|Food for Thought!
Half a league, half a league,
Half a league onward,
All in the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
"Forward, the Light Brigade!
Charge for the guns!" he said:
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
From the poem:CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE
Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809 - 1892)
This poem was written to memorialize a suicidal charge by light cavalry over open terrain by British forces in the Battle of Balaclava (Ukraine) in the Crimean War (1854-56). 247 men of the 637 in the charge were killed or wounded.
Since this is a site for "The Ireland Mail List" and a page on "The Irish Famine", the first logical question would be something like:
"What's this have to do with Ireland and the Irish?".
The Answer to this question is quite simple, the "Charge of the Light Brigade" has virtually "Nothing!" to do with Ireland and the Irish -- however it has a lot to do with British Military Strength ca 1850.
The term "Light", when used in conjunction with Military Terminology, means the Military Unit does not have a full compliment of Manpower.
The "Light Brigade had about 600 men, this means that more men were required to make up a Full Brigade (A full brigade was about 800 to 1000 men on the average).
The English Military in Ireland
During the Famine Years, it is important to know a fairly good estimate of the number of British Troops in Ireland and their purpose for being there. Once again a little bit of knowledge about the military is required.
From 1845 to 1851, the 46th (South Devonshire) Regiment of Foot, the 35th Brigade, and the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry had somewhere between 1952 to 2670 Troops (See Chart below). This is an average of about 2311 Troops per Regiment.
Since the Military works off round numbers, to round up to 2400 Troops as an average is acceptable, for Regiments are rarely fully manned and an increase of 89 troops is not far out of line.
It is said that England had around 215 Regiments in various places through out Ireland. This means that as many as 516,000 troops could have been in Ireland during the years of 1845 and 1851. Remember, the key word here is COULD. :) However, there are other factors to be considered.
The Main Factor is that, most probably, detachments of certain regiments were sent to Ireland. It is a very common practice for the military to deploy smaller sections of it's groups into an area for a "Tour of Duty", or "Temporary Duty". The Troops left at home are used for reserves, to relieve those sent away after a period of time.. this is known as a "Rotation".
So, to cut this 516,000 Troops Figure in half would be a fairly safe step to do (since we lack the actual figures). This takes our figure down to about 258,000 Troops in Ireland, as an estimate.
In the Notes Section, below the chart, it states:
"The British Regiments sent to Australia had a nominal strength of between 800-1000."
Using only 1000 Troops per regiment, you still come up with 215,000 Troops for 215 Regiments.
LOoking at the facts given to us by Kathleen and Mr. Myles Goddard, Myles figured that the number of troops ranged from 103,200 to 326,370.... or an average of 214,785 Troops in Ireland. However, obviously Mr. Goddard did not see the table below, otherwise I am sure the man would have incorporated the figures into his calculations.
In summary, it seems the number of Troops in Ireland during the famine ranged from 103,000 to 516,000 Troops... plus the 100,000 "Support Forces" that were in Ireland which were not actually a part of the military.
