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Names of the men – A to McCoy


By George C. Williston



Pvt. Humphrey Aitchinson – in 1783 in Cecil Township.


Pvt. Mathew Aitcheson – Settled land in 1775 in Mt. Pleasant Township - in Hopewell Twp in 1783.


Pvt. John Armstrong – in Cecil, Cumberland and Robinson Townships in 1781- so one or three men is unknown - in Cecil Township in 1783; a man of this name one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1782 asking for Congress to increase defense by the army [1]; CDAR- First PA Regt b May, 1750 and d 24 Jan, 1820, Washington, PA Cemetery [so may have been Continental soldier].; PMF- lists two men of this name- one buried at Washington , PA and the other at the Armstrong Cemetery at Cumberland, Greene County, PA; DAR3- lists a man of this name 1766-1844 from Butler Co., Pa buried at Center Chapel, Wells Twp, Jefferson Co., Ohio; CWCW- will 1820.


Pvt. David Baily – not on these Washington County tax or land grant lists- may be Bailey or Bally as there were men of that name on these tax lists.

          A pension application by David Bailey S16,616 under the law of 1832 from Washington County, Missouri says that he served 2 years with Capt. Taylor in Colonel Black’s Regiment of Virginia; and that in 1779 he enlisted for 3 years with Capt Isaac Taylor in Col. Montgomery’s regiment serving along the Ohio River from the falls to the mouth and back, and with George Rogers Clark against the Shawnee on the Big Miami- he says nothing about 1782. This man died 22 Oct, 1822 leaving no children ; and his widow was applying in 1849. This may well be the same man.[2]


Pvt. John Baird – in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township, and in Strabane Township in 1783 the latter having land and a distillery; CDAR- killed at Fort Duquesne [?], buried at Washington, PA Sec E, lot 190 granite headstone born 25 Nov, 1758 no date of death., PMF.


    William Baxter- land granted at Harmon or on Harmon Creek in 1775 and 1776 - not on the Washington County tax lists- PWM- buried at Cross Creek.

          Pension application S6591 of 27 August, 1833 from Brooke Co., Virginia lists four periods of service: 1) 3 months in 1776 in the militia under Capt. Isaac Cox, Lt. David Steel served at Holidays Cove on the Ohio River near Harmons Creek now in Brooke Co., Va, 2) when discharged in Nov., 1776 enlisted for three years with Lt. Daniel Steel under Col. John Gibson of the 13th Va Line [at Fort Pitt] where he served 8 months as a Sgt. in Steel’s company, 3) in 1781 he volunteered about l month under Lieut. Col. Williamson for the expedition to the Delaware towns where they captured 10-12 indians; and 4) in March, 1781 served l month under Col. Williamson in the militia where “declarant again volunteered on an expedition into the Indian Country, against the Indians, under the command of Col. David Williamson, a skirmish took place, and about ninety three Indians were killed. It was the practice on such expeditions for the militia, after they rendezvoused, to elect their officers, and declarant served as a volunteer Lieutenant in the expedition last mentioned.”  For some reason he made another statement 31 Dec., 1833 in which he called this Second Williamson expedition a “volunteer expedition.”. In the militia service he says “no regular troops or officers present” [meaning no troops or offices of the Continental Army]- and, while claiming 12 months of service exclusive of the scouting parties he says that on the last two [militia] he furnished his own arms, ammunition, horse and provisions and never got any compensation nor any written documentary evidence. [3]


Pvt. Charles Bevington – in Smith and Nottingham Townships in 1783- the latter being a single man only with horses. and no land.


Pvt. Charles Bilderback – on the 1888 list only as a Private, but later may have later been a Captain in the militia-in Cecil Township in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists.- a man of this name also listed in Strabane in 1783 with only a horse-; EF-“This is the man who killed the Moravian named Joseph Shabosh. the story is told that seven years later he was captured by hostile Indians, who, on learning of his identity, put him to death with torture….only a legend without proof”; the identification of this man as the man who fired the first shot wounding Shabosh and afterwards tomahawked and scalped him was also made by the local historian, Isaac Craig in 1881 if not earlier.[4]

 Charles has been given terrible notoriety by Allen Eckert as the man who killed the first thirteen Moravians with a mallet with no proof that I can find..[5] This claim has recently been increased in a film aired on public television to claim that Charles Bilderback not only killed the first thirteen men with a mallet, but scalped them as well. That claim is as yet unproven even though the author has searched the index and roll 11 of the Lyman C. Draper papers. Randall Wilkins, the author of this charge, has not proven this contention on Charles Bilderback.[6] While holding no brief for anything but the truth and as egregious as is this event it seems important to have substantive evidence for charges made against individual men.

