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Hawkins Worldwide DNA Project

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Project Directors: Phil Hawkins 2003-2013, Marsha Hawkins Moses 2013 -

Latest change: 15 September 2017

We welcome you as our

visitor since 17 Aug 2003.

     Welcome to our information center for the HAWKINS Worldwide DNA Project. The project, started in 2003, is a private venture, and no remuneration is received by any of our project Administrators. We exist to answer your questions and assist.

     The HAWKINS surname per the 1990 census comprised .059 per cent of the total population, ranking 159th. Smith was the most used surname comprising 1.006 per cent of the population. In the 2010 census HAWKINS has dropped to 200th place

     If you have not yet tested, please join our project, testing at www.familytreedna.com. They are the only company in the industry with their own in-house state-of-the-art genomics laboratory, and are located in Houston, Texas. Joining the Hawkins Project when ordering you will receive a slight discount. Our project is not limited to those testing with Family Tree DNA, but it will require a tedious effort on our part to compare your results with our other participants. We welcome all Hawkins surnamed males, and derivatives of the name, to the project.

The HAWKINS DNA Projet

     The purpose of the HAWKINS Worldwide Genealogy DNA Project is to assist in the confirmation of collected historical data. Participants in the project submit samples from light scrapings/combings from the inside cheeks of their mouth. These combings are tested at selected DNA points of the Y-chromosome (the Y-chromosome is passed from the father to the son each generation, and is stable/unchanging for many generations). The tested markers/loci (12, 37, 67 or 111) are entered into a database for comparison to all other project participants. Surname participants with matching markers are descendants of the same male ancestor. FTDNA has the largest participant database for this comparison, and this is very important.

     Knowing what proven Hawkins line that you descend from will allow you to concentrate your efforts on that line, not wasting time with an unrelated group of Hawkins, and it will help keep you out of that proverbial blind alley. Joining our project will help all Hawkins in the search for their history.

     Hawkins cousins are indicated when using the 12-marker test, there are at least 11 matching markers (think of this as a "probably," and it could have been a very long time ago); using the old 25-marker test, it would require 23 matches, and using the 37-marker test it would require 35 matches as a positive. If you were to match on 11 of the 12-marker test, we would recommend that you have an additional 25 tested to insure that the relationship exists. For this reason, if it is affordable, We recommend the Y-37-marker test as a minimum to start with, or better the Y-67-marker test. The more markers that are tested provide a better indication of the time frame when you and your match's common ancestor lived.

To view pricing select www.familytreedna.com.        Contact us: Hawkins DNA Project
Open the Hawkins Project Family Pages (tables, trees & family information) in a new window.

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DNA Analysis
How does DNA analysis indicate whether two individuals are related within the time period of present day genealogy?

Testing the Y-Chromosome

The Y-Chromosome has definable segments of DNA with known genetic characteristics. These segments are known as Markers. These markers occur at an identifiable physical location on a chromosome known as a Locus. Each marker is designated by a number (known as DYS#), according to international conventions. You will often find the terms Marker and Locus used interchangeably, but technically the Marker is what is tested and the Locus is where the marker is located on the chromosome.

Although there are several types of markers used in DNA studies, the Y-Chromosome test uses only one type. The marker used is called a Short Tandem Repeat (STR). STRs are short sequences of DNA, (usually 2, 3, 4, or 5 base pairs long), that are repeated numerous times in a head-tail manner. The 16 base pair sequence of " gatagatagatagata " would represent 4 repeats of the sequence "gata". These repeats are referred to as Allele. The number of repeats (allele) differ at each locus, and the variation of the number of repeats at each marker enables discrimination between individuals.

Reading the Test Results

The table below is a shorten version of the actual table used to show our DNA test results. It shows 12 of the 67 markers that most of the participants had tested.

Marker 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  
  DYS#
Participant
ID#
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
*
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
i
3
9
2
3
8
9
ii
Known Ancestor #1
8276 13 25 14 11 11 14 11 12 14 13 13 29 Jeffery & Dorothy
257813 13 25 14 11 11 14 11 12 13 13 14 29 Jeffery & Dorothy

The numbers (1-12) across the top of the table are the marker numbers. They have no significance other than as an easy way to refer to the marker. Note: FamilyTree DNA refers to these numbers as Locus. The second set of numbers across the top of the matrix are DYS# (the actual marker names). 

The numbers down the left side of the table identify the participant in the DNA project. The numbers down the right side of the table identify the participant's oldest known ancestor.

The rest of the numbers are the Allele (the number repeats) for each participant at the specified marker. 


What Does it Mean

An individual's test results have little meaning on their own. You cannot take these numbers, plug them into some formula and find out who your ancestors are. The value of the test results depends on how your results compare to other test results. And even when you match someone else, it will only indicate that you and the person you match share a common ancestor. Depending on the number of markers tested and the number of matches it will indicate with a certain degree of probability how long ago this common ancestor existed. It will not show exactly who this ancestor is.

As discussed above, the Y-Chromosome is passed from father to son. The vast majority of the time the father passes an exact copy of his Y-Chromosome to his son. This means that the markers of the son are identical to those of his father. However on rare occasion there is a mutation or change in one of the markers. The change is either an insertion or a deletion. An insertion is when an additional repeat is added to a marker. A deletion is when one of the repeats is deleted. 

