Chapters 3 and 4
As a child and young adult, I felt the importance of family. This feeling was not instinctive, but was developed and nurtured through my family's lifestyle and example. As I look back, it seems that the lessons of real importance in my life, were derived from a family circumstance or reflection. The lessons from my work and studies have allowed me to make a reasonably good living, but my family has given me a life. As we engage ourselves in this new fast-paced era of information technology and communications, I still believe that it will be the family that binds our efforts and actions into a sense of what American life is or will be. As important as the industrial revolution and the world wars have been, they diminish in their importance when compared to what families have offered and provided. I remember when my Grandpa, Bill Lorton, showed me the trail he used in walking to school as a child. He traversed the "fox hollow" to a schoolhouse in Jacksonville in German Township, near Lawrenceville, Ohio. I paid less attention to the actual trail than I did to Grandpa's enthusiasm in telling his story. If Grandpa Lorton taught me anything on that day, it was to savor our childhood memories. Every time I enter the limestone arch at the north end of Western Avenue at Snyder Park in Springfield, Ohio, I reflect back to his feelings of pride. He attended the old Western School and his class was asked to contribute to the construction of this arch project. He had been bagging coffee beans on Saturdays for nine cents a day and was able make a contribution of eleven cents. He told me this story many times when we were together near that arch. Because I grew up in that west end neighborhood, I played near the arch and was reminded of his story many times. If this arch and family symbol are ever torn down, a big part of me will certainly go with it. His many stories and nuggets of family pride are still invaluable to me. I never heard my Grandma Lorton yell or raise her voice. She was genuinely gentle and a very kind lady. She was raised in a devout German Catholic home on North Light Street in Springfield, and had a wonderful spirit and faith. When she married Grandpa, a Lutheran, she had to set aside her physical connection with the Catholic Church and had to endure an emotional separation from some members of her own family. Though her life seemed to embrace sacrifice for others, I never heard her complain. More than the German cookies, candies and the presents at Christmas, I will remember Grandma as a care giver. Though she never had the financial capacity to give in large material ways, her greatest gift was her generosity, love and grace. Today. I would give anything, to pick up the telephone, as I did hundreds of times, and hear Grandma say, "Well how was your day?" I probably rarely asked Grandma about her day, as it was her worry and concern for me and others that made her "Grandma". In my immaturity, I wrongfully assumed that she did not have needs. I would like to see her smiling and taking pleasure from knowing how much she was loved and appreciated. Mom and Pap, my paternal grandparents, never had a lonely household. I remember aunts, uncles and cousins always being in their home. When they moved from "Belmont Hill" to their retirement home at 1881 Beacon Street in Springfield, they lost a lot of space and it is still hard to believe the number of people in our family who would crowd into their home for the holidays, or for no special occasion at all. I will never forget the laughter, teasing, singing, debating, and storytelling that happened during these many days and nights. Many of my uncles and cousins were employed by the International Harvester Company and many of the company matters were debated at Mom and Paps's house. There was always plenty of food and good cheer. Though Pap did not speak very often about his Logan County, Ohio childhood, he always seemed to stay in touch with his relatives. In Pap, I saw a very real definition of family. As a child, I saw no person who was richer than Pap. He had the genuine affection of his family and friends. While growing up in Springfield, I was able to feel self worth and pride in my lineage. I could never have experienced prouder moments than the many times I was asked, "are you related to ol' Roy Kitchen?" I would beam and glow with comfort and pride after hearing their jokes, praises and affirmations. Had I never experienced this feeling, my own confidence and outlook on life could have easily been misdirected. Pap's relationship with his family was not superficial or contrived, but was heartfelt and real. With a father who died at the age of thirty-five and brothers and sisters raised in a county home, he had to quit school and confront the adversities associated with trying to make a living and a life for himself and his family. He beat the odds that were stacked toward dereliction and strife and left this world a little better place to live. Most important to me, however, is the family and example he left. If anyone questions the value of perseverance and the importance of a warm and understanding family, they merely need to seek reflections from Pap. Mom was always busy. She managed a home that always included plenty of good food and nice surroundings. She was always eager to try new things and even in her final years, would don the latest fashions and willingly try the newest gadgets. Mom was always "ready to go." Sometimes it would merely be the Saturday bingo game. At other times it was a trip to Milford Center to buy meat, or to Jackson Center to visit her sister, Viola. On one occasion, there was a memorable trip with our family to visit Viola, who had moved to Scottsdale, Arizona. On our return to Ohio we also visited with her sister Flossie, who was living in Galveston, Texas. Mom was socially comfortable in any setting and helped to set the pace. I remember at Galveston Beach, Mom wore a swim suit, quite appropriate for the times, a cook-out, and day on the beach. I also remember that she encouraged Pap to do the same. However, he continued to wear his normal Vogue Shop attire, including wingtip shoes and an ivy league cap. He was content to let Mom wear whatever she wanted, and she did. It is amazing to think of Mom's boundless energy and enthusiasm for life. By example, she taught us to enjoy our lives and to take a little pleasure