Descendants of Augustus Raymond
Augustus Raymond, son of Mead Raymond (1785-1843) and Ann Chapman (1785-1830), born 27 Sep 1821 1 at Camberwell, London, Surrey, England, christened 4 Jan 1822 1 Christ Church, Southwark, London, England; died 18 Jan 1877 6 Sydney, NSW, Australia, buried Old Church of England section of Rookwood Cemetery (section E, row 10). There were issue from his first and second marriages.
He married (1) on 1 Feb 1849 10 in St. Giles Parish Church, Camberwell, Surrey, Sarah Terrey Sumerfield, christened 28 Jul 1824 1 Saint John the Baptist, Croydon, Surrey, England; died 25 May 1850 64 at Kensington, South Australia, aged 25 years, daughter of Thomas Benjamin Sumerfield and Sarah Terrey.
He married (2) on 2 Jun 1856 3 at Pola Creek, Macleay River, NSW, Australia, Catherine Dornan née Laverty, born 1821, Ballynahinch, Magheradrool Parish, County Down, Ireland 37 ; died 1 Apr 1866 Macleay River, NSW, Australia; buried Frederickton Cemetery, widow of Charles Dornan and daughter of Michael Laverty (ca. 1798-1877) and Ann Boyd (ca. 1792-1867).
He married (3) on 19 Dec 1867 4 at Pola Creek, Macleay River, Margaret Chambers née Mackay, born 1820 Aberdeen, Scotland, Chr. 1 Dec 1820 54 Aberdeen; died 8 Feb 1887 47 West Kempsey, Macleay River, NSW, Australia; buried West Kempsey Cemetery, widow of James Chambers (ca. 1811 - 1864) and daughter of Angus Mackay (1795-1894) and his first wife Jane Clark who married in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1815.
Augustus (left) and Catherine (right) Raymond cemetery headstones 8
English Ancestry & Early History
The history and genealogy in London of the family of Augustus Raymond (1821-1877) is detailed on the linked web page. At the 1841 census of England Augustus was listed in his father's household at Paradise Street, Rotherhithe, located on the south side of the river Thames about one and a half kilometres east of Tower Bridge, with his father Mead, his two sisters Elizabeth and Ann Dorothy (Mrs. John Gould), and two female domestic servants. 30. The other immediate family members absent were elder brother Mead Terrey (1817-1866), who married in 1839 and at the census was living in Camberwell, and his mother Ann née Chapman who died eleven years earlier 31.
An Australian family legend that when he was young he worked as a boatman on the river Thames is confirmed by his occupation in the 1841 census and by the apprenticeship binding records of the Honourable Company of Watermen and Lightermen. The 1841 census listed the occupation of his father Mead as lighterman and his as an apprentice lighterman. Lighterman apprenticeships usually began at fourteen years of age, with the apprentice bound to their master for seven years, receiving a provisional license after two years and a full license and freedom from his master five years later. Both Augustus and his elder brother Mead Terrey completed apprenticeships under their father Mead as master. Mead Terrey was fourteen when he began his lighterman appenticeship and Augustus fifteen. Thus Augustus had the benefit of one year more formal schooling than was usual. He was bound on 14 Oct 1836 at Camberwell and completed the apprenticeship on 9 March 1843 only a few months before his father's July that year death. Under the five page will dated 28 Feb. 1840 he came into full inheritance of his share of the estate on 27 September that same year when he turned twenty-two - the day before the will was probated. Five weeks after receiving his full license he had an apprentice bound to himself as master on 13 Apr 1843 at Rotherhithe where the Raymond & Son business was located at ‘Raymond's Wharf’ 33.
By completing lighterman apprenticeships and becoming ‘Tradesmen of the Thames’ Mead's two sons Mead Terry and Augustus were following in his footsteps by becoming fully licensed lightermen and, in those of their Raymond grandfather John who completed his lighterman apprenticeship in 1779, and a great grandfather Joseph Mead from whom the Mead family given name came who died in 1796 and was also a licenced lighterman.
When giving evidence in a case tried at the Old Bailey in 1819, regarding an employee accused of stealing, Augustus' father Mead said quote - "I am in partnership with John Raymond; we are lightermen and wharfingers" (i.e. the transporters of cargo to and from ships and wharf owners or operators). However it is apparent from directory listings the partnership of Mead and his brother John was dissolved in the latter part of the 1830s with from then each brother operating their own business - John from the Clink Street wharf and warehouse premises that the partnership operated from at the time of the 1819 court case, and Mead initially from Bargehouse Street and later from "Raymond's Wharf" situated further downstream at Rotherhithe adjoining the Thames Tunnel only a short walk from Paradise Street where by the time of the 1841 census he was residing.
The building of bridges and roads and development of steam tugs and trains challenged the traditional role of lightermen who used barges and the tide to transport cargo to and from ships causing many to diversify to remain viable. The dissolution of the John & Mead partnership saw Mead branch out into building and repairing of barges and boats and it would have been in that side of the business that Augustus acquired the carpentry and joinery skills he later was to employ in Australia. In so doing he was following in the footsteps of his Chapman grandfather William whose 1815 executed will gave his occupation as a carpenter. A 1841 London directory listed Mead Sr. as a barge builder at No. 49 Rotherhithe Street and a lighterman at 1 Bargehouse Street. When Mead died in 1843 the business was listed in a directory for that year as - ‘RAYMOND, MEAD & SON, barge builders, wharfingers and lightermen, Rotherhithe Wharf, adjoining Thames Tunnel, Rotherhithe’ 30. As the directory would have been compiled in late 1842 before Augustus completed the apprenticeship the "son" would have been then 25 year old Mead Terrey. By the time of the 1846 Post Office London Directory it was listed as - ‘RAYMOND, MEAD & CO., boat and barge builders, wharfingers and lightermen, Raymond's Wharf, 50 Rotherhithe Street, Rotherhithe’ 29.
By the 1850s the firm of Mead Raymond & Co. was no longer listed in London directories indicating it had closed or had been sold outside the family and the name changed. Thus its continuation by Augustus and his four years older brother Mead Terrey lasted for less than a decade after their father's death. Mead Terrey was last listed having an apprentice bound to him as master on 13 Feb 1845 who completed the apprenticeship on 11 Mar 1852 33. However he must have been mostly out of the business by 1851 as that year's census taken on 30th March gave his occupation as ‘publisher and managing clerk’. By 1854 Mead Terrey was clearly in serious financial difficulties. Early in 1855 bankruptcy proceedings were instigated against him and his partner who were trading as W. Riddell & Co - merchants, commission agents, dealers and chapmen (a chapman was one whose business was to buy and sell goods or other things) resulting in both being declared bankrupt later that year. A point of interest is that in 1849 Mead Terry bestowed ‘Riddell’ as a second given name on a son born in June Quarter that year indicating his involvement with William Riddell was well established at least six years before the bankruptcy proceedings were instigated. When Mead Terry died in 1866 at 49 years of age his will probate gave his occupation as ‘accountant’ and his effects were valued at less than £100. It seems early in 1853 he was very anxious to contact Augustus as an advertisment seemingly placed by him addressed to Mr Augustus Raymond appeared in the Sydney newspaper the Empire on 18 April 1853 advising that letters from his brother in England awaited him at both the Adelaide and Sydney post offices 65.
When Augustus married for the first time in 1849 the registration record gave his late father's occupation as lighterman. When he married for second time in Australia in 1856 the record had it as a corn factor (i.e. a middleman in corn dealings). In respect of the Raymond brothers acting as corn factors a 1820 London directory listed the business as "J & M Raymond, cornfactors and lightermen, Clink Street, Southwark". The 1815 will of Augustus' grandfather William Chapman had corn-lighterman as the occupation of both Mead Sr. and his older brother John indicating in its early years the J & M Raymond partnership specialised in the transport of that commodity - others such as coal-lightermen specialised in the transport of coal and some became coal-factors and members of the coal exchange. In regard to corn storage the partnership's warehouses and granaries at Clink Street were stated in a 1823 newspaper advertisement to have a capacity to quote ‘receive 2000 quarters of corn’ - i.e. to hold 16,000 bushels (406 metric tonnes) 68. After the 1850 death of Mead's brother John his eldest son William carried on his father's business as a lighterman and granary keeper and two years before William's death the 1871 census had his occupation as ‘granary keeper’. From his marriage in 1849 until his death in 1891 the youngest of John's three sons Alfred Mead was a corn factor with offices in the city of London and membership of the Corn Exchange. However after the dissolution of the J & M Raymond partnership in the latter part of 1830s there is no evidence Augustus's father Mead acted as a corn factor or had any involvement in corn storage although in a limited way he may have continued to act as a factor using his brother's granary at Clink Street for storage of the grain. His 1840 will and the 1841 census gave Mead's occupation as "lighterman" indicating he regarded that as his main occupation - it being that for which he served a seven year apprenticeship from 29 May 1800 to 16 Jul 1807 33.
Indicative of the Raymond brothers standing in the river Thames cargo transport industry is that both Augustus's uncle John and his eldest son William served terms as the Master (also known as the Ruler) of the Honourable Company of Waterman and Lightermen that administered the apprenticeship schemes, licensed both watermen and lightermen, and generally administered and regulated the industry of the transport of cargo and passengers upon the river Thames - John as the Master in 1840 and son William in 1859.
Six years after completing his lighterman apprenticeship Augustus married Sarah Terrey Sumerfield in London in February 1849. In respect of Sarah's second given name of Terrey, it being her mother's maiden surname, it seems possible she was a second cousin to Augustus - i.e. that perhaps Augustus' grandmother Ann Chapman (1748-1826), if her maiden surname was Terrey, and Sarah Terrey Sumerfield's grandfather were brother and sister resulting in Augustus and his wife having a common "Terrey" great grandfather. The bestowing by both Augustus' father Mead and his uncle John of "Terry" as a second given name on one of their children suggests the unknown maiden surname of Augustus' grandmother on his mother's Chapman side may have been Terry or Terrey. The second given name of Augustus' brother was recorded spelt as Terry when he was baptised but had changed to the variant of Terrey by the time he married in 1839 suggesting it was the correct spelling.
At the time Augustus married Sarah Sumerfield she was residing in York Grove, which was the same street in Camberwell where his brother Mead was residing two years later at the time of the April 1851 census, and the locality where Augustus was born in Sept. 1821. The marriage record gave the occupation of Sarah's father Thomas Sumerfield as a ‘coal merchant’. A Sun Fire Office insurance policy on premises at Whites Row, Spitalfields dated in December of the year Sarah was born had as its joint holders coal dealers Thomas Benjamin Sumerfield and James Eversfield. No person of the Sumerfield surname was listed in the 1846 Post Office London Directory and, as the last four of Sarah's nine known siblings were baptised in Glamorgan in Wales, the last being in 1833, it is possible at the time of her 1849 London marriage to Augustus her parents were still based in Wales or elsewhere than London.
When Augustus married for the second time in 1856 at Macleay River in New South Wales his status was given as a widower. Subsequently at his instigation a correction was made to the official registration record stating that instead of seven children there were no living issue of his previous marriage. Until research by an Augustus descendant disclosed otherwise the family legend was that his first wife died on the voyage to Australia 2. However such was not the case. Six weeks after they married in London Augustus and Sarah emigrated to South Australia departing London on 13 March 1849 on the Posthumous and arriving at Port Adelaide in South Australia on 20 June 1849 after a voyage lasting just over three months 66. Sarah died eleven months later on 24 May 1850 at Kensington in Adelaide after 5 days earlier giving birth to a daughter Sarah Terrey who was born on 19 May 1850 at Kensington and died 5 weeks later on 24 June 1850 64.
Augustus was not the only member of the Raymond family of Southwark to emigrate to Australia in the 18th century. Erskine Raymond (1870-1952) a grandson of Augustus' first cousin William Chapman Raymond (1814-1873) emigrated to New South Wales before 1900 where he enlisted in the NSW Citizens' Bushmen Regiment and fought in the Anglo-Boer War in South Africa. At the legendary Siege of Elands River he took a bullet through the shoulder and was likely the first of the Australian soldiers to be wounded at that engagement. He subsequently moved to Western Australia where he was a wheat harvesting contractor, returned to England for a period, spent time in Thailand, and was in Malaya or Singapore in 1942 working for the War Department when Singapore fell to the Japanese and he was interned for the duration in the infamous Changi Gaol in Singapore. Erskine, and one other named Grey who served with the Imperial Light Horse and was an architect/engineer in Hong Kong, have the distinction of being the only known Boer War veterans to have survived Japanese internment in WW II 61.
Occupations in England
Apart from in London having been a licenced lighterman employed in the family business, who would have acquired his carpentry and joiner skills in the boat and barge building side of that business, nothing specific is known of the occupations followed by Augustus during the six year period between the death of his father in July 1843, when he inherited a half-share of the boat and barge building and river Thames cargo transport business, and his departure for Australia in March 1849. It is apparent at some time during those years he changed his occupation. His brother Mead Terry changed his from lighterman to accountant, and a first cousin John Raymond who had started out as an apprentice lighterman with Augustus' father Mead changed his to study law at the Middle Temple and became a barrister, and of John's two brothers who both completed lighterman apprenticeships one after marrying become a corn factor and member of the Corn Exchange in the City of London.
A 1914 published article on the family history and business activities at Bowraville of Augustus' second born son Samuel who died in 1942 mentioned his father had quote been -- "educated in the ministry (Church of England)" and had discontinued his studies after concluding he was not suited to that vocation. Taken at face value the veracity of the claim is very questionable. After abandoning religious studies the article had him as emigrating to the colony of NSW when aged twenty-two or three when in fact he was twenty- seven when he left London and initially emigrated to South Australia. It made no mention of the lighterman apprenticeship he began at fifteen years of age and completed when almost twenty-two that seemingly thereafter he would have continued for at least a few years as his occupation as the records show a John Field Roberts was apprenticed to him in 1843. It seems likely the religious studies claim in the article arose from a misinterpretation or garbling of fact by Samuel such such as that when young in London, before beginning the lighterman apprenticeship, he attended a church school where he studied the bible and had then for a time considered the ministry as a possible vocation.
