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U.S. ARMY VETERINARY MEDICINES AND THEIR USE 1902-1943


This page belongs to greg krenzelok.


U.S. ARMY VETERINARY MEDICINES AND THEIR USE 1902-1943


"Medicines - In treating animals it should be borne in mind that few medicines of themselves do the curing. Nature does it. Man helps by giving food which is easily digested, by giving extra care to the sick, and by guarding, as it were, against the attack of any enemies in the shape of germs which are ready to seize the weak or wounded".

Source: Manual for Farriers, Horseshoers, Saddlers and Wagoners or Teamsters 1914, (Revised January 15, 1917)


Note: The manuals and books used on this website are not the full contents, but only the information pertaining to the subject of veterinary medicine and their uses has been used. I have added notes on the care of animals and other useful information in some cases.
Greg Krenzelok, Director
U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group.



U.S. Army veterinarian operating on a wounded horse. Remount Depot No. 31, Lux, France, WW1. Note: Veterinary medicines at the right of the image.


U.S. VETERINARY HOSPITAL SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LIST BROUGHT TO FRANCE WW1
Note: List of the typical equipment that a U.S. Veterinary Hospital brought over from the United States to France during WW1. In this particular case U.S. Veterinary Hospital No. 7.

1000 – Bandages, muslin.
1070 – Blankets, horse.
8 – Brooms, house, corn.
40 – Brooms, stable.
500 – Brushes, leatherback.
475 – Brushes, wooden back.
8 doz. – Brushes, scrubbing, 1 case of 8 cartons.
50 – Buckets, water, canvas.
100 – Buckets, water, G.I.
86 – Buckets, fire.
25 – Brushes, whitewash.
5 sets – Blacksmith.
1 – Bag, Lister.
200 – Canvas, yards 27 inches wide.
6 – Chests, Veterinary Hospital.
12 – Chests, Veterinary Field Unit.
4 – Chests, Officers’ small.
1 – Chest, tool, No. 2.
12 – Clipping machines.
40 sets – Clipper blades.
16 – Clipper cutting head.
500 – Curry Combs.
920 – Nose feed bags, commercial.
7 – Forges, portable.
5 – Grease, lube, pounds.
1325 – Halters.
38 – Handles, broom.
250 – Halter straps, leather.
2 – Jacks, wagon.
5 kits – Veterinary Officers’.
15 kits – Farrier.
5 – Leather, sides, dressed.
1- Leather, sides, rawhide.
16 – Lanterns.
5 cartons – Lantern, globes
0 – Nails, horseshoe Nos. 4 and 5.
15 lbs – Nails, wire, 10d.
15 lbs – Nails, wire, 20d.
3 sets – Saddler tools.
3325 – Tie ropes.
48 – Thread, shoe, 3HB, balls.
11 - Wax – saddlers.
17 – Wheelbarrow frames.
6 – Wheelbarrow boxes.
6 – Lash pole.
8 – Axes, pole.
5 – Axes, fire.
5 – Wagon hardware 1 case.
8 – Pick axes.
4 – Post hole augers.
37 – Shovels, scoop, No. 4.
19 – Shovels.
7 – Riding equipment, complete.
2 – Disinfectors, barrel, spraying.
6 - Disinfectors, spraying, hand.
10 – Mauls, sledge.
44 – Forks, manure, s.h.
23 – Forks, manure, l.h.
16 – Rakes, iron, garden.
5 – Blacksmith anvils.
3 – Ranges, field, cooking.
2 – Paulins.
16 – Towels, huck, doz.
6 – Gowns, operating.
3 – Nozzles for hose, garden.
5 – Wire cutters.
6 – Couplings, hose, garden.
6 – Hose, garden, lengths.
2 – Clippers, horse, hand, doz.
15 lbs - Candles



MANUAL FOR THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS 1916

VETERINARY SUPPLY TABLE
Page 438-440

2714. The proceedings of the board of officers convened at Fort Riley, Kans., for the purpose veterinary supply table, as published in General Orders, No. 20, War Department, February 26, 1902 having been submitted to the Secretary of War, he directs that the following instructions and supply table be adopted and published for the information and guidance of all concerned:

Note: Army Appropriation Bill, 1916 (Approved)
General Order No. 115,
War Department, Washington, August 28, 1911
List of Veterinary Medicines and Equipment:

The proceedings of the board of officers convened at Fort Riley, Kans., by paragraph 2, Special Orders, No. 251, headquarters, Department of the Missouri, November 23, 1907, as supplemented by paragraph 1, Special Orders, No. 201, headquarters, Department of the Missouri, September 28, 1910, and by paragraph 2, Special Orders, No. 6, War Department, January 9, 1911, for the purpose of revising the veterinary supply table, as published in General Orders, No. 20, War Department, February 26, 1902, having been submitted to the Secretary of War, he directs that the following instructions and veterinary supply table be adopted and published for the information and guidance of all concerned:

1. In accordance with the recommendations of the board, the money allowance for the purchase of veterinary supplies is fixed at not to exceed the following:
(a) Twenty-five cents for each animal a quarter for all posts and stations within the continental limits of the United States.
(b) Thirty cents for each animal a quarter for all posts and stations in tropical climates outside the United States.

2. The money allowance thus fixed for each animal a quarter will include such drugs and dressings not specified in the list of veterinary medicines and dressings enumerated herein, as may be required In special cases at posts where veterinarians of Cavalry, Field Artillery, or of the Quartermaster Corps are stationed.

3. A supply of the veterinary medicines, dressings, and equipment, listed herein, just sufficient for the needs of a command, is much more desirable than an accumulation of a large stock, likely to deteriorate by age. Requisitions should, therefore, be prepared with great care, and only such quantities of drugs and dressings asked for as may be required for a safe working stock within the money value fixed. Issues should be controlled by the actual necessities of each command. Hypodermic tablets will be issued only for use of veterinarians.

4. In the preparation of the regular quarterly estimates the quartermaster and veterinarian will be governed, in the money allowance, by the total number of animals entitled to veterinary treatment, and the current price list of drugs and dressings in the supply table, furnished by the Quartermaster Corps, it being understood that the money allowance for each animal a quarter is to cover all veterinary supplies, special drugs, and dressings that are called for.

5. The veterinary instruments and dispensary equipment for veterinary hospitals will be issued on memorandum receipts to veterinary hospitals or to veterinarians of Cavalry, Field Artillery, or the Quartermaster Corps who are stationed at posts and remount stations having no veterinary hospitals, but having sufficient facilities for the proper care of such instruments and equipment. At the smaller posts use will be made of the field equipment of veterinary instruments in the hands of troops of Cavalry and batteries of Field Artillery. In case of epidemic or any emergency arising at posts where no veterinarian is present, instruments and supplies from neighboring posts will be utilized by veterinarians detailed for temporary duty where the emergency exists, in order to avoid the accumulation of expensive instruments and supplies at small posts. At posts not provided with veterinarians, estimates for veterinary supplies will be confined to such articles as may be safely entrusted to nonprofessional hands.

6. The veterinary supplies listed herein will be supplied by the Quartermaster Corps. Designated depots of supply will not carry a large stock of veterinary medicines, but such quantities will be contracted for, for delivery at such time and at such places as may be directed by the depot quartermaster.

7. Veterinary medicines and dressings:

(a) Medicines:
Acetanilid
Acid, arsenious
Acid, boracic
Acid, carbolic
Acid, salicylic
Acid, tannic
Alcohol
Aloes, Barbados
Alum
Ammonia, aromatic spirits, in glass stoppered bottles.
Aqua ammonia, solution of, in glass stoppered bottles.

Belladonna, fluid extract of

Camphor, gum
Cannabis Americana, fluid extract of
Cantharides, powdered
Charcoal
Chloride of ammonia, granulated, glass-stoppered bottles.
Chloroform
Creolin
Chloro Naptholeum or Kreso
Collodion
Cosmoline

Digitalis, fluid extract of

Ether, nitrous spirits, in glass-stoppered bottles.
Ether, sulphuric

Flaxseed meal (hermetically use in Tropics).
Formalin, for use in Tropics.