from time to time. Though Mom seemed to live by this premise, it was never at the expense of others or done in a manner which shortchanged work, household or family responsibilities. Little did I know, she was setting an example that now allows me the freedom to take a little pleasure in a few simple things from time to time. . There were the aunts, uncles, cousins by the dozens, a great older brother, a wonderful loving wife and our children.. There were barn parties, picnics at Indian Lake, train rides from Springfield to Cincinnati's old Crosley Field for a game of Red's baseball, the family "gatherings" on Christmas Eve, endless hours of singing, guitars, pianos, organs, and dancing. These things bind the will and life of a family. It is a special blessing to have such caring and supportive parents. Their love, encouragement, and teachings are priceless. An entire book could not contain the powerful emotions that I feel when I think of them. I know that my brother, Jack, feels the same way and we have talked about it many times. . Growing up in this environment, I often wondered why the history and background of our family was not discussed too much. I learned about my family by how we lived, with only a few legends and historical nuggets being shared from time to time. As a result, my curiosity and interest were placed into motion. Essentially, this work is presented in an effort to memorialize and give our family a strong sense of history and attachment. They have not only added value to my life, but have made this country a better place to live. To give a real sense of history, a genealogy was developed that will hopefully show the backgrounds and strength of our American family. As the new generations become more and more mobile, they may never know and experience the special blessings of really knowing their parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins. If in some small way, this work can add that dimension to their lives and to the lives of their future generations, the years of work will have been worth it. As this work proceeds, there is probably no better reflection than a quotation from Proverbs, 22:1, that states, "A good name is more desirable than great riches; to be esteemed is better than silver or gold". May God bless our good name.
The Kitchen Surname: An English OriginThe Kitchen surname is said to be a shortened form of the old English surname of Kitchenman, which was derived from the occupation of its first bearers, who were employed in the great kitchens of the manor houses and castles. In early American and English records, there are many various spellings of the Kitchen surname. The variations include: Kychene, Kychen, Kychin, Kychine, Kytchen, Kytchin, Kytchinge, Kytching, Kytchings, Kechin, Kechen, Kechyn, Kechynge, Keching, Kytchynge, Kytchyng, Kytchyn, Kichynge, Kichyng, Kitchynge, Kichen, Kiching, Kitchyn, Kichin, Kitchins, Kitching, Ketchen, Ketchin, Cichim, Caitcheon, Kitcheon, Kitchin, Kitchens, Kitchen, and others. Of all the above listed spelling variations, the most generally accepted in the United States and England today are Kitchen, Kitchens, or Kitchin. In the following pages, only "Kitchen" is used to distinguish our family which is the subject of this study. Through this research, I have observed, that only one spelling has been associated with our family since the early 1600's. That spelling is Kitchen. The families bearing the name of Kitchen were found at early dates in the English counties of York, Oxford, Hereford, Lancaster, Derby, Middlesex, Hertford, Westmoreland, Durham, Somerset, and Norfolk, as well as in the city and vicinity of London. They were, for the most part, yeomen, or of the landed gentry of England. This merely meant, that these early forefathers were probably residing in the villages, probably servants or stewards, and most likely the owners of free land valued at more than forty shillings. The ownership of this free land provided certain rights and freedoms that may not have been available to some of the other citizens of England at that time. These early forefathers were probably cultivating their land and most likely had small farm holdings. The landed gentry and lineage of land owners, dates back to the late 1300's, when the use of surnames and the specific use of the name, Kitchen, was becoming more widely known and used in England. The first evidence of the Kitchen family in English history dates back to 1235. At that time, the name had evolved as "Kitchin from Kitchings" and as "Kitchen from Kitchenman". Among the earliest records of the Kitchen family in England are those of Henry atte Kychene and Richard del Kechin. These family records date back to about the year 1300. The records of Johannes (John) del Kechyn or Kychyn of Yorkshire, in the same period, also places the family at this very early period in the recorded history of the Kitchen family. Unfortunately, these records are only fragmentary and little can be linked to this very early era of English history. About the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Yorkshire branch of the family was represented by Robert Kitchen, who resided in Leeds. He was the father of a son, who was also named Robert, and was married to Elizabeth Mascall, the daughter of John Mascall of London. The marriage of Robert and Elizabeth resulted in the birth of a son, Richard. Richard settled in Totteridge, located in Hertfordshire. He married Elizabeth Nicoll who was the daughter of William Nicoll of Middlesex County. According to the early records, at least two of their children were daughters, Elizabeth and Judith. There may have been more children who for some reason were not recorded. It is also reasonable to assume that the records containing this information have merely not been found. Another branch of the family was represented in the county of Westmoreland, England in the early sixteenth century by another Richard Kytchen or Kitchen. He resided in Kendale and married Maryan, or Marian, Slake. This marriage resulted in the birth of four sons. Their names were Thomas, Robert, Matthew, and Richard. Richard was married to Miss Pytts, or Pitts, and they had a son named Robert, who made his home in London, England. Robert Kitchen, who was the second mentioned son of Richard and Marian, settled in Bristol, Somersetshire, England. He became Alderman of that city. An Alderman was a