The 1782 Volunteer Militia from
And their Moravian Indian victims
By George C. Williston.
were the men who murdered the Moravian Indians in that infamous event of
My intention is to put forth a list of names of the men who were on this expedition. The men will be identified as to their township, creek or settlement of residence as well as other characteristics of their identity to answer the question of who they were and how they fared after this murdering. A list of 196 names will be developed with authority clarified as to why each name is on the list. A part of this question is whether they were a militiaorganization at the time, and on official military duty. The nagging question is: what kind of men when in a group would murder men, women and children living in Christian pacifism and political neutrality? That is the over riding question which has prompted this investigation. .
the first list of names was not published until 100 years after the event, and
has not been re-published since 1906.
This is the history of a mimeographed list presently available at the
Historical Society in
Caucasian Moravians were the first to write and publish in
A few years later in the last century several reputable local historians tried without success to find lists of names. Both Boyd Crumrine and Isaac Craig tried to find a list which was rumored to exist. Isaac Craig wrote to Boyd Crumrine in 1881 that he knew of a list, but couldn?t get it- and apparently never did. Consul W. Butterfield- a notable historian of this Western border- wrote in 1882 that he was unable to find lists and public documents about this unseemly event. It is obvious from the documentation used by Crumrine and Butterfield that they would have presented a list had they had one. Crumrine does give a couple of the names he knew, but only a couple of the total.
enough the first publication of a list of these men was in the 1888 series of
the Pennsylvania Archives which was the official publication of the State of
Samuel Shearer (?) John Cotton
Hugh Forbes William Wilkins
Samuel Riddel James Huston
John Riddel Jesse Edginton
James Roney Thomas Marshall
James Buchanan Thomas Montgomery
William Forbes Eleaser Jenkins
John Baird William Black
Joseph McCullough William Ledlie
James White William Irwin
Nathaniel White Robert Henry
David Hosack Isaac Vance
Thomas Orr John Little
John Pollock William Quigley
John Breckenridge William Masterson
Alexander White John Masterson
Andrew Wineman Zachariah Masterson
Samuel Stewart. Joseph McConnell
Thomas Byers John Munn Jr.
John Edie David Hopkins
James Bradford James Steel
Charles Bevington Charles Bilderback
Stephen Wilkins John White
William McClain Daniel Leet
Thomas McClain Dennis Jones
Robert McComb Frederick Crowe
after the publication in 1888 a man who had spent thirty years around
Lists of Militiamen who served the first week of March, 1782
Martin Mohler was the first to recognize that certain
published lists of
Fourth Battalion had been under the command of James Marshel
as Lieutenant Colonel of the militia for
is not clear whether the militia of
question has been raised as to whether this was an on-duty militia expedition.
It is absolutely clear that County Lieutenant Colonel James Marshel
had the authority as given early in January, 1782 by the Supreme Executive
Council of Pennsylvania to call out the militia. The authority to call out
units had been given to the
AND MILITIA ?
A Return 1st and 2nd classes Cap?n Henry Graham?s Company of the 4th Batt?n Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st day of March, 1782 (c.)
William Price Joseph Willson
John Marshal Abner Willson
Henry Cooper James How
Nicholas Smith John Cooper
Thos. McKibbens Robert McCulloch
John Gardner Robert Marshal (Smith)
Daniel McCoy Samuel McKibbins
Daniel McGoogen Samuel Hindeman
Thos. Strain James McMillan
Given unto my hand this 8th day of March, 1782
HENRY GRAHAM, Capt.
A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Robert Miller?s Company in the 4th Batt?n Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st Day of March, 1782.
John Odonel, Ensign Joseph Blair
Samuel Cahoe John Ralston
Mathew Ritchie Arthur Campbell
Stephen Vineyard Aaron Carter
James McCready Jno. Reed
Edward Davis Nathaniel Cahoe
Thomas Peircifield William Wilson
Jno. Willson William Orr
David Gault David Long
William Black Joseph Holmes
Given under my hand this 8th day of March, 1782 ROBERT MILLER, Capt.
A Return 1st
and 2nd Classes Captain Thomas Renkon?s
Company in the 4th Batn.
Hugh Patton Daniel McCloud
William Shearor Robert Hayes
William Sinclair Michael Dohertey, Senr.
Daniel Currey Daniel Clark
William Hilbit William Hayes
John Roberts Robert McKnight
Given under my hand the 9th Day of March, 1782 THOMAS RANKIN, Capt
A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Charles Reed?s Company in the 4th Batt?n
Shadrack Stillwell, Serj?t. Adam Hickman
James Densmore Charles Reno
Wm. Miller John Fosit
Francis Lesnit Miles Willson
Thos. Young, Serj?t. Geo. Thorp
Geo. Reno Tobias Mattocks
John Armstrong Robert Piatt
Thos. Coneyers William Turner
Abraham Slover Isaac Springer
Given Under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 CHARLES REED, Capt.
A return 1st and 2nd Classes Capt. David
Reed?s Company in the 4th Batt.
James Reed Humphrey Aitchison
Christ?r Gaunce Brice McGeehon
Mathew Aitcheson Robt. Boatman
Thomas Chenney, Ensign John Coneyers
John Montgomery John Reed
Jams. McBride Jams. Martin
Saml. Scott William Stevenson
Given under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 JOHN RENEAN (?) Leut.
Return 1st and 2nd Classes Capt. Wiliam
Scott?s Company in the 4th Batt.
Wm. Scott, Capt. Wm. Gill
Henry Nelson, Serjt. Aaron Sackett
Walter Hill Wm. Sparks
Valentine Sennet Wm. Hervey
John Carpenter, Leut. Michael Huff, Jun.
Richard Stevenson William Hanks
Edwd. Smith Junr. Morris West
Charles Norris Charles Stewart
Given under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 WILLIAM SCOTT, Cap?n.
Names added by James Simpson
Editor of the 1912 edition of Joseph Doddridge?s
?Notes? mentioned above added in a footnote seventeen names which he had
apparently collected. These names came from James Simpson who was a historian
of the Cross Creek area. This attribution of James Simpson is on the
attribution of Dr. Raymond Martin Bell- an authority on the names of
THE M-B LIST WITH ADDITIONS; SETTLEMENT, LOCATION AND OTHER DATA;
To provide the
answer to the question as to where these men lived search was made of surviving
tax lists. A Tax list for
the massacre was done in 1782 there is no tax list for that year in the Court
second kind of locational information is the place
these men settled on land granted to them by the state of
is a published list of warrants for the purchase of land from
is important to note that both
Only men in the Archives lists have military rank in this listing. Men from the Simpson list and other sources do not have military rank in this listing as there is no primary or compelling evidence for assuming that they were on military duty.
Pvt. Humphrey Aitchinson ? in 1783 in
Pvt. Mathew Aitcheson ? Settled land in 1775 in
Pvt. John Armstrong ? in Cecil, Cumberland and Robinson Townships in 1781- so one or three men is unknown - in Cecil Township in 1783; a man of this name one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1782 asking for Congress to increase defense by the army ; CDAR- First PA Regt b May, 1750 and d 24 Jan, 1820, Washington, PA Cemetery [so may have been Continental soldier].; PMF- lists two men of this name- one buried at Washington , PA and the other at the Armstrong Cemetery at Cumberland, Greene County, PA; DAR3- lists a man of this name 1766-1844 from Butler Co., Pa buried at Center Chapel, Wells Twp, Jefferson Co., Ohio; CWCW- will 1820.
Baily ? not on these
pension application by David Bailey S16,616 under the
law of 1832 from Washington County, Missouri says that he served 2 years with
Capt. Taylor in Colonel Black?s Regiment of Virginia; and that in 1779 he
enlisted for 3 years with Capt Isaac Taylor in Col. Montgomery?s regiment
serving along the Ohio River from the falls to the mouth and back, and with
George Rogers Clark against the Shawnee on the Big Miami- he says nothing about
1782. This man died
Pvt. John Baird ? in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township, and in Strabane Township in 1783 the latter having land and a distillery; CDAR- killed at Fort Duquesne [?], buried at Washington, PA Sec E, lot 190 granite headstone born 25 Nov, 1758 no date of death., PMF.
