Notes on the
A Study of Several Branches With Allied Families
compiled by Harry M. Cleveland
One Cregier genealogy states that he had been a Huguenot refugee from Borcken, Holland and from Toulouse, France.
Martin Cregier (Krygier), the first Burgomaster of New Amsterdam, having distinguished himself as a fearless warrior, retired with Gov. Stuyvesant into private life. There were actually 2 burgomasters of New Amsterdam: Martin and Arendt Van Hattem. They were sworn in on February 2, 1653 along with five schepens and a secretary. He may have settled at Canastagione, now Niskayuna (Albany county, NY), on the banks of the Mohawk River. In the retired spot, he died in the early part of 1713. His descendants continued to own the homestead in Niskayuna well into the 1900's. There are some researchers who believe that it was Martin Jr. who died in 1713 and not his father. This is more than likely the case. A Martin Cregier of Kanestagione (Niskayuna), Albany county died prior to March 3, 1713. His wife was Jannetie. This is the son of Martin Cregier, Sr. His wife and children (Martin, Samuel, Lysbet, Marytje, Katrina, Johanna and Geertruy) were listed in his will. His wife, Jannetie died prior to June 10, 1741. Some sources state that Martin, Jr. married Janneken Hendricx Van Doesburg at New Amsterdam on September 6, 1671.
There is a record of a Martin Cregier who either made his will or died in Port Albany, NY on or around January 21, 1702. I do not know which Martin this is.
New Amsterdam was the first permanent settlement by the Dutch West Indies Company in 1626. In the same year, Fort Amsterdam was constructed. In 1628, the settlement consisted of 270 persons.
In a tax list of New York City for the East ward, made about 1703, is the name of Captain Cragror [Cregier] who had 1 male 16-60; 2 females; 2 female children; and 1 female slave.
den 31 dict . [Dec] Marten Cregier Tryntie Cornelis Van Tienhoven, Secrts., Olof Stephenszen Van Courtlant, Ariaen Dircks, Sara Roelofs, h. v. Mr. Hans Van Kierstede.
Pieter Montfoort baptized Jannetje May 8, 1646.
"Martin Cregier, patriot, captain and burgomaster, will be remembered for his great activity in the civic and military life of New Amsterdam. From a humble beginning, as a trader and tavern-keeper, he showed such ability that he came to serve in almost every civic capacity and his skill, bravery and love of adventure raised him to the Captain-Lieutenancy of the West India Co[mpany]" Before coming to New Amsterdam, Martin lived in Borcken, where his son, Frans, was born, and Amsterdam where his daughter, Margrietje, was born. Borcken may have been a village in the province of North Brabant, Holland.
Martin came to New Amsterdam with his wife, Lysbeth Jans, and at least 3 children prior to April 5, 1643 (when their daughter, Catherine, was baptized). He entered into the service of the West India Company. On August 4, 1649, Martin Kregier, late sergeant to Gerrit Vastrick, petitioned for 1,271 guilders and 19 stivers due him from that company at Amsterdam. On March 4, 1649, he had been listed as lieutenant in a company of burgher officers of which Jacob Couwenhoven was captain.
Martin was at first a trader in America. On September 2, 1643, there is a record of him discussing the price of beaver. On July 15, 1644, he sent 50 beavers to Holland for sale. On December 4, 1646, he signed partnership papers with Kieft, acting for the West India Company, and 9 others which indicate he owned 1/16th of the small French-built frigate, "La Garce," which sailed as a privateer under the control of the Dutch government, preying upon Spanish barks and returning to New Amsterdam with copper, Negroes, coral, wine, tobacco, ebony, sugar and the spoils of war. Cregier was captain of a sloop which sailed between Albany and New Amsterdam, called the "Bedfort" with which in later years he traded along the Delaware.
His trading activities were not confined to New Netherlands. In 1651 and 1652, there were letters from Lion Gardener of the Isle of Wite the mention Martin. As early as February 1683, Martin had a sloop on which he conducted trading ventures to New Castle, Delaware. He traded with "Natives or others in those parts." On March 27, 1675, after the British reoccupation, Gov. Andros sent a message to the Schout of New Castle by Capt. Kriegiers Sloop.