person who served as chief governor of the city or town council. He was one of the senior members of the city's council and was distinguished from other councilors by being elected for long periods of time, or for life. The seat of Alderman was not contested or challenged. Robert Kitchen married Joane, or Joan, Sacheville and they were the parents of four children. The names of the children were Maryan, or Marian, Elizabeth, Margarett or Margaret, and Robert, who became known as, the "Merchant Prince of Bristol." In the year 1552, Robert Kitchen was Sheriff of Bristol and in 1588 became Mayor of that city. He then served as Alderman until his death. Robert also left behind a son, Abel, who also became a Bristol City Alderman. It is highly probable that Able Kitchen was the only child of Robert and that this was a rare occurrence, having the third generation of the same family serve as an Alderman of this English city. In studies of the family lineage, there have been numerous communications with hundreds of interesting people. Among them was Effie Moorman Kitchen, wife of Floyd Kitchen, who was residing in Lancaster, California. Floyd is a descendant of the Kitchen family whose first American born forefather was Wheeler Kitchen, who was born in New Jersey about 1780. It is recorded in their family history that, "Daddy's (Wheeler's) forbearers, four brothers, came to this country from England, maybe Manchester area. One ancestor went to Pennsylvania, one went to Georgia, one to Canada, and one to the Midwest." In October 1979, a letter written by Effie Kitchen, stated that in 1978, she and Floyd traveled to England and spent one night in Bristol. She said that their Bristol guide became very interested when she discovered that their name was Kitchen. Because of the guides interest, she took Floyd and Effie to an area in the financial district of Bristol to show them the "nail". The "nail" is more like a pedestal and marks the area where important financial matters were "really finished" in Bristol. There were three nails and one of them was dedicated to the memory of Robert Kitchen who was Mayor and Alderman of Bristol in the 1500's. Though the guide tried to encourage the Kitchen's to stay and research the possible relationship, they did not have the time. Their visit to Bristol does, however, substantiate that Robert Kitchen must have been a model citizen and a true and respected leader of this very old English city. Effie Kitchen also gave me a substantially complete genealogy of the Wheeler Kitchen family. These printed documents have not been linked to any identifiable family relationship with my Kitchen family. There remains a strong suspicion that a connecting relationship exists, though it may be somewhat remote through a relationship in England. In most cases, it is not known from which of the English family lines the first Kitchen emigrants to America descended. It is, however, generally agreed that most of the Kitchen families are probably derived from some common ancestor from a very early period in England's history. The first evidence of a Kitchen in America was in 1614, when Charles Kitchen and two other men were hanged for telling those aboard a Spanish merchant vessel, where a safe anchorage could be found. Also in America, there was a John Kitchen. John was born in 1619 in England and sailed to America on July 8, 1635, aboard the ship, "Merchant's Hope". He landed in Virginia, and had taken the oath of allegiance to the Church of England before sailing. He was, however, later listed among the Virginia Quakers. It is interesting to note that, John possessed clothing, socks, and $40.00 when he left England. It is likely that $40.00 was a sizeable sum of dollars three hundred years ago and therefore John may have been a man of some financial means. Among other early arrivals in America, was Jonathan Kitchin, or Kitchen, who settled in Norfolk County, Virginia about 1637. Jonathan was either the same as, or the father of the Jonathan Kitchin, who resided in James County, Virginia in 1638. The records of this line are not complete and no further early record has been found on the Kitchen family of this area. There is, however, a record of Elizabeth Kitchin, who was residing in Virginia as early as 1652, but whose relationship, if any, to Jonathan is not known. There is a Kitchen Family History, written by Lennie Carter that develops the genealogy of the James Kitchen clan of Greenbrier, West Virginia. There was also a John Kitchen who sailed for Boston on a ship called the "Weymouth". He sailed on March 30, 1635. He was born in England in 1613 and came to America as a servant to Zachary Bickwell. After his arrival in America, John purchased his release and became a free man. In 1640 another John Kitchen, a shoemaker, came to America from England. He settled in Salem, Massachusetts after leaving his native land from a port in Weymouth, England. He crossed the Atlantic Ocean on a ship called the "Lion's Whelp". He married Elizabeth and they had seven children who were given the names of Elizabeth, Hannah, Joseph, John (died very young), Mary, another John, and Robert. Robert Kitchen became a sealer of leather, a merchant, and the owner of a ship. It is known that he had a son named Robert. He also may have had other children. The records on this very early Massachusetts family are not much more complete than the Virginia branch. It is my understanding that there are a studies of the Kitchen family compiled by Richard Kitchen of Urbana, Ohio and John Kitchen of Thornville, Ohio. In a conversation with them, they stated that their families both descended from this very early Massachusetts family of John Kitchen. Though I have never seen a compilation of their work, it seems clear from my conversations with them, that they are confident in their connection to this family. It seems that the John Kitchen family began to move south and west in the early 1800's. One of the pioneers of the family settled in Tomahawk Springs, West Virginia. From Tomahawk Springs, a John Kitchen, (son of Joseph), left for the west in a covered wagon. He traveled to Illinois and then became ill and returned to settle in the Clark County, Ohio area near Springfield. John and his wife had a son, John, who is buried with his wife, Prudence, and their unmarried sons, John W,. and Rodney Kitchen, in the Moorefield Methodist Episcopal