William Baxter- land granted at Harmon
or on Harmon Creek in 1775 and 1776 - not on the
application S6591 of 27 August, 1833 from Brooke Co., Virginia lists four
periods of service: 1) 3 months in 1776 in the militia under Capt. Isaac Cox,
Lt. David Steel served at Holidays Cove on the Ohio River near Harmons Creek now in Brooke Co., Va,
2) when discharged in Nov., 1776 enlisted for three years with Lt. Daniel Steel
under Col. John Gibson of the 13th Va Line
[at Fort Pitt] where he served 8 months as a Sgt. in Steel?s company, 3) in
1781 he volunteered about l month under Lieut. Col. Williamson for the
expedition to the Delaware towns where they captured 10-12 indians;
and 4) in March, 1781 served l month under Col. Williamson in the militia where
?declarant again volunteered on an expedition into
the Indian Country, against the Indians, under the command of Col. David
Williamson, a skirmish took place, and
about ninety three Indians were killed. It was the practice on such
expeditions for the militia, after they rendezvoused, to elect their officers,
and declarant served as a volunteer Lieutenant in the
expedition last mentioned.? For some
reason he made another statement
Pvt. Charles Bevington ? in Smith and
Pvt. Charles Bilderback ? on the 1888 list only as a Private, but later may have later been a Captain in the militia-in Cecil Township in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists.- a man of this name also listed in Strabane in 1783 with only a horse-; EF-?This is the man who killed the Moravian named Joseph Shabosh. the story is told that seven years later he was captured by hostile Indians, who, on learning of his identity, put him to death with torture?.only a legend without proof?; the identification of this man as the man who fired the first shot wounding Shabosh and afterwards tomahawked and scalped him was also made by the local historian, Isaac Craig in 1881 if not earlier.
Charles has been given terrible notoriety by Allen Eckert as the man who killed the first thirteen Moravians with a mallet with no proof that I can find.. This claim has recently been increased in a film aired on public television to claim that Charles Bilderback not only killed the first thirteen men with a mallet, but scalped them as well. That claim is as yet unproven even though the author has searched the index and roll 11 of the Lyman C. Draper papers. Randall Wilkins, the author of this charge, has not proven this contention on Charles Bilderback. While holding no brief for anything but the truth and as egregious as is this event it seems important to have substantive evidence for charges made against individual men.
Charles Bilderback was well enough regarded to command a militia company as a Captain in the ?Crawford? campaign which followed in the summer of 1782. His fighting and leadership was apparently rewarded and appreciated by his peers.
Jacob Bilderback ?
name added by Isaac Craig in an 1881 letter as being on this expedition, ?
single, with nothing in 1783 in
Pvt. William Black ?settled in Cecil township in 1774- in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Fife?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..
three pension applications by men of this name on microfilm. None of them seem
possible for this man who had lived in
Pvt. Joseph Blair ? not on these tax or land grant lists.
Pvt. Robert Boatman ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1781 asking for more defense for the region out of Fort Pitt .
Lewis Bonnet Senior ? from the Virginia Panhandle [now W.Va], was called Capt. or Major, born in Paoli, Md. 1736/7- died 1808, fought under Braddock in his defeat and in Dunmore?s War, settled on Wheeling Creek in 1769 or 1772 with the Wetzels, married a woman named --------Wagener. His son says: ?my father was in Williamson?s Moravian campaign, but he took no part in murdering?. The careers of Sr. and Jr. are difficult to separate. One local historian says Lewis Bonnett (probably Jr.) was born in 1762, from Hardy Co., Va and was pensioned for service 1779-1783. It is a puzzle as to which one was on this expedition. 
Pvt. James Bradford ? only on the 1888 list- in Greene and Strabane Townships in the 1781 tax list and in Strabane in the 1783 list; PMF- buried at the Bradford Cemetery, Whiteley Township, Greene County, Pa., CWCW- wills 1801 and 1811 (two men ?).
Pvt. John Breckenridge ? only on the 1888 list- in 1783 in Peters Township- RBE of Youghagania Co.,Va sold 400 acres on ?Shirtees? [Chartiers] Creek 1 Nov, 1779..
Pvt. James Buchanan ? only on the 1888 list- Settled in 1774 at Wheeling Creek and West Finley Township- in Strabane Twp in 1781; EF- Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..
Stephen Burkham ?
Burkham admitted in his own memoirs to being at the.
He didn?t say whether or not he killed any of the Moravians, but did name John
McCulloch and claimed that William Welch killed seven of the Moravians with the
tomahawk. Stephen of Ohio County, Virginia was born in 1762 in Berkeley Co, Va and settled in 1768 near
Beeson?s Fort [near
Byers ? only on the 1888 list- settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek- in
Pvt. Nathaniel Cahoe (or Kahoe)- not on these tax and land grant lists.
Cahoe ? not on these tax and land grant lists.; PMF- Samuel Kahoe (or Cohoe) CDAR- buried at
Pvt. Arthur Campbell ? Settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek ? in 1781 in Smith Twp. and in 1783 in Strabane Township, TLM 2:422 signed a petition with men around Well?s Fort warning General Irvine of the dangerous situation after the massacre- CDAR- ( Revolution and later Indian Fighter) b 1753- d 21 March, 1819, buried Cross Creek Cemetery- Claysville, PA, CWCW- will 1804.
Charles Campbell ?bought 200 acres from Pennsylvania in 1773 in Westmoreland Co., from the Simpson list- Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783 listed as single; EF- died 21 March 1819 and buried in the old cemetery in Cross Creek, CWCW- wills 1819 (2) and 1832...
Carpenter ? settled in 1773 in Buffalo Creek area ?RBE of Ohio Co., Va.
sold 400 acres on Doldering Run, a branch of Buffalo
Creek in 1780; later moved his family across the Ohio River with other families
and was illegally settled in 1782 in the area now Ohio - was captured by
Indians on the way to Fort Pitt in Feb 1782, R. H. Richardson says that the
Carpenters- John and Nancy- were living near James Maxwell, and John kept
moving them West with other families, that in 1773 they were on Jacob?s Creek
when John was 41 years old (b 1732) , before marrying John had rescued Nancy
from having her head split by Indians , they were friends of the John McCullochs and the Tiltons and
others who were on this raid and moved into Ohio country before it was legal -TLM
2:422 after the raid a John Carpenter was among the signers of a petition to
Gen. Irvine about their ?dangerous? situation - buried at Prairie Chapel Church
near Coshocton, Ohio. A man of this name is listed in 1783 in
Pvt. Aaron Carter ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Barney Carter ? in
Pvt. Joseph Casey ? in the M/B list but not to be found on the Archives lists ? settled in 1774 around Buffalo Creek- in 1783 in Donegal Township without land - will not be included in this study-later pensioned from Pa in Campbell Co, Ky in 1834 at age 71.
Ensign Thomas Chenney ? a Chenney/Chaney not on these tax or land lists.
Thomas Cherry from the Simpson list may
be the man above-settled in 1774 on Raccoon Creek - is on the 1781tax list in
Smith Twp.- and in 1783 was in Mount Pleasant Twp. DAR3 lists Thomas P. Cherry
saying he was a ranger of the frontier in
Edward Christy ? of the Buffalo Creek area and single, but not on the tax lists- said by EF to have been the principal exhorter against killing the Christian Moravians ?preaching? to the men against killing to the point that the more violent men were threatening him? EF says he was a student of Rev. John McMillan ?he is said to have been a Presbyterian Minister in later years- he was on this raid because the indians had allegedly just recently killed the young woman pledged to be his wife.
were told in
Pvt. Daniel Clark ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was in Captain Reed?s Co of Westmoreland County militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time.
James Cochran ? named by
Paul W. Myers with unspecified authority ? not in these tax and land grant lists-PMA-
Coneyers ? settled in 1774 on Millers Run in
Coneyers ? not on these
pension application of Thomas Conyers Jr.
S3200 of July, 1846 says that he served from 1776-1779 as a Private in the 8th
Pennsylvania Regt, and was at the battle of Bonbrook
[is that Boundbrook ?]. He left
Pvt. Henry Cooper ? in
Cooper ? in
Pvt. John Cotton ? on the 1888 list as a Captain which is not his Washington County militia rank- in Strabane Twp in 1783; DAR3-may be the man buried in Mahoning Co., Ohio- was an officer in the Connecticut line and had lived at Belpre, Ohio so possibly a former Continental officer who passed through Washington County.
Pvt. Frederick Crowe ? only on the 1888 list ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Jno. Cunning ? as John Cunning on the 1781 tax list in Cecil Twp.- and in Smith Twp in 1783.
Pvt. Daniel Currey ? in
Pvt. Edward Davis ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Richard Davis ?only on the 1888 list - in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township; DAR3- may be buried in Union Co., Oh where he died at age 96.