          Charles Bilderback was well enough regarded to command a militia company as a Captain in the ‘Crawford’ campaign which followed in the summer of 1782. His fighting and leadership was apparently rewarded and appreciated by his peers.


     Jacob Bilderback – name added by Isaac Craig in an 1881 letter as being on this expedition, [7]– single, with nothing in 1783 in Strabane Township.


Pvt. William Black –settled in Cecil township in 1774- in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Fife’s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..

          There are three pension applications by men of this name on microfilm. None of them seem possible for this man who had lived in Washington County.


Pvt. Joseph Blair – not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert Boatman – in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1781 asking for more defense for the region out of Fort Pitt [8].


    Lewis Bonnet Senior – from the Virginia Panhandle [now W.Va], was called Capt. or Major, born in Paoli, Md. 1736/7- died 1808, fought under Braddock in his defeat and in Dunmore’s War, settled on Wheeling Creek in 1769 or 1772 with the Wetzels, married a woman named --------Wagener. His son says: “my father was in Williamson’s Moravian campaign, but he took no part in murdering”.[9]  The careers of Sr. and Jr. are difficult to separate. One local historian says Lewis Bonnett (probably Jr.) was born in 1762, from Hardy Co., Va and was pensioned for service 1779-1783. It is a puzzle as to which one was on this expedition. [10]


Pvt. James Bradford – only on the 1888 list- in Greene and Strabane Townships in the 1781 tax list and in Strabane in the 1783 list; PMF- buried at the Bradford Cemetery, Whiteley Township, Greene County, Pa., CWCW- wills 1801 and 1811 (two men ?).


Pvt. John Breckenridge – only on the 1888 list- in 1783 in Peters Township- RBE of Youghagania Co.,Va sold 400 acres on ‘Shirtees’ [Chartiers] Creek 1 Nov, 1779..


Pvt. James Buchanan – only on the 1888 list- Settled in 1774 at Wheeling Creek and West Finley Township- in Strabane Twp in 1781; EF- Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback’s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..


     Stephen Burkham Burkham admitted in his own memoirs to being at the.[11] He didn’t say whether or not he killed any of the Moravians, but did name John McCulloch and claimed that William Welch killed seven of the Moravians with the tomahawk. Stephen of Ohio County, Virginia was born in 1762 in Berkeley Co, Va and settled in 1768 near Beeson’s Fort [near Uniontown, Pa], fought under General Lachlan McIntosh out of Fort Pitt. His name may have earlier been spelled Burcham.


Pvt. Thomas Byers – only on the 1888 list- settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek- in Donegal Township in 1781 and in West Finley Township in 1783; EF- Pvt in Capt Bilderback’s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition, CWCW- will 1825..


Pvt. Nathaniel Cahoe (or Kahoe)- not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Samuel Cahoe – not on these tax and land grant lists.; PMF- Samuel Kahoe (or Cohoe) CDAR- buried at Washington, PA.


Pvt. Arthur Campbell – Settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek – in 1781 in Smith Twp. and in 1783 in Strabane Township, TLM 2:422 signed a petition with men around Well’s Fort warning General Irvine of the dangerous situation after the massacre- CDAR- ( Revolution and later Indian Fighter) b 1753- d 21 March, 1819, buried Cross Creek Cemetery- Claysville, PA, CWCW- will 1804.


    Charles Campbell –bought 200 acres from Pennsylvania in 1773 in Westmoreland Co.,[12] from the Simpson list- Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783 listed as single; EF- died 21 March 1819 and buried in the old cemetery in Cross Creek, CWCW- wills 1819 (2) and 1832...


Lt. John Carpenter – settled in 1773 in Buffalo Creek area –RBE of Ohio Co., Va. sold 400 acres on Doldering Run, a branch of Buffalo Creek in 1780; later moved his family across the Ohio River with other families and was illegally settled in 1782 in the area now Ohio - was captured by Indians on the way to Fort Pitt in Feb 1782, R. H. Richardson says that the Carpenters- John and Nancy- were living near James Maxwell, and John kept moving them West with other families, that in 1773 they were on Jacob’s Creek when John was 41 years old (b 1732) , before marrying John had rescued Nancy from having her head split by Indians , they were friends of the John McCullochs and the Tiltons and others who were on this raid and moved into Ohio country before it was legal [13]-TLM 2:422 after the raid a John Carpenter was among the signers of a petition to Gen. Irvine about their ‘dangerous’ situation - buried at Prairie Chapel Church near Coshocton, Ohio. A man of this name is listed in 1783 in Fallowfield Township with animals only and no land which makes one wonder whether there were two men by this name.