After becoming a master lighterman in 1843, if in fact the only change of occupation before he emigrated was to undertake subsequently abandoned religious studies, such would contradict the Feb 1849 registration record of his marriage to Sarah Sumerfield that gave his occupation as an "engineer" indicating by study and practical experience he had become sufficiently knowledgeable with the operation and maintenance of machinery and steam engines to give that as his occupation 10. Because of his lighterman tradesman qualification and, accordingly a detailed knowledge of the regulations and conditions on the river Thames such as the seasonal force of the tide and depths at various places as they altered with the tide etc., it may be he spent some time as an engineer on a steam tug or a passenger boat operating on the Thames. It was thought a possible explanation might be that Raymond, Mead & Co. acquired a steam tug on which he was the engineer. However a search of the records of steamboat ownership for 1846 to 1848 found no record of a registration or an ownership under his or his brother's name or under the names of Raymond, Mead & Co. or W. Riddell & Co so if such was the case he must have been employed by another entity 39. In any event, in addition to practical experience, it is likely he attended evening lecture courses at the London Mechanics Insitute founded in 1823 with the aim of instructing its members "in the principles of the arts they practise and in the various branches of science and useful knowledge" then located in Chancery Lane in Holborn that also had a members lending library 75.
Occupations in Australia
Eight months after his marriage in London his change of occupation to "engineer" is confirmed by the published record of proceedings in a libel case heard from 8 to 11th October 1849 in the South Australian Supreme Court. As a witness for the plaintiff Augustus gave his occupation as "engineer" and stated that for the last four months he had been the manager of the Forest Iron and Steam Saw Works situated on section 1118 at Cox's Creek in the Adelaide Hills. As he only arrived in Adelaide from London on the 20th June it is implied he became the manager of the then still under construction sawmill immediately after arrival and is suggestive he could have been engaged as the manager before leaving London. In evidence he described the sawmilling undertaking as comprising "about twenty buildings - workshops, dwelling houses for the men, &c". Indicative of the size of the operation, then by far the largest sawmill in the colony that installed the highest horsepower steam engine in the colony to power the circular and vertical saws, is that two months later he placed the below advertisement in the South Australian newspaper of 12 Dec 1849 seeking to employ 25 teams each of 8 bullocks for six months to cart sawn timber to Adelaide.
However his employment as manager was not to last and had likely ceased before June 1850, the month his wife Sarah died followed by their infant daughter four weeks later, when the then apparently non-operational sawmill and adjoining heavily timbered lands were put up for auction with thereafter the mill remaining idle or operating at a low output until the land and plant etc. were again auctioned on 22 Sept 1852 and after the auction leased by Adelaide timber merchant Thomas Haynes Viney (1811-1896). After re-commissioning in 1852 by Viney the sawmill continued operating until about 1860 when it is said the enterprise failed.
On section 1118 where the sawmill once stood in 1925 the Mount Lofty Golf Club was established whose name was changed in 2013 to the Stirling Golf Club. It is a picturesque 18-hole golf course and on the north-west part of section 1118 is situated the South Australian Scouts Association's Woodhouse Activity Centre. At the link is a history of the sawmill, ascertained from newspapers, published histories, and biographies of its owner George Milner Stephen (1812-1894), a barrister-at-law and former Acting Governor of South Australia who later in life believed he had the ability and practised as a faith healer. Likewise to John Raymond, a first cousin of Augustus who in 1838 was admitted to the Middle Temple in London to study and practice to become a barrister, G. M. Stephen was admitted four years later to membership of the same Inn of Court - a co-incidence that may explain how Augustus whilst still in his twenties and straight off the boat from England was able to secure a position for which he seemingly had no obvious qualification other than having gained a knowledge of machinery and steam engines sufficient to classify himself an "engineer". Confirming he lacked the experience to manage such a large start-up sawmilling and timber supply business is that on the second occasion the opertation was offered for sale by auction on 22 Sep 1852 the sale advertisement stated that during a four month trial of its capabilities it had been managed - "by persons quite inexperienced in the management of such an establishment".
Capenter and Joiner
The next mention noted of an occupation followed by Augustus was in Sydney in June 1851 when he gave evidence at a magisterial inquiry held to determine whether a Police Inspector should be dismissed for alleged drunkenness whilst on duty in Pitt-street on the night of the 24 May 1851 Queen's Birthday holiday. At the 3 June 1851 held inquiry Augustus gave his occupation as "cabinetmaker" and stated he had "been three months in Sydney" indicating an approximate February 1851 date of arrival there 67. No record has been noted of him on passenger lists of coasters arriving at Sydney from Adelaide or Melbourne. When he married for the second time at Macleay River in 1856 the registration record similarly had carpenter and joiner as his ocupation. Twenty years later when living at Dale Street (today named Balfour Street) in Chippendale in Sydney he was listed in the 1876 Sydney Sands Directory as a carpenter and the next year his official death registration also had carpenter as his occupation.
The earliest mentions noted of Augustus farming in NSW are in the 1914 published article on his son Samuel linked to in the 'Occupations in England' section above. The article recounted that before he arrived at Macleay River, where it is stated he grew high yield crops of maize in the vicinity of Frederickton and Pola Creek, he had "put his hand to the plough elsewhere". There is no knowledge of where the "elsewhere" was and no record of him owning land at or near Frederickton although he could have leased land in that area. From the time of his 1856 marriage at Pola Creek to widow Catherine Dornan née Laverty until 1869 when he moved to Bowraville all records sighted have his address as Pola Creek where her Sept. 1854 purchased farm was located on the opposite side of the river to Frederickton. Following Catherine's 1866 death Pola Creek was given as his address in notifications in newspapers and in the NSW Government Gazette in 1867 and 1868 in connection with the administration of her estate and in 1869 re the registration of his horse brand.
A twenty-nine acre Macleay River farm he purchased at a Crown Lands auction in March 1859 was located at Summer Island in Cooroobongatti parish on the northern side of the river almost opposite Kinchela and about 11 kl down river from Frederickton 69. The catalyst for the purchase may have been the circumstance that his eldest stepson Alexander Dornan would have been about nineteen and capable of himself cropping the by then increased to 93 acres Pola Creek farm assisted by his siblings or it may have been purchased as an investment with a future intent to let it on a clearing lease. From the obituary of his eldest son Augustus Mead it is known during the great flood of 1864, the highest flood in the history of the Macleay River when it was reported the majority of the houses on both banks from Frederickton to the heads were swept away and in the Kinchela area upwards of sixty took refuge on a coasting vessel lying in Kinchela Creek, that the family spent the night above the flood waters in the loft of their house but whether it was at Pola Creek or near Kinchela was not stated.
After his late 1867 third marriage to widow Margaret Chambers, when land west of Bowraville first became available for selection Augustus selected portion 5 of 100 acres in the parish of Buckra Bendinni on 6 May 1869 where he resided until he moved to Sydney in 1872. The name of son Samuel John appeared on this portion on a 1901 dated Buckra Bendinni parish map. In reference to the occupation of his father during the three years from 1869 to 1872 he spent at Bowraville the article on Samuel stated when at Macleay River he had grown high yield crops of maize in the Frederickton/Pola Creek area and, at Bowra he had pursued "an even tenor", or in other words sung with the same voice as at Macleay River. Clearly by "even tenor" the author intended to convey that at Bowraville he had likewise been a farmer growing crops of maize etc. as when at Macleay River. He was listed at Bowra in the 1872 Grenville Post Office Directory as a "farmer" and gave the same as his occupation when giving evidence at a Coroner's Inquest into the accidental death of his seven-year old stepson William Chambers held in his house on the farm in early September 1871, and it was the occupation given in his 1877 NSW Supreme Court will probate petition 40.
Cab Proprietor and Grocer
After moving to Sydney in late 1872 or early 1873 the first record of his occupation is found in the Sands Directory for 1875 compiled in the latter part of 1874. In the Trades Section Augustus was listed as a Cab Proprietor at 5 Ultimo Street in Ultimo. From the 1847 introduction of the "Hackney Carriages Sydney Act", as is the case today for a motorised taxi, licences were required for both the proprietor and the driver of a hackney cab. In respect of the licence holder records it is understood at 2013 the last year for which such were indexed to was 1871 which is too early for the licence or licences held by Augustus. Later unindexed records may be held by the City of Sydney Archives. Suggestive he may not have personally driven the cab for which he was the proprietor, and would have still owned when he died in 1877, is that in the Sands Directory for the following 1876 year he was listed in the alphabetical section as a carpenter at Dale Street. A document in his probate file has the occupation of "cab proprietor" crossed out and "farmer" written in but such could have been altered at a future time by someone viewing the file who was unaware of the cab ownership so considered it an error needing correction 62. Upon his death in 1877 his wife wife Margaret inherited a life interest in the whole of his estate and became the proprietor of the hackney cab. She was listed as a cab owner in the trades section of the Sydney Sands Directory for 1880 and also as a grocer at 25, 27 Athlone Place in Ultimo and in the alphabetical section of the directory at 25, 27/29 & 38 Athlone Place. Athlone Place no longer exists. The street joined Broadway on the Pyrmont/Darling Harbour side and was resumed by the Sydney City Council in 1906 when some 400 dwellings and a maze of tiny lanes in area were resumed and all the houses were removed. Pre-resumption archival photographs of premises in the street may be held by the Sydney City Archives in 15 City Council “Condemnations and Demolitions” books for the period 1900-1928.
The above linked to 1914 published article on son Samuel John (1861-1942) stated his father had a grocery business in Sydney in which Samuel worked after from a very young age spending three years as an apprentice butcher that he continued to run after his father's death until about 1882 when he moved to Bowraville to join his older brother Augustus Mead in business there. The first mention in the Sydney Sands Directory of Augustus as a grocer was in the directory for 1877 - the year he died. He was listed in the trades section as a grocer at 20 Bank Street and in the alphabetical section as residing at Bank Street. Then correctly spelt Banks this street running from Abercrombie to Regent Street is now (in 2007) named Meagher Street with #20 situated on its northern side at the intersection with Balfour Steet. The next surviving directory for 1879 listed his widow Margaret as a grocer at 29, 31 Athlone Place in Ultimo and also as residing there indicating after his death the household and grocery business relocated from 20 Banks St. in Chippendale to Ultimo making it much closer to the busy Prymont/Darling Harbour wharfs.
In the 1960s, the compiler whose line is from eldest son Augustus Mead (1857-1942), was told a handed down in his line story that unlike his three sons who each built up considerable retail and farming and grazing interests during their lifetimes, Augustus had no great aptitude for business. He was told his grandfather, the eldest son of Augustus, had taken barrels of pickled pork down to the wharfs to sell as his father was not personally disposed to spruiking the same. The pork may well have been consigned from farmers in the Bowraville area who had become well known to the family during the years it was there as it was usual for the farmers there to raise pigs as well as grow maize as a cash crop.
Errors in sundry publicationsIncorrect was a claim in an 1988 published Mackay family history, citing as the source an unpublished article by Alex Gaddes titled ‘The family of William and Jane Gaddes’, that Augustus was an itinerant tutor who "built" a boarding school at Bowra River on the land he selected there. The first school at Bowra was named Capeharrow Hill and for the first few months from its commencement in July 1872 it was located on the 100 acre selection Augustus took up in May 1869. However it was not a boarding school and was not conducted in a school-house Augustus "built" but in a room he "lent" for that purpose. In a book published two years later Alex Gaddes did not repeat the obviously incorrect boarding school claim but instead made even more extravagant and equally incorrect claims re the identity of the first "teacher" at Bowra and the occupation of Augustus. He claimed the first teacher at Bowra was a Mr. Cluff who had taken over the duties of imparting some education to local children from Augustus who he claimed was an itinerant tutor from Macleay River who had divided his time as such between Bowra, Pola Creek, and the Wilson River near Port Macquarie spending three months at each place, adding he knew that because Augustus had taught the elder children of his grandparents William and Jane Gaddes 9, 44.
It is apparent to this compiler that Alex Gaddes, who was not an Augustus Raymond descendant, simply combined a knowledge passed down to him from his parents that Augustus had imparted some basic education to the elder Gaddes children, with the knowledge that after marrying at Dungog in 1856 his grandfather William Gaddes was from 1857 a farmer at Rollands Plains in Cogo parish at Wilson River near Port Macquarie before in 1870 moving north to the Bowra area, and that Augustus was at Pola Creek at Macleay River before being at Bowra, and simply came up with a way-out assumption he then presented as a fact that Augustus must have been an itinerant tutor who had spent three months at each of the three places - Bowraville, Macleay River and Wilson River teaching children. Presumably after spending the claimed three months teaching at his house on the farm at Bowra he spent the next three there resting from his nine months teaching labours! Never mind that such was contrary to common sense and to every record of the occupations followed by Augustus and to the early correspondence of officers of the Department of Education in respect of the lack of a teacher or school at Bowra prior to 1872.
It was very obviously a concocted claim. The only aspect of any of the Alex Gaddes claims the compiler accepts as likely valid is that Augustus in addition to perhaps teaching his own children and his Dornan step-children some basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic when he was at Pola Creek would likely have done so when he was at Bowra before the first school was established there on his selection in July 1872 conducted by an employed school teacher George Robinson for few months before being relocated closer to Bowraville, and that Augustus must have included in those sessions some of his older Gaddes step-nieces and nephews after the Gaddes family moved to the area from the Wilson River in 1870. That Augustus would have imparted such to his own children and those of his relatives would hardly be surprising as in the absence of a formal school for children to attend it was quite usual for parents with enough ability and inclination, but unwilling or unable to employ a governess, to teach their own children and at the same time sometimes those of neighbours at an elementary level. An example of such was in the adjoining Bellinger River district in the late 1860's before the establishment in 1871 of that district's first school at the then main settlement of Fernmount. The district's first blacksmith, New York born John Thomas Williams who in 1867 moved there from Manning River, taught his own and other local children some basics in his smithy at Fernmount. That did not make him a teacher - itinerant or otherwise! At Manning River he was a blacksmith and at Bellinger River before circa 1882 moving to Sydney where he was a hotel licensee he was a blacksmith and sugar cane grower and miller. The Alex Gaddes claim that a Mr. Cluff was the first teacher at Bowraville is also incorrect and is contradicted by early Department of Education officer's reports and by the published accounts of the history of education in the area that all state the first teacher at Bowra was George Robinson 60.