|Regimental numbers from 1830 to 1857
|Regimental Number||Date of issue
|1 to 547|| before 20/9/1833
|548 to 646||before 23/10/1833
|647 to 768||before 23/2/1834
|769 to 853 ||before 8/7/1834
|854 to 948||before 20/1/1835
|949 to 1033||before 6/10/1835
|1034 to 1179||before 15/2/1837
|1180 to 1281||before 1/4/1838
|1282 to 1388||before 21/4/1839
|1389 to 1448||before 4/8/1839
|1449 to 1541||before 17/6/1840
|1542 to 1620||before 5/10/1841
|1621 to 1751||before 15/12/1842
|1752 to 1848||before 10/10/1843
|1849 to 1951||before 7/12/1844
|1952 to 2057||before 23/10/1845
|2058 to 2119||before 25/2/1846
|2120 to 2220||before 11/7/1846
|2221 to 2352||before 11/12/1846
|2353 to 2469||before 21/10/1847
|2470 to 2556||before 13/11/1849
|2557 to 2670||before 2/12/1851
|2671 to 2769||before 26/3/1852
|2770 to 2848||before 7/9/1852
|2849 to 2948||before 9/6/1853
|2949 to 3059||before 9/2/1854
|3060 to 3151||before 5/3/1854
|3152 to 3267||before 17/6/1854
|3268 to 3350||before 30/6/1854
|3351 to 3461||before 17/10/1854
|3462 to 3553||before 16/1/1855
|3554 to 3667||before 24/5/1855
|3668 to 3776||before 24/6/1855
|3777 to 4165||before 29/3/1856
|4166 to 4207||before 12/6/1856
|4208 to 4211||before 24/8/1856
|From: Regimental numbers of the 46th (South Devonshire) Regiment of Foot, the 35th Brigade, and the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry at http://www.hargreave-mawson.demon.co.uk/DCLINos.html
- "The British Regiments sent to Australia had a nominal strength of between 800-1000." (From: "http://users.netconnect.com.au/~ianmac/britain.html)
- "For soldiers of the British Army this is the primary and predominate military organizational unit. A regiment is commanded by a Colonel and has it's own number and title with distinctive designations that reflect it's own unique historical traditions. These distinctions include such things as the regimental Battle Honours, Colours or Guidon, cap badge, crossbelt plate, collar badge, and buttons. Over time these traditions build the regimental 'family' and 'spirit'. The manpower strength and number of battalions of a regiment has varied throughout history." (From: http://pobox.upenn.edu/~fbl/glossary.html#r-z)
|Decline in Population by County: 1841-1851
1841 - 1851
|Antrim||360,875|| || ||
|Kilkenny||202,420|| || ||27,000
|Meath||183,828|| || ||20,000
|Sligo||180,886|| || ||
|Tipperary||435,553|| || ||70,000
|* Various Sources
For Irish views on the Irish Famine, please go to:
|The Official Publication of the Choctaw Nation of
Oklahoma, June 1995
President of Ireland Mary Robinson Addresses the Choctaw People From Bishinik, The Official Publication of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, June 1995
The president of Ireland visited the Choctaw Nation May 23rd to convey thanks for an act of generosity from the Choctaws to the Irish 148 years ago.
Chief Hollis E. Roberts spoke of his appreciation of President Mary Robinson. "I thank her for coming and recognizing the Choctaw Nation for what was done in the past and what we can do
in the future."
The Chief gave the President a gift of a red and white traditional Choctaw dress made especially for her by Oneida Winship, a full-blood Choctaw who is the Director of the Nutrition Program for the tribe.
Chief Roberts also gave President Robinson a silver medallion featuring the Great Seal of the Choctaw Nation, which she immediately placed over her head and wore for the remainder of
From the front steps of the Tribal Complex building, President Robinson spoke to the Choctaw people in their native language, "Chohta I yakne ala li kut na sa yukpa." Then she translated, "I am glad to have come to Choctaw Country."
Apologizing for any incorrect pronunciations, President Robinson said, "Although I have had the honor of being made a Chieftain of the Choctaw Nation, I haven't had much opportunity to practice the Choctaw Language."
She told the crowd that Chief Roberts had given her a book and tapes to help with her Choctaw language lessons.
She began her public address with an expression of sympathy from the people of Ireland to the people of Oklahoma on the bombing of Oklahoma City. "I realize that this made a very deep impact on the whole of Oklahoma.
"My coming here today goes back to an event of almost 150 years ago. I am here to thank the Choctaw Nation for their extraordinary generosity and thoughtfulness when they learned in
1847 about the plight of poor Irish famine victims," said President Robinson.
"Thousands of miles away, in no way linked to the Choctaw Nation until then, the only link being a common humanity, a common sense of another people suffering as the Choctaw nation had suffered
when being removed from their tribal land."
She continued, "At an assembly (in 1847) $710 was raised and sent to Memphis to be used for the relief of Irish famine victims. I am glad, as President of that same Irish Nation, to come here and thank the Choctaw people and also to learn from your act of generosity."
"I know that both the Choctaw people and the Irish people remember the past. I know that you recently had a commemorative walk of the Trail of Tears to remember your own period of fame in
Choctaw history. Members of the Choctaw Nation, including Chief Hollis Roberts, have come to Ireland and taken part in an annual Famine Walk in the west, starting in Louisburg, to
commemorate the famine," said Robinson.