Cemetery located on Morris Road in Moorefield Township, Clark County, Ohio. The descendants of this family are still represented in the Urbana and Springfield, Ohio area, as well as other locations. There was a Robert Kitchin who commanded the "Mayflower" in 1679. This was not the original Mayflower of the pilgrim voyage, but another vessel in use during the 1600's. He was thought to be the son of John Kitchin of Virginia, who was born in England in 1619. The Kitchin family came from Virginia into Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in and around Philadelphia, in about 1702 and settled in New Hope. Some members of the family were known to still be there as late as 1907 and may very well be there today. This location presents an very interesting connection to the Canby family who intermarried with Edward Kitchen and will be a subject presented in a subsequent chapter. Ely Kitchin, of this family, was the first of his clan to locate in New Jersey. This occurred in about 1821. He settled in Lambertville in 1845 and Seneca Kitchin, his cousin, moved to Belvidere at a later date. Ely married Mary Holcombre at Lambertville, New Jersey in 1845. She was born in 1825 and died in 1906. They had six children, who were: Jonathan, Catharine, Ege, Asher W., Lizzie Schenck, and Samuel L., and Luella Higgins. The male descent of Ely Kitchin is as follows: John Kitchin, born in England in 1619; Robert Kitchin, born in Virginia in 1643; William Kitchin, born in Virginia in 1675; John Kitchin, born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania in 1707; William Kitchin, born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania in 1732; William Kitchin, born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania in 1759; Jonathan Kitchin, born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania in 1786; Ely Kitchin, born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania in 1815. Ely died in his home between Sergeantville and Ringoes in 1890 and is buried in Sandy Ridge. All of Ely and Mary Kitchin's children were born in Delaware Township in Hunterdon County, New Jersey and are buried at either the Sandy Ridge or Hopewell locations. In the 1700's, another Kitchen family came to America from Ireland. This family is connected to Joel Kitchen, a native of Virginia, who moved to Coshocton County, Ohio in the early 1800's. He was the father of at least one son, J. T. Kitchen, who married Adeline Uffner. They were the parents of Joseph, Charles, Clara, Frank, Milton, Herbert, William, Niona, and Harry. The descendants of these and other branches of the Kitchen family in America have spread into all parts of the United States. Many have been noted for their energy, industry, integrity, perseverance, fortitude, and loyalty. Other Kitchen surnames that I have found in numerous passenger lists and immigration records are listed below. It is certainly possible that the list contains redundancies. For example, John Kitchen could have traveled back and forth between England and America two or three times, therefore appearing on a passenger list that many times. These passengers do represent the formation of the Kitchen family of the United States. 1620 John Kitchen to Salem, Massachusetts; 1635 John Kitchen to Virginia; 1635 John Kitchen, age 23, to Massachusetts; 1635 Joseph Kitchen, age 20, to Massachusetts; 1637 Jonathan Kitchen to Virginia; 1643 John Kitchen to Salem, Massachusetts; 1652 Dorothy Kitchen to Maryland; 1654 Nicholas Kitchen to Barbados; 1656 Nicholas Kitchen to Barbados; 1661 Hugh Kitchen to Virginia; 1682 Jane Kitchen to Virginia; 1683 Jane Kitchen to Virginia; 1698 William Kitchen to Virginia; 1703 John Kitchen and his wife, Elizabeth, to Virginia; 1708 Justus Englehead Kitchen to Maryland; 1721 Jane Kitchen to Virginia; 1746 John Kitchen to America; 1747 John Kitchen to America; 1749 Richard Kitchen to Nova Scotia (Akins); 1753 John Kitchen to America; 1769 Thomas Kitchen to America; 1769 John Kitchen to America; 1770 Thomas Kitchen to America; and 1798 John Kitchen to New York. Through the years, there have been many stories regarding family members and the following is a list of a few that have been identified through my research. Included in a roster of men fighting in the American Revolution, are Kitchen men named: John, Daniel and James of Virginia; and David, James, John, Stephen, Thomas and William of Pennsylvania. There were also many others from New England and the Southern colonies. A few of the many members of the Kitchen family who have distinguished themselves also include: Bethuel Middleton Kitchen (1812-1895) of Virginia. He was an agriculturalist, member of the Virginia House of Delegates, the West Virginia State Senate, and a member of the West Virginia Congress. Claude Kitchin (1869-1923) of North Carolina. Claude was a lawyer and a member of the United States Congress from North Carolina. He was the son of William Hodges Kitchin and had a brother, William Walton Kitchin. Joseph Ambrose Kitchen (born 1878) of Illinois. He followed pursuits as a lawyer and was a veteran of the Spanish American War. He was also a public official and office holder in the State of Illinois. Thurman Delna Kitchin (born 1885) of North Carolina. Thurman was a physician, educator and author. William Copeman Kitchin (born 1885) of Canada. William served as a missionary, educator and author. William Hodges Kitchin (1837-1901) of Alabama. He was a lawyer and Captain in the Confederate Army. He was also a member of the United States Congress, representing North Carolina. William Walton Kitchin (1866-1924) of North Carolina. William Walton was a lawyer, an editor, and served as a member of Congress from North Carolina. He was also the Governor of the State of North Carolina. George William Kitchen (1827-1912). Born at the Naughten Rectory in Suffolk, he became Dean of Durham College in 1894. In his lifetime, he wrote many historical works, including, "A History of France". Herbert Kitchener (Kitchen)( 1850-1916). Herbert was Lord of Khartoum and Aspall, both in Suffolk, England. He enlisted in the Army and served in Palestine, Cyprus, and Egypt. He was appointed Secretary of War in 1914, organized a great army of forces, but was then lost at sea aboard the "H. M. S.Hampshire" in 1916. Anthony Kitchin was Bishop of Llandof and lived between 1477and 1563. George William Kitchin (1827-1912) of English