Gentian, powdered
Gentian, fluid extract of
Ginger
Glycerine

Iodine crystals
Iodoform
Iron, sulphate of, desiccated
Iron, tincture, chloride of

Lead, acetate of
Lime, chloride United States only.
Liquor cresoles
Lunar caustic

Mercury, bichloride of (corrosive sublimate), in tablets.
Mercury, biniodide
Mercury, mild, chloride of (calomel)

Nux vomica, fluid extract of
Nux vomica, powdered

Oil, linseed (raw)
Oil, olive
Oil, turpentine
Opium, tincture of

Potassium, arsenate Potassium, arsenate, tablets, for making Fowler's solution.
Potassium, bromide
Potassium, iodide
Potassium, nitrate
Potassium, permanganate

Quinine, sulphate of

Sodium, bicarbonate
Sulphur

Tar, pine

Witch-hazel, distilled

Zinc, sulphate of
Zinc, oxide of

(6) Hypodermic tablets. - To be in hermetically sealed tubes with five tablets in each tube and tubes to be of uniform small size:
- Arecoline, hydrobromide, in J-grain tablets.
- Atropine, sulphate, in J-grain tablets.
- Cocaine, muriate of, in 44-grain tablets.
- Eserine, sulphate, in 1-grain tablets.
- Morphine, sulphate, in 2-grain tablets.
- Pilocarpine, muriate, in 1-grain tablets.
- Strychnine, sulphate, in J-grain tablets.

(c) Dressings:
- Absorbent cotton (surgical), ½ pound packages.
- Antiseptic gauze, carbolated, carton packages (5-yard packages).

(d) Bandages:
- Flannel, red, heavy, 4 to 4J inches wide, 4 to 5 yards long.
- Flannel, unstained, 4 inches wide, 4 yards long, heavy.
- Cotton, white, 4 inches wide, 4 yards long.
- Oakum, 1-pound packages.
- Rubber tubing, \ inch inside diameter.
- Silk for ligatures, ordinary size (braided).
- Silk for ligatures, heavy size (braided).
- Soap, castile.
- Sponges, surgeon's only, extra heavy.

8. Instruments and dispensary equipment for veterinary hospitals:
- Balling gun
- Bone chisel, medium
- Bone chisel, small
- Bone gouge, heavy
- Case, dental
- Case, eye operating
- Case, hypodermic, with slip needles
- Case, intravenous, same as above
- Case, post-mortem, in canvas roll
- Case, surgical
- Casting harness, with side ropes
- Catheter, male, with stylet
- Chloroform dropper
- Ecraseur
- Floats, dental, angular and straight, with handle
- Forceps, artery
- Forceps, ball
- Forceps, bone
- Forceps, dressing, with catch, straight and long
- Forceps, uterine, curved and long
- Forceps, wolf tooth
- Hone, oil
- Hoof tester
- Hoof knife, three detachable blades, in leather roll
- Mallet, rawhide, large
- Needle holder
- Neurectomy hook
- Operating hood
- Ophthalmoscope
- Powder blower
- Razor
- Rectal injection pump, in canvas roll
- Reflector, with head band, 4-inch
- Retractors
- Rubber gloves
- Scissors, 6-inch, heavy, curved
- Shears, heavy, office, 12-inch
- Slings, suspending, complete
- Speculum, bilateral, mouth
- Speculum, eye
- Stomach tube, with stylet
- Syringe, 2-ounce, hard metal
- Syringe, 1 -ounce, hard rubber
- Tourniquet
- Tracheotomy tube
- Trephine
- Trocar and canula, horse

9. Expendable articles:
- Medicine droppers
- Needles, suture, curved and half curved assorted sizes.
- Thermometer, clinical
- Extra blades for dental floats

10. Dispensary equipment:
- Basins, granite, 1-quart, flat bottom
- Basins, granite, 2-quart, flat bottom
- Bandage roller
- Funnel, small size, enamel ware - Funnel, medium size, enamel ware
- Graduate glass, 10 c. c.
- Graduate glass, 2-ounce
- Graduate glass, 8-ounce
- Labels, gum
- Mortar and pestle, wedgewood, 3 ¾ inches inside diameter.
- Pill tile, 12 inches by 12 inches
- Scales and weights
- Scales, prescription
- Spatula

11. The veterinarian's field equipment:
(a) Veterinarians' field chests - Each set to consist of 5 boxes, 1 set to be supplied to each veterinarian of Cavalry and Field Artillery. Of the 2 large chests of the side packs one will be supplied with 10 empty bottles, 14 or 16 ounces, height not to exceed 7 ½ inches; the other containing 18 empty round jars with screw tops, 3 ¾ inches high by 2 ¾ inches in diameter. These 2 chests with the other 3 chests (to be supplied empty) to contain the veterinarian's field supplies.