As early as 1647, Martin was a tavern-keeper in New Amsterdam. There were three inns located near the fort and overlooking the green. One was operated by Peter Kock, the Dane, at # 1 Broadway, and another owned by Martin who was Peter's neighbor and another across Marketveldt, the new name for Bowling Green, on Stone Street. This tavern was later called the 'King's Arm Tavern' and at the time of the Revolution, it was called Burns' Coffee House. As late as 1860, there was still a tavern on the spot, then being known as 'The Atlantic Garden.'
On January 23, 1648, Governor Stuyvesant and his council ordered that no chimneys of wood and plaster were to be build between the Fort and Kalck Hoek Pond. Martin and two others were made fire wardens representing the commonalty. This was the first constituted fire department. They were given the power to inspect all chimneys and levy a fine of three guilders for every flue found dirty and to impose a fine of 25 florins if a house burned because of the owner's carelessness. The money collected went towards the purchase of hooks, buckets and ladders.
The first burgomasters of New Amsterdam were Arendt Van Hattem and Marten Cregier. On February 2, 1653, Candlemas Day, the first magistrates received their commissions and were sworn in and New Amsterdam acquired a municipal government of its own. The burgomasters were the mayors of the city. Much of the work fell upon Martin because Van Hattem was often away on his own or official business. Martin served as burgomaster in 1653, 1654, 1659, 1660 and 1663. His salary in 1664 was 350 guilders yearly. On June 26, 1663, he resigned from the bench of burgomasters and schepens to devote all of his time to military affairs. On January 27, 1654, he suggested that the court of burgomasters and schepens be allowed to submit a double number of nominations for officers for the following year (from which the governor and council could choose) and that consideration be given to compensation for the burgomasters and schepens - a revolutionary idea, to pay civil officers, including magistrates.
In 1653, Thomas Baxter of Rhode Island had been inflicting heavy losses on the English as well as the Dutch towns of Long Island that a convention was called in 1653 to try to secure cooperation among the company and the towns. At least 7 towns codified their grievances in the Humble Remonstrance and Petition of the Colonies and Villages in this New Netherland Province. Redress was demanded for six wrongs. Mostly for the misuse of power by Gov. Stuyvesant. It was essentially a declaration of rights. Stuyvesant rejected it claiming that the delegates were not legally qualified. Martin signed the petition as burgomaster. Martin also wrote a series of Short Notes explaining more informally and explicitly the various sections of the Humble Remonstrance. It took courage to oppose Stuyvesant. The Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company had contended that it was supreme in the affairs of New Netherland; and Stuyvesant claimed that his commission made him supreme, after speaking of the people of the province as his "subjects." When an attempt was made to 'muzzle' van der Donck, Martin voted to let him state his case. Also, his decisions in the court and as an orphan-master seem to have been eminently just.
During 1654, the Noble Lords Directors of the West India Company had prepared a painted coat of arms of the city of New Amsterdam and a cut seal in silver; these were delivered to Martin as presiding burgomaster on December 8 after their arrival on the ship De Pereboom.
On May 18, 1643, he was given a ground-brief - a house and garden north of the fort on the west side of the Heere Wegh (Broadway) opposite the open space before the fort which later became Bowling Green (located at the present #3 or #9-11 Broadway). It was the first lot on De Heere Straat on the left side of Bowling Green, some 87 rods in perimeter. In 1643, when Broadway was starting to resemble a street, Martin built the second tavern (#9-11 Broadway). There was a tavern on the site till 1860. On March 10, 1645, Jan Jansen van den Ham declared that Martin was bequeathed a house by his friend Sergeant Martin Ael (lot was #14-16 Broadway). His friend wrote his will while lying in bed wounded during the night between March 5th and 6th.
In 1653, he was a delegate to the convention to represent the state of the country to authorities in Holland.
On April, 1654, he and Fiscaal van Tienhoven were sent as representatives of the governor and council to Gov. Eaton of Connecticut to try to negotiate some means of suppressing the English pirates whose raids on Dutch shipping were increasing; they were also to protest "the abduction of Capt. Cregier's negroes protected by a safe-conduct of the said honorable Governor and kidnaped within his jurisdiction. At this time, Martin was also spoken of as "Captain of one of the Citizens' Companies of this City of New Amsterdam." and probably in both of his capacities superintended the construction of fortifications.