Pvt. Aaron Carter – not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Barney Carter – in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783.


Pvt. Joseph Casey – in the M/B list but not to be found on the Archives lists – settled in 1774 around Buffalo Creek- in 1783 in Donegal Township without land - will not be included in this study-later pensioned from Pa in Campbell Co, Ky in 1834 at age 71.


 Ensign Thomas Chenney – a Chenney/Chaney not on these tax or land lists.


     Thomas Cherry from the Simpson list may be the man above-settled in 1774 on Raccoon Creek - is on the 1781tax list in Smith Twp.- and in 1783 was in Mount Pleasant Twp. DAR3 lists Thomas P. Cherry saying he was a ranger of the frontier in Pennsylvania dying in Va. in 1829 and buried in Walnut Twp, Fairfield Co., Ohio...


   Edward Christy – of the Buffalo Creek area and single, but not on the tax lists- said by EF to have been the principal exhorter against killing the Christian Moravians ‘preaching’ to the men against killing to the point that the more violent men were threatening him– EF says he was a student of Rev. John McMillan –he is said to have been a Presbyterian Minister in later years- he was on this raid because the indians had allegedly just recently killed the young woman pledged to be his wife.

          We were told in Washington, Pa that Edward Christy left memoirs about the massacre. An imaginary re-visit of Captain Sam Brady [alleged also by some to have been at the massacre and the idea refuted by others] was published years ago, but offers no proof that it is in fact anything but an imaginary conversation, and not a memoir.[14]


Pvt. Daniel Clark – not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was in Captain Reed’s Co of Westmoreland County militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time.


    James Cochran – named by Paul W. Myers with unspecified authority – not in these tax and land grant lists-PMA- buried in Allegheny County.


Pvt. John Coneyers – settled in 1774 on Millers Run in Mt. Pleasant Township; RBE- estate accounts 1795 leaving minor children: John, Thomas, Sarah and Samuel.


Pvt. Thomas Coneyers – not on these Washington County tax and land grant lists.

          The pension application of Thomas Conyers Jr. S3200 of July, 1846 says that he served from 1776-1779 as a Private in the 8th Pennsylvania Regt, and was at the battle of Bonbrook [is that Boundbrook ?]. He left Pennsylvania in 1784 and made the application from Robertson Co., Tennessee. The film is very difficult to read.[15]


Pvt. Henry Cooper – in Smith Township in 1783.


Pvt. John Cooper – in Robinson Township in 1781 and in Smith Township in 1783; RBE- of Smith Twp. will made 1794.


Pvt. John Cotton – on the 1888 list as a Captain which is not his Washington County militia rank- in Strabane Twp in 1783; DAR3-may be the man buried in Mahoning Co., Ohio- was an officer in the Connecticut line and had lived at Belpre, Ohio so possibly a former Continental officer who passed through Washington County.


Pvt. Frederick Crowe – only on the 1888 list – not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Jno. Cunning – as John Cunning on the 1781 tax list in Cecil Twp.- and in Smith Twp in 1783.


Pvt. Daniel Currey – in Bethlehem Township in 1783.


Pvt. Edward Davis – not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Richard Davis –only on the 1888 list - in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township; DAR3- may be buried in Union Co., Oh where he died at age 96.


Pvt. James Densmore – not on these tax and land grant lists; PMF- buried in Buffalo, PA; PMA- as James Dinsmore 1742-1817 in the Bedford Co. militia (preceded Westmoreland/Washington Co.), born in Ireland and first settled in Fayette Twp., of Allegheny Co [16], granted land on Millers Run which became in 1788 part of Allegheny County. and later in 1795 got land in Canton Twp., of Washington County, CWCW- wills 1817 and 1831..


Pvt. Michael Doherty Sr. – in Cumberland Township in 1781 and Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. Wm. Donehey – as Wm. Donehee in Cecil Township in 1781.


Pvt. John Edie – only on the 1788 list- as John Eddy in Amwell township in 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback’s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. Jesse Edginton – in Strabane Township in 1783; EF- Pvt. in Capt. Munn’s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. Thomas Everet Sgt. Thomas Everett was discharged from Capt. Benjamin Biggs Co. of Col. Gibson’s Regiment at Fort Pitt on 1 Nov, 1780 probably after three years arduous service guarding the frontier against the Indians. [17] Listed as Everight in Cecil Township in 1783 with a horse and no land.


Pvt. Alex Fegan – as Alex Feggan in Cecil Township in 1783- RBE Alex Feagon bought 400 acres on Mill Creek in 1784.


