandson, Robert, was seriously injured. Dorothy died soon afterwards as a result of injuries. Dorothy had a pretty face and a pleasant personality to match. Her greatest hobby was golfing and she made two "holes in one" during her life. She also enjoyed down hill skiing and sewing. She could do peoples hair up like a professional and that talent was not wasted by her family members. Her children: A) John Joseph "Joe" Perry was born on February 21, 1934. He married Carolyn May Howard and they had two children; Deborah and Michael. Joe died on December 26, 1999. His wife now lives in the house his great grandmother Morgan inhabited on Grape St. in Fair Haven B) Bernard Robert "Bobby" Perry was born in 1939. He married Maureen Giosia and they had two children; Lisa and Robert. Bobby lives in White Plans NY. and is a home improvement contractor by profession. (28)

MARGARET LEONA (WOLFERSDORF) HAYES

Margaret Hayes was born on April 17, 1916. She ran away to Albany but graduated from a school there. She returned to Fair Haven and married John Ryan in 1943. They were already estranged when he was killed in a slate accident. During the war she worked briefly at Jones and Lamsons in Springfield, VT. She moved to Connecticut and married a man named Wolfersdorf. Soon after the marriage, he was drafted into the Korean War. While he was stationed in California, Margaret moved back to Fair Haven. After he was discharged the couple moved to Hartford, CN. When they discovered that they couldn't have children, Margaret, who loved children, took in foster children. They also helped care for Margaret's brother, Ned, after he was injured in an accident. While her niece, Mary Celestine, was living in Rhode Island, Margaret and her husband would come up to visit and even sponsored her child, Doug, at his baptism. After years of hosting foster children, the couple (for good reason) divorced, and Margaret moved back to Fair Haven. She had a rough time of it in Fair Haven and eventually moved to Albany, where she died in 1975. Margaret had many problems, and problematic behaviors, that would serve no purpose to enumerate. To be sure, it is her love of, and work with, children that she would wish to be remembered by. (29)

THOMAS MORGAN HAYES

Tom Hayes was born on October 18, 1917. He was a mischievous kid and one story he used to tell was that he, and his brother Bernard, managed to get a cow up into the belfry of a local church and left the congregation to be surprised by her lowing on Sunday morning. Another story involves an old Ford he owned that was terribly un-road worthy. One time he was pulled over by a local police officer that he knew. The policeman asked Tom if he could check the break to see if it worked, so Tom reached down, pulled the break lever out of the floor, and handed it to the policeman. He was an alter boy but lost his taste for church going when a priest slapped him over a row of chairs because he had stopped at home for a supper of franks and beans and had been tardy. He remained a spiritual man all his life. He quit school in the eighth grade to do odd jobs and helped his brother, Ned, peddle ice. His legs became somewhat bowed and he accredited this to having carried ice on one shoulder and having to lean to one side to handle the weight. Tom also worked cutting slate as a young man, and his hands would always show the blue slate chips beneath his skin and the bent fingers that were a result of his breaking fingers working on the slate cutter In 1940, Tom joined the army and was at Fort Shaftner, Pearl Harbor, when the Japanese attacked on Dec. 7, 1941. Tom was stationed in the Pacific, including tours of Iwo Jima and Makin Island, for the duration of the war, but managed to avoid malaria. He did get slightly wounded when an incendiary bomb was dropped near his tent. He was a cook and reached the rank of staff sergeant with the position of Warehouse Foreman. After his discharge he stayed in Fair Haven for a while until he got a job at Pratt and Whitneyís aircraft division. He worked as a welder there for five years. He also helped his brother Paul log land to supply International Paper in Ticonderoga. Eventually he landed a job at the Ticonderoga plant and moved to that town. While in "Ti", Tom met, and married, Emmetta Lou Gonyea and they raised their three children together. Tom spent most of his years at I.P. as a Trimmer Operator. He left I.P. in 1969. At the time of his leaving I.P., Tom's wife was in bad health so he took on the role of home maker. His wife's health, and his own emphysema, prevented Tom from reentering the work force. His emphysema worsened and he was pretty much bed ridden when he died on September 23, 1989. Tom was a quiet, "thinking man", who read often. He loved his family very much and would often speak to his children about growing up. He even took pride that he was able to help his brother by fighting local thugs that his brother had gotten into trouble with. He loved his parents very much and always sent money home when he could. He cared for his own wife and kids with, often, incredible sacrifice, including becoming a house husband in a time when that was totally against social norms. He was a good cook (he was fussy about eating other peoples cooking) and there was always room for a friend, and sometimes even a stranger, at his table. Tomís children: A) James Hayes was born in 1962. James has two daughters as of this writing; Stevie Marie (with Lisa Abare) and Ermma Lyma (with Sherry Brown). He lives, and works as a mechanic, in Plattsberg, NY. B) Shawn M. Hayes was born in 1963. He is married to Rose Beuerlein and lives in Ticonderoga NY C) Susan Hayes was born in1964. She has one child, Ryan, with Richard Quigley. She lives in Ticonderoga N.Y. (30)

