Few of us are entirely comfortable with the genealogical research we and others have done. Many of our findings have words like “probably”, “may”, “perhaps”, and “assumption” inserted because of our doubts. We've exhausted all the traditional research tools and all that remains is using simple, painless DNA testing to provide the answers for which we've been hunting.
DNA testing is the newest tool available to genealogists. Y-DNA testing helps genealogists verify their paternal ancestry (father's father's father, etc.) in a quick and easy way. It saves time, prevents mistakes,and provides invaluable data that can be obtained in no other way. The only cost is for the testing itself, and even though it may at first seem expensive, it is probably much less than many research trips we have made that produced far less information — consider the costs of gasoline, tolls, parking, photocopying, meals, and perhaps an overnight stay.
We need to test at least one individual from each tree to see if they match the other trees. If they don't, we should test another individual in the same tree but one that's the furthest removed from the other testee, in order to verify that their connection is correct and that their results correctly represent that whole tree.
Family Tree DNA, the company we recommend for this, will also determine your Y Haplogroup, even to the extent of performing additional tests on your sample if it becomes necessary. This will indicate your paternal line's ancient ancestry and will show the migration routes of your ancestors of thousands of years ago through different geographic regions on a map that Family Tree DNA will send you, and also on the various genographic and haplogroup maps available on the web.
Another advantage of providing a DNA sample is that some companies will store it for many years — Family Tree DNA stores it for 25 years at no additional charge. So as new testing methods evolve, descendants of a deceased person that has been tested will be able to get further testing performed on that same DNA sample.
You simply swab the inside of your cheek a few times in the comfort of your home. Mail the sample to the testing company, and then sit back and wait about six weeks for the results. You will receive a handsome certificate displaying your genetic profile — a series of numbers that are meaningless by themselves, but they hold the key to your paternal ancestry and, when matched against the profiles of others, can yield information that can be obtained in no other way. Those numbers will be compared against fast-growing databases, such as at Y search, and you will likely find other individuals whose results match yours — if not immediately then in future years. You will be notified as new matches occur.
Note that only a male with any of the subject surnames may participate in Y-DNA testing but, if you have this ancestry, you can be represented by even a distant cousin whose name is Hartrum, Hotrum or similar. Maternal ancestry (mother's mother's mother, etc.) testing can also be performed and is termed Mitochondrial or mt-DNA testing, but obviously it is used to verify other than the surname line — see below. For further information about DNA read Charles Kirchner's Introduction. Further questions and concerns are answered at Family Tree DNA's Learning pages.
The following four trees show where we know we have living male individuals that are candidates for Y-DNA testing — we are aware of other living males but sadly they do not seem to be interested in their own ancestry. We need to determine the haplotype of each of these trees. This is basically the common Y-DNA pattern for all members of that one tree. DNA testing has already proven that Trees 1, 2 and 4 connect, and that the connection is close to where those trees commence. So now we need to test an individual from Tree 3 to verify that they connect, and if so, to which other Tree's individuals they are closest. As individuals are tested and links are confirmed by DNA testing, the tree's branches will be coloured red. This will provide an indication as to the status of our testing.
Even though we have many more separate trees in this One-Name study and lots of unlinked living individuals, only the four trees shown below are known to contain living male descendants. If your branch of the tree is not shown in the following tables, and should be, please contact us so we can include your family in the tree or add a completely new tree for your ancestry.
We have proven that the New Jersey and Ohio HARTRUMs, and the Ontario HOTRUMs are very close relatives. Furthermore it appears that every Hartrum and Hotrum is related, with the common connection being in Pennsylvania or New Jersey in the mid 1700s — if only we could find the paper records to prove it! Our testing also showed a DNA match with an individual with the surname of HARTIMAN. However, because this individual only had 12 markers tested it is not known whether this is an ancient relationship or one more recent. Hopefully this individual will upgrade his test to more markers to make his testing worthwhile. We would like to test someone to confirm the relationship of the Luzerne County, Pennsylvania BRONSONs and the Michigan or Washington HOTRUMs with the rest of us.
The other interesting discovery is that so far there are no matches with any other "Hart*" surnames, such as Hartman, Hartranft, etc. So suggestions that our surname is derived from those appear to be invalid. As more people around the world get their DNA tested we expect to discover close connections with other surnames — hopefully discovering our original ancestral surname.
We need many more male Hartrums to take a Y-DNA test so we can determine where their paternal lineages connect together back in the 1700s. We also need individuals that fit into Tree 3 (below) to take a Y-DNA genealogy test in order to prove whether or not they connect with the other trees. Please contact us if you know someone that's a willing candidate for this.
If you would like to participate by having your Y-DNA or autosomal DNA tested for genealogy purposes then order a test kit and mail your sample to Family Tree DNA. Note: For our Y-DNA testing we recommend having a minimum of 37 markers tested initially, but if testing 67 markers is do-able then go for it! In return you will receive comprehensive details of the results of your test — see sample reports.
If you would be willing to provide a donation to support our DNA project then please go to Family Tree DNA and contribute to the HARTRUM Surname Project. Payments can be made securely via credit card or PayPal.
Mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) testing provides the female line (matriline) haplotype. While this is not normally used in a "Surname" project, we are using it to discover the parents of some female Hartrums that were born in the 1800s. Doing this is quite complicated as it entails discovering living descendants of those females via a pure female line (except for the person being tested) —the matriline— so the tested person's mother must be related through her mother, and so on, back to the female Hartrum.
