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HISTORICAL RECORDS OF AUSTRALIA (HRA)

LETTER 1  May 1828 - Gov. Darling to Hon W. Huskinsson - Vol. 14, pp. 183-7
LETTER 2  Feb. 1829 - Gov. Darling to Sir George Murray -  Vol. 14, pp. 650-9
LETTER 3  Sep. 1836 - Sir Richard Bourke to Lord Glenelg - Vol. 18, pp. 533-4
LETTER 4  Dec. 1836 - Lord Glenelg to Sir Richard Bourke - Vol. 18, pp. 611-4
LETTER 5  May 1837 - Lord Glenelg to Sir Richard Bourke  - Vol. 18, pp. 747-8
LETTER 1:   GOVERNOR DARLING TO RIGHT HON. W. HUSKISSON

Government House, 15 May, 1828.
Sir,
       I do Myself the honor to transmit for your information the accompany, Ground Plan and Elevation of the Female Factory at Parramatta, together with Copy of a Report prepared by Captain Dumaresq the Civil Engineer and one of the Committee of Management, explanatory of the additions and Alterations which have been found necessary with a view to the more complete Separation of the Classes and to that system of discipline which it had been deemed expedient to adopt.
       2d. The whole computed Expense (including the Charge for the maintenance of the Convicts employed and the Materials collected and prepared by them) of these additions and alterations is about £2,687 13s. 5d.; but the actual Money Expenditure is comparatively trifling, not exceeding £300, being chiefly for the purchase of Lime, which could not be conveniently procured by the means of Convict Labour.
       3d. I have now great satisfaction in Reporting that the Establishment is at length rendered as complete as could be expected; and I trust the efliciency of the Measures which have been adopted will be admitted, when. it is considered so large a Number of Female Prisoners of the Worst Character (there being at this Moment 490 in the Factory, which is occasioned by the unusual importations which have taken place) the Refuse of the English and Irish Jails, are retained in subjection by an Establishment consisting of only five Women, ‘‘Vizt.’’: -

                  1 Matron, at the head of the Establishment; 3 Monitresses, one for each Class; 1 Portress,

in addition to whom two Men are employed, one as a Clerk, the other as a Storekeeper, the whole of whose Salaries together do not exceed £430 a year.
       4th. In submitting this Statement to you, I presume to think, Sir, that no instance can be produced in any part of the world of a like Number of Prisoners being retained in due subjection by such slender means, or at so very trifling an Expense. And, as to the order and regularity of the Establishment, I may venture to assure you they cannot be surpassed.
       5th. It appears unneccessary to say any thing more respecting the Establishment, further than that the Merit of the present Arrangements and of the excellence of the System, which has been so successfully adopted, belongs exclusively to the Committee of Management who are unwearied in their exertions, and to Mrs. Gordon, the present Matron, who has most Zealously performed the duties which attach to her very important Situation.
       6th. I now do myself the honor to forward for your information a Copy of the last Half yearly Report of the general Board, by which it appears that, although so unusual a Number as 504 Women had arrived from England and Ireland during the Year, the Actual encrease to the Numbers in the Factory at the termination of the Year did not exceed 137, so that 367 were distributed throughout the Colony over and above the Number that had been previously disposed of.
      7th. Having closed my observations as far as regards the State of the Factory to the end of last Year, I am under the necessity of observing that the Establishment has received a very large and I must say inconvenient addition since the commencement of the present Year by the arrival of 192 Women in the Ship Elizabeth from Ireland. The Applications for these Women not being numerous, and this Ship having brought out at once double the Number usually embarked, it has had the eflect of Crowding the Factory to excess, and, had it not been for the good order which is so well preserved in the Establishment, the Consequences would have been extremely embarrassing, there being no other place eligible for the proper accommodation of the Women. 

I have, &c., Ra DARLING.

[Enclosure No. 1.]

[A copy of the plan will be found in the volume of charts and plans.]

[Enclosure No. 2.]

REPORT on the Alterations, etc., which have taken place at the Female Factory, Parramatta.

A BOARD having been appointed to report upon the State of the Female Factory and draw up and propose such regulations as appeared to them desirable, very considerable alterations and some additions were proposed to the Building in order to the Plan suggested by them being carried into effect.
       The division of the Establishment into Classes was considered essential, and, to enable each to have their separate Kitchen, Workshops and other accommodations, several alterations became necessary; Store-keeper's Rooms and Offices, a Porter's Room, etc.. were constructed at the Outer Gate, preventing the necessity of these people going inside the Building at all, the inner Gate being kept by a Portress.
       The Penal part of the Establishment, the Penetentiary, being extremely crowded it became necessary to erect Workshops for them, also a Dining Hall, it being considered liable to cause disease, spinning Wool, eating and sleeping all in the same Rooms, which was before necessarily the case.
       The accompanying Plan of the Building will shew the Alterations which have been made, being distinguished by the red lines by which will be seen the addition that has taken place to the Penitentiary.
       To prevent the necessity of sending the Women outside the Building to obtain the supply of Water required, a Force Pump has been erected, and arrangements made for conducting Water to all parts of the Establishment, thereby obviating the necessity of there being any intercourse between the different Classes.
       The Surrounding Wall having been considered much too low, not being more than 11 feet, it has been heightened to about 16 feet.
       I deem it unnecessary further to detail the alterations and additions that have been made, considering that they are better illustrated by the Plan which accompanies this report. I have a confident hope that, when the whole Plan shall be completely carried into effect, considerable benefit will be experienced in the Management of this Establishment.