Pvt. John Fosit - - also spelled Fawcet/ Fosset- settled in 1772 in Cecil Township as John Faucet- and was in Cecil Township in 1783- an early Methodist according to M/B.


Lieut. Hugh Forbes – only on the 1888 list- in Somerset Twp in 1783; EF says he was a Lieutenant in Capt. Rankin’s Co on the summer 1782 Crawford Expedition.; CDAR- buried at Grove United Presbyterian Church in West Middleton, PA on Rte 18.; PMF says buried at Buffalo, PA, CWCW- will 1821 and 1837 (two men?).

          A barely readable pension application made at Pittsburgh in 1832 #S2215 says that he served from 1776 for 3 years as a private [in a Continental line] and was at the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga, [in the Northern Army] and also in Crawford’s campaign- but it doesn’t mention this expedition.[18]


Pvt. William Forbes – only on the 1888 list- in Strabane, Canton and Robinson Townships in 1783. How many men of this name is unknown.

          A barely readable pension application S5410 says he served with Capt. Samuel Brady along the Allegheny River and one tour to the Munsey towns so he had apparently served with a Continental line.[19]


Pvt. John Gardner – in Smith Township in 1783; buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson [20]- he died 10 Sept, 1821 at 64 years, married Elizabeth Clark who died 1 Oct, 1853 at age 95 years, CWCW- will made 1821..


    David Gault - from the Simpson list – in Cecil Township in 1781 and in 1783- in the latter tanyard is next to his name which may mean he ran or owned a tanyard, but was a single man without land- so was probably a tenant; EF says he was from Cross Creek Twp.


Pvt. Christopher Gaunce Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. William G.Gill – in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- said to have been in the Northumberland Co. Militia, b 1747- d 12 June, 1802 and buried at Mt. Hope Cemetery near West Middleton, PA, CWCW- will 1802. .


Capt. Henry Graham – settled in 1774 on Cross Creek – in Hopewell Township in 1783-TLM 2:422 signed a petition from the area of Wells Blockhouse just after the massacre apprising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation,- PMF- buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson Henry Graham died 31 Jan, 1827 at 87 years and his wife, Mary, died 29 Nov 1814 age 70 [21]; was an elder in the Cross Creek Church from 1792 till his death and a Justice of the Peace of Washington County..


     John Graham - from the Simpson list- Cross Creek Twp in 1783; verified by EF, CWCW-will made 1830 and 1831.


Pvt. Wm. Hanks – not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Jams Hanna – as James in Strabane Twp in 1783.


Pvt. William Harris – not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Private in the frontier rangers of Westmoreland County so may have been from east of the rivers at the time.


Pvt. Robert Hays – as Robert Hayes in Cecil and Peters Townships in 1781 and in Cecil Township in 1783. Buried in Allegheny County.


Pvt. William Hays – three such listed in 1781 being in Cecil, Donegal and Morgan Townships - the one in Donegal having no land– and in 1783 only in Cecil Township; RBE- Wm. Hayes will 1795, and CWCW has a will in 1835. .


Pvt. Robert Henry – only on the 1888 list- both in 1781 and 1783 in Strabane Township; EF-an early settler of that section of old Strabane now known as North Strabane Twp; WJC- an 1787 land grant., CWCW- will in 1829.

          Apparently not the pension applicant S1830 although with an extensive military career and a pension application made from Washington County, Penn when he was 77 years old in 1832. The applicant enlisted from Lancaster Co, Pa and says that in 1778 he moved to Augusta Co, Va and was drafted into the Virginia line. In the fall of 1781 he was in Augusta Co, Va and when drafted went to fight in eastern Virginia at Jamestown and Williamsburg. The massacre expedition could have been worked in, but he does not mention it.[22]


Pvt. William Hervey – in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- a William Harvey is buried in Montour Cemetery near Montour, PA, Rte 22; 1758- 1838, CWCW lists a will of 1816.


Pvt. Adam Hickman – in Cecil Township in 1783- buried in Allegheny County.


Pvt. William Hilbit – not in these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Pvt. in Rueben Kemp’s Co of Westmoreland Co. militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time..


Pvt. Walter Hill – in 1781 and 1783 in Hopewell Township- TLM 2:422 petitioner with others from around Well’s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation.