"Earlier in the month I met one of the members of the tribe, the artist Gary Whitedeer, who brought me a beautiful painting. He explained to me that taking part in that walk and remembering the past between the Choctaw Nation and Irish people and relinking our peoples is completing the circle. I have used that expression recently at a major conference on world hunger in New York. I spoke of the generosity of the Choctaw people and this idea of completing the circle.
"I believe that we have in common that bond of humanity and it should be an additional reason why we should particularly reach out now to countries who suffer from poverty and hunger. I think it is very important that we should try to give leadership in that and that we try to encourage others to understand tha there are people today who need the support that the Choctaw Nation gave 150 years ago to the Irish people.
"It was a great pleasure to come and get a sense of the pride in your past, you identity, your language, your customs and in your culture.
"I was delighted to meet the members of your Council and judges. I was very pleased to go and see the work that WIC was doing, to visit the clinic and see the good work that is going on there, to hear the children singing and to know that they, too, like myself, are learning the Choctaw language. We'll learn together and see what progress we make."
She said goodbye in Choctaw, Irish, and English, offering a warm welcome to any Choctaws traveling to Ireland.
In spite of running slightly behind schedule, President Mary Robinson was greeted by about 500 people who had come to hear her address and waited patiently for her arrival. Chief Hollis
Roberts greeted the president and her husband, Nicholas, on the front walk of the Tribal Complex. Chief Roberts, his daughter, Tina, and granddaughter, Sabre, along with a multitude of
Secret Service representatives, escorted the President and her delegation into the building. After a brief visit with the Chief, President Robinson shook hands with all twelve members of the
Tribal Council and tribal judges who were present for a welcome reception.
Having heard of the President's interest in the tribal WIC program, Chief Roberts escorted her across the breezeway to the Woman, Infants, and Children office for a review of the program
and a peek at some of the children receiving services.
Choctaw Indian Dancers from Broken Bow and Irish Step Dancers from the McTeggart School of Dance in North Texas showed the audience and each other a few dance moves that were indicative of
the different cultures.
|Long March : The Choctaw's Gift to Irish Famine Relief
Reading level: Ages 9-12
Hardcover - 32 pages illustrate edition (January 1999)
In 1847, Choona is a fourteen-year-old Choctaw youth living in "Indian Territory" (now Oklahoma). He knows that the elders of his tribe and family endured "The Long March" from their homelands in Mississippi, but they do not speak of it to the children.. When the Choctaws hear of the Irish famine, with people dying of starvation as they walk along the roads, their hearts are moved to collect money for these faraway people who are suffering what they suffered. Choona is not sure he approves and as his family discusses contributing to the tribal collection, he startles everyone including himself by shouting, "No!" A fascinating true story is poignantly brought to life in the text and exquisite, realistic pencil drawings of this author/illustrator. The text avoids being didactic by being filtered through the experiences of a young member of the Choctaw tribe. Choona's great-grandmother not only plays a pivotal role in the decision making process of the tribe but also of her great-grandson. Gold Award.
Results of Fire and Famine:
Census Records in Ireland 1813-1911
- Sherry Irvine, CGRS, FSA (Scot)
The so-called population controversy sparked much-heated debate in the British Isles during the latter half of the eighteenth century. Was the population rising or falling? Could the nation feed itself? As the century drew to a close, the discussion was intensified by poor harvests, unusual storms, and the appearance in 1798 of An Essay on the Principle of Population by the Reverend Thomas Malthus.
Poor harvests came and went in Britain during the late 1700s1 and across the Irish Sea it was no different. Several seasons of crop failure and famine in Ireland, notably in 1728, 1739-40, and 17562 resulted in a new look at the population. Malthus caught the attention of the public and authority figures in analyzing whether the supply of food could keep pace with the ever-increasing population. To some, his essay translated into the simplistic issue of whether or not poor relief was in the best interest of the nation.3 The growing concerns over food supply and bad harvests were enough to overcome any opposition to a national census.
The First Irish Census
While Britain's first enumeration was in 1801 and conducted every ten years thereafter, the first Irish census wasn't until 1813. Ireland then followed suit, with a census every ten years. Unfortunately, the Irish census return for 1813 is regarded as both careless and incomplete4-six counties and two towns were never even enumerated.