Densmore ? not on these tax and land grant lists;
PMF- buried in Buffalo, PA; PMA- as James
Dinsmore 1742-1817 in the Bedford Co. militia
(preceded Westmoreland/Washington Co.), born in Ireland and first settled in
Fayette Twp., of Allegheny Co ,
granted land on Millers Run which became in 1788 part of Allegheny County. and later in 1795 got land in Canton Twp., of
Pvt. Michael Doherty Sr. ? in
Pvt. Wm. Donehey ? as Wm. Donehee in
Pvt. John Edie ? only on the 1788 list- as John Eddy in Amwell township in 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.
Pvt. Jesse Edginton ? in
Everet ? Sgt.
Thomas Everett was discharged from Capt. Benjamin Biggs Co. of Col.
Gibson?s Regiment at
Pvt. Alex Fegan ? as Alex Feggan in Cecil Township in 1783- RBE Alex Feagon bought 400 acres on Mill Creek in 1784.
Pvt. John Fosit - - also spelled Fawcet/ Fosset- settled in 1772 in Cecil Township as John Faucet- and was in Cecil Township in 1783- an early Methodist according to M/B.
Lieut. Hugh Forbes ? only on the 1888 list- in Somerset Twp in 1783; EF says he was a Lieutenant in Capt. Rankin?s Co on the summer 1782 Crawford Expedition.; CDAR- buried at Grove United Presbyterian Church in West Middleton, PA on Rte 18.; PMF says buried at Buffalo, PA, CWCW- will 1821 and 1837 (two men?).
A barely readable pension application made at Pittsburgh in 1832 #S2215 says that he served from 1776 for 3 years as a private [in a Continental line] and was at the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga, [in the Northern Army] and also in Crawford?s campaign- but it doesn?t mention this expedition.
Pvt. William Forbes ? only on the 1888 list- in Strabane,
barely readable pension application S5410 says he served with Capt. Samuel
Brady along the
Pvt. John Gardner ? in Smith Township in 1783; buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson - he died 10 Sept, 1821 at 64 years, married Elizabeth Clark who died 1 Oct, 1853 at age 95 years, CWCW- will made 1821..
David Gault - from the Simpson list ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and in 1783- in the latter tanyard is next to his name which may mean he ran or owned a tanyard, but was a single man without land- so was probably a tenant; EF says he was from Cross Creek Twp.
Pvt. William G.Gill ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- said to have been in the Northumberland Co. Militia, b 1747- d 12 June, 1802 and buried at Mt. Hope Cemetery near West Middleton, PA, CWCW- will 1802. .
Capt. Henry Graham ? settled in 1774 on Cross Creek ? in Hopewell Township in 1783-TLM 2:422 signed a petition from the area of Wells Blockhouse just after the massacre apprising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation,- PMF- buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson Henry Graham died 31 Jan, 1827 at 87 years and his wife, Mary, died 29 Nov 1814 age 70 ; was an elder in the Cross Creek Church from 1792 till his death and a Justice of the Peace of Washington County..
John Graham - from the Simpson list- Cross Creek Twp in 1783; verified by EF, CWCW-will made 1830 and 1831.
Pvt. Wm. Hanks ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Jams Hanna ? as James in Strabane Twp in 1783.
Pvt. William Harris ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Private in the frontier rangers of Westmoreland County so may have been from east of the rivers at the time.
Pvt. Robert Hays ? as Robert Hayes in Cecil and
Hays ? three such listed in 1781 being in Cecil, Donegal and
Pvt. Robert Henry ? only on the 1888 list- both in 1781 and 1783 in Strabane Township; EF-an early settler of that section of old Strabane now known as North Strabane Twp; WJC- an 1787 land grant., CWCW- will in 1829.
not the pension applicant S1830 although with an extensive military career and
a pension application made from
Pvt. William Hervey ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- a William Harvey is buried in Montour Cemetery near Montour, PA, Rte 22; 1758- 1838, CWCW lists a will of 1816.
Hickman ? in
Pvt. William Hilbit ? not in these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Pvt. in Rueben Kemp?s Co of Westmoreland Co. militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time..
Hill ? in 1781 and 1783 in
Hindeman ? In Hopewell Township in 1783; RBE-
probably the Sam Hineman
who bought 60 acres on Cross Creek in 1783; the local historian, Isaac Craig,
says in a letter to another local historian, Boyd Crumrine,-?
a man named Hindman
was said by General Richard Butler to be one of the worst;?. this being the
only man of that name on the list we
have to assume he was talking of Samuel Hindeman/Hindman.-
but what does ?one of the worst?;
mean ?that he killed the most or was one of the most vicious? General
Richard Butler was a well respected Continental officer who as a Colonel was at
Holmes ? in
Obadiah Holmes Jr. from the Simpson list- in 1781 was listed in Cecil Twp with no land - he admitted in old age that he had been on the raid and claimed to be among the non-killers. It is said that he rescued an Indian boy on this expedition, and brought him home to live for a few years. O.H. died in 1839 at the age of 96 and is buried in Allegheny County; EF says he was an Ensign in Capt Daniel Leet?s Co on Crawford?s Expedition in the summer of 1782, died in Pittsburgh in June, 1834 aged seventy-four; buried at Woodville, Pa (two dates of death reported for the same man ?)..
Hopkins ? only on the 1888 list ? in 1781 was single with land in
Hosack ? only on the 1888 list- in 1782 was
How ? in
Pvt. John Hudgel ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Michael Huff Jr. ? in Hopewell Twp with no land in 1781 and in Hopewell Twp. in 1783.
Pvt. James Huston- only on the 1888 list; single with land in 1781 in Strabane Twp.; EF- son of William Huston, the first white settler in Catfish Camp (now Washington, Pa.) and in Capt. Daniel Leet?s Co. on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.
Pvt. William Irwin ?only on the 1788 list - in Strabane Twp in 1781 and in Canton and Strabane Towship in 1783 ? the latter being listed as Irvin; EF-a settler in Canton Township; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW- has a will of 1822.
Pvt. Eleaser Jenkins ? on the 1888 list only- in Bethlehem Township in 1783; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW lists a will of 1822.
Pvt. Isaac Johnston ? in 1781 in
pension applications of 1818/1820 of Isaac Johnston S36642 of Bullitt Co,
Pvt. Dennis Jones ? only on the 1888 list ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
David Kerr ? from the Simpson list.- not on these tax and land grant lists; EF says probably
Pvt. James Kerrlin ? or Curlin ? not listed either way on these tax or land grant lists.
Ledlie ? from the 1888 list- Wm. Ladley settled in 1774 in
Pvt. Daniel Leet ? from the 1888 list only- settled land in Franklin and Chartiers Creek in 1773 and at Catfish Camp [now Washington, Pa] in 1776- is said to have been a Revolutionary officer (other than militia) ? was a Sub- Lieutenant of Washington County appointed 2 April, 1781 but resigned that office on 30 March, 1782 - is listed in Cecil Township in 1783; RBE sold 120 acres on ?Shirtee? Creek [Chartiers] in 1784;? taxed in Pitt Township of Allegheny County in 1791 ?is buried in Allegheny County. As sub-lieutenant would have been along with Matthew Ritchie the second highest ranking Washington County militia officer on the expedition going as a private when he had the militia rank of Major;
EF says? a surveyor by profession; settled
near Catfish Camp in 1776 after which he served in the Continental Line, and
with General McIntosh at Fort Laurens in 1778; Deputy Surveyor General in Yohogania, now Washington County; surveyed in this county
in 1780 under Virginia certificates; Brigade Major in Crawford?s Expedition;
commanded a division after Colonel Burton was wounded; died 18 June, 1830, at
the home of a daughter at Sewickly Bottom;? PMA- says
that Daniel Leet was a friend of General Washington
and a Major in the Continental Army where he had a distinguished career. It is
fully possible that this Daniel Leet was a surveyor
for the Ohio Company of
this be the same man who is credited with this career as an officer in the
Revolution: ?acted as quartermaster from
Forrest says in the
material quoted above that he was from
remark from an 1881 letter from the local historian, Isaac Craig to historian
Boyd Crumrine, 
has to be passed along although not otherwise corroborated ?I have heard that Daniel Leet
was the man who first used the mallet.? If this means that the man with the
second highest political and military position on the raid going as a Private
began the killing with a cooper?s mallet as this alleges he set a very bad
example for most of the men who had less prestige. Is this the unnamed man who
actually killed 13 people before he quit as reported in
If Daniel Leet committed that disgraceful first murdering it is no wonder that he later resigned his position as a Sub-Lieutenant of Washington County. It is also no wonder that the murders were done or that the story of the massacre was covered up from the public. Daniel Leet and the other influential men on this expedition who were politically and militarily powerful whom other men would either have followed or by whom they would be intimidated.