Capeharrow school began as a private school on 15 July 1872 situated on portion 5 in the parish of Buckra Bendinni that Augustus selected on 6 May 1869. It was located west of Bowraville on the north side of the main North Arm road going up Capeharrow Hill not far past its' junction with the lower road to Buccrabendinni. Presumably the room he "lent" for the purpose was in his homestead. It is known from evidence given at a Sept 1871 coroner's inquest that the main house was located about 50 yards from North Creek - presumably close to the road about 1½ miles west from where the creek joins the main river. As stated George Robinson was the first teacher at Bowra not a Mr. Cluff as was claimed by Alex Gaddes. He was also an executor of Augustus' July 1872 made will. After the Geo. Robinson's appointment Augustus and his 28 year-old stepson James Chambers Jnr. (another Augustus will executor) were members of a local committee of selectors who unsuccessfully sought public school status for the school. Instead of it being granted the status sought it was granted on 1 Sep 1872 provisional school status which meant that from then the government took over from the parents the payment of George Robinson's salary and supplied the school text books but unlike a full public school the parents still had to provide the building and furniture - the latter being described in a record as being ‘furniture of the roughest material’. So in that regard then 51 year-old Augustus perhaps also made a contribution to its establishment by employing the carpentry and joinery skills he would have acquired in the boat building and repairing side of the family business in London to make the rough furniture. About the time provisional school status was granted the school was relocated from the room lent by Augustus to a self-contained cottage on Daniel Brouggy's selection about a half-mile closer to the township of Bowra (today Bowraville) 50. The public school classification sought by the committee of local selectors after George Robinson was appointed was not obtained until April 1875 at which time the school was relocated from the Brouggy selection into the village of Bowraville.
A claim in the above mentioned Mackay family history publication that Augustus owned land at Bellinger River prior to his 1856 marriage to Catherine Dornan at Macleay River is not correct 9. Also incorrect is a claim noted in another book on the early history of the Bowraville district and the families who selected there that at the time of his marriage to Catherine Dornan at Pola Creek he was a farmer and grazier from the Bellinger River 47.
It is hard to understand how these claims could have arisen other than the authors confused Augustus with his 1857 born son Augustus Mead who from 1898 acquired butcheries, several dairy farms, and other real estate at the Bellinger River and grazing properties at the Lower Macleay. No Raymond owned land or had a pastoral lease or licence at Bellinger River before 1889 when Augustus's youngest son Edward moved there from Bowraville. After 1836 only pastoral leases could be held beyond the limits of location. The Bellinger had no open grasslands so was not suited to the establishment of a squatting station on such a lease. It was heavily forested with dense brush on both sides enclosing the river. After the discovery of the cedar resource at the river in 1842 when John Verge owner of "Austral Eden" sent a flock of sheep from the Macleay to the Bellinger, presumably to provide mutton as a diet varient for sawyers sent to harvest the cedar, it was reported in the press that Verge was - "the first person who has yet squatted thereon". On 20 April 1853 the crown offered at auction a 5120 acre (8 square miles) lease there at an upset price of ten shillings which if purchased by anyone was certainly not by Augustus. In the immediate years prior to the passage of the Crown Lands Alienation Act of 1861 that enabled selection beyond the limits of location, and the arrival there of the first land purchasers in 1863, the Bellinger River had been little more than a temporary abode for cedar cutters who came and went and by 1863 of a ship builder and cedar getter named George Tucker who with a partner was established building vessels on the river's lower reach. After lands were surveyed into farm size portions on 20 June 1863 The Sydney Morning Herald reported - "the country around the Bellinger River is attracting the attention of free selectors". The first purchase of crown land there was a conditional purchase by Francis Scott dated 4 June 1863.
A family legend was that Augustus named his Capeharrow Hill farm ‘Hampton Court’ after the Royal Palace of that name situated beside the river Thames he had admired when a boatman on that river. The 1914 article on the history of son Samuel merely stated it was christened that in "kindly remembrance of the locality of his birthplace" which was not strictly correct as the palace is about 40 kilometres up-river from where he was born at Camberwell south of Southwark. It has been suggested it may not be too fanciful to suppose the beautiful winding three-quarter mile section of North Creek forming the northern boundary to his property reminded him of the winding of the River Thames familiar to him from his youth in London when he plied the river and would have been up river as far as the palace. A claim in the cited Mackay family history it was named after the Raymond Estate in England is not correct as research has shown that no such "estate" entity existed 9. A 1993 published history of the Nambucca River, citing as the source a transcript of a 1870 birth registration for a William and Jane Gaddes child born on the Capeharrow Hill farm with Augustus' wife Margaret acting as midwife, gave the spelling slightly incorrectly as ‘Hampden Court’ 53. In two cases descendants of Augustus named their own properties "Hampton Court" - one at Thora on the Bellinger River at the foot of the Dorrigo Mountain and the other in the Casino district.
The afore mentioned Mackay family history stated the Bowraville selection was known to the aboriginals by the word caparra said to mean a corroboree or sacred ground. The word did not mean corroboree ground but at least it explains how the first school at Bowra derived its name of Capeharrow Hill - capeharrow being the phonetic equivalent of caparra. The word is more usually spelt keeparra and means the process or ceremony for the initiation of young men into manhood. Hence the Augustus selection was the place where such initiation ceremonies were performed and as such was correctly categorised as an aboriginal sacred place. However it is just possible the school was named Capeharrow Hill by its' first teacher George Robinson for a different reason. Immediately prior to taking up the appointment he taught at a school at Dingo Creek north-west of Wingham where a near locality is named Caparra with a creek of the same name 51. A 1870s anecdote in autobiographical notes written by John "Jack" Bradley, a brother of James Bradley and William Charles Bradley who respectively married Augustus' step-daughters Mary Lavender Dornan and Catherine Dornan in 1866 and 1873, mentioned Augustus and his Capeharrow Hill property as follows:- "I was fishing at Buccrabendinni one day, when a snake bit me. My brothers Will and Jim were taking me to Wirrimbi and on the way we called at the Raymond homestead (Caparra Hill). Grandfather Raymond always had a decent brew in the cupboard and when he learned that I'd been bitten by a reptile, he produced the grog and made a mixture with the ashes and the grog and rubbed this into the punctures." 56.
The June 1856 second marriage of Augustus to widow Catherine Dornan née Laverty took place at the Pola Creek farm she purchased from the crown in Sept. 1854 almost two years after the death of her first husband Charles Dornan. It was performed by Edward Holland the minister of St. Andrews Presbyterian Church at Port Macquarie. He was the third minister at St. Andrews having succeeded William McKee and the first minister William Purves who in 1844 baptised Catherine's two first born daughters Ann and Jane 73 .
Catherine and husband Charles Dornan and their infant son Alexander arrived in Sydney as bounty immigrants on 28 August 1841 on the Percy that departed Greenock on the Firth of Clyde in Scotland on 21 May 1841. Their immigration records gave the age of Charles as 22, Catherine as 20, and Alexander as 11 months, and the names of the respective parents of Charles and Catherine as Alexander and Anne Dornan and Michael and Anne Laverty. Their religion was given as protestant and their birth place as Ballanahinch, County Down, Ireland. The occupation of Charles was given as farm servant and that of Catherine as house servant and it was stated Charles could both read and write and Catherine could neither 37.
The town of Ballynahinch (sic) in Magheradrool Parish is located about 15 miles south of Belfast and according to the Knox History of County Down had a population of 911 in 1841 when it is presumed the Dornan's left there on their journey to Australia via Scotland. Their ca. 1839 marriage likely took place in the Church of Ireland which would have been the denomination in which Charles Dornan was baptised. The NSW immigration records had the religious denomination of Carles and Catherine as protestant. However as the immigration records of Catherine's later arriving in NSW brothers Denis and Michael gave their denomination as Roman Catholic it follows Catherine would have been baptised at one of the Roman Catholic chapels in the area, the most likely being the R. C. chapel at Ballynahinch or the one further south in Magherahamlet parish, and when marrying as the saying goes ‘turned her coat’. As is the case with the surviving Church of Ireland and Presbyterian baptism and marriage records for the area, except those for the 3rd Ballynahinch Presbyterian, the baptism records of the Ballynahinch, Magherahamlet and Dromara R.C. chapels all start too late for her baptism record. C of I marriage records for Magheradrool parish start from 1845 which is also too late for the ca. 1839 marriage record.
The Tithe Applotment valuations of farm tenements for County Down date from 1827 to 1834. Whilst these valuations listed several with the Dornan surname none had the given name of Charles Dornan's father Alexander and there were none with the Laverty surname. The Boyd surname of Catherine's mother Ann was prevalent in several parishes in County Down with the most common given name being John and there were several Samuel's - both being names bestowed by Michael and Ann Laverty on their children. A Charles Boyd was the vicar at Ballynahinch Church of Ireland and his brother the same at Dromara C of I located in the town of that name about five miles to the south-west of Ballynahinch as marked on this 19th century map. The absence from the Tithes Applotment valuations of the names of the fathers of both Charles and Catherine suggest by 1827 they were either town dwellers or worked on farms tenanted or owned by others. In the case of Catherine's father such was confirmed by the 1861 census of Co. Cumberland in England where the occupation of her father Michael was given as - ‘formerly agricultural labourer’ 43.
In 1853 when Catherine's ca. 1825 born brother Denis arrived in Sydney his immigration record gave Belfast as the abode of his parents Michael Laverty and Ann Boyd. By the time of the 1861 census of England, with their three younger sons ca. 1826 born Michael Jr., ca. 1833 born Samuel and ca. 1835 born John, they had relocated 160 kilometres across the Irish Sea to Cleator Moor near Whitehaven in the County of Cumberland (since 1974 located in the County of Cumbria) where they resided until their deaths. At the 1861 census the household included a grandson Michael born ca. 1846 indicating there was likely at least one other son of an unknown given name who had married ca. 1845 or earlier and was either deceased, had remained behind in Ireland, or in 1861 was living elsewhere in England or for some other reason was not listed. The after arrival history of Catherine's brother Denis Laverty who arrived in Sydney in Sep. 1853 on the Telegraph is unknown. Catherine's brother Michael arrived in Jan 1865 on the St. Hilda with his wife Sarah and three children and settled on the mid-north coast of NSW where three more children were born and Michael died in 1888 36, 42 .
Dornan family history at Macleay River
August 1841 was not a propitious time for Charles and Catherine Dornan to arrive in the colony of New South Wales. At Macleay River where they settled sometime between their arrival in Sydney in 1841 and 1844 and where Catherine lived out her life the March 1841 taken census recorded the district's population as 584. That was a peak from which for some years the number declined as the country as a whole experienced its most major depression since first settlement. The sharp decline in cedar prices caused many employed in its extraction at Macleay River, unable to earn an income adequate to substain themselves and pay the £4 annual licence fee, to leave the area. A letter published in The Sydney Herald of 16 June 1842 claimed hundreds of sawyers had left the river in the last few months with others leaving daily for other parts of the colony and the few sawyers who remained and their families presented a miserable appearance.
In respect of the early history of Charles and Catherine Dornan at the Macleay it was in part erroneously stated in two early 1970s publications as follows :
Whilst obviously unknown to the two great grandchildren who in 1964 and 1970 penned the above two quoted accounts, Charles Dornan did not disappear without trace when prospecting for gold in the south or on his way back to Macleay River. The St. Thomas parish at Port Macquarie baptism register entry for the 6th February 1853 baptism at Macleay River of 9 December 1852 born son Charles Jr. stated his father Charles was deceased. It follows Catherine must have been notified of his death and the cause or such was ascertained by inquiry before 6th February 1853 !
Also contradictory to the baptism record, in claiming he just disappeared and was never heard of again, the two quoted accounts ignored if such had been the case then less than four years later in June 1856 Catherine Dornan could not have legally married Augustus Raymond as the marriage would have been been bigamous and known to be so to their fellow settlers in the small Macleay River community, the visiting clergy, and police stationed there. In the colony of NSW until a Divorce Act was passed in 1873 marriage was for life unless a spouse was a widow or widower, or could prove desertion for not less than seven years, or a spouse had been absent overseas for that same period of time. In the case of a person simply disappearing who might well later turn up again seven years had to pass before a spouse could remarry otherwise bigamy would be committed. Bigamy was classed as a crime against the moral order of society. In 1856 it was a felony that if proven was punishable by penal servitude. For example in 1864 in the colony of Tasmania the criminal law provided that a husband or wife marrying for a second time could do so only if the spouse quote - shall have been continually absent from such person for the space of seven years then last past, and shall not have been known by such person to be living within that time. In 1864 upon a conviction for bigamy committed in that colony the person was liable for imprisonment for up to seven years and no doubt similar would have then applied in NSW.
The Victorian BDM registry has the death of Charles indexed under the number 28740 and name Charles Dorman (sic). Originally recorded in the burial register of St. Peter's Anglican Church, the oldest Anglican church still standing on its original site in the inner city of Melbourne, the record gave his age as 33 years (i.e. born 1819), date of death as Sunday 12 Dec 1852, and date of burial as 14th Dec 1852. He would have been buried in what is now Flagstaff Gardens - Melbourne's first burial ground that was known to the early Melbourne settlers as Burial Hill. The record gave him as being of Melbourne. The coroner's inquest index and records held by the Public Records Ofice of Victoria have not been checked to ascertain if there was an inquest. No cause of death was recorded so a death from violence cannot be excluded 36. However a search of the then main daily Melbourne newspaper The Argus through to 24 Dec 1852 found no mention of him by name but there was mention out of town murders of unnamed persons as having occurred a day either side of his as recorded Sunday 12th death which is not to say Charles was one as he may well have died as the result of an accident or say food posioning resulting in severe dysentery etc. Accounting for the surname spelling variation is that his name may have been spelt phonetically and ascertained as such from a handwritten Miner's Right he carried. 38 .