(b) Instruments and appliances for field chest:
- 1 casting harness
- 1 catheter
- 1 clipper, hand
- 1 drenching bottle, rubber
- 1 float, tooth, straight and angular
- 1 graduate glass
- 1 hoof knife set, in roll
- 1 stomach tube, with stylet
- 1 syringe, metal, 2-ounce
- 1 tray, enameled, 10-inch

(c) Veterinarian's saddle bag, to contain the following:
- 1 hypodermic syringe
- 1 hypodermic case
- 1 tray, tin (to be filled with sponge or gauze, when packed)

1 case, surgical, small, vest pocket size, to contain the following:
- 1 scalpel
- 1 bistoury, probe pointed
- 1 bistoury, sharp pointed
- 1 tenaculum
- 1 probe, silver, jointed, 2 sections
- 1 director, grooved
- 2 forceps, artery, with catch
- 6 needles, suture, curved and half curved, assorted sizes.
- 1 scissors curved or flat

(d) The above pack outfit complete with the veterinary field chests, veterinary saddle bags, and veterinary instruments and appliances, pertaining to both, is designated as "The Veterinarian's Field Equipment" and will be considered and carried on returns as regimental property.

12. Field equipment for farriers and emergency equipment for horseshoers:
(a) Farrier's field equipment:
- 1 basin, granite, 1-quart
- 4 bottles, pint: 1 for colic drench, 1 for restorative in heat exhaustion, 1 for antiseptic wash, and 1 with detachable rubber drenching bottle.
- 1 farrier's instrument pocket strong canvas cover, folding.
- 1 graduate glass, 2-ounce
- 1 syringe, metal, 4-ounce
- (Stiff metal handles on all instruments in all pocket cases.)

(b) Horseshoer's emergency equipment:
- 1 shoeing hammer
- 1 pincers
- 1 hoof knife
- 1 jointed horseshoe, No. 2
- 1 rasp
- Horseshoe nails
- ¼ pound oakum
- 1- 4-ounce bottle creolin or kreso
(Q. 0. 115, W. D., 1915)

13. Standard veterinary textbooks:
One set as library of reference to each post veterinary hospital and to veterinarians of Cavalry, Artillery, and the Quartermaster Corps at posts where no veterinary hospital exists.
- United States Dispensatory
- Anatomy, Sisson
- Manual of Veterinary Physiology
- Manual of Veterinary Hygiene
- Veterinary Materia Medica, Winslow
- Pathology, Moore
- Veterinary Medicine, 5 volumes, Law
- Surgery, Moellers
- Exterior of the Horse, Goubeaux and Barrier.
- Epizootic Lymphangitis, Pallin
- Pathology, Kinsley
- Bacteriology, Abbott
- Meat Inspection
- Feeds and Feed, Henry
- The Army Horse in Accident and Disease.
- The Army Horseshoer
- Journal, American Veterinary Review
- Special Pathology and Therapeutics, of the Diseases of Domestic Animals, Hutyra and Marek, 2 volumes, authorized American edition, Chicago, 1912-13.
- Journal of Tropical Veterinary Science

(G. O. 115, W. D., 1911; Bull. 9, W. D., 1913, and G. O. 23, W. D., 1915.)

3066. The veterinarian will instruct company horseshoers and company farriers in the proper care of the horse. In this he will give especial importance to the anatomy and pathology of the foot, showing the nature and uses of all its parts, illustrating the subject by dissections and specimens. He will also teach the principles and practice of horseshoeing. For the purpose indicated he will make such visits of instruction to companies of the regiment not at his station as may be deemed necessary by the regimental commander. (A. R. 91, 1913.)
3067. Public animals that die of sickness, or that it is necessary to kill because of contagious disease, or when incurably wounded, will be dropped by the accountable officer upon the certificate of the responsible officer and affidavit of the veterinarian, or, in the absence of the latter, the certificate of a disinterested officer and the affidavit of a disinterested person, approved by the commanding officer. In such case the action of a surveying officer is not required, unless it appears that the condition of the animal resulted from fault or neglect; and in such caso the investigation by the surveying officer may follow the killing of the animal when its immediate destruction is made necessary to prevent contagion or to terminate suffering.
(A. R. 1073, 1913)

3069. Serious disease is best avoided by immediate and constant attention to minor ailments, galls, etc. Sore backs usually result from improperly adjusted saddles, or because the men, who ride the animals, do not sit squarely in their saddles; and galled shoulders are generally due to improperly adjusted or dirty collars. The shoulders and nocks of teams, especially the wheel pairs, should be inspected at each halt and animals showing signs of galling should at once be shifted in the team or with the mule of an individually mounted man. A short collar chokes a mule by pressing on the windpipe; a narrow one pinches and rubs the neck; a broad one works about and galls the shoulders; the collar, when adjusted, should freely admit the thickness of the hand between the lower part and the throat, and the fingers between the sides and the neck.

