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Hawkins Worldwide DNA Project

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Project Directors: Phil Hawkins 2003-2013, Marsha Hawkins Moses 2013 -

Latest change: 17 May 2015

We welcome you as our

visitor since 17 Aug 2003.

Welcome to our information center for the HAWKINS DNA Project.

The HAWKINS surname per the 1990 census comprised .059 per cent of the total population, ranking 159th of more than 87,000 names. Smith was the most used surname comprising 1.006 per cent of the population.

The HAWKINS DNA Project is a private venture. No remuneration is received by any of the participants.

Our project is not limited to those testing with Family Tree DNA. We welcome all Hawkins surnamed males, and derivities of the name, to the project. All we need is your test results, and the name of the testing company.


     The purpose of the HAWKINS Worldwide Genealogy DNA Project is to assist in the confirmation of collected historical data. Participants in the project submit samples from light scrapings/combings from the inside cheeks of their mouth. These combings are tested for the number of “repeats” (or alleles) of selected markers of the Y-chromosome (the y-chromosome is passed from the father to the son each generation, and are unchanged for many generations). The alleles (12, 37, or 67) are entered into a database for comparison to all other participants. Surname participants with the matching markers are descendants of the same male ancestor.

     Knowing what proven Hawkins line that you descend from will allow you to concentrate your efforts on that line, not wasting time with an unrelated group of Hawkins; it will help keep you out of that proverbial blind alley. Joining our project will help all Hawkins in the search for our history.

     Hawkins cousins are indicated when, using the 12-marker test, there are at least 11 matching markers; using the old 25-marker test, it would require 23 matches, and using the 37-marker test it would requir 35 matches. If you were to match on 11 of the 12-marker test, we would recommend that you have an additional 25 tested to insure that the relationship exists. For this reason , if it is affordable, I recommend the 37-marker test to start with, or the 67-marker test.}

Participation requirements:

Special Notes:

  1. The Hawkins DNA Project uses Family Tree DNA to collect and administer the testing of our DNA samples. Testing is done by the Genomic Analysis & Technology Core (GATC) facility at the University of Arizona. Director of our testing at GATC is Michael Hammer, Ph.D.
  2. Re the Y-DNA37 marker test: The additional markers provide additional resolution, and especially benefits individuals in the Surname Projects. An upgrade is recommended for project members that have a 12/12 or 25/25 match.

For information on the worldwide DNA program go to Family Tree DNA. Be sure and watch the video that can be selected from that page.

If you are a male Hawkins, you can become a member of the project. To apply for admission to the project go to the HAWKINS Project.

Ladies - The results of a Hawkins father, brother, uncle, or cousin would effectively be your results. Talk to them about participating in our program.

Contact us: Hawkins DNA Project.


Open the Hawkins Family Pages (tables, trees & family information) in a new window.

Go to the Hawkins DNA Blog.

Go to DNA analysis for a short explanation of the subject.

Go to Haplogroup information.

Go to Schedule of Hawkins reunions.

Go to links to other Hawkins sites.

Go to the latest newsletter.

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DNA Analysis

How does DNA analysis indicate whether two individuals are related within the time period of present day genealogy?

Testing the Y-Chromosome

The Y-Chromosome has definable segments of DNA with known genetic characteristics. These segments are known as Markers. These markers occur at an identifiable physical location on a chromosome known as a Locus. Each marker is designated by a number (known as DYS#), according to international conventions. You will often find the terms Marker and Locus used interchangeably, but technically the Marker is what is tested and the Locus is where the marker is located on the chromosome.

Although there are several types of markers used in DNA studies, the Y-Chromosome test uses only one type. The marker used is called a Short Tandem Repeat (STR). STRs are short sequences of DNA, (usually 2, 3, 4, or 5 base pairs long), that are repeated numerous times in a head-tail manner. The 16 base pair sequence of "gatagatagatagata" would represent 4 repeats of the sequence "gata". These repeats are referred to as Allele. The variation of the number of repeats of each marker enables discrimination between individuals.

Reading the Test Results

The table below is a shorten version of the actual table used to show our DNA test results. It shows 12 of the 25 markers that most of the participants had tested.

Marker 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  
3947 13 26 14 11 12 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 0001

The numbers (1-12) across the top of the table are the marker numbers. They have no significance other than as an easy way to refer to the marker. Note: FamilyTree DNA refers to these numbers as Locus. The second set of numbers across the top of the matrix are DYS# (the actual marker names). 

The numbers down the left side of the table identify the participant in the DNA project. The numbers down the right side of the table identify the participant's oldest known ancestor.

The rest of the numbers are the Allele (the number repeats) for each participant at the specified marker. 