The blame was placed on the shortcomings of the process of data collection, but others believe it may have been caused by the lack of cooperation among the grand juries who were assigned responsibility, or by the inadequacies of the chosen enumerators. Certainly, the officials who organized the census return in 1821 knew what the problem was-there were no overseers of the poor in Ireland, and only a few parish schoolmasters were available to help with the enumeration.
Historically, parish overseers in England and Wales, and
schoolmasters in Scotland, gathered the early returns. Officials concluded that it was impossible in 1813 to find enumerators of reasonable intelligence and sufficient local knowledge, including familiarity with the many small administrative divisions known as townlands, to carry out a thorough enumeration. 5
When the second enumeration was carried out in May and June of 1821,
officials were confident, perhaps even smug, of the thoroughness of their efforts (as implied by their disparaging remarks about the enumerators of the first census). The enumerators were to be vested by the Bench of Magistrates with preference to those who collected local taxes-it was believed that these individuals knew their communities. Enumerators were instructed to proceed from house to house, day by day, until they had gathered the required information. Today, assessment of the 1821 census varies. It has been described as both "flawed"6 and "perhaps the single most disastrous loss in the 1922 burning of the Four Courts." 7
Fire in the Four Courts
The Four Courts building in Dublin housed the public records of Ireland. But in June of 1922 it was the scene of a battle between Free State forces and Republican Irregulars who had made the Four Courts their headquarters. The Free State bombardment set the building on fire midday on 30 June, and shortly thereafter a land mine exploded, fire spread, and the conflagration destroyed the building. Documents were found in the River Liffey, three miles away.8
The flames consumed the original returns of the 1831 census. Records that can now be consulted come from the retrospectively amended records (1834) which incorporate a column for religious affiliation. One way or another, a number of early census records have survived. Best represented among the fragments are the counties of Cavan (1821), Galway (1821), Offaly/King's (1821), Londonderry (1831), and Meath (1821). Details appear in a variety of publications. 9
These returns have been microfilmed and are in the collections of the LDS Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah. For anyone interested in the descriptions written by the officials of the Public Record Office, refer to Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research (Falley, 1962) which quotes liberally from the Deputy Keepers reports, primarily the 55th, 57th, and 58th, that were published after the 1922 fire.
In 1841, following the pattern of the rest of the United Kingdom, Irish
returns were left with each household to be completed on June 6th;
distribution and collection was overseen by the Irish Constabulary. 10 But there were differences among national censuses. Irish returns required much more information than the form used in England, Scotland, and Wales. The census asked for name, age, occupation, marital status and year of marriage, county of origin, and relationship to the head of the household. In addition, the form recorded whether individuals could read or write, details of those absent, and details of those deceased since 1831 including relationship, occupation, and year of death and cause.
As with the early returns, a limited number of 1841 through 1891 records have avoided destruction. The 1841 and 1851 returns were lost in the 1922 fire, and the 1861 through 1891 returns were destroyed by government order.
- From the 1841 census, only the returns for Killeshandra in County Cavan, part of Currin in County Fermanagh, and some fragments from Waterford have survived. Few records remain from the 1851 enumeration-only twenty-eight volumes from thirteen parishes in County Antrim, returns for one townland in Fermanagh, and a few extracts from parishes in Kilkenny and northeast Cork.
For the other census years, a handful of stray copies survive in volumes of parish registers.
Modern Census Records Compensate
Two twentieth-century census returns are available for research and, in some measure, make up for the loss of the earlier records. In 1901 the following details were gathered: name, age, religion, occupation, literacy, marital status, relationship to head of household, county of birth, and knowledge of English or Gaelic. Several additional details were added in the 1911 census; married women were asked to report how long they had been married, number of children born, and those children still living. Data was arranged by county, district electoral division, and townland, and absentees were not recorded.
Most source guides caution genealogists against accepting recorded ages in the 1901 census because there is evidence from comparisons with the 1911 enumeration that many responses were too low. 11
Under ideal circumstances any search in these twentieth century returns can be made knowing the street or townland of the ancestor's residence. Even when there is no alternative to a search through one or more films, the job will be easier if the district electoral divisions and townlands have been identified.