Lesnit - taxed in
Lesnit - listed in
Pvt. John Little ? from the 1888 list only? not on these tax and land grant lists; bought 300 acres in Westmoreland Co from Pennsylvania in 1776, PMA-a former Private in the Fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, Continental Line under General Anthony Wayne; according to Crumrine  s/o James, family from Ireland worked a farm and spent the winter at McDonald?s blockhouse [near present town of McDonald], RBE- John Little of Youghania Co., Va sold land on Harmons Run in 1780; John was an elder of the Mt. Pleasant Church, and had land in Strabane or South Strabane Twp.
Pvt. David Long ? on the 1781 tax list in
Greene, Robinson and
Marshal ? settled land in 1774 on Cross Creek ? in the 1781 tax list there
was a John Marshall in
Marshall pensioned in 1818 age 69 years old pension number S41797 living in
Pvt. Robert Marshal ? the Return says Smith in parentheses which may mean Smith Township- in the 1781 tax list there is a man with this spelling in Amwell Township with nothing- in 1783 in Peters Township; a reputable local historian says that Robert Marshel was a brother of the County Lieutenant [in that case he was probably born in Ireland as was his brother] and was on this raid. but expressed his regret all his life, -RBE- bought 100 acres on the middle fork of Cross Creek in 1784; was an elder in the Buffalo Church.  .
Robert Marshall- from the Simpson list with two lls-
in 1783 in Cross Creek and
Thomas Marshall ? from the 1888
Marshel ? from the Simpson list ? EF- says ?
There was a Thomas Marsheal
in 1781 in
Martin ? a James Martin settled
Pvt. William Martin ? in 1781 listed in Peters and Smith township ? the one in Peters being single and having no land so two men and in Hopewell Twp in 1783.
Pension application S5736 of Booths Creek, Hampshire Co,
Masterson was pensioned in 1832 at 73 years old number S16460 living then in
Pvt. William Masterson ? in 1781 and 1783 in
Pvt. Zachariah Masterson ? only on the 1888 list - on the 1783 list in Somerset Township with horses and no land.
Pvt. Tobias Mattocks ? settled land in 1775 on Raccoon Creek - taxed in 1783 in Robinson Township and in Moon Township of Allegheny Co in 1791 as Tobias Mattox (which could be the same place).
Pvt. Jams McBride ? as James settled land on Raccoon Creek in 1775- in 1781 taxed in both Cecil and Robinson Townships but had no animals in Robinson - taxed in Cecil Township in 1783; charged in 1784 by General George Washington for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil Township.-, CWCW- lists a will in 1827.
Pvt. Thomas McClain ? from the 1888 list- not in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists but well to do- in Pitt Township of Allegheny Co in 1791.
McClain ? from the 1888 list ? taxed in
Pvt. Daniel McCloud ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Robert McComb ? from the 1888 list ? in Somerset Township in 1781 - in Cross Creek Township in 1783; EF- ? a soldier of the Revolution (Continental line ?) , settled in Cross Creek Township where he died in 1827.?
McConnell ?from the 1888 list - buried in
Pvt. Daniel McCoy ? in 1781 there were two in Cecil and one in Smith Townships so location is indeterminate.
widow of Daniel McCoy of West Finley Township of Washington County made
application W965. He had served, she claimed, in the 8th
McCready ? in
John McCulloch ? named by Stephen Burkham as being there as a Private when he was at other
times an officer in the Militia ? a well known frontiersman living in Ohio Co, Va or West of the Ohio River illegally at the time, he
attended the major conference with General Irvine at the fort after Irvine?s
return as a representative from Ohio County -
his dates 1770-1821 married Mary Bukey 1757-1846;
Mary Bukey MCCulloch d/o
Jemima Dunn and John Bukey (her sister married Rev.
John Doddridge). John McCulloch was later a civil magistrate in
McCullogh ? from the 1888 list - buried in
Pvt. Robert McCullogh ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Brice McGeehon ? in 1781 and 1783 in Smith Township; a Brice McGeechen was charged by General Washington in 1784 with squatting on Washington?s land; WJC- 1785 land grantee half interest as executor of John Milligan..
McGoogen ? in
McKibbins as McKibbin
McKibbins ? in
McKnight ?single in
Pvt. James McMillan ? a man named McMullan settled in 1775 in Pike Township ? a Private James McMullan was discharged at Fort Pitt 13 Nov, 1780 at Fort Pitt from Capt. Biggs Co of Col. Gibsons Va Regiment probably after three years arduous service against the Indians, was a brother of the Reverend Jamaes McMillan of Chartiers Creek; CDAR- buried in Washington County..
John McWilliams from the Simpson list ?
settled land in 1775 around Buffalo Creek ? in 1781 in
Samuel Merchant ? from the Simpson list ? settled land on Raccoon Creek in 1774 - in 1781 in Donegal Township; EF- settled in Hanover Twp in 1778, but driven away by Indians; returned in 1779 and remained until his death presumably then in Washington County..
Jacob Miller Jr. - admitted later in life to being on this raid ? of Swiss ethnicity- born in 1762 at Hagerstown, Md. and died in August, 1830 at age 67/11/24, married Anne Mary Leffler, was a noted Indian fighter- settled land in 1771 on the Dutch Fork area of Wheeling Creek in Donegal Twp with other families of germanic origin where he is listed in the 1781 tax list; ?Jacob Miller saw the folly of the attack [on the Moravian Indians] and refused to be a party to it and stood aside;? this role for Jacob Miller as a non-participant is verified by Captain Henry Jolly ?a man of that time and place- says ?when it was decided the Moravians must die, Miller and a few others tried to get out of hearing, but [JMJ is quoted as saying] ? the death screams out went us?; RBE- estate accounts of the Senior J.M. 1786 is puzzling with J. JR. of age and the minor children (Jacob, John, Polly, Adam, Catherine, Frederick, Piler, Henry) and a widow, Mary; the Sr. was allegedly killed and scalped by Indians in 1808 so this is a bit of a puzzler.
Capt. Robert Miller ? settled land in 1772 on Chartiers Creek which was in Cecil township in 1781 and 1783.
may not be the same man, but Robert Miller made a pension application from
Augusta Co., Va claiming
that he had been an indian spy on several occasions
and a First Sgt. of Virginia troops under Captains Robert McCrory,
John McCrory, Thomas Hughart
and David Gwinn. He served three months in 1780 and three months in 1781 while
Pvt. William Miller - men of this name in both
Montgomery ? was listed as single with nothing in 1781 in
Pvt. Thomas Montgomery ? in Strabane Township in 1781 - and in Strabane Township in 1783 ? an elder in the Presbyterian Church who died in New Athens, Ohio.
Pvt. John Munn Jr. ? two men of this name in Nottingham Twp. in 1781 one single ? and in Nottingham Twp in 1783 , one of these men may have been a Captain in the Westmoreland and Washington County Militia on other expeditions, CWCW- will listed for 1802.
Sgt. Henry Nelson ? settled land in 1773 in Independence and Buffalo Creek - in Hopewell Twp 1783 TLM 2:421 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation for the settlers.
Pvt.. Charles Norris ? living illegally west of the
Ensign John Odonel - there were John O?Donalds in 1781 in both Amwell and Cecil Townships ? the one in Amwell being single ? he was listed in Cecil Township in 1783.
Pvt. Thomas Orr ? settled 400 acres of land in 1775 in Middle Wheeling Twp, Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va.); this from Alice Walker, a descendent, ? tradition says he was born about 1749 in Adams Co., Pa, married Margaret Creighton (d/o John and Anne Creighton) in 1789 at Col. David Williamson?s Fort, was on the ?Crawford? expedition as well and may have been a Continental soldier (see DAR), and died 31 Oct, 1835; ? Thomas told his descendents that he was on this expedition, but did not participate in the killing of the Moravian Indians.
Pvt. William Orr ?Private Wm. Orr was discharged at Fort Pitt 2 Nov, 1780 from the Company of Capt. Biggs, Col. Gibson?s Va. Regiment probably after serving three tough years against the Indians, is listed in 1783 in Cecil Township, a man of this name had land next Thomas Orr above in Ohio Co., Va bought in 1793 and sold in 1796 (according to Alice Walker above who has tried unsuccessfully to establish a relationship between these two Orrs).
Pvt. Andrew Pass ? only on the 1888 list.- not on these tax and land grant lists; EF says he was a Pvt in Capt. Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; PMW- says that he was in Capt. Munn?s Co. of Westmoreland County militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time and followed Captain Munn as a loyal soldier.
Moses Patterson ? from the Simpson list - not on these tax or land grant lists.
Patton ? in
Pvt. Thomas Peircifield- not on these tax and land grant lists.
