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HIGHLAND COUNTY

 

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HIGHLAND COUNTY was formed in May, 1805 from Ross, Adams and Clermont, and so named because of the highlands between the Scioto and the Little Miami.  The surface is part rolling and part level, and the soil varies.  As a whole it is a wealthy and productive county.  Area about 470 square miles.  In 1887 the acres cultivated were 119,588; in pasture, 128,380 woodland; woodland, 54,430; lying waste, 4,728; produced in wheat, 323,884 bushels; rye, 3,434 buckwheat, 47; oats, 134,249; barley, 796; corn, 1,192,567; broom corn, 10,095 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 19,965 tons; clover hay, 1,952; potatoes, 24,083 bushels; tobacco 25,940 lbs.; butter, 560,802 lbs., cheese, 150; sorghum, 4,044 gallons, maple syrup, 6,486; honey, 2,748 lbs., eggs, 598,205 dozen; grapes, 5,100 lbs.; wine, 16 gallons; sweet potatoes, 2, 464 bushels; apples, 2, 132; peaches, 760; pears, 327; wool, 88,442 lbs., milch cows owned, 6,536.  School census, 1888, 9,189; teachers, 256.  Miles of railroad track, 50.

 

Townships

And Census

1840

1880

 

Townships

And Census

1840

1880

Brush Creek,

1,502

1,651

 

Marshall,

 

   811

Clay,

   783

1,449

 

New Market,

1,302

1,080

Concord,

1,014

1,235

 

Paint,

2,560

2,476

Dodson,

   795

1,871

 

Penn,

 

1,507

Fairfield,

3,544

2,470

 

Salem,

1,004

1,144

Hamer,

 

1,051

 

Union,

1,089

1,453

Jackson,

2,352

   942

 

Washington,

 

   944

Liberty,

3,521

5,381

 

White Oak,

   887

1,248

Madison,

1,916

3,568

 

 

 

 

 

 

Population in Highland in 1820 was 12,308; in 1830, 16,347; 1840, 22,269; 12,208 in 1830, 16,347; 1840, 22,269; 1860, 27,773; 1880, 30,281; of whom 26,373 were born in Ohio; 1,120 in Virginia; 527 in Pennsylvania; 367 in Kentucky; 124 in Indiana in New York; 382 in Ireland; 214 in German Empire; 156 in France; 64 in England and Wales, 51 Scotland, and 21 British America.  Census, 1890, 29,048.

 

This country was first settled about the year 1801; the principal part of the early settlers were from Virginia and North Carolina, many of whom were Friends.  The first settlement was made in the vicinity of New Market, by Oliver ROSS, Robert HUTSON, Geo. W. BARRERE, and others.  Among the settlers of the county was Bernard WEYER, the discoverer of the noted cave in Virginia, known as “Weyer’s cave,” who is yet living on the rocky fork of Paint creek.  The celebrated pioneer and hunter, Simon Kenton, made a trace through this county, which passed through or near the site of Hillsboro’: it is designed in various land titles as “Kenton’s Trace.”  The fight between Simon Kenton with a party of whites and another of Indians under Tecumseh took place in what is now Dodson township, south of Lynchburg, as described in full in Vol. I., page 328 of this work.  (Excerpt follows at the end of this chapter.)

 

Hillsborough in 1846.—Hillsborough, the county-seat is on the dividing ridge between the Miami and Scioto, in a remarkable healthy situation, sixty-two miles south from Columbus, and thirty-six westerly from Chillicothe.  It was laid out as the seat of justice in 1807, on land of Benjamin ELLICOTT, of Baltimore, the site being selected by David HAYS, the commissioner appointed for that purpose.  Prior to this, the seat of justice was at New Market, although the greater part of the population of Highland was north and east of Hillsborough.  The original town plat comprised 200 acres, 100 of which Mr. ELLICOTT gave to this county, and sold the remainder at $2 per acre.  It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist church, 2 newspapers printing offices, 14 stores, and had in 1840,

 

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868 inhabitants.  It is a neat village, the tone of society elevated, and its inhabitants disposed to foster the literary institutions situated here.

 

The Hillsborough academy was founded in 1827; its first teacher was the Rev. J. McD. MATHEWS.  A charter was obtained shortly after, and comprising 2,000 acres, given by Maj. Adam HOOPS and the late Hon. John BROWN, of Kentucky.  A handsome brick building has been purchased by its trustees, on a beautiful eminence near the town, which is devoted to the purposed of the institution.  It has the nucleus for a fine Library, and ere long will possess an excellent philosophical and chemical apparatus.  It is now very flourishing, and has a large number of pupils: “the classical and mathematical courses are as thorough and extensive, as any college in the West;” instruction is also given in other branches usually taught in colleges.  Especial attention is given to training young men as teachers.  It is under the charge of Isaac SAMS, Esq.  The Oakland female seminary, a chartered institution, was commenced in 1839, by the Rev. J. McD.  MATHEWS, who has still charge of it.  It now has over 100 pupils, and is in excellent repute.  Diplomas are conferred upon its graduates.  The academy is beautifully located in the outskirts of the village, and is well furnished with maps, apparatus, etc., and has a small library.—Old Edition.

 

Hillsborough, county-seat of Highland, about 60 miles southeast of Columbus, 61 miles east of Cincinnati, is at the terminus of the Hillsborough branch of the C. W. & B. Railroad, and on the O. & N. W. Railroad.