Several aids make it easier to locate the appropriate divisions. The first are the townland indexes. The indexes for 1901 are contemporary, but the ones for 1841, 1851, and 1871 are also helpful. District electoral divisions appear in the 1871 and 1901 listings but not in 1851. The 1841 index (not in the Family History Library) is organized by county and barony, and Townlands and Poor Law Unions (Handran, 1997) includes parishes, electoral divisions and townlands. There is no townland index for 1911 but differences from the 1901 census are minor. Nominal indexes exist for the 1901 census of Longford, Fermanagh, and Tyrone, with Donegal to follow soon. 12 (The latter three are on microfiche.)
The Family History Library Catalog (FHLC) conveniently lists appropriate film numbers under each parish for the 1901 census. For many names, genealogists have extracted all the entries and generally arranged the lists by county. Any of these name lists held by the Family History Library can be found entered in the FHLC under the appropriate county and, for surveys through many counties, in the national census listings. A small portion of the 1911 census is now available at the FHL, but the majority of it must still be researched in Ireland.
Other twentieth century resources include the Old Age Pension applications. Ireland introduced an old age pension in 1908 but because few people had proof of their age, evidence was sought in nineteenth century census records. The abstracts of information include the name of the pensioner, his or her parents, and occasionally other members of the family. Townland, parish, barony and county, age at time of application, and age at time of census are also included. These records have not been indexed. Northern Ireland's applications have been filmed and can be accessed through family history centers. Pension applications for Ireland are located in the National Archives in Dublin.
There are three steps to assure that you have identified and located all of the relevant information on government census returns.
1. Use maps, gazetteers, and townland indexes so that all of the civil and ecclesiastical divisions are known.
2. Refer to the books noted in this article for listings of surviving census fragments.
3. Check the Family History Library Catalog under the following headings for information about LDS holdings.
IRELAND, COUNTY NAME- CENSUS
IRELAND, COUNTY NAME- CENSUS INDEXES
IRELAND, COUNTY NAME, PARISH NAME-CENSUS
Other important resources are records of civil registration, Griffith's
Primary Valuation, and modern probate calendars. All of these are in the Family History Library. Civil registration began for all events in all counties in 1864, and for all non-Catholic marriages in 1845. Griffith's Valuation, a property survey showing both occupiers and landlords between 1848 and 1864, has been filmed and indexed. A version of the index is on CD-ROM and another is incorporated into the Householders Index (available in family history centers).
Probate became the business of the secular court system in 1858. Although the wills were lost in the 1922 fire, the calendars of wills and letters of administration are available for study. These sources provide name, place, and date information. Relationships appear in birth and marriage records and sometimes in probate calendars.
Census Data Provides More Than Names
A census enumeration gathers data for statistical analysis. The reports
generated from the data in the censuses of Ireland were subsequently
published, and are available for study. The questions asked were included for a reason, and the resulting numbers influenced the government officials of the day, and the social and economic historians of more recent times.
Genealogists also have something to learn from the statistics-details that enhance and encourage understanding.
Historians have looked at the census statistics and used them to support various theories about the population of Ireland, when it peaked, and the impact of the potato famine. Genealogists will also find it worthwhile to examine the numbers for the appropriate county, barony, or electoral division of their ancestors. The report comparing 1813 and 1821 for County Limerick show that the number of houses in that county rose from 17,897 in 1813 to 36,089 in 1821. The population grew during the same period from 103,865 to 214,286. 13 In a later report, within the tables of figures for the Poor Law Unions, is the entry for Youghal in County Cork. 14 The population of the town of Youghal hardly changed between 1841 and 1851, but it was the scene of one of the food riots in 1846. 15 The enumerated population dropped dramatically in rural areas in the same union, such as at Kilmacdonagh electoral division from 3,457 to 2,008. 16
The numbers raise new questions. What was considered to qualify as a house? How do the numbers for Limerick compare to other counties? During the 1840s did people move into town when in dire need? Were some individuals missed by the enumerators? Whether or not such issues are investigated, a quantitative sketch emerges at a local level relating to people, their health, home, land, and schools. This information is easier to grasp than numbers for the entire country, and it can be related to eye-witness accounts, local histories, weather, and topography.
To access these reports consult British Parliamentary Papers indexes
available in reference or university libraries. 17 Directories,
topographical dictionaries, diaries, and local histories will round out the picture and occasionally quote census figures. Besides providing additional, interesting information for a family history, this sort of analysis often initiates questions or theories that direct further research.