In the Report on Garrisoning Fort Casmir, on the Delaware River dated November 1, 1656, "To office the aforesaid companies, one Martin Kryger had offered himself as Captain and Alexander Hinojossa as Lieutenant; no Ensign satisfactory to us having come forward, we recommend both those gentleman to your Worships agreeably to your Instruction, as persons who, we trust on this occasion, are capable of doing good service. The first having resided many years in New Netherland and given proof enough of his qualifications, and especially of his knowledge of the country and of the South river, and the other on account of his long service in Brazil and other capacities, having been employed there as Lieutenant and Captain-Lieutenant."
On February 25, 1656, he petitioned the council for leave to build on his lot west Broadway. The house was supposed to be a 2 story building with window in the high peak and the crow-stepped gables being turned towards Broadway. It was taller and more narrow than his neighbors - possibly due to the narrowness of the lot which was broader at North River and narrower at The Great Highway. The house was completed by September 15, 1659, when "the newly built house and lot of the Worshipfull Burgomaster Marten Cregier" are referred to by his neighbor Jacobus Backer. On January 3, 1664, a malicious servant, a negress named Lysbet Antonio or Antonis, set fire to the house. On January 26, he surrendered his grant and received a modified patent for a house and garden. In 1674, Martin's property was noted as a class of property Second, nationality Dutch and estimated wealth $5,000. The house was rebuilt in 1685 and was later sold to Peter Bayard.
Most of the hired soldiers of the West India Company were not of Dutch extraction.
On July 9, 1651, he witnessed the interrogation of the Indians in the South River settlements (Delaware River) concerning their sale of land to the Swedes. A week later he witnessed a complaint of the Dutch traders against the Swedes. As of July 19, he was one of the commissioners to obtain from the Indians the land claimed by the Swedes.
He witnessed a letter of protest to Gov. Stuyvesant while at Fort Beversreede because a Mr. Printz, a Swede, was buying up land around the fort from the Indians. This could cause a military problem because, in the event of war, the supply route between Fort Nassau and Fort Beversreede would be in jeopardy. This is why Gov. Stuyvesant had two separate patrols (one of 120 men and one of 11 boats) converge on the area and the Swedes offered no resistance. Gov. Stuyvesant purchased the Swedish land from the Indians. He had made it seem as though the Indians gave the land as a gift; however, Stuyvesant secretly paid off the Indians with knives, axes, 4 guns, 4 pounds of lead (in bars), some powder and awes. Martin also signed the secret contract. He was then Lieutenant of New Amsterdam Burgess Company.
On September 11, 1653 he was a delegate to the general assembly of the country called by the Governor and the council. The city was represented by burgomaster Cregier and Schepen Van der Grist. In 1664, he was an envoy to Governor Theophilus Eaton of New Haven colony, to demand the suppression of the English pirates. He was president of the board of burgomasters during the absence of Stuyvesant in Curacoa. He superintended the strengthening of the defenses of the city when the English forces were threatening. In 1653, Martin, the trader, had offered $40 as a loan for the erection of the city palisades and two years later had given $20 for the same purpose.
Martin took an active part in the Dutch settlement of New Amstel on the South River (Delaware). Because of his military experience and his knowledge of South River, he was placed in command of the forty soldiers engaged as the garrison for New Amstel when it was founded in 1656. Martin was there as early as November 1. In the fall of 1657, he was sent to the Isle of Kent, Virginia [Maryland] to try to obtain animals for the settlement. He returned on September 11, 1657 and reported the English governor was preparing to come over to Delaware. Martin was to be paid 50 florins per month with 150 florins per year allocated (for rations). It was mentioned that Martin offered himself as captain as Fort Casimir, "having resided many years in New Netherland and given proof enough of his qualifications, and especially of his knowledge of the country and of the South River." His commission was dated December 5, 1656. By November 1657, he was at odds with Jacob Aldrichs and asked to be discharged, but he was there either still or again with his son Francis in August 1658. When his troops there were depleted, he was commissioned on September 22, 1659 to lead 60 men who were being sent in three vessels, which arrived at Fort Altena on the 26th. He, as burgomaster, and Van Ruyven, as secretary, were there officially because of the threat of conquest by the English in Maryland. The official authorities, though welcoming the troops, did not like the official interference, and accused Martin and Van Ruyven of suggesting that women leave New Amstel and go to Manhattan.