The above quoted accounts, in most respects best described as family folklore and unsupported assumptions presented as fact, were not only astray in respect of the claimed disappearance of Charles Dornan in 1852 when away prospecting for gold in the south, but also as detailed in the section below in respect of the claimed shortly after arrival in Sydney in 1841 purchase from the crown of a small farm at Pola Creek. The baptism of 1842 first Australian born child Ann took place on 7 July 1844. The church register entry had her parents abode as McLeay River (sic) establishing only that Charles and Catherine settled there before that date. It is possible they arrived at Macleay River very shortly after their August 1841 arrival in Sydney or in 1842 or 1843. Whether they were there in 1842 could not be established by the compiler from first born child Ann's 1860 official marriage registration record as the place of her 1 Dec 1842 birth was not given. However the birth registrations (unsighed) for each of her children should have her place of birth that if given as Macleay River would establish her parents had arrived there before her Dec 1842 birth. These children birth registration records are the only records that could establish whether Charles and Catherine settled at Macleay River earlier than 1844. In any event as most of the population at Macleay River in the 1840s were itinerant the Dornan's were among the district's first settlers 72.
Pola Creek Farm
The occupation of Charles Dornan was recorded in his daughter Ann's July 1844 baptism register entry as a "labourer". This record alone establishes he did not come to the Macleay River as was claimed in the two quoted accounts to take up a small farm at Pola Creek purchased in Sydney from the Crown within weeks of arrival from Ireland in 1841 but came to the Macleay to work for someone as a farm labourer which was the normal expectation for a bounty immigrant from Ireland who upon arrival in the colony was described in his immigration record as a "farm labourer". The claimed purchase was also very clearly astray because in the decade of the 1840s the government of the colony did not make available for purchase any small farms at Macleay River 74. The first Dornan family owned land holding at Macleay River was at Pola Creek. However it was not purchased by Charles from the crown but by Catherine almost two years after his death for £102/8/- at an auction of crown lands held at the Port Macquarie Crown Lands Office on 25 Sep 1854 being of 36 acres (14.5 hectares) and designated portion No. 11 in the then unnamed Parish of Kempsey in the County of Macquarie situated fronting the creek at its entrance to the river and bearing Catherine's name as the original grantee on the parish maps 70 .
As the portion was the first land at Pola Creek to go under the hammer that day Catherine was the first purchaser of a small farm at Pola Creek. Prior to then no small farms had been sold by the crown on the southern side of the Macleay River. The only crown land at Pola Creek alienated prior to her purchase was a 1296 acre grant to Captain E. L. Adams he named "Hampden Hall" from which the current day Kempsey locality derived its same name. With an over one mile frontage to the Macleay River it covered most of the headwaters of Pola Creek and adjoined Enock Rudder's private village of Kempsey subdivision (that later became East Kempsey) in which the first 35 lots were were offered for public auction in Sydney on 26 Nov 1836. Following the 1839 death of Capt. Adams "Hampden Hall" was vested in his trustee A. B. Spark whose name appears on his portions on the parish maps. It was offered for sale in July 1841 as an unsubdivided property said to be suitable for dairying or tobacco growing.
Nine river frontage portions to the north of Catherine's portion 11 numbered from 12 to 20 were also offered by the crown at the same auction at which she purchased the 36 acres and were purchased by those whose names appear as original grantee on the above linked to parish map - viz. north from from Catherine's portion 11 being in order:- William Henry Lancaster, Bernard Gogerty, Thomas Rowe (2), The Rt. Rev. William Tyrrell D. D. Lord Bishop of Newcastle, Christopher Lawson (2), William Rothery, and John Verge. The availability for collection from the Registry of the title deed for Catherine's 36 acres was advertised in the Government Gazette early in January 1856 at page 34 and again a few months later at page 1160. After Augustus' death in 1877 the 1879 Government Gazette at page 3930 carried a notification an intermediate deed was ready for portion 11 for which a £1 fee was payable.
Catherine was the first purchaser from the crown of a small farm on the south side (East Kempsey side) of the Macleay River and the fourth of a small farm anywhere at Macleay River, with the only small farm purchasers preceeding her being William Smith after whom the main street of Kempsey was named and John Verge in 1850 and W. H. Kemp in 1852, of portions ranging in size from 109 acres to 266 acres in the parish of Yarravel on the north side of the river. Three weeks after the 2 June 1856 marriage of Catherine and Augustus Raymond portion 25 of 57 acres (23.1 hectares), situated on the south side of portion 11 and separated from it by a road reserve, was purchased on 25 June 1856 in 15 year-old son Alexander's name at a crown land auction held upriver at Belgrave increasing the Pola Creek farm size to 93 acres (37.6 hectares). At that auction the remaining three portions fronting Pola Creek to the south of portion 25, being portions 26 to 28, and four portions fronting the river, being 29, 33, 34 & 35, were also offered and purchased by those whose names appear on the parish of Kempsey maps - viz. John Hiller, Cobham Watson, Alexander Cochrane, Campbell Ker (3) and Amelia Paine. As shown on the herein linked to map the sale of these 8 lots and the prior sale of 10 lots in 1854 making a total of 18 lots comprised all the crown land between "Hampden Hall" and the John Verge "Austral Eden" grant fronting the river and Pola Creek not alienated back in the 1830s by the six mile river frontage 2560 acre "Austral Eden" grant on the north and the 1296 acre "Hampden Hall" on the south.
Occupation of Charles Dornan
One can only speculate upon the actual Dornan family history at Macleay River prior to Catherine's 1854 Pola Creek land purchase. Her daughter Ann's July 1844 baptism record established at that time Charles was a labourer. If he had been a tenant farmer in his own right that would not have been recorded as his occupation. As cedar extraction had for many years been the main undertaking at Macleay River it is possible after arrival in Sydney in August 1841 he was recruited and initially came to the river as a cedar cutter. Alternatively and more likely he was recruited in Sydney as a farm labourer by an agent for a Lower Macleay landowner who prefered to employ newly arrived married immigrant farm workers for fencing, livestock husbandry and crop tillage etc. to locally available hard living and drinking former cedar sawyers.
Perhaps Charles found work with lower Macleay River landowner John Verge who began developing his substantial in acreage Austral Eden grant in 1839. If he did find work with Verge soon after arrival in sydney it is even possible he may have set foot in the Bellinger Valley decades before a descendant of Augustus as a shepherd accompanying a flock of sheep that Verge sent to that river in 1842 driven there along the beaches after cedar harvesting commenced there. It was not until until July 1855 that Verge ran a series of advertisements in a Sydney newspaper advertising the availability of clearing leases of from 10 acres upwards on his Austral Eden grant adjoining the furtherest down river of the afore mentioned ten portions auctioned by the crown in Sept. 1854 of which one was purchased by Catherine. However much earlier Verge likely made some clearing leases available on "Austral Eden" of which perhaps Charles may have become the tenant of one sometime after July 1844. Suggestive Verge would have granted such leases on land he owned before the July 1855 advertisment is, that in respect of leasing land to tenants in Yarravel parish on a portion Verge purchased in 1850, a notice in the Government Gazette dated 2 Feb 1855 for the resumption of a 7 acre strip for part of the road from Kempsey to Christmas Creek (the route of the Pacific Highway prior to the 2013 opening of the Kempsey by-pass on the other side of the river) described the resumed strip as a "rich alluvial jungle ; dense with heavy timber" and having upon it "a hut belonging to one of Mr. Verge's tenants" 71 .
Suggestive that in 1840s Charles Dornan likely worked for John Verge and, perhaps later in the decade may even have had a clearing lease on his 2560 acre Austral Eden grant named on the parish maps as "Austral Eden Farms", that after it was subdivided into 67 farm lots was offered at auction in Kempsey on 23 Mar 1918 with 66 of the 67 lots sold at the auction, is that on 23 Sep 1849 when daughters Mary Lavender and Catherine were baptised and on 10 July 1852 when Eliza was baptised the baptism register of the St Thomas parish at Port Macquarie recorded their parent's abode as "Austral Eden" and the occupation of Charles ambiguously as "settler". He may then still have been a farm labourer as if by 1849 he had been a tenant farmer seemingly the curate of St Thomas' at Port Macquarie Thomas O'Reilly would have recorded him as a farmer or an agriculturalist? In his baptism register entries O'Reilly rarely recorded a father's occupation as a labourer with the most common description being that of "settler" with on occassions farmer, grazier, or agriculturalist being given. The only certainty is that in July 1844 Charles Dornan did not lease or own a farm at Macleay River and was employed by someone at that river as a labourer. However that said, it seems unlikely by 1852 with six young children and a pregnant wife, he would not have left the Macleay to join the gold rushes unless there was in place a secure leasehold tenure of land upon which Catherine and the children could sustain themselves during his intended absense.
In respect of recollections of Charles and Catherine's eldest son Alexander of the family's early days at Macleay River, Allan King a grandson of Alexander in 1970 wrote that his grandfather had often spoken of the fear and uneasiness of the aboriginals of the area and had told of how groups could arrive and stay camped near a residence fishing the river for weeks before moving on, and that it had been particulary worrying at night to see their camp fires so near and figures continually flitting and moving in the shadows. He wrote on many occassions his grandfather had told that with his parents he had watched their camp fires at night whilst the younger children slept 32.
The Children & Catherine's Death
Charles and Catherine Dornan had seven children born between 1840 and 1853 who all married and whose history and descendants are detailed on a linked Descendants of Charles Dornan web page. From her second marriage to Augustus there were four children who also all married. In all Catherine had seventy-one known grandchildren of whom only two were born before she died. As she was a pioneer Lower Macleay settler when she died on Easter Sunday 1 April 1866 aged only 45 years leaving eleven children the then only Kempsey newspaper The Macleay Herald would have reported on her passing. However whilst it began publication two years before no issue earlier than 1878 is known to have survived. At Taree over one hundred kilometres to the south the then weekly published The Manning River News of 7 Apr 1866, pleading a lack of room as the reason it had been obliged that week to condense the report of its Kempsey correspondent, carried only the briefest mention of her passing as follows - ‘‘I must mention that Mrs Raymond died suddenly a few days since, probably from heart disease. She was apparently quite well a few minutes before’’.
Catherine is buried in Frederickton Cemetery with the imposing headstone pictured at the top of this article. Beside her are buried her first Australian first born child Ann Ball who departed in 1921 and a grand-daughter Fleada Bradley who at twelve years of age burned to death in her pyjamas in 1897 55.
Margaret Raymond (1820-1887)
photo held Bowraville Museum
Catherine's death on Easter Sunday 1866 left Augustus to care for their four young children aged from two to eight years. Late the following year he married a 47 year old widow Margaret Chambers née Mackay who was born in Aberdeen in Scotland in 1820 and arrived in Australia in Feb. 1839 with her parents and six siblings on the James Moran 54. She was the third child of Angus Mackay who in all had sixteen children from his two marriages. When he died at Bowraville in 1894 leaving 276 living descendants it was said Angus was only four months shy of his hundredth birthday. At his request his coffin was made by Augustus' youngest son Edward who had moved from Bowraville to Bellingen some four to five years earlier 46. As several records dated between between Catherine's 1866 death and the 1869 move by Augustus to his Bowraville selection have his address as Pola Creek it appears after the marriage to Margaret he did not relocate to the Summer Island farm but remained at Pola Creek. In 1867 when the Government Gazette carried a notification of the registration of his horse brand (a sideways R with an inverted A on top) it gave his address as Pola Creek. There were no issue from the marriage.
Margaret Chambers had firstly married James Chambers in 1841 at Paterson near Dungog in NSW. He was then a member of the NSW military mounted police who was born in 1811 at Macclesfield in Cheshire, England and arrived in Sydney in Nov. 1832 on the Parmelia as a private with the 4th Regiment of Foot. In Nov. 1834 he was seconded firstly to the military Foot Police and then in Sep. 1835 to the military Mounted Police in which he served as a trooper in the Hunter District at Dungog & Muswellbrook, Wagga Wagga, and Temora. He was discharged from the mounted police in Nov 1849 and re-joined the British army in the 11th Regiment from which he was discharged in Sept. 1850. Two months prior to his formal discharge date he was appointed in the civilian police as the Chief Constable at Wagga Wagga and served as such until he resigned in Sep. 1851 to join the gold rushes that followed the discovery in April that year by Hargraves at the Ophir north-west of Bathurst of the first payable gold found in Australia. From Sep. 1851 to about 1862 he was a prospector and miner in NSW and Victoria and in 1863 was recorded as a storekeeper at Wombat near Young where he died in 1864. It is presumed the store was located at the Wombat gold diggings.
Of absolutely no validity are claims made in Chambers family papers lodged in the Mitchell Library in Sydney by a grandaughter that her grandfather James Chambers was an army Captain etc. during the governorship of Lachlan Macquarie. Macquarie in fact left Australia in 1819 thirteen years before James even arrived in the colony as an army private - a rank in the army he never exceeded. Similarly incorrect is a claim in the same papers he was the discoverer of gold at Chambers Creek near Hill End in NSW that it was claimed was named after him in the early 1870's when a major gold rush developed there and a short-lived village named Chambers sprang-up located north of Bathurst and 11 kilometres south of Hill End. Unsighted Chambers family photos and documents deposited in 1953 in the Mitchell Library in Sydney by a James and Margaret granddaughter Ida Ringland are understood to be the source of the above fanciful claims he was an army captain etc. etc. In fact when he joined the British army in England in 1831 he was a labourer 9.
It has been written James and Margaret had twelve children of whom one was named Euphonia 49. However a 1991 book published by the Mackay Family Association titled The Mackay-McKay Family History, of approx. 600 pages with over 500 photographs, listed only eleven correctly omitting Euphonia who was in fact the daughter of another James Chambers. The James Chambers line has not been exhaustively researched by the compiler. A Chambers family history and genealogy is given at the linked web page. A more detailed genealogy with photos can be found in the referred to 1991 McKay family publication and, to a lesser extent is also found in a 1988 Nancy Mackay Edge authored and published book titled Our Highland Heritage (Angus McKay of Sutherland) that was published to coincide with a Mackay/McKay family reunion held at Bowraville over the weekend of 1st and 2nd Oct 1988 to mark the sesquicentennial of the Oct. 1838 departure of the Mackay family from Scotland for Australia on the James Moran where they arrived in Feb. 1839. That reunion was attended by an estimated 2500 descendants from the USA, Scotland, Europe, New Zealand, New Guinea, Asia and every State of Australia. In recognition of the event and, the family's role in the pioneering days of the district, Nambucca Shire Council named the park near the Bellingen Road approach to Bowraville "Mackay Park" and a plaque set upon a boulder was unveiled. In early Oct. 1991 about 400 attended the launch there of the 600 page book of which two copies are held by the Bowraville Folk Museum.