 

County Officers, 1888 Auditor, George W. LEFEVRE; Clerk, John H., KEECH; Commissioners, John M. FOUST, Isaac LARKIN, George W. MILLER; Coroner, R. A. BROWN; Infirmary Directors, E. V. GRIM, Richard CROSEN, George W. SMITH; Probate Judge, Le Roy KELLY; Prosecuting attorney, J. B. WORLEY; Recorder, Samuel N. PATTON; Sheriff, M. S. MACKERLY; Surveyor, Nathaniel MASSIE;  Treasurer, E. O. HETHERINGTON.  City Officers, 1888: A. HARMAN, Mayor; W. H. AYRES, Clerk; G. W. RHOADES, Marshall: James REECE, Treasurer; D. Q. MORROW, Solicitor; Patrick McCabe, Superintendent of Public Works.

 

Newspapers: Gazette, Democratic, A. E. HOUGH, editor, Hough & Dittey, publishers; News-Heard, Republican, News-Herald Publishing Company, editors and publishers.  Churches: 1 Protestant Episcopal, 2 Methodist (1 colored), 1 Baptist (colored).  Banks: Citizens’ National, C. M. OVERMAN, president; O. S. PRICE, cashier.  First National, John A. SMITH, president; L. S. SMITH, cashier.  Merchants’ National, Henry STRAIN, president; E. L. FERRIS, cashier.

 

Manufactures and Employees: Carroll & Downham, carriages, etc., 20; J. S. Ellifritz & Co., blankets, etc., 13; J. W. Pence, building material, 5; Enterprise Planning Mill, doors, sash, etc., 8; Evans & McGuire, flour, etc., 5; C. S. Bell & Co., bells, etc., 60; Richards & Ayer, flour etc., 3; J. M. Boyd & co., flour, etc., 21; C. A. Roush &  Co., lumber, 7.—State Report, 1888.

 

Population, 1880, 3,234.  School census, 1888, 1080; Samuel MAJOR, school superintendent.  Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $85,500.  Value of annual product, $90,350.—Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.  Census, 1890 3,645.

 

The site of Hillsborough is commanding.  It stands like Rome “on seven hills,” 753 feet above the Ohio, and with beautiful surroundings.  It has an excellent public library of 6,000 volumes, supported by town taxation.  Its people possess a high reputation for culture; a natural consequence for its long-enjoyed advantages as an educational centre.  Here are located the “Highland Institute,” the Hillsborough Conservatory of Music,” Rev. G. R. BEECHER, president, with nineteen teachers in music, art, and elocution, and one hundred and eighty-one pupils; also the Hillsborough College, which admits pupils of both sexes.  It has a facility of sixteen members, J. H. McKENZIE, president; its entire course occupying four years.  It has a gymnasium and a military department, under

 

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Major Wm. B. ARNOLD, by which, “stooping forms become erect, narrow chests expanded, and the whole bearing more manly.”

 

As is natural on such a spot some of its citizens have ventured into the realms of authorship, viz: Henry S. DOGGETT, a biography of Prof. Isaac SAMS; Samuel P. SCOTT, by “Travels in Spain,” elegant in illustrations, accurate and full in its facts; “Chas. H. COLLINS, of the Hillsborough bar, by a book of poetry, “Echoes from the Highland Hills:” also by “Highland Hills to an Emperor’s Tomb,” combining travels with Poetry; Henry A. SHEPHERD, a lawyer also, in “History of Ohio” which was only partially printed when he suddenly died broken-hearted.  His history in connection with that work is sad; his material, after years of industry, having been twice destroyed by fire.  Another author of great promise was Hugh I. McMICHELS, who died young of consumption.  Otway CURRY, journalist and poet, was born in Greenfield, this county, in 1804; and Rev. Jas. B. FINLEY, who wrote books, was one of the first settlers, married here, and began life as a hunter. 

 

 

THE WOMEN’S TEMPERANCE CRUSADE.

 

In 1873 there was inaugurated at Hillsborough, Ohio, the most remarkable movement against intemperance in the history of the world.  Unique in its methods, widespread in its results; and although a failure, as regards its direct purpose, nevertheless it accomplished much good, and advanced public sentiment toward the reformation of the great evils and the vice of intemperance.

 

It had its origin in an address delivered in Hillsborough, on December 23, 1873, at music Hall, by Dr. Dio Lewis, before a large audience.  The lecture was an eloquent and effective appeal.  Dr.  Lewis graphically portrayed the misery of his childhood home, caused by an intemperate father.  In the New York village in which his parents resided, many of the fathers were intemperate and neglected their families, which were supported by the wives and children, who worked in mills and factories.  He told how his mother, driven to desperation, started and led a movement in which most of the women of the village participated.

 

These women met in the village church, appealed to God to aid them and crown their efforts with success and, kneeling before the altar, solemnly pledged themselves to persevere until victory was won.  Their plan of operations was to go in a body to the liquor-sellers, appeal to their better nature to cease a traffic that was carrying sorrow, degradation, and poverty to so many of their homes.  The movement was successful, and the sale of liquor stopped in that village.

 

Dr. Lewis appealed to the women of Hillsborough to do likewise, he then asked if they were in favor of trying the experiment there, and received a unanimous affirmative response.  All who were willing to act, as a committee to visit the liquor-dealers were requested to rise, and more than fifty promptly rose.

 

A committee of fifty leading citizens was formed to aid the women by moral and financial support.  More that $12,000 was pledged.

 

Next morning a meeting was held at the Presbyterian church.  Addresses were made by all the pastors present, and Col. W. H. TRIMBLE, Hon. S. E. HIBBEN and Judge MATTHEWS.  The ladies all signed a solemn compact as follows:  “With God’s help, we will stand by each other in this work, and preserve therein until it is accomplished; and see to it ,as far as our influence goes, that the traffic shall never be revived.”

 

On a Christmas morning, at nine o’clock, having competed the organization, one hundred and fifteen women filed out of the church, formed a procession, and marched to the drug stores.  These were the force to receive their attentions, and on this first morning two proprietors, of the four drug stores—J. J. BROWN and SEYBERT & ISAMENN—signed the pledge; the third offered to sell only on his own prescription, but the fourth, Mr. W. H. H. DUNN refused any dictation.