BERNARD JOSEPH HAYES

Bernard Hayes was born in 1919 in Fair Haven, Vermont. Bernard was a fun loving kid but somewhat hyperactive and, as his mothers favorite, somewhat spoiled. Always into mischief, one recollection has him flying out of the front door with his motherís rolling pin flying right behind. This red head enjoyed parties and was a good all around athlete, especially in basketball. He quit high school before gradation. In 1939, at only 20yrs old, he was in a car accident. His broken hip turned gangrenous and he died of the resulting blood poisoning. (31)



DOCUMENTATION

Chapter one

A rough draft of chapter one was sent to Paul, Mary T., and Ned Hayes for proof reading. I met with each of them separately and made amendments and additions. Each note refers to the paragraph before it, and notations address statements in the order they appear in the text. For more detailed documentation please contact the author.

  1. A: Castleton birth record. B: Common family knowledge supported by documents referring to Bridget Hayes as T.M. Hayes' mother.
  2. A: Paul and Mary T. Hayes. B: Census C: Eleanor Hayes Warren claims that her mother, a neighbor of T.M. Hayes, said that T.M. Hayes was raised thinking his grandmother was his mother.
  3. See Martin Hayes chapter.
  4. A: Town school district map. B: Mary T. Hayes C: "love on Scotch Hill" was told to Bernie Hayes Yoder by her grandfather.
  5. See Pinders chapter.
  6. Billy (Mrs. Paul) Hayes and Mary C. Hayes Christensen.
  7. A: Castleton Land Records B: Mary T. and Paul Hayes C: 1902 business directory of Castleton. D: "Twins" and "15 Pregnancies" -Billy Hayes E. various birth and death records and tombstones.
  8. A: James Morgan's obituary and death record. B: Fair Haven Land record stating right of way payment by electric company. C: 1910 Census D: Mary T. and Paul Hayes.
  9. Fair Haven Land Records.
  10. "fire story"- Mary T. and Paul Hayes; dates confirmed by Fair Haven Land Records.
  11. "Quarry holes" -Ned Hayes "sold business" -Paul Hayes.
  12. "laundry and wreaths" -Mary Christensen and Mary T. Hayes "Tom helped Ned" -Ned Hayes "true to his word" -Paul Hayes (Mary Christensen remembers Tom riding on the back of Ned's ice wagon.) "mortgage at Mary's insistence" -Mary T.
  13. A: "Bristol Conn." - Mary T. Hayes and Mary Christensen B: "Canarven St." -Mary Christensen C: WPA record from government archives. D: "Bernard" -Mary T., Paul, and Billy Hayes.
  14. A: "Washington St. House" -Mary C. and Mary T. B: Jones and Lamsons -Mary Christensen and J. and L. records.
  15. "Jobs" -Paul and Mary T. Hayes, Mary Christensen. "Town Constable" -Bernie Yoder. "Whole Town" -Bernie Yoder.
  16. "arthritis" -Mary Christensen.
  17. Both paragraphs are compilations of input from Paul, Mary T., Billy, and Eddie Hayes, Mary Christensen, and Bernie Yoder.
  18. Same as 17.

Chapter two

The rough drafts of this chapter's biographical sketches were written from information gleamed from interviews with my mother, Mary Christensen, or, in the case of Mary T. and Paul Hayes, direct interviews with the subjects. The drafts of Mary T.'s, Paul's, and Ned's sketches were sent to them for proof reading. Ned died before I could check his sketch with him, but Billy Hayes checked both Ned's and her husband Paul's stories for accuracy and Paul, himself, made some corrections on his own story. Mary T. edited her own sketch. All of the children of Harold, Liz, Katherine, Dorothy, and Tom were sent drafts of their respective parent's sketches, and were given full editorial power over them. I spoke, personally, to all of them about the sketches, except Tom's son Jim, who was unavailable by phone and had given me most of the information for his fathers sketch anyway, and Dorothy's son, Joe Perry, who's wife conveyed to me that Joe didn't see any changes necessary.

  1. A: "King of the Roost"- Mary T. All other information in Harold's sketch is from Mary Christensen, unless otherwise noted.
  2. "first glass of wine" -Bernie Yoder
  3. A: "W.P.A. Lawyer ...etc." - Edmund Lawlor, Harold's wife's cousin. B: Song titles are from Harold's children.
  4. All information for the sketch from Mary T.
  5. All information for the sketch from Mary Christensen, Billy Hayes, and my own acquaintance with Ned.
  6. "groceries by the door"'- local columnist, and Ned's acquaintance, "Twig".
  7. All information for sketch from Paul and Billy Hayes.
  8. All information for sketch from Nancy Gaer Searles.
  9. "drinking consistently heavy" - Billy Hayes, all other information from Mary Christensen.
  10. All information for sketch from Mary Christensen and Bobby Perry.
  11. All information for sketch from Mary Christensen.
  12. All information for sketch from Jim, Shawn, and Susan Hayes.
  13. All information for sketch from Mary Christensen and Paul Hayes.

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