origin and a renowned archeologist who delved into the field and studies of antiquity. William Kitchen was a noted English writer of some popularity who was born in 1775 and died in 1827. John Kitchen (1740-1781) was an artist, having painted many art works of merit during his short lifetime. George Kitchen was an English engraver who practiced in the mid-eighteenth century. He was primarily employed to illustrate current popular books. Stewart Kitchen (1912-1965) of Ohio. Married Mary Crawford and raised a family in a farming community in Clark County, Ohio, near Pitchin. Served multiple terms as a member of the House of Representatives, State of Ohio. John M. Kitchen. M. D. of Miami County, Ohio. From humble beginnings near Piqua, Ohio, John developed a thriving medical practice in Indianapolis, Indiana. He also sponsored his nephew, William Burrette, (Bert), Kitchen in the pursuit of a successful medical profession. William Burrette (Bert) Kitchen, M. D. (1873-1923) of Indianapolis, Indiana. Born near Bellefontaine, in Logan County, Ohio, the son of Richard Sprigg and Ann Canby Kitchen. Bert pursued his education and acquired his degrees from Indiana University in Bloomington. He was a pitcher on the Indiana University Hoosier Baseball team and was best known as a "superb diagnostician". John (Jack) Lester Kitchen born November 5, 1923 in Springfield, Ohio. He was the first member of his direct family line to serve in the military of the United States. He was engaged in the Army, Sixth Armored Division, during World War II and received the Bronze Star John Milton Kitchen born in April 15, 1912 and was a lawyer. Graduated from Wabash College in 1933 and the Harvard School of Law in 1937. Practiced in Indianapolis, Indiana and was active in the state and local bar associations. John married Jane Rauch on April 8, 1939 and they have four children; Jeanne, John, Marjorie, and Louise. John is the son of William Burrette "Bert" and Edith Scott Kitchen. Samuel Kitchen, M. D. born in Ancaster, Wentworth County, Ontario in 1832. Samuel was the son of Henry and Mary McNulty Kitchen. Henry, though of New Jersey parentage, was also born in Canada in 1809. Samuel was a physician, having received training at the Normal School in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and the State University in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He served as an Assistant Surgeon in the United States Army and was stationed at Lookout Mountain; Knoxville, Tennessee; Chicago, Illinois, and finally in Saginaw, Michigan where, after years of public service, he developed a private medical practice. He married Miss Mary Macy in 1872 in Warren County, Ohio. There have been a great variety of trades and professions represented in the Kitchen family. Governors, physicians, firefighters, lawyers, congressmen, farmers, ministers, carpenters, merchandisers, businessmen, laborers, bookkeepers, electricians, engineers, welders, millwrights, missionaries, and teachers are only a few to mention and help to demonstrate clearly, the diversity of paths chosen by family members. Of the numerous, Coats of Arms belonging to the Kitchen family of England, it seems that the most ancient and most frequently used is the following: ARMS - Kitchen, per chevron argent and sable, three water bougets counterchanged. CREST - Kitchen, is an arm in armour embowed, issuing from a cloud in the sinister, holding a sword, all proper. In addition to the Kitchen Coat of Arms, there is also a Kitchin Coat, also belonging to the family. It is described as follows: ARMS - Kitchin, Argent on a pile azure between two crosses, crosslet gules, and eagle displayed of the field. CREST - Kitchin, a pelican's head erased azure beaked or vulned gules. The above descriptions for the Coat of Arms may be referenced in the "Burke, General Armory, 1884". This chapter has hopefully introduced some relevant information about the origin of the Kitchen family and its' foundation in England. The challenge, in the following chapters, is to present relevant and factual information about my specific Kitchen family.
The Kitchen Family: A Connection to LancashireAccording to several biographical sketches written about various members of the Kitchen family, 1779 marks the date of emigration for Richard Kitchen. In addition, there are some family legends and recollections that Richard came to America in that year from the Manchester or Lancashire area of England. Richard Kitchen is believed to be the first of his immediate family to arrive in America, thus implying that there were more family members to follow. A biographical sketch of Jonathan Sellers Kitchen, published in the Representative Citizens of Ohio and written by Frederick Wright in 1913, stated that, "Richard Kitchen came from England about the close of the revolution and settled in Adams County, Pennsylvania. One of his brothers located in the State of New York and the other brother in Southern Virginia." I did, however, find one reference marking Richard's emigration as 1750. To the extent that nearly all the research supports an emigration near the close of the Revolutionary War, we should accept the date of 1779. In an effort to resolve the emigration issues surrounding Richard, I asked a genealogist to perform specific research in England. It was important to learn as much as possible about the Richard Kitchen family in England and something about the area and its history. The research was performed by Mrs. Olive Teale, 7A Skerton House, Lancaster, LA1 2BQ, England between 1980 and 1982. Mrs. Teale was recommended by the Central Library at St. Peter's Square in Manchester, M2 5PD, England. Though the library was very helpful and provided some information, they suggested that this research should be done by Mrs. Teale. This referral was made on March 12, 1980. In addition, a great measure of work was also performed by Claire Wells, 2226 Hollywood Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108. Ms. Wells, admitting that "jumping the ocean" from America to the early English homes was difficult, was able to develop the connection between Richard Kitchen and Clitheroe, in Lancashire. Because it seemed like such a good possibility, she completed an extensive amount of research and in a letter dated May 7, 1980, stated that, " the study should accept that the Richard Kitchen of Clitheroe was our proper connection