On December 5, 1656, the Burgomasters and Regents of the City of Amsterdam appointed Martin captain of a company of soldiers to be sent to their colony in New Netherlands. On Christmas day, earlier than had been announced by the directors, the embarkation from Holland took place. The West India Company sent out 167 men on three ships, the Prince Maurice, the Bear and the Flower of Gueldor. During a storm, the ships were separated and the Prince of Maurice was wrecked about midnight on the south coast of Long Island, near Fire Island Inlet. On March 12, Jacob Aldrichs, the Vice-Director in charge of the enterprise wrote that all were spared and he hoped to save most of the goods. Meanwhile, he was stranded on a bleak and barren shore with a body of people and about 50 soldiers under the "Honorable Captain Martin Kryger [Cregier] and Lieutenant D'Hinoyossa. It was cold and freezing hard and he demanded help and assistance. Indians brought the letter to Stuyvesant. Immediately a yacht was sent from New Amsterdam and the director himself went to the scene of the disaster. The people and most of the cargo were saved. A few weeks later, the company continued to the South River. For several years thereafter, Martin was active in military operations centering about the new colony.
In 1657, he was one of two men chosen to supersede the colonial governors, Alcocks and Beekman, when there was trouble with the Dutch settlements on the Delaware. They were in charge of the repairs on the graft (canal), now Broad Street, and received the great Burgherright. The following year, he was one of the orphan masters, a position that he was forced to resign one year later on account of his duties as burgomaster. As most widows and a large percentage of widowers remarried, an Orphans Court was early set up for the protection of the interests of minor children. From November 21, 1658 to February 7, 1659, when he resigned to become burgomaster again, and for an indefinite time from March 3, 1661, Martin was one of the orphan masters.
When the English from Maryland were making trouble in 1659, Martin commanded a force of 60 soldiers sent overland to New Amstel. He was also a captain of the Burgher Guard of New Amsterdam, at this time (Captain of the Burghery, or citizens' company). The guard had been organized early in Stuyvesant's administration and consisted of two companies, one under the blue flag and the other under the orange flag. The officers were appointed by the director general and the council from a double number chosen by the people. In March 1660, during the absence of Stuyvesant at Esopus, military authority was "absolutely committed to Captain Marten Cregier" and in June, he accompanied the Governor to Esopus to assist in making terms of peace with the Indians. During 1661, he served respectively as city treasurer and orphan master.
During Kieft's administrations there were serious Indian raids, especially on Long Island. There had been a short war between the Dutch and the Esopus Indians in the Spring of 1660. During that time, Martin had gone to the Esopus with Stuyvesant on June 12 primarily to obtain information. The military campaign had been handles by Ens. Smit. The usually astute Council made the serious error of sending Indian slaves to work with the Company's negroes (usually the enslaving of Indians was frowned upon by the Dutch). The Esopus were incensed but bided their time until, on June 7, 1663, they descended on the Wiltwyck (Kingston) settlement and killed 21, wounded 9 and took 45 captives. Thus started the second Esopus war. Martin and his men defeated the Indians on September 10. Martin kept a detailed journal of the campaign. The Journal has been translated and printed in Documentary History of the State of New York, E. B. O'Callahan 4:33-62 and gives an excellent account on the way the Indian campaign was conducted. It covers the period from July 4, 1663 to January 3, 1664. It was not until May 16, 1664 that the treaty was signed; not only with the Esopus but with the sachems of many tribes. Martin witnessed the document (Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York E. B. O'Callahan and Berthold Fernow 13:377). On May 15, 1664 [check dates], there was an important gathering in the council chamber of Fort Amsterdam. Chiefs, sachems and representatives from about twenty tribes were present. A treaty of peace was made signed by Governor Stuyvesant and others in authority. "Martin Cregier, Lieut." was one of the witnesses.
On June 26, 1663, Martin resigned his position as burgomaster and delivered the city seal and the key to the chest of deposits to Van Cortlandt. At this time, he was made Captain-Lieutenant of the West India Company and commander in the expedition against the Esopus Indians and made Stuyvesant's deputy for the Esopus War. In July, he wrote in his journal that he has about 130 men bearing arms, 100 bearing arms in the field. He thoroughly organized and trained his force and the citizen's guard and demanded supplies, volunteers and a surgeon. On September 10, a Hackensack Indian brought the first news to New Amsterdam of Martin's victory. He received a new coat as his reward. Three days later, a letter came from the captain announcing "the success and the advantage" he had gained with his soldiers. During the expedition, he had kept a detailed journal of the campaign and it relates of the difficult fighting in the forest with the result that "the Esopus nation" had been almost annihilated.