What Does it Mean

An individual's test results have little meaning on their own. You cannot take these numbers, plug them into some formula and find out who your ancestors are. The value of the test results depends on how your results compare to other test results. And even when you match someone else, it will only indicate that you and the person you match share a common ancestor. Depending on the number of markers tested and the number of matches it will indicate with a certain degree of probability how long ago this common ancestor existed. It will not show exactly who this ancestor is.

As discussed above, the Y-Chromosome is passed from father to son. The vast majority of the time the father passes an exact copy of his Y-Chromosome to his son. This means that the markers of the son are identical to those of his father. However on rare occasion there is a mutation or change in one of the markers. The change is either an insertion or a deletion. An insertion is when an additional repeat is added to a marker. A deletion is when one of the repeats is deleted. 

Mutations occur at random. This means it is possible for two distant cousins to match exactly on all markers while two brothers might not match exactly. Because of the random nature of mutations we must use statistics and probability to estimate the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA). The actual calculations of TMRCA are mathematically complex and depend on knowing the rate of mutation and the true number of mutations. At this time there is not enough data to accurately determine either of these factors so certain assumptions have to be made. The discussion of these assumptions and the actual calculations are beyond the scope of this webpage.

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Y-DNA Haplogroup Descriptions

The following Haplogroup Descriptions are from the website which was the testing company used to determine the nearest Haplogroup assigment based on the individual's haplotype results from the Y-DNA test. These verbatim Haplogroup Descriptions and/or excerpts are copyrighted by and all rights to these descriptions are claimed by These descriptions have been printed here with the permission of These descriptions cannot be used elsewhere without the written permission of

Please note that people in different Haplogroups cannot be related within many thousands of years, and that each male test result provides a prediction of the Haplogroup currently about 90% of the time. If your Y-DNA matches suggest that you belong, for example, to Haplogroup R1b, you may confirm that by ordering a Y-DNA SNP test for the R1b clade.

In general the following rule of thumb may be used: R1b = Western Europe, R1a = Eastern Europe, I = Nordic, J2 = Semitic, E3b = Semitic, Q3 = Native American.

Haplogroup B is one of the oldest Y-chromosome lineages in humans. Haplogroup B is found exclusively in Africa. This lineage was the first to disperse around Africa. There is current archaeological evidence supporting a major population expansion in Africa approximately 90-130 thousand years ago. It has been proposed that this event may have spread Haplogroup B throughout Africa. Haplogroup B appears at low frequency all around Africa, but is at its highest frequency in Pygmy populations.

Haplogroup C is found throughout mainland Asia, the south Pacific, and at low frequency in Native American populations. Haplogroup C originated in southern Asia and spread in all directions. This lineage colonized New Guinea, Australia, and north Asia, and currently is found with its highest diversity in populations of India.

Haplogroup C3 is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia. This lineage then spread into northern Asia, and then into the Americas.

Haplogroup D2 most likely derived from the D lineage in Japan. It is completely restricted to Japan, and is a very diverse lineage within the aboriginal Japanese and in the Japanese population around Okinawa.

Haplogroup E3a is an Africa lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa within the last 3,000 years, by the Bantu agricultural expansion. E3a is also the most common lineage among African Americans.

Haplogroup E3b is believed to have evolved in the Middle East. It expanded into the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene Neolithic expansion. It is currently distributed around the Mediterranean, southern Europe, and in north and east Africa.

Haplogroup G may have originated in India or Pakistan, and has dispersed into central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East.

Haplogroup H is nearly completely restricted to India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan.

Haplogroups I, I1, and I1a are nearly completely restricted to northwestern Europe. These would most likely have been common within Viking populations. One lineage of this group extends down into central Europe.

Haplogroup I1b was derived within Viking/Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into southern Europe where it is present at low frequencies.

Haplogroup J is found at highest frequencies in Middle Eastern and north African populations where it most likely evolved. This marker has been carried by Middle Eastern traders into Europe, central Asia, India, and Pakistan.

Haplogroup J2 originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations. The Cohen modal lineage is found in Haplogroup J2.

Haplogroup Q is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.

Haplogroup Q3 is the only lineage strictly associated with native American populations. This haplogroup is defined by the presence of the M3 mutation (also known as SY103). This mutation occurred on the Q lineage 8-12 thousand years ago as the migration into the Americas was underway. There is some debate as to on which side of the Bering Strait this mutation occurred, but it definitely happened in the ancestors of the Native American peoples.

Haplogroup R1a is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. This lineage is believed to have originated in a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.

Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype (HG1).

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Cinnamon Toast GenealogyA huge index of links to genealogy web sites and databases, classified by surname and by region.

Hawkins DNA Blog Initiated in 2013.

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