 

On Friday, December 26, the saloons were visited; and Mrs. J. H. THOMPSON, daughter of the late Gov. TRIMBLE, made the first prayer in the liquor saloon.  There were eleven of these in the town, and they presented a defiant front; so that no signatures were secured as a result of this first day’s work.

 

The next morning they received a communication from Mr. DUNN, the druggist, in reply to the appeal of the Committee of Visitation.  It was as follows:

 

“Ladies: In compliance with my agreement, I give you this promise: That I will carry on my business in the future as I have in the past; that is to say, that in the sale of intoxicating liquors I will comply with the

 

Page 915

 

Top Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846

COURT-HOUSE, HILLSBORO.

 

Middle Pictures

Left:  Mrs. RUNYAN, Center: DIO LEWIS, Right: MOTHER THOMPSON

 

Bottom Picture

SINGING BEFORE A SALOON.

 

Page 916

law; nor will I sell to any person whose father, mother, wife or daughter sends me a written request not to make such sale.”

 

DUNN was represented as a man of frank, open disposition, and with a high sense of honor, which rendered the people unprepared for the strong opposition which he manifested.  He was moved by no prayers, and would listen to no entreaties.  For a while he made no objection to the ladies coming into his store and carrying on their devotions; but at length, one Friday morning, they found the door locked upon them, and were thereafter inexorably excluded.  This picture of the scenes there was thus described:

 

“However, bitter the cold or piercing the wind, these women could be seen, at almost any hour of the day, kneeling on the cold flag-stones before this store.  In the midst, with voice raised in earnest prayer, is the daughter of a former governor of Ohio.

 

“Surrounding her are the wives and daughters of statesmen, lawyers, bankers, physicians, and business men-representatives form nearly all the households of the place.  The prayer ended, the women rise from their knees, and begin, in a low voice, some sweet and familiar hymns, that brings back to the heart of the looker-on the long-forgotten influences of childhood.  Tears may be seen in the eyes of red-nosed and hard-hearted men, supposed to be long since past feeling.  Passers-by lift their hats and pass on softly.  Conversation is in subdued tones, and a sympathetic interest in depicted on every face.  Then follows another subdued prayer and a song, at the close of which a fresh relay of women come up, and the first ones retire to the residence of an honored citizen, close at hand, where a lunch is spread for their refreshment.  Soon it is their turn to resume their praying and singing; and so the siege is kept up from morning till night, and day after day, with little variation in method or incidents.”

 

Meanwhile the saloons were not neglected.  The war upon them made slow but certain progress.

 

By January 30th five saloons and three drug-stores had yielded, and about the same number of saloons and one drug-store remained.

 

The following amusing “inside view” of one of these saloon visits appeared in the Cincinnati paper.  It was given by a young blood who was there.  He and a half dozen others, who had been out of town and did not know what was going on, had ranged themselves in the familiar semicircle before the bar, and had their drinks ready and cigars prepared for the match, when the rustle of women’s wear attracted their attention, and looking up they saw what they thought a crowd of a thousand women entering.  One youth saw among them his mother and sister; another had two cousins in the invading host, and a still more unfortunate recognized his intended mother-in-law.  Had the invisible prince of the pantomime touched them with his magic wand, converting all to statues, the tableau could not have been more impressive.  For full one minute they stood as if turned to stone; then a slight motion was evident, and lager-beer and brandy-smash descended slowly to the counter, while segars dropped, unlighted form nerveless fingers.  Happily, at this juncture the ladies struck up:

 

“Oh, do not be discouraged,

For Jesus is your friend.”

 

It made a diversion, and the party escaped to the street, “scared out of a year’s growth.”

 

On the morning of January 31st Mr. DUNN had printed and distributed about the town a “Notice to the Ladies of Hillsborough.” which addressed some thirty ladies and nearly the same number of men by name, and warned them that further interference with his business would be followed by suit at law for damages and trespass.

 

Not withstanding this notice it was resolved to go on with the work.  The mayor’s consent was given for the erection of a temporary structure on the street in front of the store.  This was called the “Tabernacle.”  It was constructed of canvas and plank, and the ladies at once took possession.  DUNN applied to the Court, and Judge SAFFORD issued an injunction, and the “Tabernacle” was quietly taken down that night.  Then came the trail of the case.  High legal talent was employed on both sides.  It was a long and weary contest, and the verdict was not reached until May, 1875, when a decision in favor of Mr. DUNN awarded him five ($5) dollars damages.  From this judgment an appeal was made to the Supreme court, but the case was finally compromised and never came to trial.

 

The day after inaugurating the “Crusade” at Hillsborough, Dr. Lewis started the movement at Washington Court-House {Fayette County}, the plan being the same as that adopted at Hillsborough, and it met with such success that in eleven days eleven saloons and three drug-stores had capitulated.  Not a drop of liquor could be bought within the corporate limits of Washington Court-House; but there were two obdurate saloon-keepers just outside the corporate limits.  One of these named SLATER resorted to several plans for freezing the ladies out of his establishment.  He allowed his fire to go out, opened all the windows, and wet the floor down with water until it stood in pools.  It was bitter January weather and the cold was very severe on the ladies.  But one morning Mr. SLATER was surprised to find before his door a small portable building, hastily constructed of boards, supplied with seats and a stove.  The side facing him was open.  Comfortably seated in this, the first “Tabernacle” of the Crusade, the besieging party continued praying and singing, but the besieged held out against “moral suasion” until about the middle of January, when he was brought to terms by a criminal prosecution under the Adair law.

 

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From Washington Court-House the movement extended to Wilmington and other towns and villages, until finally almost every town and village in Southern Ohio Had its band of “Crusaders.”  The outside world began to grow interested.  The public press said it was destined to be the sensation of the day, and special correspondents were detailed to chronicle its history and incidents.