Wm. DUMARESQ, Civ. Engineer.

[Enclosure No. 3.]

REPORT of the Board for the Management of the Female Factory, as directed in his Excellency the Governor's Minute No. 123 for it's appointment, dated 12th August, 1826.

Female Factory, Parramatta, 2nd January, 1828.

PRESENT:-The Honble. Alexr. MeLeay; Williain Lithgow, Esquire; The Reverend Samuel Marsden; Edward Lockyer, Esquire; George Thos. Palmer, Esquire; William Dumaresq, Esquire; Lient. De La Condamine; Matthew Anderson, Esquire.
       The Board in pursuance of the Regulations have the honor to report for His Excellency the Governor's Information.
       Ist. The Number of Women received into and discharged from the Establishment front the 1st of July to the 31st December, 1827, inclusively, is as follows: -
Prisoners In the Establishment 30th June .............................    290
Received from -
       Princess Charlotte ..........................................    21
       Harmony ........................................................    13
       Lonisa ............................................................    29
       Private Service to 1st Class ..........................   167
              Do             to 2d Class ............................    21
              Do             to 3d   Do ............................    254          513
                                                                                                 ___
                                                            Total    ..................      803
Discharged to -
       Private Service ...............................................  378
       F
ree by Servitude ........................................          3
      
Escaped and not Apprehended ..........................    3
       D
ead .............................................................         4
       Married ..........................................................     13
       Returned to their Husbands ..............................   36         437
                                                                                                  ___

                      Remains 31st December, 1827 - Women ......    366
                                                                                                 ___
                     Children in the Establishment 30th June    15
                                         Increase ..............................  20
                      Remains 31st December, 1827 - Children ......    35
                                                                                                ___
Free Women, convicted in the Colony, in the Establishment on
the 30th June, 1827 ..............................................   26
                                         Received ..................     61
                                                               Total ...     87
                                         Discharged .............       57
                                                                                                 ___

 Remains 31st December, 1827 -  Free Women ...................    30
                      Do                       Prisoners ........................      366
                                                                                                ___
                                                                   Total .............       396

       It appears by the foregoing Statement that there has been an Increase in the Establishment during the last half year of 80 Women, and in the whole year of 137, occasioned by the arrival of 504 Female Prisoners during that period, leaving a distribution of 367; there are, at present in the 1st Class unassigned, and eligible for assignment, 48, of which 26 are necessary in the Establishment as Servants, Oversears, etc.; the remainder are about to be sent to their assigned Service, are old, or infirm, or being either pregnant or having young Children, cannot be sent away from the Establishment, though the number of Women in the Establishment is considerable, and much larger than the previous year, it is occasioned by Prisoners committed for offences, and cannot be diminished, except by Improvement in the morals of the People generally.
       The Board beg leave to observe that there appears too great a Portion of Women sent into the 1st Class from Service, who it must be presumed have for the most part committed some offence, or they would net have been discharged; and, in so doing, it must prove injurious, as they are immediately eligible for reassignment; a statement of several cases of this description accompanies for His Excellency's more particular Information.
       The Women appear in a most healthy State, no complaint having been made on the part of any of the Inmates; and the Board have much satisfaction in forwarding the Surgeon's Report, together with the Half yearly Return of the Sick, which they think will warrant their most favorable Representation.
        The Establishment has been orderly with the exception of the disturbance some time ago in the Penitentiary, and, of the number which then escaped, only three are now at large. ( Ed. - the mass breakout referred to occurred Sat. 27 Oct. 1827. On Wed. 31st the Sydney Gazette  newspaper stated that at last report 19 were still at large - thus two months later 16 of the 19 escapees had been apprehened )
      The discipline of the Establishment is considered to have been improved and is improving and the Regulations to have been enforced as far as practicable. It is however to be regretted that the arrangements of the Building are still incomplete thoughconsiderable advancement has been made; the entire Separation of the Classes therefore has not taken Place.
       The Board have reason to be satisfied with the regularity and cleanliness observed in the Building, and have hopes, when the arrangements are completed, that much benefit will result from the order and regularity which can then only be enforced.
       The Matron reports that Prayers for the Protestants have been regularly read morning and evening by herself, also for the Catholics under the observation of the Matron of the 1st Class, and that they are attentive. In the 3d Class also, the Matron has had divine Service regularly performed.
       An Abstract of the Punishments during the half year is herewith transmitted; it appears there have been 312 Cases of punishment during that period, which, considering the Class of people and that there have been 890 Prisoners in the Establishment, the Board do not think excessive.
       The Board have not yet been able to find a Clerk for the purpose of auditing the affairs of the Establishment.

Alexr. McLeay.     Geo. Thos. Palmer,
Wm. Lithgow.        Wm. Dumaresq.
Samuel Marsden.    T. De La Condamine.
Edward. Lockyer.   M. Anderson.