Augustus died at age 55 from complications arising from injury. His death registration gave the cause as an injury to the spine, paralysis, and bronchitis. Prior to his death he spent 20 days in hospital at the Sydney Infirmary in Macquarie Street. There was a Coroner's Order stating the date of death was also that when last seen by a medical attendant. There was no subsequent inquest 45.4. Edward James Robert Walter Raymond, born 1864 18; d. 16 Jun 1932; m. 15 Jan 1890 Helen Maria Caroline "Carrie" Hilder, born 16 Nov 1865; died 11 Jun 1949. E. J. R. W. Raymond newspaper obituary.
It has been said after leaving Bowraville in 1872 that in Sydney he drove a hackney cab and had an accident from which he never fully regained his health 52. If he ever personally drove the hackney cab of which he was proprietor it seems to this compiler he may have had an accident as early as 1874 resulting in a degree of physical incapacity, so could have ceased personally driving it, and the occupation of carpenter given in the 1876 Sydney Sands Directory may have been a reversion in essentially name only to the occupation given at the time he married Catherine Dornan in 1856. A listing in the trades section of the Sands Directory for 1877 as a grocer at 20 Bank Street in Chippendale establishes by 1876 his primary occupation had become grocer. His newspaper funeral notice also gave his residence as 20 Bank Street, Chippendale. The July 1877 probate file is available at NSW State Records but has not been personally sighted by the compiler so it is not known if there are any details given of real estate holdings at the time of death. On the parish maps the name of son Samuel appeared later on the portion near Bowraville named "Hampton Court" that Augustus selected in 1869 indicating he still owned the farm when he died and likely he also owned the house and business premises at Bank St. in Chippendale 45.
His third wife Margaret outlived Augustus by ten years. She likely sold the hackney cab and sold or closed down the Athlone Place grocery business in 1881 as she was not listed in the Sydney Sands for 1882 which was the approximate year the 1914 published article on stepson Samuel Raymond said he moved to Bowraville after ceasing to run his late father's grocery business in Sydney. No grocers were listed in the Sydney Sands at Athlone Place in Ultimo in 1883. A January 1882 letter written from Sydney, when Margaret's brother Robert Mackay was visiting and his first wife was a patient in the Sydney Infirmary, gave Margaret's address as O'Dorny (sic) House, Mount Vernon St., Forest Lodge. The Sands for 1883 listed Margaret at Mount Vernon St. in Glebe. She was last listed in the Sands residing anywhere in Sydney in Sands directory for 1884 when the Mount Vernon St. in Glebe house name was listed as "O'Dorney house". As Margaret died in Kempsey in Feb. 1887 aged 66 years she likely left Sydney to reside with son James about 1884 48. Below is a photograph of the Forrest Lodge/Glebe house named "O'Dorney House" with Margaret standing outside the front fence.
Margaret outside her Mount Vernon Street
house - photo held Bowraville Museum
At least two of Margaret's children pre-deceased her - sons Angus and William within two years of the 1869 move from Kempsey to Bowraville and perhaps one or two of the daughters. When she died in West Kempsey in Feb. 1887 the cause was given as heart disease and she was buried in the West Kempsey Cemetery. The published headstone transcriptions for it and the other Kempsey district cemeteries do not identify a surviving headstone. The informant for her death registration was 1844 born eldest son James Jnr. For the licensing year 1885-86 James was the publican of the Bowra Hotel in Bowraville and was likely the James Chambers who for one or more years between 1887 and 1889 was the publican of the East Kempsey Hotel and a Kempsey butcher in early 1890 when he was declared bankrupt. His youngest daughter Ida (the Mitchell Library Chambers family papers depositor) was born at West Kempsey the same year Margaret died 9. This suggests Margaret was either living with son James in Kempsey or visiting him when she died.
In his will, made at Bowra on 29 July 1872 and probated on 3 July 1877, Augustus bequeathed Margaret a life interest in his estate and provided after her death it was to be equally divided between his SIX children 62. A family mystery likely never to be solved unless someone researching their family history on the net takes an interest in the identity of Raymond surname witnesses found listed on an official marriage record and makes contact, or one day a searchable index of the witnesses to marriages is created, is the identity of the two named Margaret and Hellen described in the will as "my children". In their case the stand out difference from the other four children is the absence of one or more additional given names. No birth, marriage, or death for either is recorded in the NSW BDM Indexes under the Raymond surname and, Augustus's official death registration for which his eldest son was the informant, named only his and Catherine's four children as his surviving issue. It is thus assumed Margaret and Hellen must have been children for whom Augustus had been made their ward who retained their unknown original family name. In isolated communities such as Bowra circumstances such as the accidental death or disappearance of parents etc. and the absence of any available relative led to children being made wards of a respectable local and thereafter raised by him and in all respects treated as his own except for their birth surname. It is also possible the two were not sisters so had different surnames. They may have been children of parents who died, or of a mother who died and an absent father or of one unable to care for them 63.
Children of Augustus Raymond and Catherine Dornan née Laverty were:
1. Augustus Mead Raymond, born Feb. 1857 12 at Pola Creek, Macleay River, NSW, Australia; d. 7 Mar 1942, Bellingen, NSW. He married 22 Apr 1896 5 at Bowraville, NSW, Margaret Ann Grace, b. 12 Jan 1870 at Kallateenee, Macleay River; d. 23 Jan 1954 Bellingen, daughter of Walter Grace (ca. 1840-1898) and Catherine Simon (1847-1933). A. M. & M. A. Raymond newspaper obituaries.
Augustus Mead & Margaret Ann
Children Sitting L to R: Lilian, Gladys, Catherine
Rear Walter, Front Harry - circa 1917
Children of Augustus Mead Raymond and Margaret Ann Grace were:
Her given names of Sarah Fidelia suggest she was named after her father's first wife Sarah Sumerfield with Fidelia (the Latin word for faithful) to indicate she was so named in her memory. Her husband Robert Mackay was a widower who previously had married in 1870 at Bowraville, Mary Jane Grace, a daughter of James Banister Grace (1812-1913) and Ann "Mary Ann" Alexander (ca. 1822-1906) who was born in Wiltshire in England in 1851 and died in child birth in Kempsey in 1882.
Robert & Sarah Fidelia Mackay 58
Homestead at Missabotti 58
Bowraville cemetery 8
Children of Sarah Fidelia Raymond and Robert Mackay were:3. Samuel John Raymond, b. 22 Sep 1861 11, 17 reg. Macleay River; d. 25 Nov 1942, buried Bowraville Cemetery. He married 1893 7 reg. Macksville, NSW, Australia, Mary Ann Alexandria Mackay, b. 1874 27 reg. Macleay River; d. 10 Sep 1960, daughter of Robert Mackay (1842-1925) and Mary Jane Grace (1851-1882).
Samuel's history was extensively detailed in an article by Edwin Howell published in The Raleigh Sun newspaper in 1914 and repeated in an abbreviated form in his 1942 obituary. Samuel's father-in-law Robert Mackay, by virtue of his marriage to Samuel's sister Sarah Fidelia, was also his brother-in-law and, as his father Augustus had married Robert Mackay's half-sister Margaret Chambers née Mackay, Robert Mackay was also his step-uncle. Adding to Samuel's inter-relationships was that his elder brother Augustus Mead married Margaret Ann Grace who was a niece of Samuel's mother-in-law Mary Jane Grace !
Bowraville cemetery headstone & Mary Ann Alexandria.
Children of Samuel John Raymond and Mary Ann Alexandria Mackay were:
Edward & Carrie Raymond Bellingen Cemetery
Children of Edward J. R. W. Raymond and Helen M.C. Hilder were:
5. Gladys Augusta Raymond, b. 25 Mar 1897, Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 12 Jul 1978, Bellingen, NSW, aged 81 years, buried Bellingen cemetery.
6. Augustus Walter Charles Raymond b. 6 Nov 1899 28, Bellingen, NSW; d. 25 Nov 1982 Bellingen, aged 83 years; buried Bellingen Lawn Cemetery; m. 1936 Smithtown, NSW, Alice May Saul "Dolly", b. 1905, Kempsey, NSW; d. 24 May 1999, daughter of John E. Saul and Alice J. Rowe.
7. Catherine Jane Raymond, b. 13 Oct 1902, Bellingen, NSW; d. 23 Jan 1994, Bellingen, NSW, aged 91 years; buried Bellingen Cemetery.
8. Lilian Raymond, b. 16 Jul 1905, Bellingen, NSW; d. 18 Jan 1989, Bellingen, NSW, aged 83 years; buried 20 Jan 1989 Bellingen Cemetery. Apart from a year spent at Redland's Anglican C of E Grammar School in Sydney she spent her whole life in the Bellinger Valley, dying in the same room in which she had been born.
9. Harry Mead Raymond, b. 23 Mar 1908, Bellingen, NSW, Australia; d. 12 May 1966 Kempsey, NSW, buried East Kempsey Cemetery; m. 18 Feb 1939, St. Margaret's C of E Church, Bellingen, Lily Daphne Gordon b. 18 Jan 1911 at Bellingen, NSW; d. 20 Sep 1999 Bellingen, buried East Kempsey Cem., daughter of Wilfred Ernest Augustus Gordon (son of Meldrum Henry Gordon - first white settler at the Upper Bellinger River Valley Gordonville locality) and Ada Harvie (dau. of Walter Harvie - first white settler at Coffs Harbour). H. M. Raymond newspaper obituary.
dau. Judith & headstone - East Kempsey cem.
Children of Harry Mead Raymond and Lily Daphne Gordon were:
10. Irene Robina Mackay b. 1886 19 reg. Nambucca River. She married (1) in 1911 20 Charles E. Parrington reg. Sydney, NSW. She married (2) Sydney Barr.
Children of Irene Robina Mackay and Sydney Barr were:
11. Elva Augusta Mackay b. 1888 21 reg. Bowraville; d. 26 Jun 1965 22 reg. Macksville, NSW, buried Presbyterian Section of Bowraville Cemetery. She married 1913 23 Wilmot Henry Fuller reg. Bowraville., NSW; b. ca. 1891; d. 3 Mar 1978.
Bowraville cemetery 8
Children of Elva Augusta Mackay and Wilmot Henry Fuller were:
12. Robert Raymond Mackay, b. 1889 24 reg. Bowraville, NSW; d. 20 Oct 1965 25, 36 reg. Burwood, NSW, buried Presbyterian Section of Bowraville Cemetery. He married 1926 26 reg. Bowraville, Esther Pearl Owens.
13. Augustus Wallace Raymond b. 1894 (#1894-19412) reg. Macksville, NSW, Australia; d. 1960 reg. Hornsby, NSW. He married 1918 reg. at Kempsey, NSW, Clytie Hope Saul, b. 1893, d. 1980 (#104037), daughter of William John Saul and Hilda W.
14. Robert Rex B. Raymond, b. 1896 (#1896-2016) reg. Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 5 Nov 1957. He married in 1919 reg. Macksville, Annie Lillian Hammond, b. 1895 Taree, NSW; d. 1954 Manly, NSW, daughter of Charles Hammond and Sarah Jane.
Bowraville cemetery 8
15. Samuel Douglas Raymond, b. 1900 (#1900-10770) reg. Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 6 Jul 1972 Manly, NSW.
16. Eric Harold Hilton Raymond, b. 1903 (#1903-10541) reg. Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 16 Oct 1967, Grafton, NSW. He married in 1928 at Bowraville, Ivy Grace, daughter of Albert Ernest Grace and Louisa Jane Churchill.
Bowraville cemetery 8
Bowraville cemetery 8
17. Edward Dudley Speery Raymond, b. 1908 (#1908-22602) reg. Bowraville, NSW, Australia; d. 1974 Bowraville, NSW. He married in 1937 at Bowraville, Nita Evelyn Saville.
Children of Edward Dudley Sperry Raymond & Nita Evelyn Saville were:18. Angus Colin Raymond, b. 1913 (#1913-38210) reg. Bowraville, NSW, Australia. He married, Mildred May Beeton.
19. Edward Harold Hilder Raymond, "Harold" b: 16 Feb 1891 in Bellingen, NSW, Australia; d. 10 Oct 1969 Bellingen, NSW; m. 1921 in Bellingen, NSW, Jean Stuart McDougall, b. 1900 in Bellingen, NSW; d. 5 Dec 1999, aged 99 years, dau. of Robert S. McDougall and Clara M. Baker. Their children were - Robert and Phyllis.
20. Sarah Augustus Ellie Josephine Raymond b. 1893 in Bellingen, NSW, Australia; d. 11 Jul 1979 in Bellingen, NSW; m. 1919 in Bellingen, NSW, Albert Balcomb, b. 30 Jun 1891 in Lydd, England; d. 25 Mar 1981 Bellingen, NSW - both buried Bellingen cemetery. Their children were - Raymond, Richard Raymond & John Raymond.
21. Gertrude Ada Faulkenbridge Raymond, b. 1896 in Bellingen, NSW, Australia; d. 1 Dec 1980 34 at Mosman, NSW, Australia ; m. 1922 in Bellingen, NSW, James Alfred Bowring, b. 1896 in Nowra, New South Wales, Australia; d. 15 Mar 1977 34 at Mosman, NSW, son of James A. Bowring and Mary Green.
Children of Gertrude Ada F. Raymond and James Alfred Bowring were:
22. Joseph Frank Leighton Raymond b. 26 Feb 1898 in Bellingen, New South Wales, Australia; d. 2 Jun 1968; m. 1919 in Macksville, NSW, Sylvia E. Willis, b. ca. 1895; d. 28 Jul 1984.