Piatt ? was at that time living in
Pvt. John Pollock ? on the 1888 list ? settled land in 1772 on Crooked Run ? in Hopewell Township in 1781 and in Strabane Township in 1783; RBE- Thomas and John Pollock sold 188 acres on Cross Creek in 1783 to William Pollock; EF says probably from that section of old Strabane Township which is now North Strabane Twp; WJC- 1785 land grant., CWCW- will listed of 1833..
Pvt. William Price ? settled land in Chartiers Creek area in 1774 ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; RBE- of Washington County, Pa., sold 900 acres in Washington County in 1783; DAR3- may be the man b 1744 living in 1840 buried at Barnes Cemetery, Seal Twp., Pike Co., Ohio.
Pvt. William Quigley ? only on the 1888 list ? in Nottingham Township in 1783; EF says that he was a Pvt. in Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.
Ralston ? in 1781 listed in
Capt. Thomas Rankin ? on the 1888 list as Sgt. ? settled land in 1774 on Raccoon Creek- two are listed in 1781 in Cecil and Nottingham Townships the one in Cecil having no land ? making this indeterminate- listed in Cecil Twp 1783 as Capt.- a big land owner, there is a single man of this name with nothing much in Nottingham in 1783- one of the most affluent men on this expedition; EF identifies most of this and says he was a Captain in Crawford?s Expedition ?a Thomas died in Cadiz, Ohio; RBE- there was also a man of this name of Smith Twp. who made a will in 1793; DAR3- may be the man born 1760 and buried in Rankin Cemetery, Moorefield Twp., Harrison Co., OH.
Pvt. William Rankin ? only on the 1888 list ? settled land in 1770 on Raccoon Creek ? in 1781 two are listed one being single with nothing in Nottingham Township and the other with 1300 acres and (comparatively land wealthy) in Smith township- one is listed in 1783 in Mt. Pleasant Township and is buried in Allegheny County; EF says he was an early settler in Mount Pleasant Township; DAR3- to make the burial puzzling a man of this name b 1748 in Winchester, Va is buried in Paint Twp., Fayette Co, Oh who was ? a scout on Frontier Pa and Va?. see family history there, CWCW- will listed for 1793.
Capt. Charles Reed ? settled land in 1773 on Miller?s Run ? not listed in either tax list.
Capt. David Reed ? in Cecil township in both 1781 and 1783; RBE- bought 318 acres on Millers Run (Cecil Township) in 1782; charged by General George Washington in 1784 for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil Township, CWCW- will listed for 1824.
Pvt. James Reed ? two are listed in 1781 in Cecil Township one having only a horse ?both are listed in Cecil Township in 1783 and there is one in Fallowfield Township, CWCW- wills listed for 1817 and 1831.
Pvt. John Reed ?RBE- John Reed of Youghagania Co., Pa sold 400 acres on the North branch of Cross Creek in 1779, also bought 98 acres on Bushey Run in 1781, and bought 400 acres on Millers Run [drains into Chartiers Creek] in 1780; there are five listed in various townships in 1781 and six in 1783 making this indeterminate; John Reed Esq. taxed in 1783 in Cecil Twp., a John Reed Esquire charged in 1784 by General George Washington for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil township; WJC- a 1785 land grant and one for J.R. Jr. 1786, CWCW- wills listed for 1814 and 1817.
Lt.John Renean ? signed for Captain Reed ? a completely unlisted name.
Pvt. Charles Reno ? in
Pvt. George Reno ? may be George Runo of Cecil Twp 1783..
Pvt. John Riddel ? as Riddle in both Amwell Township with land and Fallowfield Township without land in 1781 - and in Strabane Township in 1783, EF says he was a Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer 1782 Crawford Expedition; buried in Allegheny County, CWCW- will listed 1818 for John Riddle.
Pvt. Samuel Riddel ? or Riddle in Robinson Township in 1781 and in Strabane Township in 1783; EF says that he was a Pvt. in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the Crawford Expedition; DAR3- may be the man 1759-1825 buried in Mahoning Co., Oh who was a ?Pvt in Rangers of Washington and Westmoreland Co.?
Pvt. Matthew Ritchie ? settled land in 1772 in Chartiers/Cecil Township; and Harmon; and in 1774 in Tomlinson.- in 1781 Matthew Richey Esquire living in Cecil Township with 1000 acres, was appointed 24 Dec, 1781 a Sub-lieutenant of Washington County so with Daniel Leet was the second highest ranking militia officer in this army listed as going as a private when he was in fact of higher rank, and one of the richer men on this expedition, Matthew Ritchie is listed on the rosters above as being a private in the 1st Class (or squad) of Captain Miller?s Company so he is a prime example of that phenomenon. CWCW- will listed for 1798.
Pvt. John Roberts - in 1781 in Greene Township with a horse and no land.; RBE- sold 444 acres on Roberts Home Plantation in 1780 ( township or place not identified by RBE); CWCW- will listed in 1821.
Pvt. James Roney ? a surveyor who settled land in 1774 on Buffalo and Wheeling Creeks - in 1781 in Smith Township ? in 1783 in Donegal Township; EF says ?an early settler in West Finley Township and a brother of Hercules Roney, the proprietor of Roney?s blockhouse [now Finley Twp], both were chainmen for Colonel William Crawford when he surveyed land grants under the old Virginia Certificates."; CDAR- buried in Washington County; RBE- will 1791 and estate accounts 1792 leaving a son , Hercules.
James Ross ? from the Simpson List ? in 1781 listed in Smith and Strabane Townships the latter being without land ? as an educated young man he was teaching for Reverend James McMillan at the time of this raid ?- however, due to the two listings in 1781 this is indeterminate as to township of residence; EF says ?also a private in Captain McGihan?s Company on Crawford?s Expedition, taught school in McMillan?s log Academy near Canonsburg, admitted to the bar in 1784, member of the Constitutional Convention of 1790; one of the three commissioners appointed by Federal government to meet the Whisky Insurrection leaders in 1794, United States Senator, died 27 Nov, 1847 aged eighty-five years,? That is an important identification by a local historian if there were two men by this name in 1781; RBE- says J.R. of Cecil estate accounts 1786 leaving son, James- may be the father of the more well known younger man; Kohn says that James Ross in 1794 was a ?trusted confidant of President Washington.? .
There is a bit of a puzzle here as a man of this name is buried in Mahoning Co, Oh, who in DAR3 says he served in Washington Co., Pa, was age 77 in 1833.
A James Ross says in his pension application that in April of 1782 having served in the Western part of Pa, ?I was drafted under Capt. Wm. Scott and marched to a place called Mingo Bottom on the Ohio River below Beemor, we were stationed here to protect the persons and property of a number of our countrymen from the plunder and depredations of the Indians?, served 1 month and then volunteered with 400 others to go to Sandusky on the Crawford cmpg. He didn?t mention this expedition in March.
Pvt. Aaron Sackett ? not in these Washington County tax and land grant lists- TLM 2:422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there for the settlers,- in 1783 was single in Manallen Township, Westmoreland County; PMW- was an Ensign in the Westmoreland County militia.
Pvt. Samuel Scott ? in 1781 listed as single with no land in Cecil Township and with land in Nottingham so identification is inconclusive; RBE estate accounts 1794 leaving a wife, Elizabeth, and minor children, John and Jean and RBE lists a sale of land in Washington County on Mingo Creek in 1784 by Samuel Scott of Rostrover Township of Westmoreland County.
Scott ? in 1781 is listed in both
Pvt. Valentine Sennet - not on these tax or land grant lists.
Pvt. Thomas Shannon ? settled land in 1772 on Buffalo Creek and Cross Creek/Independence - in 1781 and 1783 in Hopewell Township, TLM 2-422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there- CWCW- will listed for 1814.
Capt. Samuel Shearer ? from the 1888 list only as Captain with a question mark as if the editors were not sure ?there is no proof of that rank or his presence in the area- not on these tax or land grant lists.
Shearor ?as Wm Shearer is in 1781 in
Pvt. William Sinclair in 1781 in Cecil Township and in 1783 in Donegal Township; RBE- bought 294 acres on the West fork of ?Shirtee? (Chartiers) Creek in 1783 and W.S. Jr. bought land at the same place and year; CWCW- will listed for 1820.
Dave Slaughter ? named in Forrest?s
Washington County History [EF] with an important and courageous volunteer role
in swimming the cold river to bring over a sugar trough so the men could send
over their clothes dry after swimming the cold
Pvt. Abraham Slover in 1773 he was in Pitt Township, Bedford County which was around Ft. Pitt, in Feb, 1775 he was on a committee to lay out a road from Ft. Dunmore to Raccoon Creek, he is not in either the tax or the land grant lists- was the brother of John Slover who was one of Crawford?s guides in the ill-fated summer of 1782 expedition ? from around New River, Virginia where their family was massacred before this by Indians.