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LETTER 2:  GOVERNOR DARLING TO SIR GEORGE MURRAY

Government House, 18th February, 1829.
Sir,
      I have the honor to transmit for your information copy of the Report of the Board of Management of the Female Factory for the Half Year ending the 31st of December, 1828, together with such of the documents connected therewith as appear necessary to elucidate the statements contained in the Report.
       It will be seen that the numbers of Women, who have been sent out during the last two years, are much beyond the demand of the Settlers, and that consequently the Factory has been most inconveniently burthened, there being no other place in which these Women could possibly be kept. This inconvenience would have been still more severely felt, had not the Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land retained one of the Ships last year intended for this Colony, by which this Establishment was relieved of one hundred Women.
   I have not yet had time, having only just now received the Report, to consider or Act upon it; but I shall take the liberty of drawing your attention briefly to the state of the Establishment on the 31st of December, 1828, with reference to that of the preceding year, showing the number of women arrived and disposed of during the last year:

          Number in the Factory on the 31st of December, 1827       366
          Arrived during the year 1828, one of the ships in-
                 tended for this Colony having been detained at
                 Van Diemen's Land .....................................                371
                                                                                                   ____
                                          Total                                                   737

          Remained in the Factory on the 31st December, 1828        537
          Assigned and discharged in the year 1828                          200

I shall now state the result of the three years since my assuming the Government, ‘‘ Vizt.,’’ 1826, 1827 and 1828:

                                                                                                     Women.  Children.

         Remained in the Factory at the end of
         December, 1825                                                                         226        15
         Arrived during the years 1826, 1827 and 1828      1,074
                                                                                        ____
                                                                                         1300
         Remained on 31st December, 1828                                            537        71
                                                                                        ____
         Assigned and Discharged in the years 1826,
         1827 and 1828 ........................................                763
 

       In addition to the 537 Women and 71 Children, who remained on the last day of December, 1828, there were also 36 free Women in the Factory (sentenced to be confined in that Establishment, there being no House of Correction for females in the Colony), making the total number maintained 644 independent of the Matron and other Free Persons employed in the charge of the Establishment.
       Much pains have been taken to devise means of Employment for these Women; but their number is so great, it has been found impracticable to furnish them with constant occupation. It is now proposed, as a means of accomplishing this desirable object as far as may be possible, to transfer the Weaving Establishment to the Factory, and get rid of the Individuals employed in this Branch, which would be a saving of the Expense of Maintenance of about 30 men. But the object, which I have been still more anxious to accomplish, is finding means to distribute the Women more generally in an unobjectionable manner, and thus relieve the Factory and the Government from their supernitendence and maintenance. It has been suggested, as will be seen by the Report, to grant the well behaved women Tickets of Leave after short periods of Probation as a means of affording them an opportunity of marrying or settling in some line of Business. That it will fail in most instances, I have little doubt from the general character and depraved disposition of these Women; But, if it succeed in a few instances, it will justify the experiment, and those, who prove themselves undeserving the indulgence, will of course be remanded to the Factory.
       I have not yet decided as to the additions to the Building proposed by the Board; but they appear indispensable to the comfort of the Establishment, with reference to its increased numbers, and I shall be glad to adopt any expedient which may render it unnecessary to provide other Buildings for the accommodation of the Women.
       I should take the liberty of suggesting in this place that no women should be sent out for a period of twelve months, as in that time a proportion of those now in the Factory would probably be permanently disposed of. The chance is that those will not be taken, if other women come out; and I strongly recommend that no Women from Ireland may be sent for some time, the inhabitants appearing to have a strong objection to receiving them.
       I shall now take leave to advert to the Expenses incurred on account of the Establishment. It appears that the gross charge, including both superintendence and maintenance, was £3,298  9s. 6½d. in the half year, and that the value of the work done by the Women, being estimated at very low rates, amounted to £1,210 10s. 8d. in the same period; so that the expense of 573 Women and 71 children for one year may be stated at £4,175, or taking the average of Women and children at less than £7 each Individual.
       Having, in my Despatch No. 75 of last year, adverted to the very small Establishment which is kept up for the Superintendence of the Factory, the expense at present being at the rate of only £470 per annum, I have great pleasure in stating that it continues to be conducted in the best manner by Mrs. Gordon, the Matron, under the Superintendence of the Managing Committee,consisting of the Gentlemen named in the Margin ( Ed. - Marginal note. - Rev. S. Marsden ; Captain Durnaresq; G. T. Palmer, Esq. M. Anderson, Esq.), and that the Women occasion much less trouble than could possibly be expected, considering their numbers and that they are generally selected from amongst the worst characters of the English and Irish Female Prisoners.

I have, &c.,
Ra. DARLING

       P.S.- Having reported in the Month of May last on the State of the Factory, I did not think it necessary to forward the Report of the Board for the first Half Year of 1828. I advert to this now, as that Report is occasionally referred to in the accompanying Report. I have understood since closing my Despatch that no convicts of either Sex are ever sent from Ireland to Van Diemen's Land. I have not been informed of the reasons, but unless it is one of importance, I would beg to suggest that this Colony may be relieved of a portion of the Irish Convicts, particularly of the Women usually sent here. - R. D.

[Enclosure]

Report of the Board of Management of the Female Factory for the Half Year ending the 31st December, 1828.

       1st. The number of Convict Women in the different Classes of the Establishment is:
          First Class ........................................          208
          Second do ........................................          107
          Third do ..........................................           173
          Hospital                                                        49 including 6 nurses.
                                                                            ___
                                            Total ...........            537
Crown Prisoners, which, with 36 free Persons, committed as to House of Correction, make 573 Women and 71 children, Total  644 persons, showing an Increase during the Half Year of 63 Crown Prisoners, 19 free persons, and 12 children, as per Statement No. 1 accompanying.
        2nd. The number of Crown Prisoners received into the Establishment and discharged from it during the Half Year is, Viz.:-

Receipts.
      From Ship Competitor not being assigned     .....           19
       City of Edinburgh   .........................................          39
       Private Service to 1st Class  ............................         210
                     do     to 2nd do     ............................            5
                     do     to 3rd do     ............................         275
                                                                                      ___
                                                                                                      548

Discharged.