23. Eva Harriett Hilder Raymond b. 1900 in Bellingen, NSW, Australia; d. 17 Mar 1990 35 in NSW, Australia. She married in 1925 in Bellingen, NSW, John Henry Rudolph Lindman d. 1961 Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia. (note in 2008 the NSW BDM indexes had her birth registration had Eva H. A. and the marriage registration had Eva M. M.).
Children of Eva Harriett Hilder Raymond and John Henry Rudoph Lindman were:
1 The Augustus Raymond christening date and the name of the church are as per the International Genealogical Index (IGI). Regarding the christening date it has been assumed the IGI date of 4 Jan 1822 is correct and, that arising from a miscalculation by his father when providing the data to the Company of Watermen and Lightermen at the time of the 14 Oct 1836 binding of Augustus to him as master, the dates given in the company's apprenticeship binding records of 27 Sep 1820 for his birth and 4 Jan 1821 for the christening are erroneous in so far as both are one year too early. Supporting that the birth year was 1821 is the age of 19 years given in the 1841 census of England taken on 6 Jun 1841 indicating a birth date between 7 Jun 1821 and 6 June 1822 and the age of 55 years at death given in both his 18 Jan 1877 NSW death registration and the newspaper death notice indicating a birth date between 19 Jan 1821 and 18 Jan 1922.
2 As recounted to the compiler in the 1960s by Gladys Raymond - the 1897 born eldest daughter of Augustus' eldest son Augustus Mead - her understanding being that the first wife had died on the voyage out from England. Advice reeceived in March 2013 from John Matthews of official South Australian BDM records, newspaper arrival mentions etc. (see #64 below) established such was not the case.
3 NSW BDM Indexes #1856-1525 - a transcript of the registration record has the groom's status as widower, his occupation Carpenter and Joiner, that Catherine Dornan had 7 living children from her former marriage and, whilst the ceremony was performed in accord with the rites of the Presbyterian Church both parties were of C of E denomination. Place of the marriage was given as Poley Creek (first noted spelt as "Pola Creek" in the Government Gazette notifcation dated 24 May 1856 of the sale of the 5 lots of which the largest was purchased in Alexander Dornan's name. Noted spelt as "Poley" in private documents well into the 1880's), groom's birth place given as Camberwell, near London, England, father Mead Raymond, occupation corn factor, and mother Ann Chapman. Witnesses were William and Mary Ann Sanders.
4 Glenn C. Bradley, When the River was the Road, 1994 - "When Augustus Raymond was left a widower with four young children he married Margaret Chambers née McKay in 1867 ... William Bradley (senior) was a witness to this marriage which took place at Pola Creek on the Macleay, the home of the Dornans'. William Bradley was born in the Colony in 1814 and married Margaret McKay's younger sister Elizabeth b. 1823 in Aberdeen, Scotland."
p. 118 marriage date given as 9 Dec 1867 (elsewhere a 19 Dec has been noted). NSW Marriage Index #1867-2289.
5 Ibid #1896-2791
6 Ibid #1877-112 (index gave age as 55 years - age at death being the identifier used where the record informant provided no parent names). Age 55 indicates a birth before 19 Jan 1822 so consistent with his 4 Jan 1822 Christ Church, Southwark, London christening.
Sydney Morning Herald, 19 Jan 1877, DEATHS - Raymond - January 18, Augustus Raymond, late of Macleay River, in the 55th year of his age. THE FRIENDS of MR. AUGUSTUS RAYMOND are invited to attend his funeral; to move from his late residence, No. 20, Banks-street, Chippendale, on Saturday Afternoon, at 2 o'clock for the Necropolis. J. and G. Shying and Co., Undertakers, 717 George-street South, 120 Oxford -street.
NOTE - on 6 Oct 1871 The Sydney Morning Herald incorrectly reported a child named Augustus Raymond was killed at Nambucca River by the fall of a tree on the 7th October. It was a garbling of a previous report in the paper on 21 Sep 1971 that reported on the evidence given at an inquest held in Augustus' house into the 7 Sep 1971 death of his 7 year-old stepson William Chambers who was killed when crushed by 30ft long X 1ft diameter tree that he and same age half-brother Edward Raymond felled on the Capeharrow Hill farm during their parents absence at a funeral.
7 NSW BDM Indexes #1893-4518
8 Augustus Raymond Rookwood cemetery headstone image provided courtesy of Peter Matthews and Bowraville cemetery headstone images courtesy of Dennis Cox. The inscription on the Catherine Raymond Frederickton cemetery headstone reads - "Sacred to the Memory of Catherine. The beloved wife of Augustus Raymond who went to her rest on the morning of Easter Sunday 1866. Leaving a husband and many children to deplore their loss. A little while and ye shall not see me and again a little while and ye shall see me because I go to the Father. John XVI 16"
Catherine died intestate. The NSW Government Gazette for 1867, p. 2933, carried a Supreme Court notification that 14 days after 31 Oct 1867 an application would be made to grant letters for administration of Catherine's estate to eldest son Alexander. For location of the admin. packet see - NSW State Records web site - "Index to Early Probate Records" where the reference for the holding is - "probate 1867, Macleay River, Series NRS 13502 item 6/4195".
9 Nancy Mackay Edge, Our Highland Heritage (Angus McKay of Sutherland), n. p. 1988, pp. 113, 127 quoting from an article by Alex Gaddes. At p. 128 is an also strange claim that Bowraville's first Court House was on the Raymond Caparra Hill selection - obviously incorrect as it would not have been on private land a mile and half west of the town but situated with a police station on government land in the 1870 proclaimed township. It would seem the author confused Grassy Hill with Caparra Hill.
10 In 2008 the microfiche copies of the St. Catherine's House Marriage Index listed the marriage as - March Qtr. 1849, vol. 4, p. 38 under the groom's name of Augustus RAYMON (sic) and double indexed it under the bride names of Sarah TERRY Sumerfield and Sarah TERREY Sumerfield. The registration details, extracted from the linked to copy of the official registration record provided courtesy of Carmel Stuart née Laverty of NSW, are as follows:-
Augustus Raymond, bachelor, engineer, of Park Road, married (after banns) Sarah Terrey Sumerfield, spinster, of York Grove, in the Parish Church of Saint Giles Camberwell, County of Surrey, on 1st Feb. 1849. Both parties signed the register in the presence of Mead Terrey Raymond, Elizabeth Raymond, Margaret Terrey Sumerfield and Ann Dorothy Gould. The ages of the parties were just given as “full age”. Augustus' fathers name was given as Mead Raymond, lighterman and Sarah’s as Thomas Benjamin Sumerfield, coal merchant. Celebrant was curate Robert A Currey.
11 Date advised per email from by Dennis Cox dated 21 Jul 2007
12 NSW BDM Indexes #1857-7760
13 Ibid #1858-9227
14 Ibid #1936-5617
15 Ibid #1886-5863
16 Ibid #1925-15642
17 Ibid #1861-8773
18 Ibid #1864-9825
19 Ibid #1886-25569
20 Ibid #1911-611
21 Ibid #1888-26785
22 Ibid #1965-32254
23 Ibid #1913-11866
24 Ibid #1889-25590
25 Ibid #1965-36663 & Sydney Morning Herald, 21 Oct 1965 - Deaths, Mackay, Robert Raymond - October 20, 1965, at private hospital, Marrickville, of 32 Hanks Street, Ashfield, widower of Esther Pearl, dearly loved father and father-in-law of Robert & Patricia, Kenneth & Shirley, fond grandfather of Jennifer, Tony, Katherine & Paul, aged 74 years, internment Friday at Bowraville.
26 Ibid #1926-18085
27 Ibid #1874-13014
28 Ibid #1899-28644
29 Post Office London Directory 1846, June Edition (W. Kelly & Co 1846 - 1994 facsimile edition) - the earliest London directory consulted by the compiler.
30 Sep. 2007 and 1 Oct 2007 emails from Neil Rhind MBE FSA - a social and architectural historian - advising the census taken on 6 & 7 June 1841 listed at Paradise Street, Rotherhithe - Mead 55 lighterman, Augustus 19 lighterman's apprentice, Elizabeth 21, Ann Dorothy Gould 28, and two female servants and several London directory listings of the businesses of the brothers John and Mead Raymond.
31 Burial Register of St. Saviour's Church, Southwark - transcription by John Hanson and Monnica Stevens
32 Marie H. Neil, Valley of the Macleay, Wentworth Books, Sydney, 1972, p.47 - citing as source Miss J. Dornan to Macleay River Historical Society, 1964.
32 Allan King, A History Trail : The Story of the MacKay and Dornan Family, quoted from the booklet published 1970 and held by the Macleay-Hastings Library at Kempsey. Note - the Historical Society Museum at South Kempsey holds facsimilies of the diaries of the farming activities for 1892 of Charles and Catherine's son Alexander as described in a June 1988 Chronicle of the Macleay River Historical Society titled: The Dornan Diaries 1892.
33 The Company of Watermen & Lightermen Bindings Index 1692-1949 (CD-ROM version).
34 The Sydney Morning Herald - Death Notices - James Albert Bowring & Gertrude Ada Bowring issues of 19 Mar 1977 p. 120 & 2 Dec 1980 p.19. The latter read - BOWRING, Gertrude Ada December 1, 1980, late of Mosman, dearly loved wife of the late James Alfred Bowring, loving mother of Betty, devoted grandmother of Graeme, loving mother-in-law of Kenneth. The 3 Dec. funeral service was at Northern Suburbs Crematorium.
35 Ibid - Eva Harriett Hilder Lindman, aged 89, late of Port Macquarie issue of 19 Mar 1990.
36 Advised July 2008 by Camel Stuart of NSW
37 Assisted (Bounty) Immigration, AONSW reel #1336 - the family arrived with 280 other immigrants in Sydney from Greenock, Scotland on 28 Aug 1841 on the Percy. The immigration and ship records gave the birth place of Charles Dornan and Catherine as Ballanahinch, Co. Down, their respective ages as 21 and 20 & son Alexander 11 months, and parents of Charles were given as Alexander & Anne Dornan and Catherine's as Michael & Anne Lougherty (the surname spelling is a phonetic variant of Laverty - both Dornan and Laverty being Irish names respectively anglicised from O Dornain and O Laith Bheartaigh with the former name found mostly in Co. Down and adjoining Co. Antrim). The person certifying as to registry of baptism for Charles was Rev. Charles Boyd vicar of the Ballynahinch C of I, and for Catherine Rev. William Mortimer curate of Magherahamlet C of I church where the rector was Rev. H. E. Boyd who was also rector of Dromara C of I and brother of Rev. Charles Boyd (the reason a C of I vicar and not an R. C. priest certified as to the register of baptism as it was stated in the immigrant's application is not known and can only be speculated upon. It has been suggested that Catherine was perhaps her mother's eldest child and her mother Ann Boyd was either the widow of a protestant Boyd or Catherine was born out of wedlock and baptised as a protestant before her mother married Michael Laverty). The Ballynahinch birth place of both Charles and Catherine could mean they were either born in that town or it was the largest town to where they were born. The above arrival record and details researched and advised by Carmel Stuart. Note: - the "Digger" CD-ROM titled Bounty Emigration to NSW 1828 to 1842 has the Dornan family surname incorrectly indexed as Doran.
38 Violence and robbery and murders were then frequent in Melbourne and on the goldfields and on roads in between. The edition of Monday 13 Dec. reported that it was said a murder had been committed on Saturday night (11th) at Murder's Flat, Chokeem Gully with the murderer apprehended by the police. On Tuesday 14 Dec. it reported news had come that morning of a body being found in the neighbourhood of Reedy Creek where the body of a murdered person had been found the previous week.
39 The following records held by the London's Guildhall Library were checked for a steamboat ownership - (1) Ms 6408 - Register of steamboats, giving owners, numbers of permitted passengers, and masters' names and addresses, with index to boats and masters 1846-1848, (2) Ms 06312/1-2 - Indexes to registers of licensed passenger boats 1828 - ca. 1910, (3) Ms 10022 - Register of boats for hire, numerically arranged, giving names and abodes or moorings of watermen or craft owners, and names and types of boats 1827-59.
40 His address in the 1872 Grenville's Post Office Directory was given as Bowra River, Bowraville and occupation as farmer. A total of 58 persons were listed under Bowraville in the P.O. Directory. Their occupations were listed as: 54 farmers, 4 sawyers, and 1 stockholder. Stated was that mail was received and dispatched twice weekly - taking 6 days to arrive from Sydney via steamer to Port Macquarie or Kempsey and then overland to the P.O. For the Sep 1871 coroner's inquest at which he gave his occupation as farmer see above source footnote #6.
41 The Northern Courier, 3 Dec 1942. LATE S. J. RAYMOND - Mr S. J. Raymond, whose death occurred at Bowraville last week, at the age of 81 years, was one of the oldest and best known men on the Nambucca, where he had a very successful business career. He was born on the Macleay River and as a young man was apprenticed to the butchery trade in Sydney. He also had experience in his father's grocery business and became a successful trader and buyer. Sixty years ago he went into partnership with his brother Gus, who died at Bellingen, recently, in a wheelwright and butchering business at Bowraville. Later they purchased a butchering business at Bellingen, but afterwards dissolved partnership and each carried on alone in business. In 1893 deceased married Miss Mary Mackay at Bowraville, and there is a family of six sons. Deceased conducted the butchering business at Bowraville for 51½ years and then handed it over to his sons. He was prominently associated with various public organisations on the Nambucca and held high executive positions in some of them. He was one of the first Justices of the Peace on the Nambucca.
42 Assisted Immigration to NSW, AONSW microfilms - 1853 Telegraph reels 2137 & 2465 (name of relative in colony given as sister Catherine Dornan), 1865 St. Hilda reels 2139 & 2483 (name of relative in colony given as brother-in-law Augustus Raymond, Pola Creek, County Macquarie, NSW).
43 1861 Co. Cumberland census occupation of Michael Laverty Sr. advised by Carmel Stuart who also advised his 1877 death registration, for which his son John was the informant, had it as labourer, and that Augustus Raymond as the informant for wife Catherine's 1866 death registration gave her father's occupation as ‘dealer’.