Pvt. Samuel Hindeman – In Hopewell Township in 1783; RBE- probably the Sam Hineman who bought 60 acres on Cross Creek in 1783; the local historian, Isaac Craig, says in a letter to another local historian, Boyd Crumrine,[23]-“ a man named Hindman was said by General Richard Butler to be one of the worst;”. this being the only man of that name on the list we have to assume he was talking of Samuel Hindeman/Hindman.- but what does ‘one of the worst’; mean –that he killed the most or was one of the most vicious? General Richard Butler was a well respected Continental officer who as a Colonel was at Fort Pitt near the time of this expedition, and became Indian Agent immediately thereafter so he would have had reason to have been paying attention.


Pvt. Joseph Holmes – in Smith Township in 1783- buried in Allegheny Co.


    Obadiah Holmes Jr. from the Simpson list- in 1781 was listed in Cecil Twp with no land - he admitted in old age that he had been on the raid and claimed to be among the non-killers.[24] It is said that he rescued an Indian boy on this expedition, and brought him home to live for a few years. O.H. died in 1839 at the age of 96 and is buried in Allegheny County; EF says he was an Ensign in Capt Daniel Leet’s Co on Crawford’s Expedition in the summer of 1782, died in Pittsburgh in June, 1834 aged seventy-four; buried at Woodville, Pa (two dates of death reported for the same man ?)..


Pvt. David Hopkins – only on the 1888 list – in 1781 was single with land in Nottingham Township; and was in Nottingham Township in 1783.


Pvt. David Hosack – only on the 1888 list- in 1782 was living in Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va).


Pvt. James How – in Hopewell Township in 1783; DAR3- may be the James Howe d 1808 bur at Fairfield, Warren Co., OH..


Pvt. John Hudgel – not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Michael Huff Jr. – in Hopewell Twp with no land in 1781 and in Hopewell Twp. in 1783.


Pvt. James Huston- only on the 1888 list; single with land in 1781 in Strabane Twp.; EF- son of William Huston, the first white settler in Catfish Camp (now Washington, Pa.) and in Capt. Daniel Leet’s Co. on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. William Irwin –only on the 1788 list - in Strabane Twp in 1781 and in Canton and Strabane Towship in 1783 – the latter being listed as Irvin; EF-a settler in Canton Township; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW- has a will of 1822.


Pvt. Eleaser Jenkins – on the 1888 list only- in Bethlehem Township in 1783; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW lists a will of 1822.


Pvt. Isaac Johnston – in 1781 in Morgan Township.

          The pension applications of 1818/1820 of Isaac Johnston S36642 of Bullitt Co, Kentucky is likely to be the man. He claimed to have served three years under Colonel John Gibson. He said that he had served in Capt. Springer’s Co. of the 7th Va Regt stationed at Fort Pitt. He also made reference to Pittsburgh 1779 and the company of Capt. Samuel Brady with scouting parties against the Indians to the close of the war. He was 72 years old in 1820 with a daughter of unknown age and a son born 12 Oct., 1799.[25]


Pvt. Dennis Jones – only on the 1888 list – not on these tax and land grant lists.


    David Kerr – from the Simpson list.- not on these tax and land grant lists; EF says probably from Cross Creek Township.


Pvt. James Kerrlin – or Curlin – not listed either way on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. William Ledlie – from the 1888 list- Wm. Ladley settled in 1774 in Wheeling Township; RBE- may be the Wm. Ladler who bought land on Middle Wheeling Creek in 1778; CDAR– a Wm. Leadlie b 1747 and d 5 Jan, 1835 is buried in the Paris Cemetery- Rte 22, Washington County, Penn.


Pvt. Daniel Leet – from the 1888 list only- settled land in Franklin and Chartiers Creek in 1773 and at Catfish Camp [now Washington, Pa] in 1776- is said to have been a Revolutionary officer (other than militia) – was a Sub- Lieutenant of Washington County appointed 2 April, 1781 but resigned that office on 30 March, 1782 - is listed in Cecil Township in 1783; RBE sold 120 acres on ‘Shirtee’ Creek [Chartiers] in 1784;– taxed in Pitt Township of Allegheny County in 1791 –is buried in Allegheny County. As sub-lieutenant would have been along with Matthew Ritchie the second highest ranking Washington County militia officer on the expedition going as a private when he had the militia rank of Major;

 EF says“ a surveyor by profession; settled near Catfish Camp in 1776 after which he served in the Continental Line, and with General McIntosh at Fort Laurens in 1778; Deputy Surveyor General in Yohogania, now Washington County; surveyed in this county in 1780 under Virginia certificates; Brigade Major in Crawford’s Expedition; commanded a division after Colonel Burton was wounded; died 18 June, 1830, at the home of a daughter at Sewickly Bottom;” PMA- says that Daniel Leet was a friend of General Washington and a Major in the Continental Army where he had a distinguished career. It is fully possible that this Daniel Leet was a surveyor for the Ohio Company of Virginia hoping to ensure land for top men of Virginia including George Washington and George Mason.[26]