Autosomal DNA (at-DNA) testing (FT-DNA's Family Finder, 23andMe's DNA test, Ancestry.com's AncestryDNA) provides information about your DNA that was inherited from all your ancestral lines. Like mt-DNA testing, this is not normally used in a "Surname" project but is another very useful tool to discover how and where individual trees fit together, and due to its much lower cost it is becoming more favourable as the test of choice.
The only problems with it are that (unlike Y-DNA) it's only usable 7 or 8 generations back from the testee, and many more participants are needed to supply DNA samples. In the absence of your parents, aunts and uncles, it is to your advantage to test as many first- and second-cousins as possible because their matches to you will identify the lineage origin of that matching portion of DNA. Analysis of the resultant data can be time-consuming because that DNA comes from a mix of at least 256 ancestors but they are not identified. On the plus side... it does permit females to participate in DNA testing, and it also provides information about all ancestral lines (not just the patriline). Even if you don't have the time to expend on detailed analysis it's still worthwhile getting tested as soon as possible because that will permit other testees to research your connection to themselves, thereby doing your research for you!
In our HARTRUM tree the use of autosomal testing helped to discover and prove the biological parents of an adopted child, whereas in our HOTRUM tree it enabled a breakthrough by identifying the surname of one of the previously-unidentified wives. Further breakthroughs will occur as more people take autosomal DNA tests.
George —+— Conrad ——— George —+— Charles Elmer BRONSON ——— Herbert A. BRONSON ———> 2 known living males (Pennsylvania) | | HARTRUM | +— Marvin Clark BRONSON ——————————————————————————> 1 known living male (Pennsylvania) | +— Frederick —+— Daniel —+— Christopher ——— Daniel J. ——— Irvin C. ———> 6 known living males | | | +— John J. "Alex" ——— John HARTMAN ——————> 2 known living males (New Jersey) | | | +— Daniel J. ——— Arthur C. ——— Arthur ———> 1 known living male (New Jersey) | | | +— William Crigger ——————————————————————> 1 known living male (New Jersey) | +— John A. —+— Alfred HARTRIM —+— William Alfred HARTRIM ———> 1 known living male (New Jersey) | | | | | +— Sylvanus J. HARTRIM —+— Alfred S. HARTRIM ———> living males (AZ) | | | | | +— Daniel W. HARTRIM ———> living males (NY) | +— David HARTRIM ———> living males ? | | +— Robert T. HARTRIM ———> living males (NJ) | +— Aaron —+— Gilbert R. —+— Raymond ———> 12 known living males (New Jersey) | | | +— Russell ———> 7 known living males (New Jersey) | | | +— Lewis N. ———> 14 known living males (New York) | +— Philip M. —+—————————————> 3 known living males (New Jersey) | +— William ===> 4 known living males (New Jersey)
Frederick —+— Daniel ——— Samuel Milton ——— Clarence Leonids ——— Marion Thomas ————> 3 known living males (Ohio) | HARTRUM +— John Frone ——— William Elmer ——— Laude Elmer ===============> 3 known living males (Illinois) | +— Samuel —+— Andrew L. ——— Glenn Everet —+— Robert Larby ———> 1 known living male (Indiana) | | | +— Richard R. ———> 9 known living males (Missouri) | +— Seymour ——— Harry Earl ——— Louis Seymour ———> 5 known living males (California) | +— Charles F. ——— Ray ————————————————————————> 3 known living males (Ohio)
Edward ——— Ira —— Clarence Fred —+— Edward Clarence —+———————————> 1 known living male (North Carolina) | | HARTRUM | +— Robert Lee ———> 4 known living males (Ohio) | +— Charles William ———————————————> 1 known living male (Ohio) | +— Donald Gordon ——————————————> 1 known living male (Ohio)
Conrad —+— John ——— Conrad John ——— John William —+— John William "Jack" ===> 25 known living males (Ontario) | | HOTRUM | +— Robert Cochrane ===> 5 known living males (Ontario) | | | +— James Conrad ———> 1 known living male (Ontario) | +— David —+— Frederick ——— Cyrus H. ——— Harvey Angus ———————> 7 known living males (Ontario) | +— David —+— Frederick ——— Charles Alvin ————————> 10 known living males (Michigan) | +— David Alvin ——— Earl David ————————————> 4 known living males (Michigan) | +— Smith —+— Clyde ——— Lloyd Dale —+————————> 3 known living males (Michigan) | | | +——————————————> 2 known living males (Florida) | | | +— Dean Lawrence ————> 2 known living males (Florida) | +— Frederick Cloyd —+— George Berton —+— Lanny Roger —+—> 3 known living males (FL) | | | | | +—> 1 known living male (AK) | | | +—————————> 1 known living male (Alaska) | +———————————————————> 6 known living males (Washington)
Click here to see a spreadsheet of the allele values of the various markers for the male individuals that have been tested so far.
Please send us an e-mail if you have any information about HARTRUM or HOTRUM family members of any era, or wish to discuss any of these individuals or their relatives. Address snail mail to: 9091 Eighth Line, Georgetown, ON, Canada L7G 4S5.
Credits — persons who have contributed to this One-Name Study.
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