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There have always been some general questions about the Hasselmans (John and Caroline) that are hard to answer. They are the types of questions that can only be answered by historical reading and by attempting educated guesses; because noone in the family knows the exact answers. Here are those questions and suggested answers.

1.   What was their port of embarkation In Germany?
         According to the books GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH, by Rubjeam, persons from Germanic areas emigrated through Dutch coastal ports at first. Later Germans emigrated through the German ports of Bremen and Hamburg.

2.   Which port In the United States received them?
         I have checked the Index to Passenger Lists for the following ports; Boston (1848-1891); New Orleans (1853-1899); New York (1820-1846); Philadelphia (1800-1900); Atlantic and Gulfports (excluding New York 1820-187 and though I found 11 Hasselmans, I did not find our John and Caroline. I did not search the New York records for 1864-5 because they are not yet alphabetized. Therefore, since we know that they came into the United States about 1864-1865, I believe they came in through New York.

3.   How did John and Caroline happen to choose to settle in Illinois?
         According to the book, THE HEARTLAND by Havighurst, in the 1850's Illinois was the fastest growing state in the Union. The population doubled in 10 years. It was the result of unparalleled programs of advertising and promotion. In these years (1850's), the Eastern United States towns and cities were flooded with circulars picturing the beauty and fertility of Illinois lands, listing prices and credit terms and quoting Illinois residents on the healthfulness and prosperity of the state. Another reason may have been the following taken from A NATION OF NATIONS by Adamic. "Around 1800 and later, American labor agents were very active in Germany, starting many a German peasant and artisan across the ocean. Some of the new states In the United States with vast unpoppulated areas began to advertise their virtues abroad."

4.   How did John and Carolina get to Illinois from New York?
         Havighurst says that Chicago was connected to the Atlantic Coast by rail in 1852. Around this same time Illinois got a North-South railroad, too. So, I believe the Hasselmans came to Illinois by railroad.

5.   Why did the Hasselmans come to America?
         There were many reasons for leaving Germany In the 1860's. According to Adamic, a revolution had been attempted, and it had failed. Consequently, there were extremely repressive measures taken by Bismark. On top of this, there were crop failures, low wages, the fear of military service and future wars plus overpopulation. They might, of course, have been influenced by all of the advertising. One or several of these reasons may have encouraged the Hasselmans to leave Germany and come to America.

6.   What was America like when the Hasselmans came?
         If the Hasselmans arrived late in 1864, America was still in the last stages of the Civil War. The North was winning. Abraham Lincoln had just been reelected president.

        If they arrived in 1865, this was the year the Civil War ended and Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth. Andrew Johnson took office. Whichever year they came, the country was in a turmoil. Mr. Hasselman became a citizen in 1880 so after that he could help determine the direction the country would take.

7.   Why did Mr. Hasselman choose the profession of farming?

         A good guess would be that he was born and raised on a farm in Germany. This was the case of many Germans as the following quote from Adamic shows. "The United States census of 1900 shows 522,252 farmers of German origin or descent owned farms, as against 183,157 Anglo-Saxon, 176,968 Irish and 174,694 Scandinavian American farmers. For two centuries Teutonic agriculture has been a sustaining part of American prosperity."

This introduction was written
by Joyce Hasselman Nigor

This is additional information sent to me by Joyce at a later date:

     It is believed that when John, Caroline and baby Fredericka came to America, they probably arrived through the port of New York though this has not been definitely confirmed.
     A Hasselman first came to America in 1748 (per Passenger & Immigration Lists, 1st Ed.  Then a big gap, and then severn Hasselmans came in 1847.  Five years later, Louis came, and then two years after that, John.

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