Pvt. Edward Smith Jr. since the Jr. was used in the return would suggest that his father was in the neighborhood - an Edward Smith settled in 1772 on Buffalo Creek and Independence - an Edward Smith was taxed in Rosstraver Twp of Bedford County in 1773 and in Pitt Twp of Allegheny County in 1791.- but not on the lists being used here; RBE- estate accounts 1790 leaving son, Isaac.
Smith - in 1783 in
Sparks ? settled land in 1773 in
Pvt. Isaac Springer ? not on these tax or land grant lists, PMW- was in Capt. Joseph Cisna?s Co. of Westmoreland militia- so may have been from East of the rivers.
Pvt. James Steel ? from the 1888 list only ? in 1781 list in both Cumberland and Strabane Townships neither having land so location of his home is indeterminate- and in Strabane Township in 1783.
pension application of a James Steel #S4882 made
Pvt. Richard Stevenson ? not on these tax or land grant lists.
Pvt. William Stevenson ? in Peters Township in 1783; a William Stephenson is buried at Cross Creek 1 March,1851 aged 80 years [was he 13 years old at the time of this raid ?]; according to Simpson he came from Berkeley Co, Va s/o James Stephenson., a paymaster of the Revolutionary Army and a nephew of Colonel Wm. Crawford and Col. Hugh Stephenson- a friend of General Washington. William ?served his country faithfully, and he was prominent in the bloody scenes of St. Clair?s defeat.? - name is spelled both ways, CWCW- will listed for 1829- no mention of the massacre.
Pvt. Charles Stewart ? settled land in 1775 on Cross Creek and Buffalo Creek ? Hopewell Twp in 1783; RBE- left a will in 1793, CWCW- will listed for 1814.
Pvt. Samuel Stewart ? only on the 1888 list- in 1781 and 1783 in
Sgt. Shadrack Stillwell - not on these tax or land grant lists; EF says he was a Pvt. in Captain Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.; RBE- bound out his children Jeremiah and Mary in 1787.
Strain - in
James Taylor ? from the Simpson list ?
settled land in 1776 in
Pvt. George Thorp ? in Cecil township in 1783.
Pvt. William Turner - in 1781 listed in both Cecil and Robinson Townships - so of indeterminate location; RBE-W.T. of Youghagania Co., Va sold 600 acres on Raccoon Creek in 1784 and his estate accounts 1791.
Solomon Urie .
? from the Simpson list died in 1820 or 1836 at
Solomon Vaile - on the Simpson list- not on these tax or land grant lists ? in 1791 in Moon Township of Allegheny County which place could have been in Washington County earlier- see above reference to a ?Sol? who in the 1812 era talked about the raid only when drunk.
Pvt. Isaac Vance ?only on the 1788 list - settled land in 1773 on Pigeon Creek ? in Somerset Township in 1781 and 1783; EF says he was a Pvt. in Capt. Rankin?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; PMF says he is buried at Pigeon Creek..
Joseph Vance ? on the Simpson list - in Smith township in 1781 and 1783 ; Ef says ?the builder and proprietor of Vance?s Fort one mile from Cross Creek, where the first plans for the Moravian expedition were made?, TLM 2:422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there, - says Joseph and several of his wives are buried at Cross Creek ? an elder in Cross Creek Church from 1782-1832; and afterwards a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, died 6 May, 1832 aged eighty-two years, buried in the old cemetery at Cross Creek,? .CDAR- says he is buried in the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Cemetery at Dunningsville, PA b 1750 and d 5 May, 1832, CWCW- lists wills for 1822 and 1832.
Pvt. Stephen Vineyard ? in
Robert Wallace ? on the Simpson List only- bought 300 acres in Westmoreland Co in 1773 from Pennsylvania, in Cross Creek Township in 1783 ? cited by EF as at the massacre and claimed that he did a lot of killing ? his family was killed and carried off just before this expedition and some historians say that the attack on the Wallace family set off this expedition ; EF says that he died in 1808 and is buried at Florence, CWCW- lists a will in 1808.
William Welch- named by Stephen Burkham who was there: ?William Welch, an Irishman tomahawked seven. The house was crowded according to Burkham with men tomahawking, the Indians had previously sang and prayed.;?  not on 1781 tax list; a name used by Allen Eckert (see below).
West ? - TLM 2:422 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just
after the massacre informing Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there for
Pvt. Alexander White ? on the 1888 list only
White settled land in 1773 in Chartiers and N. Strabane -was in Strabane and
Robinson in 1781 and in Strabane in 1783 ? both
single in 1781 in Strabane ? man of this name elected
a Washington County Justice of the Peace in 1781- is buried in Allegheny
County. His land in Strabane could in 1788 have been
Pvt. John White ?only on the 1888 list- in 1781 and 1783 in Smith Township; EF-says settled in old Strabane Township in 1773, elected a Justice of the Peace on 15 July, 1781 [ was he on this expedition while being a Justice of the Peace?]; WJC 1792 land patent; and died in 1806, CWCW lists a will in 1807.
Pvt. Nathaniel White ? in 1781 in
Pvt. Stephen Wilkins ? only on the 1888 list
Lt. William Wilkins ? only in the 1888 list ? in 1783 in Smith Township ; EF says he was an Ensign in Capt. Munn?s Co. on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; ? buried in Allegheny County.
John Williams- It was recently discovered that the son of this man put in writing to Lyman Draper that his father was on this expedition, and the father blamed Colonel David Williamson for the killing. That letter is reproduced in the microfilm of the well known Draper Manuscripts at the Wisconsin Historical Society.
Lt. Col. David Williamson ?born in 1752 at Carlisle, Pa; after visiting the western country brought his parents into this frontier; settled land in the Buffalo Creek area in 1774, 1775, 1776 and 1777 (about 900 acres) ? listed in Donegal Township in 1781 with 800 acres so owner of one of the larger amounts of land on this expedition- and in Donegal Twp in 1783; WJC- Sr. and Jr. 1787 grants - the highest ranking militia officer on this expedition and supposedly elected to the top ranking position.; EF says that Colonel Williamson was ?strongly opposed? to the killing of the Moravians- Stephan Burkham claimed in later years to have been at the massacre quoted Col. Williamson as saying ?do what you will with the prisoners? as he walked off. This was told by Burkham to Lyman C. Draper well known for his collection of original material now at the Wisconsin Historical Society, Colonel Williamson after the raid was elected Sheriff of Washington County, but died poor in a dispute with the county over a note he had co-signed; CDAR says he was buried in the Washington, Pa cemetery without a stone in 1814 at age 74.
It was the custom of the American militia to elect their own officers. Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson was elected to his position. However, it may not be fair to say he was elected commander. Militia did not always do what they were told by their own officers. It is uncertain how much to charge him with the responsibility for the killing. It is clear that there were other men along who also had high ranking positions in the militia. It is always pointed out that his role in this Massacre did not ruin his political standing as he was elected Sheriff of Washington County a few years later.
brother of Col. David above; the author was told by letter by Dr. Raymond Bell
that this man was on the raid. However, that has been impossible to verify. His
pension application says that he was on the expedition in 1781 that took Indian
prisoners, and that he was also on the summer, 1782 ?Crawford? expedition which
He did not in that application mention being on this March, 1782 expedition
which he either forgot or didn?t want to claim among his tours of militia duty-
he had been a militia officer in
Pvt. Abner Willson ?in 1781 without land in
Pvt. Jno. Willson - in 1781 in Smith, Cecil and Peters without land ?in 1783 there are four Johns in various townships of Washington County - so is indeterminate as to location; RBE- bought 329 acres on Streets Run in 1784 and 100 acres on Two Mile run in 1785; CDAR- a John Wilson who d 14 Feb, 1803 is buried in Washington, PA.
Pvt. Joseph Willson ? settled land in 1773 in Wheeling Township.- in 1781 in Peters Township; RBE-bought 227 acres on Petlore Creek in 1782 .