Mutations occur at random. This means it is possible for two distant cousins to match exactly on all markers while two brothers might not match exactly. Because of the random nature of mutations we must use statistics and probability to estimate the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA). The actual calculations of TMRCA are mathematically complex and depend on knowing the rate of mutation and the true number of mutations. At this time there is not enough data to accurately determine either of these factors so certain assumptions have to be made. The discussion of these assumptions and the actual calculations are beyond the scope of this webpage.


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Y-DNA Haplogroup Descriptions

     These descriptions have been printed here with the permission of FamilyTreeDNA.com. These descriptions cannot be used elsewhere without the written permission of FamilyTreeDNA.com.

Haplogroup A
     Haplogroup A is the first Y-chromosome lineage to diverge, from which all Y-branches are descended. Haplogroup A is restricted to Africa, where it is present in several populations at low frequency but is most commonly found in populations of the Koi and the San tribes of Southern Africa. Early sub-branches of A have been found in central Africa.

Haplogroup B
     Haplogroup B is one of the oldest Y-chromosome lineages in humans. Haplogroup B is found almost exclusively in Africa. This lineage was likely the first to disperse around Africa approximately 90-130 thousand years ago. Haplogroup B appears at low frequency all around Africa but is at its highest frequency in Pygmy populations.

Haplogroup C
     Haplogroup C is found throughout mainland Asia, the south Pacific, New Guinea, Australia, and at low frequencies in Native American populations.

Haplogroup D
     Haplogroup D evolved in Asia. This Haplogroup was later displaced from much of Asia by other colonizing groups but is still present at intermediate frequencies in the aboriginal Japanese and on the Tibetan plateau. It is also found at low frequencies in Mongolian populations and the Altais people of central Asia.

Haplogroup E
     Haplogroup E is an African lineage. It is currently believed that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is a diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East.

Haplogroup F
     Haplogroup F is the parent haplogroup of branches G through T. F lineages are extremely rare and are distributed in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.

Haplogroup G
     Haplogroup G was the first branch of Haplogroup F outside of Africa. G is found mostly in the north central Middle East and the Caucasus, with smaller numbers around the Mediterranean and eastward. Haplogroup G represents one of the first peoples in Europe.

Haplogroup H
     Haplogroup H is nearly completely restricted to India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan.

Haplogroup I
     Haplogroup I dates to 23,000 years ago or older. This haplogroup is found throughout Europe, although some branches may be present in low frequencies in Northeast Africa, Central Siberia, the Near East, and the Caucasus regions. Haplogroup I represents one of the first peoples in Europe.

Haplogroup J
     Haplogroup J is found at highest frequencies in the Middle East, west of the Zagros Mountains in Iran to the Mediterranean Sea, and encompassing the entire Arabian Peninsula. It is also found in north African populations where it has been carried by Middle Eastern traders into Europe, central Asia, India, and Pakistan. The Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH) lineage as well as the presumed lineage of the Prophet Mohammed are found in Haplogroup J-M267.

Haplogroup K
     The K lineage is presently found at low frequencies in Africa, Asia, and in the south Pacific. One descendent line of this lineage is restricted to aboriginal Australians while another is found at low frequency in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East.

Haplogroup L
     Haplogroup L is found primarily in India and Sri Lanka and has also spread into several Middle Eastern populations (Turks, Saudis, and Pakistanis). It is also found at very low frequencies in Europe.

Haplogroup M
     Haplogroup M is completely confined to the South Pacific. It most probably originated in Melanesia and then spread into Indonesia, Micronesia, and New Guinea.

Haplogroup N
     Haplogroup N is distributed throughout Northern Eurasia and Siberia. It is the most common Y-chromosome type in Uralic speakers (Finns and Native Siberians). It is also found in Mongolia.

Haplogroup O
     Haplogroup O is a branch of the mega-haplogroup K. O originated about 35,000 years ago in Asia. Its branches have spread into Central and East Asia. O has around thirty known subclades.

Haplogroup P
     Haplogroup P is an extremely rare haplogroup at this time. It is the ancestral line to haplogroups Q and T. It is found at low frequency in India, Pakistan, and central Asia.

Haplogroup Q
     Haplogroup Q is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. Among European populations, haplogroup Q is most frequently found in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas. Haplogroup Q-M3 is the only lineage strictly associated with native American populations. This haplogroup is defined by the presence of the M3 mutation which occurred on the Q lineage 8-12 thousand years ago as the migration into the Americas was underway.

Haplogroup R
     Haplogroup R originated in Central Asia. Most descendants belong to one of two major lineages. They are present at low frequencies across Central Asia, South Asia, and Europe. Haplogroup R-M173 possibly originated in eastern Europe and then migrated eastward into Asia.

Haplogroup S
     Haplogroup S-M230 is an Oceanic lineage and is found primarily in populations in Papau New Guinea with lower frequencies in Melanisia and Indonesia.

Haplogroup T
     Haplogroup T is presently found in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East. President Thomas Jefferson, formerly of Wales, was Haplogroup T.

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HAWKINS REUNIONS

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LINKS TO OTHER HAWKINS SITES


Cinnamon Toast GenealogyA huge index of links to genealogy web sites and databases, classified by surname and by region.

Hawkins DNA Blog Initiated in 2013.



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NEWSLETTERS



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