On December 6, 1663, he sailed in the company's yacht to the Navesink Indians, accompanied by Govert Loockermans, Jacques Cortelyou, Peter Ebel with soldiers, sailors and several Indians. A treaty was made with the chiefs for the purchase by the Dutch of all the unsold lands from Barnegat Bay to the Raritan River, thus curbing the aggressiveness of the English. Martin warned the Indians not to sell land to the British. He also warned a group of Englishmen who had been taken to the Navesink country on the boat of Captain Theophilus Ellsworth.
On December 4, 1664, he was issued 8 pounds (of gun powder ?) and went in the Company's sloop with some soldiers to the Esopus [Indians]. On May 12, 1664, he was issued one and one half pounds (issued to Captain Martin Cregier and Sergeant Harmen [Hoagland ?].
The year 1664 marked the surrender of New Netherlands to the English and New Amsterdam became New York. On January 11, 1664, Martin conferred with the reckless Captain John Scott about the latter's claim to Long Island. On February 21, he contributed 100 florins towards the fortification of the city. On September 8, he signed the Articles of Capitulation of the Surrender of New Netherlands and New Amsterdam fell to the control of the British. Captain Cregier said that he would provide powder, but, for fear the Dutch soldiers would suddenly attack the English on account of the surrender, he had two kegs of powder brought to his house instead of on board the ship Gideon then the soldiers sailed. On August 14, 1673, after the recovery of New York from the English, Cregier was chosen to confer with the Dutch commanders on behalf of the burghers of New Orange, as New York was temporarily called. Martin's son, Martin, had been whipped by the English when he was a young man for refusing to doff his hat to the domineering Captain John Scott and had signed a remonstrance to the Director-General and Council on September 5, 1664. Martin Jr. later married Jannetje Hendricks van Doesburg and settled in Albany county, NY. Captain Scott had conducted a series of raids on the Dutch towns on western Long Island. Martin and two others had been sent to Jamaica to protest, only to learn that the Duke of York hoped to capture all Dutch territory. By August 8, 1664, the English fleet was anchored in the Lower Bay. Fort Amsterdam, built to withstand Indian attacks by land was useless against the British and gun powder was scarce. In order to keep sailors from making a useless gesture, Martin took home two casks of powder. On September 8, Gov. Stuyvesant and his Council signed the articles of surrender. These provided very little change. guaranteeing to the Dutch liberty of conscience in worship and church discipline, a continuance of their own customs, freedom to trade, recognition of the decisions of their courts, and continuance in office of minor officials until the next election. Under these terms, there was really more protection of private property than there had ever been before.
The latter days of Martin Cregier's life were still active. Under the English Governor, Richard Nicolls, in 1668, the men of the city were listed, divided into two companies and ordered to appear upon departure of the governor. Cregier was made one of the captains on August 17, 1668. In 1670 and 1672, he was made captain of a foot company, both under Governor Lovelace. On July 30, 1670, a commission was issued to Martin to be captain, Goovert Lookermans, lieutenant, Stephans Van Cortland, ensign, of a company at New York. A commission also to Captain Martin for a company in his city.
On February 26, 1762, he was the first to draw lots for a choice of company, being the senior officer. Apparently, the militiamen did not take their duty seriously, for Martin, in the same petition in which he asked for a replacement for his lieutenant, G. Lookermans, who had died, requested that the militia be fined for failure to appear "on proper summons or beat of the drum." Along with most of the non-British inhabitants of Manhattan, Martin took the oath of allegiance to the British in October 1664. He was still captain of the militia in 1673. In 1670, Gov. Lovelace appointed him collector of the customs at "ye Whore kill," Delaware, until that office was abolished. Three years later, he was made superintendent of the erection of fortifications for the city. In order to meet the increased expense, the governor levied a tax upon "the wealthiest and most affluent inhabitants" and Martin was appointed one of the tax commissioners.