Pvt. Miles Willson ? in
Pvt. William Willson ? several men with this name- one settled land in 1769 on Little Whiteley Creek ?three listings of men of this name and spelling in 1781 in Bethlehem, Cecil and Smith Townships so indeterminate whether one or three men- one man in Hopewell Township in 1783 ; RBE- lists four land transactions of men of this name: of Augusta Co., Va sold 400 acres on Racoon Creek in 1777, of Washington County sold 200 acres on ?Shirtees? (Chartiers) Creek in 1783 and of Youghania Co., Va sold 300 acres on Raccoon Creek in 1779 and of Pittsburgh sold 300 acres in 1784; WHC- two 1786 grants; CDAR?a William Wilson Sr. buried at the Bethel Presbyterian Church at Clifton, PA- near Rte 19, lived 1757-25 Jan, 1845. buried in Allegheny County.; one man of this name buried at Cross Creek; RBE notes two estates by men of this name: one in 1794 with a son, Robert; and one in 1795 of Cecil Twp leaving minor children (William, Robert, Esther, Margaret and Elizabeth), CWCW- lists a will for 1795. .
were several pensions made by William Wilsons in this
area. Number S3572 was living in
man with pension number S7907 from Monongalia Co, VA is the most likely. His
was all frontier service. He says that in 1779 he served under Col. Brodhead
against the Munsie towns, in 1780 was an Indian spy
on Dunkard Creek; and in June of 1781 he served under
General Clark to the Forks of the
A man of this name with one l in DAR3 was Pvt in lst Pa Regt buried in Hamilton Co., Ohio.; there is also in DAR3 a Major Wm. Wilson 1754-1851 b in Ireland with a brother in the Tygart Valley, Randolph Co., Va buried in the Casner Cemetery near Mt. Ephraim, Noble Co., Ohio.
Pvt. Andrew Wineman ? on the 1888 list only ? not on these tax and land grant lists.
Pvt. Thomas Young ? in 1781 in
WORKS REFERRED TO ABOVE BY LETTERS
CWCW Bob and Mary Closson, compilers; Index to Washington County Wills, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, no date.
DAR3 Daughters of the American Revolution, Official Roster III, Soldiers of the
American Revolution Who Lived in the State of
RBE Raymond M Bell, Washington County Estate Records 1781-1796 and Deed Records 1782-1785 Washington, Pa; 1967.
R. Forrest, History of Washington County,
PMF Paul W. Myers, Washington County, Pa. Frontier Rangers, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, 1987, pages 37-41.
PMW Paul W. Myers, Westmoreland County in the American Revolution, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, 1988.
L. Montgomery, Frontier Forts in
Pennsylvania, Ray Press,
WJC List of men whose land grants were in the
The eighteen men who voted against killing
Most accounts relate that the men were lined up at the Indian village after the people were captured, and those who were against killing the Christian Indians were told to step forward. That was a common procedure with militia troops for voting on an issue. When the voting was done eighteen men stepped forward to vote against killing. It took a lot of courage and conviction to step out of that throng of men who had undoubtedly made known their desire to kill. Strangely enough even the names of most of the men who refused to kill the native Moravians have not been handed down. Colonel David Williamson was allegedly against the killing, but either could not or did not stop it. Obadiah Holmes Jr. according to EF was among those who did not kill, and even brought home a young Indian boy who had escaped being killed. Edward Christy?s role as the chief exhorter against killing has been related. James Taylor and Thomas Orr told their descendents that they did not kill. Robert Marshall?s stone over his grave says that he was one of the 18 non-participators. Jacob Miller?s son wrote that Jacob did not kill and stood aside. Unfortunately, in old age many men may have regretted their involvement and wanted to clear their names and reputations. .
memorial ought to be erected at
The 196 number
It ought not come as a surprise that we have found 196 names. Although Joseph Doddridge said that there were 80-90 he may have only known of those who came from his area of the county. General Irvine said at the time after he had looked into the matter that there were 300 men. The Pennsylvania Archives said in 1888 that there were ?at least 160?; and Stephen Burkham- who was there said years later there were 400. Burkham?s is the only estimate by a man who was there even though he apparently rode in the day the killing was done. General Irvine- the ranking outside investigator of the time may have the more accurate estimate at around 300. At that rate, there are undoubtedly more men yet to be found.
The names used by Allen Eckert
Allen Eckert has written two popular versions of this event in parts of larger books in The Frontiersman (1971) and That Dark and Bloody River (1995). However, on this event he has used some real names of men who were there, and some other names of men who were not apparently there. At least there is no evidence that they were there or that they existed in the area at the time. The names of the men used by Allen Eckert who cannot be found there are: George Bellar, Nathan Rollins and Altho Johnston. Research into the sources cited above do not reveal those names. Eckert?s sources for those names would be of utmost historical importance. Of course, the list includes another 15 men who cannot be found so that fact alone does not prove they were not there. Eckert?s sources would be crucial.
While the local historian, Earle Forrest (EF) claims that Charles Bilderback did the first killing of the young Joseph Schabosh, and that an unnamed man killed the next thirteen imprisoned people with blows of a coopers mallet he does not name the man who did that. Allen Eckert without citing the authority in his footnotes has named Charles Bilderback as the man who did the first killing of thirteen captives with a blow from a cooper?s mallet while Isaac Craig had heard that it might have been Daniel Leet who first used the mallet. It would be important to know the authority for those names and the source for the attribution of this horrendous act to Charles Bilderback
HOME LOCATION AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEN
of these 197 men were by ethnicity Scotch, Irish or Scots-Irish. That is
difficult to prove, but is based on writing on the Scots-Irish in
Quite a good number
of these men were not poor. Many owned land in quantities up to 1500 acres- the
average being one farm of 300 acres. Most undoubtedly hoped
to own land. All chose freely to bring their families to this part of
the frontier where guerilla war came on with the Revolution. We see that some
even brought their families into this country during the Revolution. There was
an expectation on their part of living in safety, and of being protected by the
troops of the government out of
tax lists make it clear that most of these men had wives and many probably had
families. Only a few single men show up on the tax lists as a small percent of
the whole. We can safely assume that most had wives and children. There were
several generations of some families in the area as is evident from the use of
Sr. and Jr. There was a wide spread of wealth, power and position in this
volunteer militia organization. Joseph Doddridge was right on the point that
some of the best men ?meaning land rich and politically powerful- in the area
went along on this expedition. There was direct connection of some of these men
to the officers at
The most powerful people in the Chartiers and Cross Creek area had to know this army was
being organized. There was direct connection to Colonel James Marshel- the
Home Locality of the men;
men of the Fourth Battalion of Washington County Militia on these lists were
scattered all over Washington County as well as East of the rivers in
Westmoreland County and west into the panhandle of (West) Virginia ? and a few
were even living illegally beyond the Ohio River in Indian country. Some
clearly lived out of
those located in
In the 1781 list the
second largest number were from
no township went unrepresented among the men we could find there were zeros in
both years in a couple of townships. In 1781 the townships with zero were
The fact that these men were scattered all over the area raises a question as to whether the Fourth Battalion was a group of volunteers who assembled hastily as Doddridge has said, or a pre-organized organization. The fact that some had been officers in both the militia and the Continental Line and traveled as Privates on this expedition makes that question even more poignant. It is also clear that some men joined this expedition without being on militia duty and without military rank. It seems that some were just passing through or showed up just for the expedition after some years of fighting in the East. Some joined for the goal whatever it was. Others went along specifically because of their families or friends having been killed. Robert Wallace is the most obvious example of that. This was not just a minimal response of reluctant men but a major volunteer response of everyone who heard of it and wanted to go. It was all out major war.
fact that two of the county sub- lieutenants, Daniel Leet and Matthew Ritchie, went along as privates; and Jacob Miller usually a major in
Furthermore, more than twenty of these men had
seen war service in the Continental Lines of several states, particularly
We have shown that in some few instances where these men lived long enough to make applications for pensions under the laws of 1818 and 1832 only one could be found who mentioned specifically his involvement in this expedition which he called a ?skirmish? (William Baxter). After searching fifty pension applications of likely participants William Baxter is unique in this respect. His pension application was mentioned by Lyman Draper who noted Baxter?s candor. That suggests that the participants were either ashamed of it, wanted to forget it, or didn?t want that service known or used as qualification for a pension.
The army that left by tacit approval
the subsequent action of Colonel Gibson in temporary command of the Fort; and
known to be sympathetic to the Indians it is evident that this army was able to
get away quietly and unknown to him. This could only be done with the
cooperation and approval of the many people of the area who did not go along.
Some of this can be deduced by looking at the number of men who came from the
river townships. In 1782 the townships which bordered on the Ohio River NW of
An All Volunteer Army
It is only on the alleged statement of Joseph Vance who was on this expedition, the operator of Vance?s Fort, made years later that this raid was planned in advance at his place. There is no corroborating evidence on that from someone who was there. Maybe, it was planned to take place as early as the river ice went out. That may account for the composition of the companies. It is clear that these men were volunteers who gathered in a hurry after the first Indian raids of the early spring. The men likely started around Chartiers. The volunteer nature of this militia army is even reported by John Struthers, a man who was in the area and declined to go along. William Baxter, a participant, also says it was a volunteer operation.