to England". At this time, Olive Teale became more involved in the study and research of the Kitchen family in Lancashire. According to the Clitheroe Parish records, Richard Kitchen was Christened on June 10, 1734 which would have made him 45 years of age when he came to America in 1779. According to the 1800 United States Census for Pennsylvania, Richard was reported as a resident of Adams County with an age of 45 years or more. This would establish his birth at a date before 1755. Also, his death occurred in 1810 which would have made him seventy-six years of age. This data also helps to support the research and recommendations of Teale and Wells. There is no evidence that Richard Kitchen had a family of his own or even a marriage while residing in England. Also, the absence of an indenture agreement indicates that his voyage to America would have been done as a single and free man. In order to evaluate all options, I reviewed the Christening records of Lancashire, England for all children named Richard Kitchen. The earliest record is April 17, 1586 when Richardus Kitchine, the son of Thomas and Sarah Eccles Kitchine is Christened. In 1630, in the town and parish of Wood Plumpton where a large number of Kitchen family members resided, Edward Kitchen Christened his son, Richard. To make my review more relevant to my own forefather, I limited my search to Christenings prior to 1755, as the Pennsylvania census data confirms his birth as occurring prior to that date. In order to accomodate a reasonable assumption for life span, I went no further back than 1710. His death occurred in 1810, therefore his age would likely have been less than one hundred years, and more like seventy-five years. The following are the results of this search: Parish Christening Records, Lancashire County, England, 1710 to 1755 Richard Kitchen Date Parents Location March 4, 1710 Robert Kitchen Poulton LeFylde December 28, 1715 Richard Kitchen Garstang August 12, 1722 John Kitchen Wood Plumpton May 31, 1724 John Kitchen Poulton LeFylde March 5, 1726 Edward Kitchen Wood Plumpton June 10, 1734 Henry and Clitheroe Elizabeth Kitchen October 6, 1734 Jonathan and Mary Warrington Kitchen February 15, 1736 John Kitchen St. Mary's, Lancaster September 29, 1745 John and Rose King Over Wyresdale Kitching Richard Kitchen's parents were Henry and Elizabeth Coulthurst Kitchen. Both Henry and Elizabeth are very common family names and also help to satisfy the connection. Henry was a "carrier" by trade and was in Clitheroe his entire life. He was Christened on April 15, 1705 and was the son of Richard Kitchen, a husbandman, or farmer, of Horrocksford. Horrocksford was a pasture area next to Clitheroe in Lancashire. Soon after Henry's Christening, a brother, Roger was entered in the parish transcripts as Christened on January 11, 1710 as the son of Richard Kitchen of Clitheroe. This record not only reveals information about a brother, but also that Richard moved from the Horrocksford Pasture area to Clitheroe between 1705 and 1710. Henry was Christened on March 21, 1679, the son of Roger Kitchen of Clitheroe. Accordingly, the Kitchen family had evident and deep roots in Clitheroe. Roger also had another son Christened on March 10, 1677 in Clitheroe whose name was Edward. These names clearly repeat themselves throughout the generations. Based on this information, the lineage of the family is likely to be as follows: Roger Kitchen, who was born in Clitheroe about 1650, and had at least three children. Their names were: Edward Kitchen, who was born in 1677; Henry Kitchen, who was born in 1679; and Richard Kitchen, who was born in 1679 or 1680. He had at least two sons who were named Henry and Roger. They were born in 1705 and 1710 respectively. Henry, born in 1705, married Elizabeth Coulthurst. They are the parents of my emigrant ancestor and great great great great grandfather, Richard Kitchen, who was born in 1734 and came to America in 1779. The following is a record of the transcripts from the Clitheroe Parish in Lancashire, England: CLITHEROE CHRISTENINGS Richard Kitchinge, March 21, 1679, a son of Roger Kitchinge; John Kitchen, May 19, 1719, a son of Richard Kitchen; Roger Kitchen, May 6, 1723, a son of Richard Kitchen; Henry Kitchen, April 15, 1705, a son of Richard Kitchen, husbandman, of Horrocksford; Roger Kitchen, January 11, 1710, a son of Richard Kitchen; Mary Kitchen, May 12, 1714, a daughter of Richard Kitchen; Elizabeth Kitchen, March 23, 1731/32, illegitimate daughter of Catharine Kitchen; John Kitchen, April 9, 1732, son of Henry and Elizabeth Kitchen, a "carrier" from Whalley, (which is approximately three miles from Clitheroe); Richard Kitchen, born June 10, 1734, a son of Henry and Elizabeth Kitchen, a "carrier" of Clitheroe; Mary Kitchen, October 10, 1736, a daughter of Henry and Elizabeth Kitchen, a "carrier"of Clitheroe; Major Kitchen, March 11, 1738/9, a son of Henry and Elizabeth Kitchen, a Carrier of Clitheroe; Major Kitchen, March 5, 1740/1, a son of Henry (deceased), and Elizabeth Kitchen. This last entry of Major Kitchen reveals that the date of death of Henry was around 1740. It also shows that Major was a "second" born son of the same given name which is not at all uncommon when the name is shared with a deceased sibling. CLITHEROE MARRIAGES Henry Kitchen, a "carrier," and Elizabeth Coulthurst, both of Clitheroe on June 28, 1731. (A "carrier" was noted as a person owning a horse or donkey with a cart who "carried" suitable goods and letters to others. Perhaps similar in function to the United Parcel or Letter Carrier service of today.); Richard Kitchen and Jennit Page, both residents of Clitheroe on February 19, 1709; . Edward Kitchen, a slater (roofer), and Agnes Allen, a spinster (single) of Slaidburn. CLITHEROE BURIALS Major Kitchen, son of Henry and Elizabeth Kitchen, burial recorded as February 22, 1740/1; Henry Kitchen, of Clitheroe on January 14, 1740/1; Major Kitchen, Son of Henry and Elizabeth Kitching of Clitheroe, August 16, 1743; John Kitching of Clitheroe on May 16, 1745; Elizabeth, wife of Henry Kitching, on July 27, 1745; Child (Kitchen), Child of Roger Kitchen, of Woollen, burial recorded as March 26, 1680; Roger Kitchen, of Siddals, on March 12, 1687; Mary Kitchen, relict or widow of Roger Kitchen, an Agriculturalist of Siddals, burial on November 2, 1725; Elizabeth Kitchen, daughter of Richard Kitchen, burial