          Could this be the same man who is credited with this career as an officer in the Revolution: “acted as quartermaster from 1 Jan,1777 to 1 Oct, 1777 and as paymaster from this latter date to 21 Sept, 1778, then as Brigade-Major for three months, to 21 Dec, 1778. He received 5333 1/2 acres of land from the State of Virginia (as bounty).”[27]

Forrest says in the material quoted above that he was from Bordentown, New Jersey and had married Wilhelmina Carson. This seems to conflict with information from Louise M. Mohler which says that the Leets were from Berkley Co, Va.

          A remark from an 1881 letter from the local historian, Isaac Craig to historian Boyd Crumrine, [28] has to be passed along although not otherwise corroborated “I have heard that Daniel Leet was the man who first used the mallet.” If this means that the man with the second highest political and military position on the raid going as a Private began the killing with a cooper’s mallet as this alleges he set a very bad example for most of the men who had less prestige. Is this the unnamed man who actually killed 13 people before he quit as reported in Washington County histories?

If Daniel Leet committed that disgraceful first murdering it is no wonder that he later resigned his position as a Sub-Lieutenant of Washington County. It is also no wonder that the murders were done or that the story of the massacre was covered up from the public. Daniel Leet and the other influential men on this expedition who were politically and militarily powerful whom other men would either have followed or by whom they would be intimidated.


Pvt. Francis Lesnit - taxed in Cecil Township in 1783 – Buried in Allegheny County


Pvt. Frederick Lesnit - listed in Cecil Township in 1781 as single with nothing – and in Cecil in 1783.


Pvt. John Little – from the 1888 list only– not on these tax and land grant lists; bought 300 acres in Westmoreland Co from Pennsylvania in 1776,[29] PMA-a former Private in the Fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, Continental Line under General Anthony Wayne; according to Crumrine [30] s/o James, family from Ireland worked a farm and spent the winter at McDonald’s blockhouse [near present town of McDonald], RBE- John Little of Youghania Co., Va sold land on Harmons Run in 1780; John was an elder of the Mt. Pleasant Church, and had land in Strabane or South Strabane Twp.


Pvt. David Long – on the 1781 tax list in Greene, Robinson and Strabane Townships. In Robinson and Strabane without land so location is indeterminate; RBE- David Long of Washington Co., Pa in 1783 sold 200 acres on ‘Shirtee’ Creek [Chartiers] and sold land and a house in Washington County in 1784.


Pvt. John Marshal – settled land in 1774 on Cross Creek – in the 1781 tax list there was a John Marshall in Hopewell Township; this man is alleged to be the brother of the County Lieutenant, James Marshel. There is puzzling spelling with this name which makes certainty difficult; RBE- sold 202 acres in Washington County in 1784; CDAR- a John Marshall who d 1832 is buried in Montour Cemetery at Montour, PA.

          John Marshall pensioned in 1818 age 69 years old pension number S41797 living in Washington County. Pa. He said that he served in 1776 for 2 months in the 2nd PA B’n, and late in 1776 he served in the 13th PA Regt and was wounded at Brandywine, and was later discharged to care for his brother’s big family Nov-.Dec., 1778.[31] There was no mention of militia service or the Massacre- if this man was on it. 


Pvt. Robert Marshal – the Return says Smith in parentheses which may mean Smith Township- in the 1781 tax list there is a man with this spelling in Amwell Township with nothing- in 1783 in Peters Township; a reputable local historian says that Robert Marshel was a brother of the County Lieutenant [in that case he was probably born in Ireland as was his brother] and was on this raid. but expressed his regret all his life, -RBE- bought 100 acres on the middle fork of Cross Creek in 1784; was an elder in the Buffalo Church. [32] .


    Robert Marshall- from the Simpson list with two lls- in 1783 in Cross Creek and Hopewell Townships. Crumrine [33] lists a Robert Marshel from Buffalo as on the raid but this is a puzzler- he is listed in 1783 in Hopewell Township with no land and only a horse; a man of this spelling is buried at Cross Creek (white, 1972) died 26 Nov, 1832 in his 74th year, and his stone apparently says he was one of the 18 men under Colonel Williamson who formed a second line in favor of saving the Moravian Indians from massacre at Gnadenhutten.”. THIS COULD BE THE SAME MAN LISTED ABOVE . It is a puzzle whether there were two men of this name on the expedition, CWCW one of these men made a will in 1832.