The first Irish censuses were carried out as a response to controversy and, to some extent, fear of the ability of food production to keep pace with population growth. But genealogical researchers two hundred years after Malthus continue to benefit from the recording and analysis of the population. And, despite the devastation of the explosion and fire at the Four Courts in 1922, researchers can still find material of interest and importance. For the lucky ones, there are surviving fragments; however, everyone can search recent returns and pension records for collaterals, and gain useful insight from the official statistical summaries.
1. Nissel, Muriel. People Count. (1987), 51.
2. Foster, R. F. Modern Ireland 1600-1972, (London: Penguin, 1989), 199.
3. Nissel, Muriel. op. cit.
4. Connell, K.H. The Population of Ireland 1750-1845. Westport CT: Greenwood P, 1975: 20.
5. Abstract of Answers and Returns Pursuant to Act for Taking Account of the Population of Ireland, 1824: viii.
6. Connelly, S.J. The Oxford Companion to Irish History. (Oxford UP, 1998), 81.
7. Nolan, William. Tracing the Past. (Dublin: Geographical Publications, 1982), 58.
8. Illustrated London News, July 8, 1922, pp. 43-53.
9. Falley, Margaret. Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research. 2 Vol.
(Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1962 (rep. 1988); Nolan,
Tracing the Past.; Grenham, John. Tracing Your Irish Ancestors. (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1992).
10. Connolly, S.J. The Oxford Companion to Irish History. (Oxford UP, 1998), 81.
11. Grenham, Tracing Your Irish Ancestors. 14; and Nolan, Tracing the Past, 61.
12. Index to the 1901 Census, Vol. 1 County Fermanagh, 1995.
13. Abstract of the Population of Ireland According to the Late Census. Vol. XIV, page 737.
14. A Comparative View of the Census of Ireland in 1841-1851. Vol. XLVI, p. 357.
15. Illustrated London News. November 7, 1846, p. 293.
16. A Comparative View of the Census of Ireland in 1841-1851. Vol. XLVI, p. 357.
17. Ford, P. and G. Ford. A Guide to Parliamentary Papers: What they are, How to find them, How to use them. (Shannon: Irish UP, 1972).
Sherry Irvine, author of Your Scottish Ancestry: A Guide for North
Americans, is a faculty member of the Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research at Samford University and is a conference lecturer.
For lots more info on the Irish Rebellion of 1798 please visit:
The Great Hunger By Cecil Woodham Smith (Harper & Row 1989 / first published 1962)
A brilliantly researched, highly readable blow by blow account of the
Famine. Recommended as a first book to read for in-depth information with a chronological ordering of events.
The Great Famine, Studies in Irish History 1845-52
Editors R.Dudley Edwards and T.Desmond Williams
(First published in 1956. Published in 1994 by The Lilliput Press Ltd.)
A collection of comprehensive articles by historians on differents aspects of the Famine. The first study of its kind.
This Great Calamity
By Christine Kinealy (Gill & Macmillan 1995)
A precise history of the Famine, from 1845-1852. Particularly good on relief schemes and the operation of the Poor Law.
The Great Irish Famine
By Cormac Ó Gráda (Cambridge University Press 1995)
A short, concise, analytical overview of the Famine.
The Great Irish Famine (The Thomas Davis Lecture Series)
Edited by Cathal Póirtéir (RTE/Mercier Press)
A very interesting collection of lectures, covering various aspects of the Famine period.
Letters From Ireland During The Famine of 1847
By Alexander Somerville (Irish Academic Press 1994)
This is a fascinating collection of the letters of an excellent writer and an observant, socially aware journalist.
The Irish Famine / New Horizons
By Peter Gray (Thames And Hudson 1995)
A beautifully illustrated, sensitive summary of the main events of the
Famine years, with an interesting appendix of documents.
By Gerald Keegan (Wolfhound Press 1991)
The diary, written in 1847, of a schoolteacher who left Ireland with his wife to sail to Canada. Provides a great insight into the experiences of the period.