      Assigned to Service ........................................           381
    
Returned to    do    ........................................             38
            "          Husbands  ...................................             33
      Original Sentences expired ..............................            10
      Married .........................................................            12
      Dead ............................................................              9
      Absconded and not returned ..........................               2
                                                                                      ____
                                                                                                       485
                                                                                                       ___
                                   Increase in Crown Prisoners                             63

        3rd. The accompanying Statement No. 2 exhibits the number of Free Persons sentenced as to House of Correction:

      Remained Ist July .............................................................................  17
      Received ..........................................................................................  81
                                                                                                                __
                                                                                                                      98
      Discharged Fines expired ..................................................................         62
                                                                                                                      __
                                Remains 31st Decr., 1828 ....................................            36

Showing an increase of 19 free persons.

       The comparison of the years 1827 and 1828, as shewn in Statement No. 1, proves an increase to the Establishment of 171 Crown Prisoners.
       4. There are now in the first class from which the Assigninents take place, 107 available for Service; the remaining 101, from causes subjoined, cannot be considered its eligible, Vizt.:
     Monitresses ...................................................................................    6
      Cooks and other Servants ..............................................................   30
      Old and infirm ..............................................................................     5
      Advanced ill pregnancy .................................................................     6
      Having young children ..................................................................    54
                                                                                                            ___
                                                                                                                    101
      Available for Service  .........................................................................     107
                                                                                                                    ___
                              Total of the Class .................................................. ....     208