recorded as on December 9, 1719; Richard Kitchen, an agriculturalist from Clitheroe, buried on October 17, 1727; Roger Kitchen, a tailor from Hollings, buried March 1, 1730; Jennet Kitchen, the relict (widow) of Richard Kitchen of Clitheroe, buried January 12, 1731; Ann Kitchen, wife of Edward Kitchen, a Mason of Clitheroe, burial date of July 28, 1733. There are also transcripts from the Clitheroe Parish on the Coulthurst family, who relate through Henry Kitchen's marriage to Elizabeth Coulthurst, on June 28, 1731. These records include the following: John Coulthurst, son of Major Coulthurst, a Clitheroe tailor, Christened March 21, 1706; Elizabeth Coulthurst, daughter of Major Coulthurst, a Clitheroe tailor, Christened September 19, 1708; . Jane Coulthurst, daughter of Major Coulthurst, a Clitheroe tailor, Christened October 7, 1711; James Coulthurst, son of Major Coulthurst, a Clitheroe tailor, Christened November 28, 1714; Robert Coulthurst, son of Major Coulthurst, a Clitheroe tailor, Christened July 28, 1716; Major Coulthurst married Arabella Dopson of Clitheroe on June 21, 1705; Arabella Dopson Coulthurst, wife of Major Coulthurst of Clitheroe, buried on January 24, 1763; Major Coulthurst of Clitheroe, burial recorded as January 3, 1767. In addition to the above entries, there were several other Richard Kitchen records from St. Peter's Church in Liverpool. CHRISTENINGS AT ST. PETER'S CHURCH, LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND August 2, 1761, Richard the son of Richard Kitchen; August 14, 1763, Richard the son of Richard Kitchen; February 23, 1766, Richard the son of Richard Kitchen; December 20, 1767, Nanny the daughter of Richard; March 23, 1766, Thomas the son of Richard Kitchen. According to Olive Teale, there is no further evidence of the Kitchen family in Clitheroe. She said, "they probably came from a place just over the border in Yorkshire, as Clitheroe is on the Yorkshire border." Though she offered to research further in Yorkshire, I redirected my focus to Richard in America. Other records of significance are those found in the various immigration lists and ship records. Though there has not been a Richard Kitchen, specifically tied to the Clitheroe area, there have been several records located worth recording. On page 131 of the "Emigrants from England 1773-1776" by Fothergill, there is a report of a Richard Kitcher, age 36, as a passenger landing in Baltimore, Maryland. The spelling is very close to "Kitchen," and could merely be a transcription error or penmanship issue. The year of entry differs from family legend and biographical sketches which report the landing as 1779. Also, Baltimore was not the location of Richard Kitchen's early settlement in America. The earliest records show him residing in New Jersey, where he also became married. An immigrant could certainly have traveled from Baltimore to that area upon arrival, however, the date of birth for Richard would be 1739, according to the age reported in the record, not 1734, as determined through research of the Clitheroe Parish records. This same entry was found on page 354 of the "Passengers to America" by Tepper. In a publication summarizing many of these passenger lists, the same Richard Kitcher, was noted as a "redemptioner" going from London to Maryland on a ship, the "Jane." The terms of his passage were documented by the ship record and stated that the Captain would receive a dollar sum for their passage, however, in the event the sum could not be paid, they would be disposed to work for the Captain for a stated number of years. Richard was reported to be a mason, aged 35, departing England between January 24 and 30, 1775. Again, it is unlikely that there is a connection, based on trade, port of entry, date of departure, and age. Another passenger list includes a Richard Kitchen who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749. This was published in a "List of Settlers Who Came Out With Governor Cornwall," by Akins. Richard, the son of Henry and Elizabeth, would have been fifteen years of age at the time of this landing in Nova Scotia. Nugent writes in his, "Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume Three," that a Richard Kitchen came to Virginia in 1699. In 1683 a Rich Kichin landed in Maryland. This was published in "Some Early Emigrants to America 1683-84", by Wareing. Having established, with certainty that the Kitchen family's nativity is England and with some very strong likelihood a linkage to Clitheroe, an overview of the area is important in attempting to understand the people. Many people of England think that the oldest surviving building or monument in Clitheroe is its castle, but in reality, the oldest trace of man's work is buried under the layers of centuries. Specifically, it is the Roman Road that passed through Clitheroe on its way from Chester, across the River Mersey to Manchester. From Manchester, the road goes on to Ribehester, north of Blackburn and through Clitheroe into Yorkshire. After passing through Ilkley, it finally ends in York. Chester and York still have their Roman walls, but the other cities through which the road passed, do not. There are various references to the "Gates" on the road. Examples include Castlegate, Moorgate, Wellgate, and Marketgate. Historians have concluded that these "gates" provided access to the towns that were walled or somehow secured within these stone enclosures in these very early days. Many people know that the Romans conquered the early British and brought their culture and civilization to England. What many people do not realize is that they also brought their skill in building. They engineered and constructed the roads, the foundations of which are still being followed today. In addition to roads, they also built forts and living places which had never been seen before in England. In the main cities, a person can still see the remains of the floors of the dwelling places, complete with under floor heating. The baths were built around natural springs. Unfortunately, the Romans had to hurry back to their homeland after only a century in England. There was much turmoil in their land and the Roman Power was beginning to wane. Britain was then left to the marauding Picts, Scots, Danes and their own internal squabbles. In 1066 the Normans came to England. When William of Normandy beat Harold at the Battle of Hastings, William