Women Surviving / Studies in Irish Women's History in the 19th and 20th
Edited by Maria Luddy and Cliona Murphy (Poolbeg1989)
A series of studies on Irish women's lives, including a look at the Poor nquiry of 1835 and women in workhouses from 1840 to 1870.
Edited by Cathal Póirtéir (Gill & Macmillan Ltd. 1995)
A selection of folk memories of the famine period, from those originally collected by the Folklore Commission in the 1940s.
Traits & Stories of The Irish Peasantry Volumes 1 and 2
By William Carleton (Colin Smythe Ltd., 1990)
A collection of stories, with factual backgrounds and extensive, informative footnotes, written in the early 1800s and first published in 1843-44. Brilliantly vivid, imaginative and entertaining, a fascinating insight into the people of the time.
The Hungry Voice
Edited by Christopher Morash (Irish Academic Press 1989)
A powerful selection of poetry from the period. Includes poems by John
Keegan, James Clarence Mangan, Aubrey de Vere and many others.
The Silent People
By Walter Macken (Macmillan & Co. Ltd 1988)
A novel set in 'Ireland 1826 - when millions knew only famine, oppression and degradation'.
By Liam O'Flaherty (Wolfhound Press 1984 & 1996)
A powerful novel of the Famine period, with interesting characterisation and great descriptive passages.
The Famished Land
By Elizabeth Byrd (Pan Books 1974)
A poignant, sensitive novel with a girl as its main character. A novel of heroic survival during the famine.
By Maria Edgeworth (Oxford University Press 1981)
A short, lively story which illustrates much about Irish life in the early 1800s.
By Thomas Gallagher. (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1982)
Subtitled "Prelude to Hatred". A meticulously researched account of the
The Irish Famine: A Documentary History
By Noel Kissane. (Leabharlann Naisiunte na hEireann 1995)
This source-book documents the course of the calamity by means of contempory newspaper reports, workhouse records, maps, statistics, and engravings. The documents are set in context and a running story-line guides the reader as the story unfolds.
The Hungry Earth
By Sean Kenny. (Wolfhound Press, Dublin, 1995. Paperback £6.99)
A novel of the Irish Famine. Sean Kenny's powerful story is set in the
Dublin of today - but it's central character, yuppie Turlough Walsh finds himself awakening in the midst of famine-stricken west of Ireland where he begins to discover the truth about people, and more importantly about himself - uprooting forever the foundations of his twentieth-century world. An extraordinary accomplished fiction debut.
The Irish Famine: an Illustrated History
By Helen Litton. (Wolfhound Press, 1994, 1996)
Helen Litton's account is aimed at the general reader and is illustrated in colour and black and white, with numerous period extracts and is written in a clear, fast-paced narrative.
The Irish Famine Curriculum
By James Mullin.
Last Setember the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education approved this 111-page curriculum for use in New Jersey schools and distributed it to every high school in the state. It is the first state-approved Famine curriculum in the country. It is available from the following address for $15, including shipping. James Mullin, Chairman, Irish Famine Curriculum Committee. 757 Paddock Path, Moorestown, NJ 08057, USA
The Workhouse of Ireland - The fate of Ireland's Poor
By John O'Conner. (Anvil Books)
A well-researched and gracefully written, interesting book on the history of workhouses in Ireland from their inception in 1838 to their phasing out in 1933.
Death In Templecrone
By Patrick Campbell.
The story of Templecrone Parish in Northwest Donegal. Expertly researched and written by a native now living New Jersey. Available
by mail order from PH Campbell, 82 Bentley Avenue, Jersey City, NJ 07304, USA. Price $16 surface mail, $19 airmail.
Famine In The Valley
By Edmund O'Riordan.
Published by Edmund O'Riordan, June 1995.
Covers the effects of the Famine and workhouses in the Clogheen Union of South West Tipperary.
Massachusetts Help to Ireland During the Famine
By Henry Lee and H.A. Crosby (published by Forbes Museum, Milton,
An excellent account of the voyage of the US Jamestown, which was called into service by Boston citizens in spring of 1847. The U.S. Jamestown carried over $40,000 worth of supplies, food and money to Cork Harbor, where the ship and its crew was received with great appreciation and praise. (Submitted by Michael P Quinlan.)
The Famine Decade:Contemporary Accounts
Edited by John Killen, published by The Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1995.