 

A number of women under the stimulus of the movements developed into powerful public speakers, and a wonderful power of expression and fervor.  These were called from their native places to do missionary work in other localities.  Prominent among these were Mother STEWART, of Springfield; Mrs. RUNYAN, wife of a Methodist minister of Wilmington, and Mrs. HADLEY, a soft-spoken Quakeress of Wilmington.

 

The MOST refractory individual with whom the ladies had to deal during this “Crusade.” was John VAN PELT.  An account of this case is given in the Clinton county chapter of this work.

 

About the 1st of February, 1874, the Cincinnati Gazette published statistics showing that, in twenty-five towns, 109 saloons had been closed and twenty-two drug-stores pledged not to sell intoxicating liquors.  An effect was made to start the movement in larger cities, such as Columbus and Cincinnati, but without success, and a few months later the whole movement had gradually subsided and died out.

 

ALLEN TRIMBLE was born in Augusta county, Va., November 24, 1783.  His parents where of Scotch-Irish stock.  His father Captain James, removed to Lexington, Ky., and shortly after his death, which occurred in 1804, Allen settled in Highland county, where he was clerk of the courts and recorder in 1809-16.  In the war of 1812 he commanded a mounted regiment under Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, and rendered efficient service.  He was sent to the Ohio House of Representatives in 1816; was elected State Senator in 1817; was made Speaker of that body, and held the position until January 7, 1822 when he became acting Governor and served to the end of that year.  In 1826 he was elected Governor, and re-elected in 1828.  In 1846-48 was President of the first State Board of Agriculture.

 

As governor he did much to extend and improve the common school system, encourage manufactures and promote penitentiary reform.  He was a man of strong religious feeling, of strict integrity, shrewd and with much of what is commonly called “good common sense.”  These qualities made his career of greater service to the people of Ohio than if he had possessed more brilliant parts without balance.  He died at the age of eighty-seven at Hillsboro, Ohio, February 3, 1870.

 

The Hon. Wm. A. TRIMBLE was born in Woodford, Ky., April 4, 1786.  His father, Captain James TRIMBLE, had emigrated with his family from Augusta, Va., to Kentucky.  In the year 1804, being deeply impressed with the evils of slavery, he was about to removed into Highland, when he was taken unwell and died.  His son William graduated at Transylvania University, after which he returned to Ohio, spent some time in the office of his brother Allen, since Gov. TRIMBLE, later studied law at Litchfield, Conn., and returned to Highland and commenced the practice of his profession.

 

At the breaking out of the war in 1812, he was chosen major in the Ohio volunteers, was at Hull’s surrender and was liberated on his parole.  Some time in the following winter he was regularly exchanged, and in March was commissioned major in the 26th regiment.  In the defence of and sortie from Fort Erie, he acted with signal bravery, and received a severe wound, which was the prominent cause of his death, years after.  He continued in the army until 1819, with the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, at which time he was elected to the national senate, to succeed Mr. MORROW, whose time of service had expired.  In December, 1819, he took his seat, and soon gave promise of much future usefulness.  He progressed for two sessions of Congress in advancing the public interest, and storing his mind with useful knowledge, when nature yielded to the recurring shocks of disease, and he died, December 13, 1821, aged 35 years.

 

JOSEPH BENSON FORAKER was born July 5, 1846 in a log-cabin, about one mile north of Rainsboro.  His ancestors came to Ohio from Virginia and Delaware on account of distaste of slavery.  Bred on his father’s farm he assisted him on the farm and in the grist and saw mill thereon.  One day when a small boy he tore his only pair of pants.  There was not suitable cloth at hand to make a new pair and time was too precious to send any one to town; in this dilemma his mother made him a pair out of a coffee sack.  He protested against wearing these to school, saying, “All the boys will laugh at me.”  “Never heed what the boys say,” replied his mother.  “If you become a useful man nobody will ask what kind of pantaloons you wore when a child.”

 

At the age of sixteen he enlisted in the 89th Ohio infantry, and distinguished himself whenever duty called home.  He was made sergeant in August, 1862; first lieutenant in March, 1865; was brevetted captain “for efficient services.”  He was at the battle

 

Page 918

 

 

 

Top Picture

Kratzer, Photo.

RESIDENT STREET, HILLSBORO, 1890.

 

Bottom Picture

Kratzer, Photo.

BUSINESS STREET, HILLSBORO, 1890.

Page 919

 

of the army, after a brave and brilliant service, when but nineteen years of age.  After the war he spent two years at the Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio, and thence went to Cornell University.  He graduated there July 1, Joseph Benson Foraker.1869.

 

In 1879 he was elected Judge of the Superior Court of Cincinnati, which position he held for three years.  In 1883 he was nominated for governor, but was defeated by Judge Hoadly, the Democratic candidate.  In 1885 he was again nominated and elected.  He was renominated and re-elected in 1887, [In 1889 he was renominated, but was defeated by the Democratic candidate, James E. Campbell, of Butler county.]

 

His administrations have been marked by a brave and conscientious execution of all duties that are made his under the law.  As an orator, for fearless and passionate eloquence, he has no superior in the State.  He is aggressive, yet attractive in his public declarations, and is recognized by men of all parties as honest and courageous.”

 

In his person Gov. FORAKER is remarkably symmetrical, with a well-poised head, and his carriage graceful.  In his social intercourse he is winning and attractive to an extraordinary degree.

 

The family are Methodists, and he was named Joseph Benson, the name of the author of the Methodist Commentary on the Bible.  That he should when a lad of The Old Mill.sixteen be enabled to recruit for the war more men for his company than any other person evinced extraordinary natural persuasive powers.  When in service he kept a daily journal, from which we make brief extracts to illustrate the savagery of war.