       5th. The Board would here call the attention of the Government to the fact of the great increase, which appears to take place by Women coming to the Establishment to lye in, and would suggest that some measure might be adopted to oblige the Fathers to provide for their illegitimate offspring by the payment of a sum of money, or a weekly rate for its support; and they could hope such a measure might tend to induce parties to marry, who now never think of such in ordinance; but a serious difficulty presents itself to such a measure, from the belief they are obliged to entertain that many of the Women are so bad that, to gratify any purpose they might form, they would not hesitate to swear their children to any one; and in the ease of a Master turning away servants, it is not improbable, as a means of revenge, they might not infrequently accuse him of being the father of their children.
     6th. A Legislative enactment also appears to be called for to oblige Husbands to withdraw from this Establishment their wives, who are sent to it for a limited punishment, when such has expired; in several instances now in the Establishment, the comitting Magistrates have ordered, on sending married Women, that their husbands are to pay the Expenses.
       The Board are at a loss to know how to charge and levy this sum. Other cases occur in which the Wives being Prisoners, and married to free or Ticket of Leave men, are kept in the Establishment men after their fine or punishment has expired ; and in all suchcases, the Board would recommend that a Law be passed, authorizing by summary process that three shillings a day be levied on the Hushand to provide for the maintenance of the Wife.  If it is true this sum will much wore than pay the actual expenses of the Women; but the measure carries with it a second object, that of preventing Numbers accumulating In this Establishment.
       7th. The general health of the Establishment continues undiminished, though for some short time past " Ophthalmia " has spread among the Women and prevails as an Epidemic, increasing the numbers in the Hospital to an extent beyond the means of the Establishment to provide. In consequence, one of the sleeping Wards of the Second Class has been appropriated in aid of the Hospital Establishment.
       The Number of Deaths (9) of Women belonging to the Establishment exceeds by one only those of last Half Year, the particulars of which are detailed in the Surgeon's Report No. 4 accompanying.
       It way perhaps be necessary to observe that this Establishment the receptacle (with the exception of a single Ward, appropriated to Females in Sydney) for all the Females in the Colony who require medical aid.
       8th. The conduct of the Women during the Half Year has been good with a few exceptions; some two or three of the most troublesome having been obliged to be punished as often as six times. Punishment has however decreased notwithstanding the increased number in the Establishment; the accompanying Return No. 5 Contains but 261 cases of Punishment during the Half Year, shewing a diminution of 59 Cases on that of the preceding, proving most satisfactorily the advantages arising from the improved order and discipline of the Establishment. The crimes are of an ordinary character, and therefore do not appear to call for any particular observation from the Board, further than was noted in their last report, being of the same character, vizt., Drunkenness, insolence and obscene Language.
       9th. The Board find the Regulations of the Establishment duly observed; the books required by the Establishment are in good order, and are neatly kept by the parties having charge of them. The Matron states that Morning and Evening Prayers are read by herself to the Protestants, and by one of the Monitresses to the Catholics, and that good order and attention is observed.
     10th. It is pleasing to the Board to have it in their power to report their continued satisfaction at the cleanliness, order, and regularity observable in the Establishment, and their approbation of the manner in which the Matron, Mrs. Gordon, performs the arduous duties of her Office; the Assistant Monitresses of the different Classes, who are selected from among the Prisoners of the first Class, give satisfaction in their appointments. Mrs. Gordon however complains that she does not receive such assistance, as she might do from the Free Women appointed Matrons of the Classes, a source of difficulty to the Board and Managing Committee, who have had much trouble in procuring them, and are at a loss to know where to obtain others to replace them.
       11th. The Board had occasion to observe in their last Report, under the recommendation of the Surgeon, that the Diet allowed to the children of the Establishment might with advantage be altered, and their recommendation met with Your Excellency's ready sanction. The Surgeon now reports that the result of the measure has not turned out so favourably as was anticipated. The Board therefore again solicit Your Excellency's sanction to its change, substituting the following as the scale of diet for the children, Vizt.:-
         Under one year - Six ounces bread and eight ounces or one half pint of milk.
         From 1 to 3 yrs. old - Twelve ounces bread, sixteen ounces or 1 pint of milk and 4 ounces of beef or mutton.
       12th. The employment of the Women of the Establishment is attended to as far as possible in the present state of the Building. The late alterations and additions by no means contemplated the possibility of the present numbers being thrown upon the Establishment; and it is apparent to the Board, unless some effectual steps are taken either to restrain importations, or otherwise devise means by which the Women may be more distributed, additional Buildings must be erected to provide for the growing necessities. As it is, with the view of giving more employment, the Board have to suggest that an additional Room may be added to the Penitentiary for the purpose of carrying on the Weaving, whereby it is hoped that additional labour for the Women will be obtained. The factory will have then within its Walls the means of Spinning, Weaving, and making up the whole of the clothing required by Government for the Convicts in their employ. To this end, the Board beg to forward a plan of the Building required, together with an Estimate, which amount to the sum of £42 13s. 81d. as a money Expense, and £103 9s. 8d. for Convict Labour. The Board are reluctantly obliged to press the necessity of this Building. It is however a satisfaction to think it will prove a measure of economy to Government by enabling the present Weaving Establishment be broke up, thereby causing a saving in the amount equal to the expense of that Establishment.
       13th. The Board, while thus under the necessity of adding buildings to the Factory, beg to point out the importance of shading the frout of the Hokspital with a Verandah. The Surgeon considers it essential, as a place where he can receive the cases which daily apply for admittance.
       The Committee also, during the time they are employed assigning the Prisoners, experience the want of a similar shade, and therefore again urge Your Excellency to sanction this trifling Work, the Expense of which, as shewn in the Accompanying Estimate, will be but £12 17s. 10d. money Expense, and £24 1s. 6d. for Convict Labour.
       14th. From the Accompanying Statement of the Expenses of the Establishment for the Half Year, shewing also the Value of the Labour performed, it appears that the Total Expenses have been  £3,298 9s. 6½d., that the Value of Labour is £1,210 10s. 8d., leaving a Balance of £2,087 18s. 10.5d. against the Establishment, being less than the proceeding Half Year by £371 Ss. 9.5d., although, on a daily average of Numbers, there has been 17 Women and 9 Children more maintained.
      15. The result of each half Year proving that the Establishment is encreasing owing to the importations exceeding the demand for Female Labour, it is with feelings of some satisfaction, the attention of the Board has been directed to the subject of a modification of the present system of granting Tickets of Leave and Indulgencies to the more meritorious of this Class of Females, as called for by the Colonial Secretary's Letter of the 16th January, 1829. The Board are as much disposed to believe, as to hope, a measure of this nature may be attended with beneficial results. In considering the subject, they have to propose their opinion that Tickets of Leave, might be granted as follows, Vizt.:-
          To Women under Sentence for Seven Years, for continued good
          Conduct in Service, or in the Married State ...........................   2 Years
          14 Years' Sentence   ............................................................  3   do
          Life ...................................................................................   4   do
       As the first Class of this Establishment is considered as an Asylum and not a place of Punishment for the unappropriated Female Prisoners, Women returned to the first Class will not be considered as having forfeited their Claim to a Ticket of Leave, as it must be inferred that they have committed no offence in their Service, or they would have been punished by being sent to the third Class. The same Indulgence might also be extended to Monitresses in the Estt., who retain their Situations for the periods specified, such employment being considered as a Service. Women, who have been permitted to Marry, should their Husbands die or absent themselves, if they have lived two, three or four Years, according to the period of their Sentence, without being complained of or becoming known to the Police, to be equally eligible to have Tickets of Leave.
       16th.  In reviewing generally the state of the Establishment, its operation and progress during the Half Year, the Board are pleased to have it in their power to report favorably on all its branches, with the exception of the encrease to its Numbers, over which, arising as it has done from the extent of the Importations, they can have no control; Punishments have diminished, and, although the Labour of the Women has not been pushed so far as could be wished, its value has encreased sufficient to diminish the Expense of Maintenance below what it was calculated at the last Half Year. In concluding their Report, the Board have much -pleasure in adverting to the circumstance of the formation and introduction into the Establishment of a Ladies' Committee, composed of the principal Ladies in the Neighbourhood, actively encouraged and patronized by Mrs. Darling, the object of which is, by the adoption of an Evening School, to inculcate moral Instruction, and excite and raise into being a better feeling for their condition, and a desire to improve (by becoming good Servants) their Stations in Society. The Ladies also hold out encouragement to Work during their leisure time, intending from the proceeds of their Labour, to form a fund from which to reward those who have remained long in their Services with good Characters.
       The Board need hardly remark that they anticipate much good to result from the interest taken in the Establishment by the Ladies' Committee.

Alexr. McLeay.  T. De Condamine.
S. Marsden.       M. Anderson.
W. Lithgow.      A. C. Innis
W. Dumaresq.
Female Factory, Parramatta, 19th January, 1829.

[Sub-enclosure No. 1.]

STATEMENT of Female Prisoners Received and Discharged, from the Factory at Parramatta from the 1st July to the 31st December, 1828, inclusively.