Pvt. Thomas Marshall – from the 1888 list- Hopewell Township in 1783.


    Thomas Marshel – from the Simpson list – EF- says “County Lieutenant of Washington County; an early settler in Cross Creek Township, and proprietor of Marshel’s Fort; an elder in Cross Creek Church from 1792 till dismissed in 1827 when he moved to Ohio where he died in 1839 aged ninety-six years..” [34]   

          There was a Thomas Marsheal in 1781 in Hopewell Township. All three spellings may be the same man. People of this name had different ways of spelling their family name.


Pvt. Jams Martin – a James Martin settled land in Hopewell and Buffalo in 1774 and on Millers Run in 1775. listed in both Cecil and Hopewell Townships in 1781 so could be one or two men - in Hopewell Twp in 1783, CWCW- wills 1814 and 1827.


Pvt. William Martin – in 1781 listed in Peters and Smith township – the one in Peters being single and having no land so two men and in Hopewell Twp in 1783.

          Pension application S5736 of Booths Creek, Hampshire Co, Va. at the time of the application in 1832. The applicant served in the Ft. Pitt Company of Captain B. Biggs, Colonel Gibson’s Virginia Regiment till the end of the war- 4 ½ years. After being discharged he may have gone on this expedition. Should this be the same man he would have been on active duty while going on this militia expedition. The pension application says on the way home [from the Fort Pitt area] he was fired upon by Indians and shot in both thighs, both legs and one arm were broken- several bones and causing amputation of one leg, he moved in 1791 to Hampshire Co., Va where he died 3 July, 1846. He was born 30 Nov, 1762 at Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia the son of George. His middle name may have been Judson. [35]


Pvt. John Masterson - Somerset Township in 1783.

          John Masterson was pensioned in 1832 at 73 years old number S16460 living then in Nelson Co., Kentucky. He says that he was drafted in 1777 or 1778 for 6 months as a Pvt. out of Washington County, Pa into Colonel Crawford’s Regiment, Pennsylvania Line. He was born 1752 in Fairfax County, Va. and had lived on Pigeon Creek in Washington County, PA.[36] There was no mention of being on the Massacre expedition.


Pvt. William Masterson – in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township.


Pvt. Zachariah Masterson – only on the 1888 list - on the 1783 list in Somerset Township with horses and no land.


Pvt. Tobias Mattocks – settled land in 1775 on Raccoon Creek - taxed in 1783 in Robinson Township and in Moon Township of Allegheny Co in 1791 as Tobias Mattox (which could be the same place).


Pvt. Jams McBride – as James settled land on Raccoon Creek in 1775- in 1781 taxed in both Cecil and Robinson Townships but had no animals in Robinson - taxed in Cecil Township in 1783; charged in 1784 by General George Washington for squatting on Washington’s land in Cecil Township.[37]-, CWCW- lists a will in 1827.


Pvt. Thomas McClain – from the 1888 list- not in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists but well to do- in Pitt Township of Allegheny Co in 1791.


Pvt. William McClain – from the 1888 list – taxed in Strabane Township in 1783.


Pvt. Daniel McCloud – not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert McComb – from the 1888 list – in Somerset Township in 1781 - in Cross Creek Township in 1783; EF- “ a soldier of the Revolution (Continental line ?) , settled in Cross Creek Township where he died in 1827.”


Pvt. Joseph McConnell –from the 1888 list - buried in Allegheny County


Pvt. Daniel McCoy – in 1781 there were two in Cecil and one in Smith Townships so location is indeterminate.

          Jane, widow of Daniel McCoy of West Finley Township of Washington County made application W965. He had served, she claimed, in the 8th Pennsylvania line which would have been at Fort Pitt.. Seven children were listed.[38]





CDAR Canonsburg, Pa. DAR, Revolutionary War Soldiers of Washington County, Pa. or Buried in       Washington County, mimeographed, no date or author.


CWCW Bob and Mary Closson, compilers; Index to Washington County Wills, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, no date.


DAR3 Daughters of the American Revolution, Official Roster III, Soldiers of the American Revolution Who Lived in the State of Ohio,” ,l959, no place of publication or author. Includes information on ancestors of DAR members only. There is more data on some so full citation must be checked.


RBE   Raymond M Bell, Washington County Estate Records 1781-1796 and Deed Records 1782-1785  Washington, Pa; 1967.


EF     Earle R. Forrest, History of Washington County, Pennsylvania, Chicago, 1926, pages 132-142.


PMA  Paul W. Myers, Allegheny County, Pa. Revolutionary War Soldiers; Closson Press, Apollo, Pa,1988.