 

January 4, 1864—Would like to be in Hillsboro’ to-day to go to church.  Many a poor soldier to-day hovers over his smoky fire, while the cold, heartless winds come tearing through his thin tent, almost freezing him to death, and yet you hear no word of complaint.  They are the bravest men that ever composed an army; and while my suffering is equal to theirs, I feel proud of my condition—a clear conscience that I am doing my duty; and this affords me more comfort than all the enjoyments of home.  I feel a ride rising in my bosom in realizing that I am a member of the old Fourteenth corps of the Army of the Cumberland….

 

CHATTANOOGA, December 4, 1863.—Reached the regiment just in time to go into a fight.  Don’t like fighting well enough to make a profession of it.  War is cruel, and when the conflict is over I shall retire from public life…

 

CHATTANOOGA, Tenn., December 1, 1863…  Arrived just in time to engage in the fight.  I found the regiment under arms.  They army charged Missionary Ridge.  Over brigade charged on double quick over two miles and up an awfully steep mountain.  I commanded two companies, A and B—brave boys.  I threw myself in front and told them to follow.  They kept as pretty a line as I ever saw them make on drill.  The rebs had two cross fires and a front one.  They knocked us around.  I reached the top of a hill without a scratch, but just as I leaped over their breastworks a large shell burst just before me.  A small fragment put a hole in my cap, knocking it off my head.  As soon as I got into the breastworks and the rebs began to fall back, I commenced rallying my men.  I had the company about formed when Capt. Curtis, Gen. Turchin’s adjutant-general, galloped up and complimented me. . . I never wish to see another fight.  It is an

 

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awful sight to see men shot down all around you as you would shoot a beef. . . .

 

December 2.—There is a hospital in the rear of our camp.  You can hear the wounded screaming all thought the day.  Legs, arms and hands lie before the door. . . .  They are cutting off more or less every day. . . .  War sickens me. . . .  I have about thirty men left out of the one hundred and one we started with over a year ago.  The regiment does not look the same. . . .  Come what will, I shall stick to my company, if I die with it.

 

OHIO’S WONDERLAND

 

About thirteen miles east of Hillsborough, near the county line and road to Chillicothe, the Rocky Fork and Paint creek passes for about two miles, previous to this junction with the main stream, through a deep gorge, in some places more than a hundred feet in depth, and forming a series of wild, picturesque views, one of which, at a place called “the narrows,” is here represented.  In the ravine are numerous caves which are much visited.  One or two of them have been explored for a distance of several hundreds yards.

 

The above paragraph is all that is given in our original edition of what is now the most attractive scenic spot in all this region of country.

 

A writer in the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette, under the title of “Ohio’s Wonderland,” gives an interesting description, from which we abridge the following:

 

The lover of the wild, the rugged, and the romantic can in this locality find something new at every step he takes.  There are no high mountains to climb, but there are caves to explore, and chasms, cascades, terraces, waterfalls, grottos, etc. without number.  As the crow flies it is about seventy-five miles east from Cincinnati, and fourteen east of Hillsboro’; a pleasant way to get there from Hillsboro’ is by carriage.  There is a well-kept hotel conveniently located, with all the outfits necessary for boating, fishing and exploring.

 

Prof.  Orton, in his geological report for 1870, says:  This stream—the Rocky Fork—is an important element in the geography of the county, and it is also exhibits its geology most satisfactorily.  It is bedded in rock from its source to its mouth, and in its banks and bordering cliffs it discloses every foot of the great Niagara formation of the county . . .

 

At its mouth it has reached the very summit of the system, and the structure of these upper beds it reveals in a gorge whose vertical walls are ninety feet high, and the width of which is scarcely more that two hundred feet.  Certain portions of this limestone weather and rain dissolve more easily than the rest, and have been carried away in considerable quantities, leaving overhanging cliffs and receding caves along the lines of its outcrop, and the scenery is the most striking and beautiful of its kind in southeastern Ohio . . . . The limestone abounds in very interesting fossils.  The great bivalve shell Megalmus Canadensis is especially abundant, as are also large univalve shells, all of which can be obtained to good advantage near Ogle’s distillery.

 

The custom is to enter the gorge the “Point” near the hotel, and go up through and along it.  Weird wonders are revealed at every step; one moment in the shadow of overhanging cliff bedecked with trailing vines, and ferns and bright-hued wild flowers nodding and waving in all their beauty, nature’s own grand conservatory; then a placid shed of water comes to view, and cascades dancing in the sunlight; there are overhanging rocks under which a score of people could find shelter, and numerous caverns, aside form three or four large caves.

 

The “Dry cave” is the first of these.  It is not so extensive as the others, having a length only of about 300 feet, but some of the chambers are so beautifully set with stalagmite and stalactite formations that is well repays a visit.  The cave is perfectly dry and the air bracing.

 

The “Wet cave,” so called from a spring of cold water some 600 feet from its mouth, is a series of chambers in which are found large quantities of white, soapy clay.  The arches of this cave are of varied and peculiar shapes and formations, the water that constantly percolates through the rocks and crevices having produced many queer shapes.  These drops reflecting the light from the explorers’ torches give a weird effect, looking like diamonds in the uncertain light above.

 

The “Dancing cave” takes its name from the use it is put to by parties visiting the locality.  The large dancing chamber is light and nature has kindly provided stalagmite seats around it for the convenience of her guests.  Near this cave are two stones “cairns” but their origin and use are buried in the mysteries of the past.

 

Two hundred yards farther up is a glen, the entrance to “Marble cave” one of the most beautiful of the group, being especially rich in variety and formation.  There are quite a number of changers in the Marble cave, all of good size.  And here across the glen is

 

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Picture Left:

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.

ROCKY GORGE OF PAINT CREEK.