3070. The normal temperature of horses and mules, taken by means of the clinical thermometer furnished with farrier's case, ranges from 99° to 100° F. The temperature should be taken in the rectum, and should be taken at once if animal refuses feed or looks sick. When the temperature runs to 103° or over—presuming that it is taken while the animal is free from the exertion and excitement of work or exercise—he is sick and unfit for work.

3072. On the march when animals are well fed, watered, groomed, shod, and not overworked they are less subject to ailments than when comparatively idle in camp. The following list of veterinary supplies will be found ample for 100 animals for a period of 10 days on the march under ordinary conditions of service.

Veterinary supplies 10 day march:
- 1 farrier's case
- 1 twitch
- 1 leg strap
- 1 hoof knife
- 1 syringe (4 ounces)
- 1 granite basin (1 quart)
- 1 bottle, drenching (leather covered).
- 1 bottle, empty (1 pint) for measuring 1 ounce copper sulphate (powdered). and mixing.
- 1 bottle, empty (4 ounces) for measuring
- 12 corks
- 4 bandages, flannel
- 4 bandages, cotton
- 1 package, gauze
- ½ pound oakum
- 1 pound cotton, antiseptic
- 1/2 pound soap, castile
- 4 ounces creolin
- 4 ounces tincture of solution of iodine
- 1/8 ounce bichloride of mercury tablets
- 8 ounces ammonia liniment
- 4 ounces cosmoline
- 1 ounce copper sulphate (powdered)
- 1 ounce boracic acid
- 16 ounces ammonia, aromatic spirits of
- 2 cathartic balls
- 8 ounces colic mixture
- 4 ounces mythaline violet solution (2 drams of the violet to 1 pint of alcohol)

Note: Approximate weight, 9 1/2 pounds. All liquids should be carried in 4-ounce bottles plainly labeled and securely corked.

Use of above veterinary supplies:
- Twitch - This is used for control.
- Leg strap - A stirrup strap makes a good leg strap. It is used to secure the forelegs of restive animals while being dressed.
- Creolin, solution of - One ounce of measured creolin to 1 quart of water is a good disinfectant for wounds after they have been thoroughly cleansed.
- Bichloride of mercury tablets - One tablet to 1 quart of water makes an excellent disinfectant and antiseptic for well-cleansed wounds.
- Iodine solution or tincture (1 ounce iodine to 1 pint of alcohol) - This is an excellent application for small wounds, abrasions, and galls. It should be applied by means of a swab of cotton attached to a short piece of wood.
- Copper sulphate, powdered - This is used to cut down overgrowth of "proud flesh" (granulations). It should be dusted on sparingly and its use should not be abused.
- Boracic acid - Add about a teaspoonful to a pint of clean water and use it as an antiseptic for wounds of eye and vicinity.

Note: Never use any disinfectant but boracic acid solution on or near the eye. The others are irritating and will cause inflammation of the eye.

- Ointment - A good ointment may be made by adding a little creolin to a small quantity of cosmoline and mixing them thoroughly.
- Liniment.—Turpentine, 1 ounce; olive oil, 3 ounces; strong ammonia, 2 ounces. Mix and shake well. A liniment of this character is used with effect on sprains where there is not much inflammation. Do not bandage over it, as it will cause blistering.
- Colic mixture - Cannabis Indica, 4 ounces; water, 2 ounces; alcohol, 2 ounces. Mix. Dose is 1 measured ounce given as a drench in 1 pint of water. It may be repeated in half an hour if necessary.
- Ammonia, aromatic spirits of - Used as a stimulant and in cases of colic in doses of from 2 to 3 measured ounces, and then given as a drench mixed with at least 1 pint of water.
- Mythaline violet solution.—An effective disinfectant, astringent, stimulant and stain for galls. Apply by means of a small cotton swab. Two drams of the violet to 1 pint of alcohol.