44 Alex Gaddes in his own book Main Title: Red cedar, our heritage : a personal account of the lives and times of the men and women who worked in the red cedar industry at page 102 dropped the incorrect claim Augustus had started a boarding school, and instead with his own added comment quoted from autobiographical notes written at an undisclosed date, but presumably late in a long life by John "Jack" Robert Bradley (1861-1952) who it will be noted made no claim of personally having attended either the 1st or 2nd Capeharrow Hill schools - viz. "Grandfather Raymond was instrumental in getting the first school teacher here, a Mr Cluff, and many went to the school that was built, near where Mr McCullen now lives". To which Alex Gaddes added the following comment - "until the arrival of Mr Cluff, Augustus M. Raymond was carrying out the duties of getting some education, at least, to the local children. He was an itinerant tutor who divided his time between The Gogo (Wilson River), Pola Creek, and Bowra, each getting three months of his time. [I know this, because he taught the elder members of the family of William and Jane Gaddes. Auth.]."
45 NSW State Records, at the Western Sydney Records Center, 145 O'Connell St., Kingswood hold the Augustus Raymond will probate granted 3 Jul 1877 - ref. "Series 3 Probate/Packet No. 1387". Neither the will or land grant and deed transfer records have been researched to ascertain land holdings. The NSW Supreme Court Probate Index lists Augustus Raymond died 18 Jan 1877, Nambucca. No Coroner's Inquest was listed in the Registers of Coroner's Inquests 1834-1901 index.
46 In 2008 the linked to web page had a transcript of the Angus Mackay obituary. The newspaper source is not given but presumably it appeared in a week ending 21 Oct 1894 issue of The Macleay Argus that began publication in 1885.
47 Glenn Bradley, op. cit. p. 118
48 Ibid op. cit.p. 134
49 Ibid op. cit. p. 118
50 The legislature of the colony in 1866 passed an Act authorising the appointment of teachers in sparsely populated areas, and the establishment of privately owned schools in areas where there was no public school, provided there were at least 15 students and fewer than the 25 required for the establishment of a Public School. The schools were eligible for grants and subject to periodic inspection by the Council of Education and were known as "Provisional Schools" with the parents providing the building and furniture while the NSW Government Council of Education paid the teacher and supplied the books and equipment.
Government schools of New South Wales 1848 to 2003, published 2003 by the Dept. of Education & Training, under Bowraville has the first "official" school as Capeharrow Hill - a provisional school from Sep. 1872 to Apr. 1875. It was followed by Bowra Public from Apr. 1875 until Mar. 1890.
A booklet titled Bowraville Centenary 1875-1975, has a 1875 sketch map showing Capeharrow school located a mile from the future township on the north side of the Lower North Arm Rd. road just past the Lower Buccrabendinni Rd. junction placing it on portion 5 the Augustus Raymond election. The booklet states following the petition for the establishment of a public school the Council of Education while at first ready to grant a public school changed its mind and instead offered a Provisional School.
It stated the first teacher at Capeharrow Hill was George Robinson. It is said he was born in Londonderry in Ireland and trained as a school teacher in Limavady, Ireland, and prior to Capeharrow Hill taught at Dingo Creek (Wherrol Flat) - Robyn Anne Munro ca. 2000 query to the Rootsweb AUS-NSW-L mail list.
The above cited Bowraville Centenary 1875-1975 booklet has Capeharrow Hill school as beginning on 15 July 1872 with 28 pupils in a large room lent by Mr. Raymond - presumably the room was in his homestead. It has that whilst George Robinson began teaching at the school on 15 July his official status at the provisional school as the teacher dated from when it became such on 1 Sep 1872 and that in 1872 he leased a cottage in which the school was conducted. Thus in the latter months of 1872 the school moved from the original room "lent" by Augustus Raymond, situated just over a mile from the future Bowra township, to a rented cottage on Brouggy's Hill about a half-mile closer to the future town before in April 1875 again relocating to within its' boundary. In the official application petition for the establishment of a public school, Augustus and William Gaddes were two of 11 parents professing an intent to send 31 children to the school. Augustus proposed sending only two.
51 Nancy Edge, op. cit., p. 128 - original source given as an article titled The family of William and Jane Gaddes. Also see Norma Townsend, op. cit. p. 321, in notes re the school's Capeharrow name, quote - "The name is probably a corruption of the Aboriginal keepara, which means corroboree."
(ED. The aboriginals had no written language. Whilst in agreement with Norma Townsend that "Capeharrow" was a corruption of the aboriginal word keepara (or the same sounding caparra and other variant phonetic spellings noted in 19th century accounts of aboriginal customs such as keeparra, keeparah, keeparrow, kipparah, kabbarah etc.) it is apparent the sacred sites to which the aboriginals applied the term were most definitely not corroboree grounds. The aboriginal word for corroboree sounded completely different. In a paper on the grammar and vocabulary of the Kattang language as spoken by central coast of NSW tribes, published in the Journal of the Royal Society of NSW, vol. XXXIV, 1900 p.p. 103-118, W. J. Enright gave won-gul-lin as the word for corroboree and keè-păr-ră as meaning the ceremony at which youths of a tribe were initiated into manhood. The previous year (1899) the same journal carried a lengthy paper by the same researcher titled "The Initiation Ceremonies of the Aborigines of Port Stephens" which referred to a 1896 paper by R. H. Mathews titled "The Keeparra Ceremony of Initiation" that dealt in great detail with the ceremony as it was and had been practiced by coastal aboriginal tribes northwards from Newcastle to at least the Macleay River.
Specifically relating to the Nambucca River aborigines, Glenn Bradley op. cit. p. 136-138., quoted George S. Mackay in the “The Tribune” of April 27, 1883 as follows - “Another ceremony performed by the blacks is called ‘Caparra’; that is the initiating of the young men of the tribe into all forms of manhood. This ordeal is a severe and trying one to the young man, so severe is that instances have occurred of young men dying under the operation. Women and children are not permitted to watch this ceremony, nor are the men allowed to make known any of the rites, to the women. They are held a profound secret among the men.”
Glenn Bradley op. cit. p.p. 24, 25, 38, wrote that quote - "It has been said Capeharrow Hill was an aboriginal keeparrow ground. He wrote that such was a place away from the women of the tribe (i.e. away from the main camp) to which a boy going through the final stages of initiation into manhood was taken and kept for a period on a restricted diet. Specifically in reference to the Nambucca, Bradley referred to an extract from a 1893 story by Philip Cohen as saying there was a keeparrow ground on the eastern slope of Bald Hill about a mile south-west of Gumma Hill at Nambucca Heads, and that the Corroboree ground known to locals as Biddes Farm was a further mile south. Clearly it was being said the main camp, the corroboree ground, and the keeparrow or man-making ground, were all separate places. There is no reason to suppose up river at Bowra it was any different.
In North Queensland for geographic reasons the word caparra could not have meant corroboree ground. Archibald Meston who was raised on the Clarence River, where he learned the dialect spoken by the local tribe, in a 23 Dec 1896 article in The North Queensland Register titled The Bride of Caparra, wrote of the word as follows - ‘Three miles off the mouth of the Mulgrave river in North Queensland, is the "High Island" of the Frankland Group, known to the mainland natives as "Caparra", two miles in circumference, rising 400 feet, and covered by dense tropical jungle except on one green grass covered spur shooting out from the north east side.’ Mainland aboriginals did not have corroboree grounds on jungle clad islands three miles out to sea! It is said in South-East Queensland in addition to Keepara other names used for the initiation into manhood ceremonies were Burbung, Bunan Jerail and Wundarral.
The manhood making ceremonies marking the passing through from boyhood into adulthood were an integral part of Aboriginal society throughout Australia. They were strictly a male gathering, with women banned from participating and even viewing parts of the event. A cleared circle or oval shaped ring with a stone or earth border, generally known as a Bora Ring, was a central feature at a Keepara site and was usually situated on a high place such as a hill. Walter Harvie, the first settler at Coffs Harbour, writing in 1927 of a tribal battle he witnessed in the vicinity of the Bellinger River, wrote that the initiates were known as caperas (i.e. keeparras), and whilst going through the initiation into manhood process lived apart from the main camp guarded at all times by an elderly aboriginal armed with a bullroarer to warn the unwanted to keep away, and specifically they were kept away from the women of the tribe and their diet excluded specific foods that were taboo that he named as bush turkeys, goannas, flying foxes and several kinds of game. It will be noted that what Harvie wrote roughly accords with other 19th century accounts.
Thus it is quite apparent, if as it seems likely the Augustus Raymond selection was known to the aboriginals as caparra it would have been the place where the local tribe held initiation into manhood ceremonies and as such a sacred place with carved trees and bora ring etc. However as there is no record that prior to the coming into existence of the Capeharrow Hill school the Augustus selection was known as a caparra ground, it remains a possibility that subsequently it has just been assumed by someone aware of the aboriginal word and its' meaning, that the Capeharrow name must have been derived from that word and accordingly the selection on which it was located must have been an aboriginal keeparra gound. However a possibility that cannot be completely excluded is that the first teacher George Robinson, being aware of the caparrra word and its initiation into manhood process meaning, named the school Capeharrow on the basis it was to be the venue for the initiation of the local settler's children into an education - or in other words a white youth's Keeparra. This possibility is based on the thinking that Robinson would have been aware of the word and its "initiation" meaning as he came to Bowra directly from teaching at Dingo Creek where a nearby locality is named Caparra with a creek of same name.
52 Advised by Carmel Stuart - original source op. cit. Nancy Edge, p. 68. ED. - the 1869 conditional purchase is confirmed by official records and the 1872 move to Sydney is confirmed approximately by his eldest son's obituary which suggests it was perhaps in early 1873. It may be that the hansom cab driving and "accident" referred to were shortly after his ca. 1872/73 move to Sydney and subsequently he went back to his carpenter and joiner occupation before a second accident (perhaps a fall) in late December 1876 that caused the spinal injury resulting in paralysis and death after 20 days in hospital in the Sydney Infirmary in Macquarie Street.
53 Norma Townsend, Valley of the crooked river, 1993, p. 237 in Notes has - " Duncan Forbes Gaddes birth is registered as born at Hampden Court (the name of Raymond's selection). Mrs. Raymond was the midwife. See registrations of birth, 13 November 1870, Kempsey Court House." (ED - the child's mother Jane Gaddes née Mackay was a half-sister to Mrs Margaret Raymond) and Duncan Forbes was her 8th child and 7th son.
54 Glen Bradley, op. cit., p. 96 - "Baptism: 1 December 1820 -- Angus Mackay, furniture dealer, and his spouse, Jane Clark, had a daughter, named Margaret baptised by Reverend Mr. Doig, in the presence of George Mackay a labourer and Robert Calder, carter. (ED. note - Rev. Robert Doig was one of the ministers of Aberdeen and married Angus Mackay & Jane of St. Nicholas, Aberdeen, on 26 Mar 1815 in his house. Presumably the church where the baptism occurred was the Galic Chapel, in Galic Lane, as that was where Murdock Mackay married in 1823). Margaret Mackay's age was given as 17 in the list of government immigrants aboard the James Moran that departed Lochinvar on 10 Oct 1838 and arrived Sydney 11 Feb 1839 - see Bounty Immigrants 1839 AONSW reel #1303 & Disposal Return on reel #2654. (ED. at p. 96 the Bradley book gave her age in the passenger list as 19. However it was clearly listed in two places in those records as 17. However it is also indicated there she was born 4 Dec 1821 which is considered in error as would be inconsistent with the 1 Dec 1820 christening date. If 17 was her age when the she embarked in Scotland on 10 Oct 1838 it follows Margaret was born between 11 Oct 1820 and 10 Oct 1821 which is consistent with her christening date of 1 Dec 1820. Thus it has been concluded she was born in Oct. or Nov. 1820.
55 Glenn Bradley, op. cit., p. 70.
56 Alex S. Gaddes, Red Cedar Our Heritage, Wyndham Observer 1990. p. 100 - ED. the "Grandfather" appellation would have come about as by 1871 he was grandfather to three James Bradley/Mary Lavender Dornan children and about four children of Chambers daughters, with a host more to come as several more married in the immediately following years. The anecdote went on to say by luck a doctor was visiting at Wirrimbi, who supplied a medicine and scarified the snake bite wound, and after a night through which his brothers kept him awake by riding about with him on horseback the next day he was again feeling fine although the wound was a little sore!
57 Norma Townsend, op. cit., p.p. 98-100, a University of New England History Lecturer devoted a full chapter to the history of the Bowraville schools titled: "A School is Much Wanted".
58 Original held by the Bowraville Folk Museum - edited version published courtesy of same.
59 Norma Townsend, op. cit. p. 237 footnote .
60 The Gaddes' married at Dungog near Maitland about the same time Augustus married at Pola Creek and their first child William Jnr. was born in 1857. However they did not become related to Augustus until ten years later in Dec 1867 when he married a half-sister of Jane Gaddes née Mackay. Her husband William Gaddes, who was near Dungog at Willliams River and then at Rollands Plains on the Wilson River, selected at the Nambucca in Missabotti Parish on 15 Jul 1869. After they moved to Bowra and before residing on the selection at Missabotti it seems the family may have lived initially on Augustus' selection or very nearby as they had a child born on his selection in late 1870 with Augustus' wife Margaret acting as midwife. So located, as nephews and nieces of Margaret the eldest Gaddes children would naturally have been included when Augustus was teaching his own children the basics before the first formal school was established on his selection in July 1872.
Before Fernmount on the Bellinger River got its first school in Nov. 1871 government records state the closest school to Bowra was 50 miles away at the Macleay and that a school at Bowra was "much wanted". Details of the establishment of the first school on the Nambucca, first teacher etc. were published in a booklet titled: Bowraville Centenary 1875-1975 distributed by the Bowraville Folk Museum fifteen years before the Alex Gaddes book was published but were either unknown to him when he wrote in 1990 or were just ignored in favour of his own unsupported by evidence construct. To quote historian Norma Townsend the broad facts ascertained from government records are that - "from 1867, inspectors from New England had visited the district and tried to arouse sufficient interest to get a school established. ... In 1871, ‘about a dozen settlers convened to discuss certain important matters connected with the future of the river’ ... The next year, a group of families who had settled around Bowraville organised a school, the first on the river ... a group of parents invited George Robinson, a Council of Education teacher at Dingo Creek from where some of the families had come, to open a school on the Nambucca. Robinson accepted and the school began in a room which Augustus Raymond lent for the purpose" 57.