                                                                (Crown Prisoners.)  Women.       Children.
                           Remained 30th June, 1828  .........................     474               59

                        { Ship Competitor ................................  19 }
                        { do City of Edinburgh .........................  39 }
Received ........ { Private Service to Ist Class                 210 }      548               12
                        {            do        to 2d    do  ..............       5 }
                        {            do        to 3d    do  ............     275 }
                                                                                               1,022               71

                        { Assigned to Service .......................   381 }
                        { Returned to do ..............................     38 }
                        {     do       to Husbands ...................     33 }
Discharged ......{ Original Sentences Expired ....... .....    10 }       485
                        { Married  ........................................    12 }
                        { Dead .............................................     9 }
                        { Absconded and not Returned                2 }
                     Remains 1st January, 1829 ................................... 537                71
Increase during the Half Year 63 Women and 12 Children.
The Board of Management, Female Factory, Parramatta.

[Sub-enclosure No. 2.]

RECAPITULATION of Crown Prisoners in the Factory 1st January, 1829.

                First Class ..........................................................      208
                Second "   ...........................................................     107
                Third    "  ............................................................     173
                Hospital (including 6 Nurses) ...............................        49
                                                                                                ___
                                       Total ..........................................       537     Persons.

                                        State of the 1st or Assignable Class.
                Monitresses .......................................................          6
                Cooks and other Servants ...................................         30
                Old and infirm ....................................................          5
                Advanced in pregnancy .......................................         6
                Having young Children .......................................         54
                                                                                                 ___
                                                                                                 101
                Available for Service ............................................     107
                                                                                                ___
                                       Total (as above) .......................... .     208

COMPARATIVE Statement of the Establishment at the end of the Years 1827and 1828 respectively.

                Remained 31st December, 1827 .............................    366
                Ship Elizabeth (4) ..................................... 192}
                        Competitor .....................................  . 99 }         371
                        City of Edinburgh                                80 }
                                                                                                 ___
                                      Total .............................................      737
                Remains 31st December, 1828 .............................      537
                                                                                                 ___
                                      Actual Distribution ........................       200

       Although there has been a falling off in the number of Prisoners arrived from England by 126 during the Year 1828 (a ship with 100 intended for this Colony having been detained at Van Diemen's Land) compared with the arrivals of 1827, yet, by the preceding statement, it is shewn that the Establishment has increased during the Year 1828 by 171 Crown Prisoners.

JOSEPH TURNER, Clerk.


 
       Memo.- The Average Number of Crown Prisoners and free women daily,for the period of the Half Year, is 512 Women and 61 Children, being an increase on the preceding of 17 Women, and 9 Children.

J. T.
[Sub-enclosure No.3.]

(This balance-sheet detailed an expenditure of £3,298 9s. 6½d. and a revenue, from clothing etc.,manufactured, of £1,210 10s. 8d.]

[Sub-enclosure No. 4.]

STATEMENT of Free Persons Received and Discharged from the Penitentiary at the Female Factory, Parramatta, who have been committed (as to House of Correction) from the 1st July to the 31st December, 1828, inclusively.

                 Remains Ist July last ...............................................     17
                 Received during the Half Year .................................    81
                                                                                                   __
                                 Total  ....................................................      98
                Discharged Fines Expired ........................................      62
                                  Remains 31st December ........................     36
                Increase during the above Period                                    19 Women.

                                        Comparison, the end of the Year 1827 with 1828.
                Remained 31st December, 1827 ...............................     30
                Remains   31st     "            1828 ...............................     36
                                                                                                    __
                Increase during the year       "   .................................      6 Persons.

       The Committals of the above Class of Women are generally for Vagrancy, whose sentances are commonly from one to three Months.

Jos. Turner, Clerk.
The Board of Management, Female Factory, Parramatta.
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LETTER 3:   SIR RICHARD BOURKE TO LORD GLENELG

Government House, 10 Septr., 1836.
My Lord,
       As does not now appear to be the intention of His Majestry's Government to discontinue the transportation of Female Convicts to this Colony, and as, by the frequent arrivals of Female Emigrants, the demand for Convicts for private service become much less, I have thought it necessary to place upon an Establishment more suited to its present numbers the Prison, or Factory as it is here called, in which all Female Convicts are detained when not in assigned service, or married to Residents in the Colony, or possessing the indulgence of a Ticket of Leave. By perusing the accompanying weekly state, your Lordship will percieve the numbers which are now usually assembled in the Factory at Parramatta.
       The management of this Place of confinement has hitherto been confided to a Matron aided by the occasional inspection of a Committee of Gentlemen including the Chaplain and Surgeon. The Committee of Ladies, concerning whom your Lordship has enquired in your Despatch of the 5th Feby. last, No. 106, did not long continue to act. Before my arrival here they had ceased to exist as a body. Hence the discipline of the place, which never was good, became relaxed, and a reform in the Institution was evidently required. I despaired of being able to accomplish any of the objects noticed in your Lordship's Despatch to which I have referred, or those contemplated by Mr. Spring Rice in his communication of the 4th September, 1834, until a better organization was introduced.  Complaints made by the Committee of the misconduct of the family of the Matron residing with her within the walls determined me no longer to delay an attempt to place the Prison upon a better footing. I have accordingly, from the 1st of the present month, appointed a married couple, with whose behaviour in other situations of trust I had reason to be fully satisfied, to be keeper and matron, and have allowed a number of Turnkeys, Male and Female, sufficient to exercise a vigilant control over the Prisoners. Labor from the most criminal and refractory class is to be obtained to a greater extent than heretofore by breaking stones for the Roads and Streets of Parramatta, and suitable occupation for the better conducted women will be obtained as far as circumstances permit. A School will be opened in the Prison, and the instruction and employment of these outcast women will, I hope, be occasionally superintended by the
Committee of Ladies, which I hope to recognise under the influence of a circular from Mrs. Fry, which I have caused to be distributed wherever I thought it would be well received.
      These arrangements will necessarily be productive of encreased expence, but there was no alternative between expence and the mischief and discredit of an ill-conducted Prison. I transmit a Return of the present and of the former establishment. I should add that, as the late Matron was discharged without any blame attaching to her personally (her removal being required to make room for the married couple who take the offices of Keeper and Matron), I have thought it right to allow her one year's salary after a service of nine. I trust these arrangements will answer the purpose I design, and may meet with your Lordship's approbation and allowance.
I have, &c.,
RICHD. BOURKE