 

Picture Right:

FORT HILL ENVIRONES.

 

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“Profile Rock.”  Following a narrow path you pass through “Gypsy Glen,” then gaze with awe at “Bracket Rock,” with an altitude of nearly 100 feet.  And then there is a halt and expressions of delight at “Mussett Hole” breaks upon the view.  A deep little body of water at the base of towering rocks, and on its margin stands a huge monarch of the forest, named the “Boone Tree.”  Tradition has it that this was a favorite camping ground of the Indians when on their way to Sandusky from Kentucky, and that they always stopped here to rest and fish and hunt.  There is a remarkable little gorge near the “Mussett Hole.”  But there are scores of surprises awaiting the visitor at every turn.

 

The Creator has evidently had it all his own way in preparing these caves and chasms, and wise (?) men have not attempted to improve upon his plan with artificial arrangements.  One of these days, perhaps, there will be some modern improvements attempted, but for the present this wonderland can be viewed in all its original majesty and magnificence.

 

FORT HILL.

 

One of the most interesting of the numerous ancient earthworks in this part of Ohio is Fort Hills it is especially interesting, because it presents more of the characteristics of a defense work than any other in the State.  It is situated in Brush Creek township, seventeen miles southeast of Hillsborough, and three miles north of Sinking Springs.  The work occupies the top of an isolated hill, which has an elevation of five hundred feet above the bed of the East Fork of Brush creek, which skirts the base of the hill on the north and west.  The top of the hill is nearly level plateau of thirty-five acres, enclosed by an artificial wall of stone and earth, excavated around the brink of the hill, interior to the fort.  The ditch formed by is nearly fifty feet wide.  The wall or embankment is 8,582 feet long, contains about 50,000 cubic yard of material, has a base averaging twenty-five feet, and an average height of from six to ten feet.  There are thirty-three gateways or entrances in the embankment, arranged at irregular intervals, and ranging in width from ten to fifteen feet.  At eleven of these openings the interior ditch is filled up.

 

The space enclosed is almost entirely covered with forest, which extends in all directions to the base of the hill.  Within the fort are two small ponds, which could be made to retain in rainy weather large quantizes of water.  The hill near the top is very precipitous, and the fort, as a place of military defence, would be almost impregnable.  It overlooks a wide extent of country.  A short distance south are remains of earthworks, which indicate the site of an ancient village, the inhabitants of which probably relied up the fort as a place of defence and protection against an invading enemy.

 

Negotiations were entered into for the purchase and preservation of this work by the Peabody Institute, of Cambridge, Mass., but the purchase has not been made as yet.  This institution purchased, explored, restored, and turned into a public park the Serpent Mound, in Adams county, and the State has recently purchased Fort Ancient, with a view to its preservation, and we trust that some means may be consummated for the preservation of this important work.

 

Mr. H. W. OVERMAN has recently made a survey of the fort; the results of which are given in the “Ohio Archæological and Historical Quarterly.”  He writes;

 

“The vicinity of Fort Hills is by no means void of natural scenery.  The channel of Brush creek has cut its way through an immense gorge of Niagara limestone for distance of two or three miles, forming numerous cliffs and caverns.  On the west side of this gorge, at the foot of Fisher’s Hill is a cave once occupied by David DAVIS, an ingenious and eccentric hermit, who made the cavern his home for a number of years from about 1847.  He discovered a vein of ore near his abode, from which he manufactured in limited quantities a valuable and durable metallic paint, of a color approaching a rose-tint, and of metallic luster, which gained considerable local reputation.  The ore, however, so far as yet discovered, is not in paying quantities.  His cave and surrounding scenery, situated as it is in one of the most romantic regions of Southern Ohio, is well worthy of inspection.”

 

THE HARD YEAR.

 

The year 1807 was called the hard year by the early settlers of Highland county.  We abridge from an interesting and valuable series of papers on the “History of the Early Settlements of Highland County,” published by the Hillsborough Gazette.  In the spring of this year hordes of squirrels overran the southern part of the State.  They swam the Ohio river in myriads, and the crop just planted was almost entirely taken up.  Replanting was resorted to, for corn must be raised; but with like results.  Bread was, of course, the first great necessary, and could only be procured by clearing off and cultivating the soil.  Wheat, rye barley, and oats

 

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had not become articles of common cultivation, the great dependence being Indian corn.  Some farmers had commenced growing wheat in the older settlements, and by this time had become somewhat dependent upon it, in part, for bread.  But this year the entire crop was sick and could not be eaten by man or beast; and if to enforce the terrors of famine in prospective, all the new ground corn that escaped the ravages of the squirrels in the spring was literally cooked by severe frosts early September.

 

I have known, says one who witnessed it, cases where whole families subsisted entirely on potatoes, cabbage, turnips, etc.  Added to this was the almost disgusting and nauseating bread and mush, made of meal ground from the frost-bitten corn, as black as a hat.

 

The sweeping depredations of the squirrels that year resulted in the passage of an act by the legislature on the first Monday of December, 1807, entitled “An act to encourage the killing of squirrels.”  This act made it a positive obligation on all persons within the State, subject to the payment of county tax, to furnish, in addition thereto, a certain number of squirrel scalps, to be determined by the township trustees.  This was imperative, and it was made the duty of the lister to notify each person of the number of scalps he was required to furnish; and if any one refused or failed to furnish the specified quantity, he was subject to the same penalties and forfeitures as delinquent tax-payers; and any person producing a greater number than was demanded was to receive two cents per scalp out of the county treasure.  This law, however, was rendered inoperative almost immediately afterwards by the interposition of a higher power, for the severe winter of 1807-08 almost totally annihilated the squirrel race, the law was not enforced, and finally, in the winter of 1809, was repealed.

 

REMARKABLE FORTITUDE OF A BOY.