Although the book is bracketed by 1841 and 1851 census reports, most of the pieces were taken from Irish and English periodicals. This a wealth of primary source material and includes cartoons from Punch and auction
posters. (Submitted by Patricia Jameson-Sammartano.)
Fearful Realities: New Perspectives on the Famine
Edited by Chris Morash and Richard Hayes. Published by Irish Academic Press, 1996.
This collection of essays originated at a conference on the Famine organised by the society for the Study of Nineteenth-Century Ireland, held in St Patrick's College, Maynooth in July of 1994. (Submitted by Todd Bogan.)
A Death-Dealing Famine: The Great Hunger
By Cristine Kinealy. Published by Pluto Press, 1997.
Kinealy shows the complex factors which created the Famine, including the rise of free market ideologies, provedentialist ideas, the desire to disposses the Irish peasantry in order to "modernize" Irish agriculture. An important sequel to "The Great Calamity". (Submitted by Craig Gilmore.)
The San Patricios, a film available on video.
The San Patricios is the powerful story about famine immigrants who were sent as soldiers in the U.S. army in the conquest of Mexico in 1846-48.
When Ireland Starved - a video documentary.
Available from Irish Visions USA, 1997.
When Ireland Starved, a 104 minute documentary from Radharc Films, Dublin, recreates the horror of the most catastrophic event in Irish history. This video using archival sketches, many taken from the Illustrated London News of the period (1845-50) exposes this disaster that has been, for too long, hidden from the public eye.
The Scattering: Images of Emigrants from an Irish Country
edited by Anne Jones (Paperback; 25.00 IEP / 35.00 USD / 20.00 UK)
Down through the years thousands of people from County Clare have left home to live and work in other lands. To explore the lives of Clare emigrants, six photographers criss-crossed the world over a twelve month period visiting Clare people at their work and in their homes. The final selection of photographs was made from over 20,000 exposures. They were taken in Los Angeles and London, Sydney and Seoul, in South and Central America, Poland, Pakistan, South Africa and Israel and many other countries. As well as allowing the photographers into their lives, each emigrant was asked to tell his or her story. The words and pictures combine to make an intensely moving book showing the daily lives of sixty-eight emigrants, now scattered all over the world. The book provides a fascinating insight into the Irish abroad.
North Down Memories: Photographs 1860s to 1960s
by Keith Haines (Paperback; 14.30 IEP / 17.50 USA / 12.50 UK)
The history of the northern part of Country Down, from the monks and Vikings of medieval times to the malls and marinas of today, has been rich indeed, giving the area its distinctive character and atmosphere. In this striking book of 170 photographs, the author takes the reader on a nostalgic tour of coastal towns like Bangor and Donaghadee, down the Ards peninsula to Greyabbey and across to Comber and Scrabo. Complemented by informative captions, and covering a hundred years, the photographs vividly evoke the individuals, families, businessmen and events that have left their mark on north Down.
Kerry Anthology edited by Gabriel Fitzmaurice
(Hardback; 20.00 IEP / 28.00 USD / 16.00 UK)
The County of Kerry, known in Ireland as 'the Kingdom', has many unique
characteristics: unrivalled natural beauty of mountain and coastline; the lilt of the Irish language that is still the vernacular in Corca Dhuibhne, part of the Dingle peninsula in west Kerry; a wealth of literature in all its genres and in both Irish and English; the musical tradition of the Sliabh Luachra area; and most important of all for many Kerry people, a Gaelic football team that has won more championship finals than any other county. All these characteristics are represented in this major and comprehensive anthology.
Cooking at Ballymaloe House by Myrtle Allen
(Hardback; 19.99 IEP / 28.00 USD / 16.00 UK)
The name of Ballymaloe has now passed into lore and legend of good food and good cooking throughout the world. When this book was originally published in 1990, it became an instant classic. Those who have been to Ballymaloe and those who knew it by reputation welcomed this ground-breaking cookbook devoted to simple yet elegant versions of traditional Irish dishes. Now in a completely re-designed edition, which includes additional photography, Myrtle Allen presents 100 favoured recipes from her repertoire accompanied by 50 stunning colour photographs which capture the unique atmosphere of Ballymaloe House itself, its interior, its gardens and, of course, its food.
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