[Enclosure No. 1]

EXTRACT from New South Wales Government Gazette of Wednesday, 7 September, 1836.
State of the Female Factory, Paramatta, on the 3rd day of September, 1936.
                                  Under Colonial Sentence ........................................  273
                                  In Solitary Confinement ..........................................     5
                                  Confined by order of the Keeper ..............................   0
                                  Nursing Children ....................................................  108
                                  Old and Infirm .......................................................     23
                                  Monitresses, Servants and Cooks  ..........................    22
                              In Hospital  ...........................................................    22
                                  Sick in Factory ......................................................       8
                                  Assigned, waiting to be withdrawn .........................   15
                                  Number assignable ................................................   114
                                                                                                                    ___
                                                   Total number of Women ......................    590
                                  Children under one vear ........................................     68
                                       Ditto under two years  .....................................      32
                                       Ditto under three years ....................................      34
                                                                                                                    ___
                                                   Total number of Children ......................   134
                                                                                                                              Thomas Bell,  Keeper.

[Enclosure No. 2.]

RETURN of the Establishment of the Female Factory, Parramatta, with the
alterations made on the appointment of a Keeper with his Wife as Matron.

Establishment as formerly authorised.              Establishment authorised from 1st September, 1836.
                          
£      s.    d.                                                                  £
1 Matron ..........................  150     0     0
1 Assistant .......................    50     0     0           1 Keeper  ...................................     200
1 Portress ........................    50     0     0           1 Matron .....................................     100
1 Midwife ..................    .     50     0     0          3 Turnkeys (Male) at £60 each ....    180
6 Monitresses att £12 2s. 4d.                             4 Turnkeys (Female) £50 each ....    200
        each ........................    73     0     0            1  Clerk  *......................................   120
1 Constable  .....................    41     1     6          1  Midwife . .................................      50
1 Gate Keeper ..................   41     1     6           1 Chaplain ...................................      50
1 Storekeeper  ................   109     7      0          1  Roman Catholic Chaplain .........     50
1 Clerk  .........................      91     5     0           1  School Master (or Mistress) .......   50
1 Chaplain .......................    50     0     0
                                            __________                                                                 _____
                                        £705    15     0                                                                  £1000

       * It is proposed that the Clerk with his augmentation of salary shall perform the duties of the storekeeper, who is discontinued from the 1st October, up to the time both Clerk and Storekeeper are paid according to the former establishment. The constable at 1s. 3d. a day was also retained up to that date.

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LETTER 4:   LORD GLENELG TO SIR RICHARD BOURKE