 

In the excellent “History of Highland County,” by Daniel Scott is related a remarkable instance of courage and fortitude of a boy.  We give herewith an abridged account of it.

 

James CARLISLE came from Virginia to Highland county in 1805.  He settled on a farm and became a celebrated tobacco planter and manufacturer.  He was probably the first one to make a regular business of it; which he commenced in 1805, and continued until his death in 1832.  His manufacture of tobacco was about the kind in use throughout Southern Ohio.  It was put up in large twists of two or more pounds in weight and was exceedingly strong.

 

On day during the summer, when the family were away from home, his two sons, John and James, lads of eight and six years, were at work in the tobacco field.  They were engaged in “suckering” the plants, beginning at the top and running their hand to the lower leaves, detecting the suckers by their touch, when James cried out that he was bitten by a rattlesnake.  The snake had been coiled up under the lower leaves of the plant.  This was a most alarming condition for the boys.  They were well aware of the fatal effect of the bite, but did not know what to do and there was none near to advise them.

 

But James, with the courage of a true backwoods boy, rapidly settled in his own mind the course to be pursued. They had taken an old dull tomahawk out with them for the same purpose and James peremptorily order his brother John to take it and cut his hand off, at the same time laying it on a stump and pointing to the place where it was to be cut at the wrist.  This John positively refused to do, giving as his reason that the tomahawk was too dull.  There was no time to discuss the matter, and James could not cut it himself, so the compromised on the wounded finger, which John consented to cut off.  It had already turned black and swollen very much.  John made several ineffectual attempts to cut the finger, which was the first finger on the right hand, but only hacked and bruised it.  James, however, held steady and encouraged his brother to proceed, saying it must come off or he should soon die.  John finally got it off, but in doing so badly mutilated the hand.  This heroic treatment, however, saved the boy’s life.  He grew to manhood, and finally removed to Missouri.

 

THE WOMEN’S RAID AT GREENFIELD.

 

On September 3, 1864, a young man of good character named William BLACKBURN was shot and killed while passing by on the sidewalk in front of NEWBECK’S saloon.  At the time a general fight was going on within the saloon, during which a pistol-shot was fired.

 

The public indignation was very intense, all the more so that the guilty person could not be discovered.  The excitement, however, gradually died away, but some ten months later it was again aroused by several occurrences of an evil nature, scenes of distress and violence, fights and wife-beatings, which resulted in the women of Greenfield holding a meeting to determine some method of suppressing the liquor traffic.  The meeting was held July 10, 1865, in the African M. E. Church, then used as a school-house and place for public gatherings.  The following resolution to be presented to the liquor sellers was passed:

 

That the ladies of Greenfield are determined to suppress the liquor traffic in their midst.  We demand your liquors, and give you fifteen minutes to comply with our request, or abide the consequences.”

 

Then forming by two in procession, the ladies marched to the drug store of William S. LINN.  Here compliance with their request was refused.  They then crossed the street to HERN & NEWBECK’S saloon and again presented their demand and were again refused compliance therewith, when Mrs. Drusilla

 

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 BLACKBURN, becoming greatly excited, cried out, “Here’s where the whiskey was sold that killed my son.”  Upon this, a passionate attack was begun upon the saloon.  Mrs. BLACKBURN followed by her daughter and a score of other ladies crowed through the door; hatchets, axes, mallets and other implements were drawn from places of hiding, and the work of demolition begun did not end until everything in the place has been destroyed and the liquor spilled and running in the gutters of the street.  A crowd of men and boys that had gathered aided and abetted the work.  One thirsty individual tired to save some liquor in a broken crock, but one of the women discovered his attempt, and pursued, him hatchet in hand, so that he was glad to escape unscathed without crock or liquor.  The ladies then returned to LINN’S drug store, but finding it licked, forced the door and spilled the liquors.  Other places were then visited and the liquor spilled three saloons and three drug stores.  There was no stopping the work of destruction until the passion of the women was exhausted.

 

On July 14, following, William S. LINN applied for a warrant, and a large number of the ladies and those responsible for the actions arrested.  The grand-jury, however, refused to find a bill against them and criminal action failed.  A civil suit for damages was resorted to.  Eminent legal talent was engaged on both sides.  The attorneys for the plaintiff were Judge SLONE and Messrs. BRIGGS, DICKEY and STEELE; for the defendants, Hon. Mills GARDNER, Judge Stanley MATTHEWS and W. H.  IRWIN.

 

A verdict was returned awarding $625 damages.  A motion was then made for a new trial, but the case was finally compromised.

 

Ten years later the women of Greenfield were early in the field as “Crusaders,” that being the third town in the State to try moral suasion, where violence had failed.  

 

The following are the names of the ladies published in The Highland County News, in January, A. D. 1874, who constituted the band at the time; and among the names of the seventy who marched on the 24th of December, A. D. 1873.

 