The British had not strengthened the fortifications of New York to the point where a fleet could be repulsed. Consequently, when Cornelius Evertsen, Jr. and Martinico Jacob Binckes appeared with 23 vessels and 1600 men, the fort held out for only four hours (on August 9, 1673). From that date until the Dutch signed away their claims to the territory in North America at the Treaty of Westminster, February 19, 1674 - or possibly more accurately until the arrival of Gov. Andros, Dutch control replaced British. Anthony Colve, acting as governor, ordered re-establishment of the court of burgomasters and schepens to take the place of mayor and aldermen, and of a schout instead of a sheriff. These officers' qualifications included, "from the wealthiest inhabitants and those only who are of the Reformed Christian Religion." One of the burgomasters was Martin. He was also made superintendent of building the fortifications. After the re-establishment of English rule, Martin seems not to have served, except as a member of the tax commission appointed February 1, 1674; and then he was designated as a merchant.
Martin was appointed one of the church masters in 1674. In 1686, his name was entered by Domine Henricus Selyns in the list of church members of the Dutch Reformed Church. He was then living on Pearl Street (Paerl Straet) between State and Whitehall Streets; either with his daughter, Tryntje (Cathrina), widow of Stoffel Hoagland, or in an adjoining house. He had sold his home on lower Broadway in 1685 to Peter Bayard. It is possible that he had come to live with his daughter. On a list of communicants of the Dutch church compiled in 1686, Martin is #80 and Cathrina is #81. Later in 1686, it is said that he retired to Albany where his son, Martin, was living and where Martin already owned property.
Martin and slavery: "Martin Crigier who, as everyone knows, brought up the girl" and "reared the girl at his own expense" This slave was probably the Lysbet Antonis who set fire to Martin's house on January 3, 1664. She was probably the daughter of Little Anthony, one of the slaves freed by Kieft. The black people that were in New Amsterdam at the time were owned by the West India Company. They had been taken from the Spaniards. On February 25, 1644, Director-General Kieft manumitted the slaves and their wives after "having considered the petition of the Negroes who served the Company during eighteen or nineteen years." He placed them "on the same footing as all other free men here in New Netherlands, where they may provide for themselves and families by agriculture on land which shall be designated and granted to them." Unfortunately, "their children already born or yet to be born shall remain obliged to serve the Company as slaves." In 1650, Secretary van Tienhoven stated that there were no more than 3 of these children: One at the House of the Hope; one at the company bouwerie; and one with Martin Cregier.
In the volumes of the Records of New Amsterdam 1653 - 1674 (Fernow 974.71 N 42 NY at the NJ Historical Society), there are numerous references to Martin Crieger and Stoffel Hoagland in all seven volumes. Also, see the 1900 edition of the Holland Yearbook see pp. 138-139; and the 1901 edition pp. 121-131. The D.A.R. volumes at the NJ Historical Society are very useful also. Specifically, review the Hoagland entries again. See Baptisms in the Dutch Church, New York 1731 - 1800 by Wright for references to Hoagland and Cregier.
A Sweet and Alien Land: the Story of Dutch New York, by Henri and Barbara van der Zee, published in New York by Viking Press in 1978. Page 407, regarding the official response to the Esopus massacre of 1663:
"Enthusiasm was as usual almost nil. The general himself visited several places, but could not inspire the colonists to enlist. The army that arrived at Wiltwyck [Kingston] was composed mainly of eighty company mercenaries and thirty English soldiers under Sergeant Nicholas Stilwell, accompanied by forty Long Island Indians. It was not a very impressive force, but the troops were under the command of New Netherland's best warrior -- Martin Cregier -- the experienced commander of the burgher militia in New Amsterdam. He was assisted by Pieter van Couwenhoven, another Captain of the burgher guard, now in charge of the Indians.
Captain Lieutenant Crieger, at that time about forty-five years old, had, like so many excellent soldiers, served his military apprenticeship in the Dutch armies of Stadtholder Frederick Hendrick, Prince of Orange. He was a pleasant, intelligent, and able personality, a born leader. Apart from his tavern, he ran a prosperous shipping business. Official appointments had been heaped on him since his arrival around 1643 -- firewarden, orphanmaster, militia commander -- and ten years later he became the first burgomaster of New Amsterdam, a function he would frequently fulfill and which he had relinquished upon taking command of the vital campaign at Esopus. It was to become the crown of his career..."
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