allotted or granted to his highly placed supporters, certain tracts of land. The land located between the River Ribble and Lune was granted to "Roger" of Poitou , or Roger de Poictou, who had strongly supported his leader, William of Normandy. It is known that "Roger" moved the center of government from Blackburn to Cliderheu (Clitheroe). He set up his court and built his castle upon the rock at that location. It is interesting to note the use of "Roger" as a given name in the Kitchen family. At this time, a great survey of the whole land was being taken and the results were being recorded in the Domesday Book. This book can be viewed in the Records Office Museum, in London. The Lord, "Roger," and those that followed him had their own large farms with an overseer. The overseers of these small farmlands had to produce the crops to maintain those residing in the castle. The peasants, or villeins, were given just enough land to produce for their own family, yet they still had to work on their Lord's estate. They also gave a portion of their produce to their Lord for his Storehouse and also to the Priest of the Parish. A Chapel was included inside the walls of the Castle at Clitheroe. It was the Chapel of St. Michael. When the church was built, it was dedicated to St. Mary. Clitheroe itself was four miles long and about half that distance crossed Horrocksford's big pasture at the northern tip and Pendelton Brook at the south. There were, as a matter of necessity, the various tradesmen needed to have a thriving community. The smith at the forge made armor, weapons, and tools for the land. There were also arrow smiths, bowyers, and fletchers. There was the skinner, who sold skin to the tanner, who in turn sold the leather product to the shoemakers. There were also carpenters, potters, and very important were the millers, bakers and brewers. Also, we must not forget the fishermen. In these times, the rivers were teeming with fish and they were a very important food product. Trappers caught the small animals for meat consumption. The Lords and their Courtiers, did a lot of hunting for the larger animals, using their bow and arrows. There were a great many forests in those days and the entire population of England was only about two million. The census was kept relatively low for a few centuries, as a result of the plagues of disease that ripped through their homeland from time to time. It was the different invaders who would bring new disease into their country, such as the leprosy that was seen after the Norman invasion. Having established that one of my forefathers in England was Henry Kitchen, the Carrier, I attempted to learn more about this as an occupation. Heavy goods could not be taken by the coaches and were conveyed by numerous carriers. The Hopwoods, better known as Hoppits, at one time were the sole carriers to Burnley, Blackburn, and Preston. These communities were near Clitheroe. Other carriers began to appear in the area and they included Nathaniel Baldwin, a mussel hawker, of Burnley and Billy Hobbs who went to Lancaster through the Trough of Rowland. Hobbs resided in a house on Moor Lane, where an ironmonger, Mr. Sowerbutts, later lived. William and John Warner also carried four days a week to Preston. Sometimes prisoners were also transported by the carriers. An interesting sight would have been the "Lime Gals", or Galloways which used to come through the Nick of Pendle by the way of Sabden. They carried sacks of coal and slate in and returned with sacks of lime. There were several strings of them, perhaps ten to twelve, consisting of rough Highland ponies and a few donkeys. The post office was also dependant on carriers. This dates back to one of the earliest post offices in the area which was founded by Mr. Henry Whalley. The post office was managed by the Whalley family for several generations and is the site of present day Whalley in Lancashire, England. It is interesting to note that our Kitchen family "carrier" of Clitheroe who lived very near Whalley, was also named Henry. The same trades and occupations were followed for centuries. The wool of the sheep was gathered and spun, woven into cloth for the homespun garments. Only the rich could afford to have their garments made by a tailor, which was the most prevalent trade of the Coulthurst family. The rich would have silks and cottons which were imported into the country. Shoes for the peasants were wooden, with leather being reserved for the rich. There were several grammar schools in the county at the time of Edward the VI and education was beginning to be a prized commitment by most of the leading citizens. The grammar school was built in Clitheroe in 1588 and was a tudor building of wood and plaster. In 1782, the building was replaced by one of stone and can supposedly be seen today on the old grammar school grounds. There was also much fighting between the Royalist and the Roundheads of Oliver Cromwell. Many of the Priests and Ministers had to go into hiding until the return of Charles II. Great progress was made in the 1700's and 1800's as building projects developed for the great roads and great canals that were being cut into existence. The Industrial Age was emerging and new businesses were starting. As spinning and weaving of wool and linen became more prevalent, mills were set up in Clitheroe. In 1782 a mill was located at the Low Moor and Edisford and was a five-story building with spinning, reeling, and roving frames. These were driven by the water wheel until James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny. Inventions, such as the jenny, began to put many people out of work and there were times of great hardship. Even though the years of trade and employment became more controlled, Clitheroe became a typical Lancashire town of various industries, that had to endure the bad times and loss of jobs to technologies. Perhaps it was these times and the lack of gainful employment opportunity that led Richard Kitchen to leave his native England, and Clitheroe in Lancashire, for opportunities available in America. It was the English Genealogist, Mrs. Olive Teale, who believed that Richard Kitchen would have left Clitheroe and made a one day journey by canal to Liverpool for his passage to America. It also seems clear, that economic opportunities in Lancashire were eroding, thus creating a motivation to seek voyage to the "New World".