3073. Ailments encountered on the march:
- Collar and saddle galls.
- Contused and lacerated wounds.
- Sprains.
- Nail pricks.
- Corns.
- Inflammation and injuries of the eye.
- Rope burns.
- Tender and inflamed withers.
- Scratches.
- Colic.
- Bruised sole.

Causes of ailments encountered on the march:

3074. Galls are the result of improperly fitting collars, dirty and stiff blankets, and neglect of intelligent adjustment.

Collar galls are usually due to friction, saddle galls to pressure. Keep collars clean and well fitted. Keep saddle blankets dry, clean, and soft. On arriving in camp let saddle remain on back until the interrupted circulation of the skin underneath has regained its tone. When saddle is removed, after half an hour has elapsed, dry the skin, if damp, or turn a dry, clean fold of blanket to skin and hold it on for about 10 minutes by means of the surcingle. If swellings arise massage thoroughly and wash with cold water. If necessary use a cold-water pack made by soaking a folded gunny sack in water.

Do not wash galls—clean them off with a piece of cotton and then apply a little mythaline violet or iodine tincture. Lacerated wounds are usually caused by barbed wire—trim off ragged edges with scissors, cleanse thoroughly, suture (stitch) if practicable, and apply a disinfectant. Dress with oakum or gauze and bandage if necessary. Dress wound daily.

Contused wounds are the result of kicks. The skin is seldom injured but a swelling containing a fluid soon appears. This swelling, if not in the vicinity of a joint, should be opened and its contents, a thin blood stained fluid, evacuated. Do not wash it out. Clean the parts on the outside and apply a little tincture of iodine to wound made by the instrument. As an after treatment press on the swelling daily so as to keep it empty.

Nail pricks - Remove nail, dish the horn surrounding puncture and apply a strong solution of bichloride to the wound, keep dirt out by packing the sole with oakum, covering with a piece of leather and replacing the shoe. If wound is not thoroughly disinfected "lockjaw" may be the result.

Sprains - An effective treatment for sprains is the application of loosely applied water-soaked bandages, which should be kept wet. If the sprain is where a bandage cannot be applied use liniment, which should be well rubbed in. When a lame animal has to march and a bandage can be readily applied use a dry one with slight pressure to act as a support.

Corns.—Have the shoer relieve the pressure.

Inflammation of eye - Remove the cause, cleanse with clean water, apply boracic solution, and protect the organ from the light by means of a hood which may be made from a piece of gram sack and secured to head under halter.

Rope burns - Do not wash unless soiled. Clean with a piece of cotton; apply iodine tincture, mythaline violet, or creolin ointment. Bacon grease has been found to be a good application for this injury.

Tender or inflamed withers - Use cold packs of soaked grain sacks and keep pressure of equipment off the region.

Scratches - Treat with tincture of iodine or mythaline violet. Do not wash unless soiled.

Colic - Use 1 ounce of the colic mixture in a pint of water and repeat in half an hour if necessary.

Bruised sole - Pack with oakum, cover with leather, and replace shoe.

Cathartic balls - Do not give a carthartic ball on the march unless absolutely necessary. Its action may be difficult to stop.

3075. Experience having proved that mallein has merely a diagnostic value and that it is useful principally as an aid in the detection of glanders, administration of mallein will hereafter be limited to horses and mules of the Army, and to private horses of officers, that have come in contact with animals that are known to have or are suspected of having glanders, to newly purchased horses and mules, and to horses and mules coming into or going out of the country.

As mallein is provided gratis by the Department of Agriculture for the animals of the Army, requisition (Q. M. C. Form 160) is not necessary, but inasmuch as its merits are guaranteed only for a period of six weeks the time when it is proposed to administer the mallein should always be stated when calling for a supply. Application for a supply of mallein should be made by letter to the Quartermaster General. (Cir. 74, W. D., 1909.)

3076. In garrison, doses must be accurately measured by scales or graduates, according to the tables of dry or liquid measure, but in the field the following rough expedients may be used:

DRY MEASURE
- An ordnance spoon (heaping full) - 1 ounce of lead ace.tate.
- An ordnance spoon (heaping full) - 1 ounce of zinc sulphate.
- An ordnance spoon (heaping full - 2 drams of a powder.
- An ordnance spoon (heaping full - 1 ounce of a salt.

Ordnance tincup – 7/8 of a quart.