PMF   Paul W. Myers, Washington County, Pa. Frontier Rangers, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, 1987, pages 37-41.


PMW Paul W. Myers, Westmoreland County in the American Revolution, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, 1988.


TLM   Thomas L. Montgomery, Frontier Forts in Pennsylvania, Ray Press, Harrisburg, Penn.          1916 -2 volumes – all references here to Volume 2.


WJC  List of men whose land grants were in the Archives, Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pa; type written, n.d. or authorl these Virginia grants were for military service in state units of the Line or sometimes for militia service. Men who enlisted for three years in a Continental line were promised 100 acres.


Researched, written and Copyright © 2000, 2001 George C. Williston

The author would be interested in the names of other men of this army,

Or any family stories about the tragic event.

Permission is granted for any genealogical usage.


[1] George C. Williston, “Desperation on the Western Pennsylvania Frontier: A 1781 Petition to Congress for More Effective Defense” Pennsylvania History 67: 7, Spring, 2000 298-312 .


[2] “ Selected Records from Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Application Files,” (microfilm) (Washington: National Archives and Records Service, 1969), roll 40.

                There are almost 900 rolls of microfilm in this series all alphabetical, and only occasionally page numbers can be seen.


[3] Selected Records, roll 64.


[4] Isaac Craig.


[5] Allen W. Eckert, The Frontiersman (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967) 251.


[6] Randall Wilkins of Wapatomica Productions, Sierra Madre Ca makes this allegation. Mr. Wilkins was asked for the evidence, and suggested in a letter to the author 31 March, 2001 that the source was Allan Eckert as noted above and the Lyman Draper MSS. The published index to the Draper MSS which are in the Wisconsin Historical Society poor as it is only lists a Bolderback in Ree 11. That is the only possible indexed reference. Most of reel 11 was tediously searched without discovery of the evidence for this claim. We conclude that there is no evidence for the claim of Eckert or Wilkins on this matter which Mr. Wilkins himself says in his letter of 31 March, 2001as follows: “The source is, as far as I know, unsubstantiated by any others as well as being a possible second or third-person account, making it dubious as historical record.”..


[7] Isaac Craig.


[8] Williston 9 .


[9] Recollections, 85.


[10] Jared C. Lobdell, Recollections of Lewis Bonnet Jr., (Bowie: Heritage, 1991)85 [from the Draper MSS at the Wisconsin Historical society] and L.V.McWhorter, The Border Settlers of Northwestern Virginia (Hamilton: G.P.C., 1975)419.


[11] Jared C. Lobdell, “Further Materials on Lewis Wetzel” (Bowie: Heritage, 1994) 92 [from the Lyman Draper MSS].


[12] Egle, 1897, 406.


[13] Robert H. Richardson, Tilton Territory-Warren Township, Jefferson County, Ohio (Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1977)78, 81 and Louise M. Mohler, Personal Lineage sent to the author.


[14] Charles McKnight, Our Western Border (Phildelphia: McCurdy, 1876) 403-417.


[15] Selected Records, roll 213.


[16] Boyd Crumrine, History of Washington County, Pa (Phildelphia: Everts, 1882) 689.


[17] W.T.R. Saffell, Records of the Revolutionary War (Baltimore: C.C.Saffell, 1894) 280-284, and

   (Bowie:Heritage, 1999) reprint.


[18] Selected Records roll 328, pp431-435.


[19] Selected Records roll 328.


[20] James Simpson, History of the Cross Creek Graveyard and the Cross Creek Cemetery 1894, 1942 and    (Parsons, McClain, 1969) 54.


[21] James Simpson 60.


[22] Selected Records, roll 419, pages 46-50.


[23] Isaac Craig


[24] Forrest, 137 and Farrar, 295.


[25] Selected Records, roll 473.


[26] Kate Rowland The Life of George Mason (New York: Putnam, 1892) I:214. In this letter George Mason refers to a Mr. Leet as one of two surveyors of the 200,000 acres men of the Ohio Company hoped to secure for themselves in a business venture.


[27] Saffel, 392.


[28] Isaac Craig


45 Egle, 1897, 459...


[30] Boyd Crumrine 481, 703, 863, 984.


[31] Selected Records, roll 554.


[32] Alvin D. White, History of the Cross Creek Presbyterian Church (Parsons: McClain, 1969) 19.


[33] Boyd Crumrine, 226.


[34] Forrest, 138 and Farrar, 295.


[35] Selected Records, roll 556, pp 767-770.


[36] Selected Records, roll 558


[37] John Fitzpatrick, Diaries of Washington (Boston 1925) 2:294.


[38] Selected Records, roll 566.