The instigators of this expedition knew that
if they moved fast while General Irvine was out of communication they could get
away before the Fort knew about it. The leaders knew that General Irvine had
turned the fort over to Colonel Gibson on January 15,
and left for his home in
army did get away unbeknownst to Colonel John Gibson in temporary command of
It is clear that this tragic event was hidden from public scrutiny by its perpetrators almost completely except for word of mouth. It is likely that the most volatile and brutal among them threatened the others to remain silent. It is also possible that shame and guilt served to keep men silent, and that having men of high military and social status participating in the killing intimidated many. There is a pattern even into old age that some forgot to mention their involvement even in pension applications where a service record was required.
This research clearly shows that this
volunteer army included men of all stations in life including men of property
and position who were willing to go along as privates to get the job done
(whatever it was intended to be). The task was enough of a priority as far as
they were concerned that rank and position did not matter for this hastily
organized expedition. That is the Fourth Battalion,
It is also clear that this expedition afterwards did not give peace of mind or a sense of security to some of the men and their families in the area. Thomas Montgomery (TLM) has printed several petitions or informational bulletins of prominent men who lived around Well?s Fort and mill issued just after this tragic event. Forty six men signed these petitions eight of whom had been on this expedition namely; Henry Nelson, Walter Hill, Morris West, Thomas Shannon, John Carpenter, Aaron Sackett, Henry Graham and Joseph Vance. They wanted a few soldiers to guard the mill claiming it not only supplied them with flour for bread, but also supplied flour for the militia. They felt that the soldiers guarding the river were not enough to protect the mill. They obviously didn?t have a sense of security even after the killing of the Moravians.
ought to be some final word on the infamy of these murders however gratuitous
that might be 200 years later. It was suggested by other men who were in the
area at the time that these men were cowards trying to avoid further service in
the army being raised by General George Rogers Clark. A well known old fighter
of the French and Indian War and the Revolution published in 1812 that ?this
was an act of barbarity equal to anything I ever knew to be committed by the
savages themselves, excepting the burning of prisoners.
Captain Henry Jolly late in life estimated that they were cowards for what they
Those are interesting viewpoints for men who were themselves frontiersman of
that time and place. General William Irvine was circumspect to openly express
his judgement of these acts of murder, but the General does call it a
?barbarity? in his letter of
There is evidence that it was an act of
desperation. Native American opinion of the time is difficult to find, but
contemporary Native American opinion would call this genocide. This has been
represented to me by Dr. Barbara Alice Mann of the
 Louise Martin Mohler, The Massacre at Gnadenhutten, 1782, (Washington: Washington County Historical Society , 1986) mimeographed, 8 pages.
 J. D. Schopf, Travels in the United States: (
Doddridge, Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars (Clarksburg W. Va, 1824); ( reprint.
 Doddridge 188.
Craig, letter to Boyd Crumrine,
 Consul W. Butterfield, Washington-Irvine Correspondence, (
 W.H.Egle, editor; Pennsylania Archives, (Harrisburg: Myers, 1888) 2S:14:753-754.
 Thomas L. Montgomery, editor; Pennsylvania Archives (Harrisburg: Ray, 1906), 6S:2:257-258.
 William Farrar, ?The Moravian Massacre,?
 Mohler 3-6.
 Butterfield, Correspondence Appendix J, 277-320.
 Butterfield, 281-282.
 Paul W. Myers, Washington Co. Pa Frontier Rangers 1781-1782, (Apollo: Closson, 1987).
 Consul. W. .Butterfield, Historical Account of the Expedition Against Sandusky, ( Cincinnati: Clark, 1873) 24.
 Raymond M. Bell, letter to the author,
M. Bell, ?Dates of Settlement from
National Genealogical Society Quarterly, 45(11957)132-136.
Bell, ?Virginia Land Grants in
Bell, ?Settlement Dates, Washington Co.,
Egle, editor Pennsylvania Archives
(Harrisburg: Ray, 1897)3S:26:531-624. Jonathan Steyer
of the Commonwealth Land Office, Pennsylvania State Archives,
C. Williston, ?Desperation on the
 ? Selected Records from Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Application Files,? (microfilm) (Washington: National Archives and Records Service, 1969), roll 40.
There are almost 900 rolls of microfilm in this series all alphabetical, and only occasionally page numbers can be seen.
 Selected Records, roll 64.
 Isaac Craig.
 Allen W. Eckert, The Frontiersman (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967) 251.
Wilkins of Wapatomica Productions, Sierra Madre Ca
makes this allegation. Mr. Wilkins was asked for the evidence, and suggested in
a letter to the author
 Isaac Craig.
 Williston 9 .
 Recollections, 85.
 Jared C. Lobdell, Recollections of
Lewis Bonnet Jr., (Bowie: Heritage, 1991)85 [from the Draper MSS at the
 Jared C. Lobdell, ?Further Materials on Lewis Wetzel? (Bowie: Heritage, 1994) 92 [from the Lyman Draper MSS].
 Egle, 1897, 406.
 Charles McKnight, Our Western Border (Phildelphia: McCurdy, 1876) 403-417.
 Selected Records, roll 213.
 Boyd Crumrine, History of
 W.T.R. Saffell, Records of the Revolutionary War (Baltimore: C.C.Saffell, 1894) 280-284, and
(Bowie:Heritage, 1999) reprint.
 Selected Records roll 328, pp431-435.
 Selected Records roll 328.
Simpson, History of the Cross Creek Graveyard and the
 James Simpson 60.
 Selected Records, roll 419, pages 46-50.
 Isaac Craig
 Forrest, 137 and Farrar, 295.
 Selected Records, roll 473.
 Kate Rowland The Life of George Mason (New York: Putnam, 1892) I:214. In this letter George Mason refers to a Mr. Leet as one of two surveyors of the 200,000 acres men of the Ohio Company hoped to secure for themselves in a business venture.
 Saffel, 392.
 Isaac Craig
 Boyd Crumrine 481, 703, 863, 984.
 Selected Records, roll 554.
 Alvin D. White, History of the Cross Creek Presbyterian Church (Parsons: McClain, 1969) 19.
 Boyd Crumrine, 226.
 Forrest, 138 and Farrar, 295.
 Selected Records, roll 556, pp 767-770.
 Selected Records, roll 558
Fitzpatrick, Diaries of
 Selected Records, roll 566.
 Lobdell, Further Materials 6, Crumrine 111 and Louise Mohler, Personal Lineage.
 Fitzpatrick 295.
 James Simpson 68.
 Saffell 282.
H. Smith, Early Day Settlers on Dutch Fork typewritten manuscript, 1948:
 J.C.Lobdell, Indian Warfare in Western Pennsylvania and NorthWest Virginia at the Time of the American Revolution (Bowie: Heritage, 1992) 75 ].[from the memoirs of Captain Henry Jolly given to Lyman Draper 1838].
 Richardson 95.
Walker, letter to the author, from Blue Mound,
 Saffell 282.
 Fitzpatrick 2:296.
 Selected Records, roll 680.
 Fitzpatrick 2:296.
 Dwight R. Guthrie, John McMillan (Pittsburgh: U.P. Press, 1952) 53,87,141,172,173 and
Richard H. Kohn, Eagle and Sword (New York: MacMillan, 1975) 165.
 Richard H. Kohn Eagle and Sword (New York: Macmillan, 1975) 165.
 Crumrine, 207.
W. Butterfield, Historical Account of the Expedition Against
 Selected Records, roll 768.
 James Simpson 77.
Reported by E.Irene Taylor,
 Farrar 296.
 Simpson 81.
 Egle, 1897,520
 Lobdell, Further Materials 92.
 Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts, The Draper Manuscript Collection (Chicago: Regenstein Library, 1980)
Roll 11: Vol 4, page 21.
 Burkham quotes Colonel Williamson to Draper in Lobdell: Further Materials ,92. This is important as this is the only report of this remark by Colonel David Williamson, and probably cannot be corroborated.
 Selected Records, roll 40.
 Simpson 62.
 Selected Records, roll 879.
 Lobdell, Further Materials 92.
 Eckert The Frontiersman 246-252.
 Allen W. Eckert That Dark And Bloody River (New York: Bantam, 1996) 312-322.
 S. T.
Wiley ?The Scotch Irish in
 Gregory Knouff ?Soldiers and Violence on
 A name given by Jean S. Morris.
 John C. Dann, The Revolution Remembered (Chicago: U of C Press, 1980) 256.
 Colonel James Smith, The Mode and Manner of Indian War (Paris, Ky: 1812) 46.
 Lobdell, Recollections 26, 77
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