Downing Street, 10th December, 1836.
Sir,
       In my despatch No. 106 of the 5th of February last, I drew your attention to certain suggestions, contained in a paper received from the ‘‘Ladies of the British Society’’, which had been previously transmitted to you by Mr. Secretary Spring Rice, and which suggestions it was conceived might be usefully adopted with a view to the improvement of the moral condition of the Female Convicts in New South Wales, as the plan pursued by the Society in question had been found eminently beneficial in its effect on Female Prisoners in this country. Since the date of my last despatch,my attention has been more particularly directed to the condition of the Female Convicts in New South Wales, not only with reference to the general question of Secondary Punishment, but also as regards the moral effect produced by the operation of the system on the Convicts themselves and on the Society in which they live.
       The last detailed report on the state of the Female Factory at Parramatta, which I find amongst the records of this Department, is contained in Sir R. Darling's dispatches of the 18th of Febrary., 1829, and in the enclosure to that despatch. The subject was again referred to in Sir R. Darling's subsequent despatches of 30th December, 1829, and 14th July, 1830; but I do not find that, since that period, any detailed Report of the state of the Factory has been transmitted from the Colony. The number of Women, stated by Sir R. Darling in his despatch of 18th February, 1829, to have been in the Factory on the 31st Decmber preceding, was 537, a number which he represented, and apparently on very satisfactory grounds, to be inconveniently large, and such as to preclude the most efficient arrangement being carried into effect for the internal regulation of the Establishment. His proposal to enlarge the Building in order to obviate the disadvantages experienced from the number of inmates was not sanctioned by the Secretary of State, but measures were subsequently taken on the recommendation of Sir R. Darling for reducing their number, the result of which was so far successful, that he was enabled to report on the 14th of July, 1830, that there were then only 400 Women in the Factory. From the Report of the Managing Committee contained in the despatch of 18 February, 1829, it appeared that active means were then adopted for the employment and the moral improvement of these Convicts, and that much valuable assistance was rendered in this respect by a Committee of Ladies, who had directed their attention to this important object.
       From the Blue book of Your Government, which has recently been received from you, I perceive that, on the 31st of December, 1835, the number of Female Convicts in the Factory amounted to no less than 646, a number considerably exceeding that which was found to be inconveniently large in 1828. Deeply impressed with the importance of rendering the existing system of transportation as effectual as possible for the reformation of the Offenders, and sensible how great must be the effect on the general interests of the Colony of the character and habits of the Females, who after a limited term of servitude acquire a permanent settlement among the free Inhabitants, I feel it an imperative duty to leave no means untried, by which the moral discipline, to which they are subjected while convicts, may be rendered as effectual as possible. I cannot entertain a doubt that you fully participate in the views which His Majesty's Government entertain on this subject; and I am therefore  anxious to assure you of my cordial assistance in carrying into effect such measures as may appear to be most conducive to the end in view. The great improvements which have of late been adopted in our system of Prison discipline in England,through still probably capable of being carried to a further extent, ought undoubtedly to be introduced into all our Colonial Possessions so far as the influence of the Government is available for this purpose; but in no place ought they to be more zealously pursued than in those Colonies to which so large a portion of our Criminals are annually sent.
       Without having it in my power to communicate to you any specific statement on the actual condition of the Factory of Paramatta, I cannot refrain from informing you that reports most unfavorable to its discipline and moral superintendance have reached me from various quarters and it is with regret that I have been unable on any certain authority to satisfy myself that I could reject such reports as unfounded, or to remove the impression, which is gaining ground in this Country, that sufficient care has not been bestowed by the Colonial authorities on the intenal condition of the establishment. I have therefore to request that, at your earliest convenience, you will furnish me with a full and detailed Report of the present state of the Factory, including the number of Convicts which it contains, their classification, employment, means of moral and religious instruction, and the rules and regulations under which it is conducted, the names of the Clergymen by whom it is attended, and the days and hours of their attendance, together with any other particulars which may occur to you as useful to be communicated. I am anxious also to be informed of the nature of the supervision and control under which the Matron and officers of the Establishment discharge their duties, and whether the managing Committee or the Committee of Ladies, which existed in 1828, continue to render their assistance in promoting the good order and improvement of the inmates. I have also to request that you will report to me how far you consider the present officers of the Establishment qualified, in regard to moral conduct, as in other respects, for the efficient performance of the responsible and important duties entrusted to them.
I have, &c.,
GLENELG

LORD GLENELG TO SIR RICHARD BOURKE.

(Despatch marked ‘‘Separate and Confidential’’)

Downing Street, 10th December, 1836.

Sir,
       In my despatch of this date I have adverted to some Reports which have reached me unfavorable to the condition of the Female Factory at Paramatta. I have been unwilling in a Public despatch to refer to mere rumours affecting the character of any Individual, but I feel it my duty to inform you confidentially that it has been represented to me that the Husband and family the Matron of that Establishment are not, from their habits or character, calculated to secure to the Office of the Matron that respect and deference without which her superintendence must be very inefficient.
       In Sir R. Darling's despatch and in the Report from the Managing Committee transmitted by him in 1829, I find Mrs. Gorden spoken of in Strong terms of approbation, and I am therefore very unwilling to believe that any conduct would be counternanced or tolerated by her, involving a breach of that morality or decorum which, in the situation she occupies, it is more especially incumbent on her to maintain. I must, however, express my opinion that, even should her own conduct have been uniformly correct, any open misconduct on the part of any Member of her family residing with her in the Factory would be a disqualification for the discharge of her responsible duties, and as it would necessarily tend to diminish and neutralize influence which it is most essential she should actively exert in discountenancing vice and immorality of every description among those placed under her charge.
       I am confident that I have done all that is necessary in thus calling your attention to this subject, and I shall be much gratified to receive from you an assurance that there is no foundation for any such reports as those which have reached me. Should, however, the contrary unfortunately prove to be the case, or, should you be of opinion that a change of superintendence is necessary in order to put the establishment on a better footing, I should feel it my duty to place at the Head of the Factory as Matron a person qualified by recent experience in this Country, as well as by education and character, to undertake the office.

I have, &c.,
GLENELG.

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LETTER 5:  LORD GLENELG TO SIR RICHARD BOURKE

Downing Street, 4th May, 1837.
Sir,
       I have received your despatch No. 96 of the 10th of September last on the subject of the Female Factory at Parramatta.
       I fully approve of the alterations, which you have made in the management of that Institution, and I have accordingly recommended to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury to sanction the increased expense consequent on the present change of system.
       I am aware of the difficulties, which must be experienced in maintaining such an Institution in an efficient state of discipline and order; but it is of the utmost importance that no effort should be left untried to render it as effective as possible for the end, for which it is designed. I have already in my dispatch of the 10th of December last intimated to you my intention, in the event of a vacancy in the office of Matron, of appointing some person qualified by recent experience in this country for this responsible charge; and, altho' I have no reason to doubt that you have made a careful selection so far as the means existed in the Colony of procuring the services of a suitable Matron, I think it of great consequence that whoever is at the head of the Institution should be well acquainted with the recent improvements which have been effected in the treatment of Female Prisoners in this country. I hope, therefore, soon to find a person here willing to undertake the charge of the Factory at Paramatta, who will probably be accompanied bycompetent Schoolmistress. I trust that you will have no difficulty in finding some other suitable employment for the two persons whom you have placed in charge of the Factory.
I have, &c.,
GLENELG

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Transcribed J. Raymond Oct. 2000