Whilst apparently by implication Augustus did tutor his own children, and those of relatives such as the Gaddes' at places he resided (Pola Creek and Bowra), it is considered highly unlikely the Alex Gaddes claim is correct in regard to his occupation after moving to Bowra having been an itinerant tutor or that he ever was such. The claim on page 102 of the Gaddes book appears to this compiler be no more than a seriously garbled, and sad to say concocted version, likely but not necessarily by him, of what was factual. One has to ask why during the approximately three years from 1869 to 1872 that Augustus would have resided on his Bowra selection before moving to Sydney where he remained until his death, he would have absented himself from his wife of only two years and, his children and step-children, for no less than half of each year to tutor at what, because of the limitations of his own education, could only have ever been at very basic level, children back where he had previously lived from at least 1856 at Pola Creek and where all his Dornan step-children due to their ages had left any school days behind them, and also further south on the Wilson River at Rollands Plains ? At Macleay River why would the children of settlers not have attended the local schools staffed by suitably qualified Council of Education paid teachers? It make no sense! The only reason for the inclusion of the Wilson River in the claim appears to be that the Gaddes' family spent time there after initially moving to Rollands Plains from the Williams River before their final move to Bowra River.
Many early settlers were not able to teach their children the basics skills of reading, writing and simple arithmetic because they could not read or write themselves or could read only. If so inclined those that could taught their children the basics and sometimes also the children of relatives and neighbours. An example was at Fernmount on the Bellinger that did not get its' first public school until 1 Nov 1871. It has been written that a daughter of one of the earliest settlers recalled, that prior to the establishent of the government school at Fernmount, there being many children in that town and no teacher, the local blacksmith John Williams had conducted classes for the children in his Smithy and it was where the older members of her family had obtained their early education (see compilers web page re John Williams the first blacksmith at Bellingen). If John Williams had also taught his and other children the basics in his Smithy when he was earlier at Cundletown at Taree on the Manning River would his occupation at Taree and later Fernmount have been an itinerant tutor instead of a blacksmith ??
As it was with John Williams so it would have been with Augustus. The evidence is his primary occupation in Australia was carpenter and joiner, with non-tradesman status as he had not undertaken an apprenticeship. In an isolated area as Bowra River was when he moved there, and although nominally a farmer, without an availability wood turning equipment he would likely have used his carpentry and joinery skills to made rough furniture and have helped other selectors build very basic dwellings. When at Pola Creek and then at Bowra it may be that not only relatives received their early education from him but also some children of nearby settlers. There is no record of there having been a private or public school in the Kempsey area between the years 1851 to 1859. According to her 1841 immigration arrival record his wife Catherine could neither read or write so after their 1856 marriage the task of imparting some basic education to her seven children would have fallen to Augustus. His formal schooling apparently ended about his 15th birthday. However as he was employed by his father there may have been opportunities for further study in selected areas, as is perhaps suggested by engineer (presumably of a steam tug as he was a licensed lighterman) being given as his occupation in 1849 when he first married. The level of education he reached would have been adequate to enable him to teach young children at an elementary level. So whilst he would not have earned his living as a professional tutor it is reasonable to assume he imparted some education to his own and the Dornan and Chambers step-children when living at Pola Creek. From 1869 at Bowra until the establishment of Capeharrow Hill school on 15 Jul 1872, the same would have applied with his and the youngest Chambers step-children and must have included the eldest children of his sister-in-law Jane Gaddes, none of whom were even been born when Augustus married at Pola Creek in 1856. As Norma Townsend has suggested, the Gaddes family may have initially lived on his Capeharrow Hill selection and sent children to the Capeharrow Hill school when it began in July 1872 59. William Gaddes was one of the 11 parents who signed the petition for the establishment of the Capeharrow Hill school and undertook to have children attend.
61 Email advice dated 23 Sep 2011 from Meurig Jones ( compiler of "The Register of the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902" at www.casus-belli.co.ukweb ).
62 Email advice dated 8 April 2012 from Margaret Chambers descendant Karen Dimond who also provided a copy of the 3 July 1877 probated will held in the probate packet at NSW State Records. Advised was that among the documents in the probate packet were 1877 affidavits from James Chambers, John Howells and George Robinson - James Chambers being a farmer, John Howells a drayman and George Robinson by then a book keeper residing in Sydney. Also advised was that there was an unspecified document in the probate file that his occupation as a "cab proprietor" crossed out and "farmer" written in.
63 The NSW BDM Index of Macleay River baptisms and birth registrations from 1850 to 1872 does not have a single instance of a given name spelt "Hellen" and only eight spelt as "Helen". By contrast there are 58 with Margaret as a given name and about the same number for Ellen which sounds the same as Helen and in some cases later became spelt Helen. No surname of the parents of a Helen matched a surname of those who had a Margaret. About nine different parents had two daughters named Margaret and Ellen. It is of course possible Margaret and Helen were not sisters, or at least not full-sisters, and/or one or both were baptised or had their birth registered elsewhere than at Macleay River.
64 Email advice in March 2013 from Peter Matthews of online official BDM records at http://www.familyhistorysa.info/ as follows:
BIRTH 1850 3/54 RAYMOND Sarah Terrey born 19-5-1850 at Kensington, father RAYMOND Augustus, mother SUMMERFIELD Sarah
DEATH 1850 2/19 RAYMOND Sarah Terrey died 24-5-1850 age 25 at Kensington; relative Augustus (H)
DEATH 1850 2/24 RAYMOND Sarah Terrey died 24-6-1850-06-24 age 5w at Kensington; relative Augustus (F). NOTE: SA death registrations in 1850 did not include the name of the burial cemetery - in Kensington the most likely graveyard would have been St Mathhews Anglican Church that was built in 1848-1849 (the grounds of which have been cleared and headstones relocated to beside the church - a list of known burials does not include any for a Raymond - see list at the Australian Cemeteries website. The SA State Library holds burial records for this church from 1849 on microfilm - these have not been not consulted so not known if above linked to list is a full transcription of the microfilms?). Another possible cemetery was Kensington Park now cleared of graves with the names inscribed on a central plaque - no Raymond listed.
65 South Australian Register 18 Oct 1852 page 3 - Augustus Raymond was listed in a list of unclaimed letters held at the Adelaide Post Office dated 30 Sep 1852.
Empire (Sydney) 18 April 1853 - advertisement reading - MR. AUGUSTUS RAYMOND Letters from your brother, in England, await you at the Post-offices, Adelaide and Sydney."
66 South Australian (Adelaide) Friday 22 June 1849 p.2 - Shipping Intelligence, Arrivals, June 20 - The bargue Posthumous, 390 tons, R. Davidson, from London and Plymouth - Passengers: ... Augustus Raymond and wife ... in the steerage.
The only report noted of the passage was of an occurrence on the day before the vessel made port as follows: - "On Tuesday afternoon a seaman of the Posthumous, named Grace - one of the smartest fellows on board - fell from the chains while harpooning porpoises. Captain Davidson threw him life-buoy from the poop. The whale boat was instantly manned, and in less than a quarter of an hour from his falling he was again on board. The crew loudly cheered him on his return, as also the chief mate (Mr. Ware) who commanded the boat."
67 Sydney Morning Heralds 4 July 1851 - In a letter addressed to the Citizens of Sydney, former dismissed Police inspector Pearce wrote that at the inquiry into his conduct held on 3 June 1851, when giving evidence on his behalf, "Augustus Raymond, cabinetmaker" had stated -"Have only been three months in Sydney : did not know Inspector Pearce until he was pointed out to me ; saw him in Pitt-street on the night of the 24th ; he was sober from the way in which he did his duty ; I did not speak to him."
68 A quarter of corn was an old English measure of corn containing 8 bushels. The granary storage capacity of 16,000 bushels of corn was equivalent to 406.4 metric tonne - a bushel of a shelled maize (corn) at 15.5% moisture by weight is 56 lb = 25.4012 kg.
69 New South Government Gazette 1859, page 2796 - Title Deeds Ready for Delivery - #1689 Raymond, Augustus, Dudley, 29 acres, portion 54. Also advised in the same notice as available were the deeds for adjacent portions viz: portion 55 James H Kemp, 53 James Smith, 51 & 52, Edward McQuilan, 50 John Hiller. The auction of these farm portions in the County of Dudley took place at the Police Office at Belgrave on Monday 14 March 1859 (auction of Crown Lands advertisment in NSW Government Gazette Supplement dated Wed. 2 February 1859). 32 portions in the Parish of Cooroobongatti were offered for sale, with an upset price of £1 per acre described as situated "on or near the left bank of the McLeay River" plus 20 in the Parish of Kinchela and 3 on Darkwater Creek etc.
70 New South Government Gazette 23 Aug 1854 - as per the The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River Advertiser 30 Aug 1854, page 1. The portion 11 and portion 25 grants were before the introduction of Volume and Folio numbers for land titles and the titles for the two respectively had the dates 1.10.1855 and 4.12.1856. The later adjacent Alexander Dornan purchases of portions 67 & 68 respectively had the titles as - Vol. 34, Folio 58 & 67.
71 The Sydney Morning Herald 15 Sep 1842, page 2 - "As to the expectation of Mr. Verge's intention to throw open his fine and extensive estate on the banks of the McLeay, with ten miles of water frontage, into small farms, on clearing leases, it is to be regretted that there appears no probability of this gentleman commencing so laudable an undertaking. He has an immense quantity of cedar growing thereon and has been offered a very high price for it, as it stands, but at present appears no way disposed to part with it, or forward it to the Sydney market himself, as was expected.
The Sydney Morning Herald 7 July 1855 - "CLEARING LEASES, McLEAY RIVER - TO BE LET immediately, on the navigable banks of the McLeay River, 2000 or 3000 acres of very rich brush and other alluvial land, on clearing leases, four three or four years, free of rent, in lots of ten acres upwards, or if desired for a longer lease, on terms to be agreed. Enquire of the owner J. VERGE, McLeay River.
72 NSW BDM Indexes - indexed under DORMAN (sic) surname and reference V1842-4567-121 - Register of baptisms, burials and marriages, Presbyterian Church, Port Macquarie (St. Andrews) AONSW microfilm reel #5046.
73 Rev. James Cameron, M.A.. D.D. Centenary history of the Presbyterian Church in New South Wales (1905, Angus & Robertson), p.246 - "This is a very old parish, and dates as far back as the year 1840. In 1841 the church and manse were erected substantially of brick. ... The Rev. Wm. Purves was the first minister and came to the district in 1840. He carried on work for about eight years, and was succeeded by the Revs. Wm. McKee and Edward Holland."
74 Perhaps the claims that after arrival in Sydney in 1841 Charles Dornan purchased the Pola Creek farm from the government arose from an assumption such were available for purchase based on a letter from a Macleay resident published in a newspaper in February 1841 that claimed in respect of "some of the fertile plains on the banks of the McLeay" that the "The Survey Department has likewise caused a considerable tract of country upon the fertile and extensive plains on the banks of the McLeay to be measured out into small farms not exceeding sixty acres ; each for the purpose of being sold, not by auction, but by private contract, agreeably to the plan understood as Lord John Russel's New Land Regulations, which were recently officially published and which seems to give satisfaction in the northern colony."
The surveying in question could only have been that by Clement Hodginson on the north bank of the Macleay River or by James Ralfe on the south side. In April 1840 the Surveyor General of the colony wrote to assistant surveyors Hodgkinson and Ralfe requesting them to respectively survey parishes on the north side of the river (later in County of Dudley) and on south side (Counties of Macquarie and Vernon). In March 1841 Ralfe submitted his survey. The area on the northside of the river was outside the bounds of location and the County of Dudley within which the north side parishes were to be located was not formally created until 1848 and then only with provisonal boundaries. The letter writer was a strong advocate for the crown making available fertile river front land for small farms but his assumption that the 1840-41 surveying meant that was imminent was well astray and amounted to no more than wishful thinking on his part. In respect of the "Land Regulations", the northern colony that Lord John Russell the Secretary of State in England for the Colonies proposed was to begin at Manning River and was to have its own government and legislative council, did not eventuate. In respect of the contracting referred to the regulations provided that crown lands in the proposed third southern colony, that was to extend to Port Phillip and whose northern boundary was to be the Moruya, Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers, could be pre-paid for in England at a set price of £1 per acre by persons wishing to emigrate before they left and upon arrival they could choose an area for their land and then present the land order obliging the government to survey the choosen acreage at its expense. Persons already in Australia could purchase land in the southern colony for the same set price, but for the time being the sale of crown land by auction in the proposed northern colony was to continue and, in the central third colony centered on Sydney and comprising the rest of NSW auction was to remain the method disposal of crown land. The fixed price sale scheme applicable to land in the proposed southern colony was beset with flaws and was abandoned in August 1841 before Lord Russell and the Whig government lost office that year.
The first farms (termed Country Lots) offered for sale by Crown at Macleay River were in the parish of Yarravel on the opposite side of the river to Pola Creek, when four portions fronting the river of which part later became the Central Business District of Kempsey, were offered by the Crown at auction in March 1850. They ranged in size from 109 to 140 acres. Two were purchased by William Smith after whom the main street of Kempsey that runs through the portions took its Smith Street name and two by John Verge. A fifth portion of 266 acres,with frontages to both the Macleay River and Christmas Creek, that had been part of the previously held under licence "Glenrock" run was purchased by John Verge at the same auction. The several portions in between were auctioned by the crown in 1855.
75 In 2013 the Membership Registers for 1823-1866 and Student Fees Ledgers 1837-1857 of the London Mechanics Insitute were held by Birkbeck College Archives at the University of London and were accessable to researchers by application to the college Master's Secretary.