Mrs. S. ANDERSON, R. R. ALLEN, J. ANDERSON, Samuel AMEN, C. AYERS, N.P. AYERS, Mrs. A. BENNETT, J. M. BOYD, J. BROWN , J. J.  BROWN, C. BROWN, J. BOWLES, Lizzie BROWN, Wm. BARRY, C. S. BELL, J. L. BOARDMAN, C. BUCKNER, Theodore BROWN, J. S. BLACK, W. P. BERNARD,  Thos, BARRY, G. BEECHER, F. I. BUMGARNER, Benj. BARRERE, Mary E. BOWERS.  Mrs. F. E. CHANEY, Benj.  CONNARD, Ella CONARD, T.S. COWDEN, S. D. CLAYTON,  S. W. CREED, Allen COOPER, C. H. COLLINS, W. O. COLLINS, Col. COOK, Dr. CALLAHAN.  Mrs. L. DETWILER, W. DOGGETT, H. S. DOGGETT, Jas. W. DOGGETT, J. DOGGETT, E. DILL, Lavinia DILL.  Mrs. EVANS, R.F. EVANS, J. H. ELY, Ella FRITZ; Mrs. Dr. ELLIS, S.A. ECKLY.  B. FORAKER [mother of Gov. Foraker], Mrs. E. L. FERRIS, M. FROST, Wm. FERGUSON, D. K. FENNER, N. FORAKER.  E. L. GRAND GIRARD, Geo. GLASSCOCK, J. GLASCOCK, HENRY GLASCOCK, R. GRIFFITH, N. B. GARDNER, Mrs. GRAYHAM,  Mrs. Col. GLENN, J. C. GREGG.  Mrs. Dr. HOLMES, James HOGSHEAD, John HOGSHEAD, Asa HAYUNES, T.G. HOGGARD, Paul HARSHA, Wm. HOYT, A. S. HINTON.  Mrs. J. JONES, L. JONES, Dr. JOHNSON, F. B. JEANS, J .W. JOLLY, O. JONES.  Mrs. KIRKPATRICK, Dr. KIRBY, Frank KIBBLER.  S. LYLE, R. A. LINN, J. LANGLEY.  Mrs. Thos. MILER, J. MANNING, Mrs. MATHER,  Mrs. Dr. MATTHEWS, Judge MEEK, C. B. MILLER.  C. MILLER, R. McFADDEN, Lewis MCKIBBEN, W. J. McSURLEY, J. McCLUE.  Mrs. J. C. NORTON, M. T. NELSON, J. F. NELSON.  Chas. O’HARRA.  Mrs. J. W. PATTERSON.  S.S. PANGBURN, C.T. POPE, J. K. PICKERING, T. H. PARKER, M. PERKINS.  Geo. RICHARDS, Dr. RUSS, J. C. RITTENHOUSE, Joseph RICHARDS, Jas. REECE, Thomas RODGERS.  Mrs. Eli STAFFORD, Dr. SMITH, Dr. SAMS, Hugh SWEARINGER, DR. W. W. SHEPHERD, John A. SMITH, Mary SIMPSON, Mrs. STRAIN, H. A. STOUT, Miss Maria STEWARD, Mrs. Dr. SPEESE, J. B. SHINN, E. G. SMITH, Wm. SCOTT, MRS. SHIPP, Jacob SAYLER, F. SHEPHERD.  Mrs. Col. Wm. H. TRIMBLE, Eliza J. THOMPSON, Sarah TUCKER, Anna TUCKER, Mrs. VANWINKLE.  MRS. Chas. WILSON, John L. WEST.  Mrs. George ZINK.

 

GREENFIELD, at the intersection of the C. W. & B. and O. & S. Railroads, is 17 miles northeast of Hillsborough.  It is beautifully situated on the west bank of Paint creek.  It was laid out by Duncan McARTHUR, while still apart of Ross county in 1800; and the public square, on which stands the city hall, containing the post-office, mayor’s office, etc., was by him dedicated to the public use.  The town was incorporated in 1841, and its first mayor was Hon. Hugh SMART.

 

City Officers, 1888: W. H. IRWIN, Mayor; J. C. STRAIN, Clerk; Scott POWELL Marshal; E. H. MILLER, Treasurer; W. H. LOGAN, Street Commissioner; W.G. NOLER, Civil Engineer; J. P. LOWE, Chief Fire Department.  Newspapers, Enterprise, Independent, R. R. SPRUNG, editor and publisher; Success, Independent, J. M. MILLER, editor and publisher.  Churches: 1 Presbyterian, 2 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Baptist.  Banks:  Commercial, John FULLERTON, president, C. W. PRICE; cashier; Highland County, E. H. MILLER, president; Fay BALDWIN, cashier.

 

Manufacturers and Employees.—Greenfield Enterprise, printing, etc. 6; J. P. Lowe & Co., carriages, etc. 10: Greenfield Woolen Mills, blankets, etc., 8; D. Welshimer & Son, flour, etc., 4; Greenfield Planning Mill, doors sash, etc. 5, E. L. McClain, sweat collars, etc., 168; John M. Waddle Manufacturing Company, coffee mills, 38; The Gig Saddle Company, gig saddles, etc. 22.—State Report,

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1888.  Population, 1880, 2, 104, School census, 1888, 745, W. G. MOLER, superintendent of schools.  Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $65,000.  Value of annual product, $80,000.—Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.

 

LEESBURGH is 10 miles north of Hillsborough, on the C. W. & B. Railroads.  Newspaper: Buckeye, Neutral, James H. DEPOY, editor and publisher.  Churches: 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 African Methodist Episcopal, 1 Christian, 1 Advent.  Bank: Leesburgh, J. H. GUTHRIE, president, M. REDKEY, cashier.  Population 1880, 513.  School census, 1888, 168; D. S. FERGUSON superintendent of schools.  Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $15,000.  Value of annual product, $18,000—Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.  The Leesburgh Shoe Manufacturing Company is the greatest industry here, employing 30 hands.

 

LYNCHBURGH is 11 miles northwest of Hillsborough, on the C. W. & B. Railroad.  Churches: 1 Methodist Episcopal and 1 Christian.  Bank: Lynchburgh, Isma TROTH, president; H. L. GLENN, cashier.  Manufactures and Employees: Freiburg & Workum, whiskies, 60; E. B. Prythero, flour, etc. 2.—State Report, 1887.  Population in 1880, 664.  School census, 1888, 236; J. M. Holiday, superintendent of schools.

 

SINKING SPRINGS is 14 miles southeast of Hillsborough.  It has 1 Methodist Episcopal church.  Population, 197

 

NEW PETERSBURGH is 10 miles northeast of Hillsborough.  It has 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist Episcopal church.  Population, 227

 

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