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DNA Surname Project
A Pioneer DNA Surname Project
In Memorial of
Fortest and Tree
Wise is the person who sees the forest
May we then in living life
†Chemical Graphics by Paul Thiessen
Haplogroup Study Objective
As stated previously, the objective of this project is to display the DNA test results of participants in a manner best suited for genealogical comparisons. It is these test comparisons that is the core reason to employ DNA testing in the first place. It is our hope that the haplogroup studies web page(s) will allow participants to easily make their desired comparisons and to explore their ancient genealogy through the more scientific analysis of their individual haplogroup.
Family Group Leaders
Below you will find links to the haplogroupís pages.† From these pages you can access the test results from all members in said haplogroups.
Haplogroup B -Haplogroup B is one of the oldest Y-chromosome lineages in humans. Haplogroup B is found exclusively in Africa. This lineage was the first to disperse around Africa. There is current archaeological evidence supporting a major population expansion in Africa approximately 90-130 thousand years ago. It has been proposed that this event may have spread Haplogroup B throughout Africa. Haplogroup B appears at low frequency all around Africa, but is at its highest frequency in Pygmy populations
Haplogroup E3a is an Africa lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa within the last 3,000 years, by the Bantu agricultural expansion. E3a is also the most common lineage among African Americans
Haplogroup E3b1a - This lineage is estimated to have originated in north-eastern Africa about 23,000 years ago. Some of its branches exited Africa during the Paleolithic, and today it can be found in Europe, the Middle East, and north and east Africa.
Haplogroup E3b1- This lineage is found in eastern and northern Africa, the Near East, and Europe, and is estimated to have originated about 23,000 years ago.
Haplogroup G and Haplogroup G2 -This lineage may have originated in India or Pakistan, and has
dispersed into central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The G2 branch of
this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in the Europe
and the Middle East
The I and I1 lineages are nearly completely restricted to northwestern Europe. These would most likely have been common within Viking populations. One lineage of this group extends down into central Europe. Haplogroup I dates to 23,000 years ago or longer. Lineages not in branches I1a, I1b or I1c are found distributed at low frequency throughout Europe.†
The I1a lineages are nearly completely restricted to northwestern Europe. These would most likely have been common within Viking populations. One lineage of this group extends down into central Europe. Haplogroup I dates to 23,000 years ago or longer. Lineages not in branches I1a, I1b or I1c are found distributed at low frequency throughout Europe.
Haplogroup I1b -This subgroup of Haplogroup I is found within the Balkans countries at it's greatest frequency and diversity. These countries probably harbored this subset of Haplogroup I as a refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Haplogroup J and J1 - both are found at highest frequencies in Middle Eastern and north African populations where each most likely evolved. This marker has been carried by Middle Eastern traders into Europe, central Asia, India, and Pakistan. The Cohen modal lineage is found in Haplogroup J*.
Haplogroup J2 This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations.
Haplogroup N -This haplogroup is distributed throughout Northern Eurasia. It is the most common Y-chromosome type in Uralic speakers (Finns and Hungarians). This lineage most likely originated in northern China or Mongolia and then spread into Siberia where it became a very common line in western Siberia
Haplogroup O probably originated in East Asia and later migrated into the South Pacific. The lineage expanded into Taiwan (high frequency in the aboriginal Taiwanese), Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. O3 is the predominant sub-group in China. The O1 and O2a lineages are found in Southeast Asian populations of Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and southern China. The O2b sub-group is of high frequency in the Japanese and Korean populations.
Haplogroup Q arose in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas. Today it is found in North Eurasia, with some exemplars in European populations. The Q1a3a sub-group is almost exclusively associated with Native American populations.
Haplogroup T:† From 2002 to 2008, it was known as Haplogroup K2. It should not be confused with the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup T, of the same name.† It is believed to have originated in Asia.† Individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Morocco, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe, presenting the highest concentration of this haplogroup found so far.† A famous member of the T haplogroup is Thomas Jefferson; his Y-chromosomal complement received prominence through the Sally Hemings controversy.
The R1a lineage is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. This lineage is believed to have originated in a population of the Korgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.
Haplogroup R1b: is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype
Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype
The haplogroups for these members is currently unestablished
Links To Sites of Interest
Our Testing Lab
Queries to Cecil Johnson
UK Clan Johnstone
Website of Linda Sparks Starr
Lee Johnson †Administrator | Sherrie Boone† Co-Administrator |
Barbara Hockman Pedigree Coordinator | Tony Johnson Librarian US |
Don Johnston Librarian NZ & Australia | Cathy Cadd Librarian Canada
†Euell Johnson Research Analysis