Full day's ration of medium-weight oats – 14 cups

LIQUID MEASURE
- One drop - 1 minim.
- One teaspoonful - 1 fluid dram.
- One tablespoonful – ½ fluid ounce.
- Tincup - 28 ounces (1 of a quart).

END


RARE WW1 U.S. ARMY VETERINARY FIND DISCOVERED IN FRANCE


On October 2016 I was contacted by a doctor in the Netherlands who collects US Army Medical Department items. Recently he had discovered and purchased a lot of around 40 WW1 U.S. Army new/old stock medicine bottles with the contents still intact. Among these were three U.S. Army veterinary medicine bottles with their contents still intact. One an unopened clear glass bottle around 8 inches tall and two smaller, three inch tall (unopened!) in their protective covers. I was told they were discovered in the town of Clamecy, Nièvre, France. Clamecy is very close to where my grandfather served with U.S. Army Veterinary Hospital No. 18 and the area of several large U.S. Army Medical Hospital Centers that operated during WW1.

This is an extremely rare find and will be an incredible addition to the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group's Collection.

Greg Krenzelok – Director
U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group

Note: U.S. Army Veterinary field chest in above image. Issued to mobile veterinary units during WW1, very rare. Also U.S. Army issue veterinary surgical pocket case, WW1. Some of the instruments still have the original rubber coating on them for protection.


Three U.S. Army veterinary medicine bottles with their contents still intact. One Ammonium Chloride unopened clear glass bottle around 8 inches tall. And two White Lotion Tablets containers, three inch tall.

Ammonia, chloride of - Used in all cases where an expectorant is indicated, such as diseases of the respiratory system. Dose, 1 to 1 drams. For catarrhal diseases it is usually combined with quinine and nitrate of potash, prepared in the following manner:

Ammonia, chloride of, 3 ounces.
Quinine sulphate, 6 drams.
Nitrate of potash, 3 ounces.

Make into twelve powders and give one every three or four hours.

White Lotion:
The lotion is a very valuable remedy for the relief of all external diseases accompanied by heat and swelling; also an excellent dressing for wounds.

The white lotion is made as follows:
Acetate of lead, 1 ounce.
Sulphate of zinc. 1 ounce.
Water, 1 quart.
Shake well and apply several times daily.

Lead acetate of - Astringent and a valuable remedy for relieving local pain. Used externally to cool and relieve sprains. Inflamed tendons and joints, and to relieve itching skin diseases.

Source: The Army Horse in Accident and Disease 1906



THE ARMY HORSE IN ACCIDENT AND DISEASE

A manual: Prepared for the use of students of the training school for farriers and horseshoers. School of application for Cavalry and Field Artillery, Fort Riley, Kansas, 1906.

PREFACE
This manual, as originally compiled by Alexander Plummer, D. V. S. veterinarian, Fourth Cavalry, and Richard H. Power, V. S., veterinarian, Artillery Corps, was published in 1903. In this edition the work has been revised by the compilers, assisted by Charles H. Jewell, D. Y. M., veterinarian. Thirteenth Cavalry, and Capt. Geo. H. Cameron, Fourth Cavalry, secretary. Matter from the companion text-book, "The Army Horseshoer," has been substituted in several places for that of the original. An original chapter on Tropical Diseases, by Veterinarian Jewell, An original chapter on Tropical Diseases, by Veterinarian Jewell, and many illustrations from photographs and drawings, have been added. Captain Cameron, in addition to his work on the revision of the text, made the original drawings and prepared the others for reproduction. His valuable assistance Is here acknowledged. The majority of the photographic work was done by First Lieut. S. B. Pearson, Ninth Cavalry. The arrangement of the text has been adapted to the course of practical instruction, and the language, as far as possible, to study by men who, "as a rule, have had limited educational advantages. School of Application fob Cavalry and Field Artillery, Fort Riley. Kans., December 30, 1905.

ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES—WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Page 48

Medicines may enter the body through any of the following designated channels: First, by the mouth; second, by the lungs and upper air passages; third, by the skin; fourth, under the skin (hypodermically); fifth, by the rectum; and sixth, by intravenous injection.

By the mouth, medicines can be given by the mouth in the form of powders, balls, and drenches.

By the air passages medicines are administered to the lungs and upper air passages by inhalations and nasal douches.

By the skin, care must be taken in applying some medicines over too large a portion of the body at any one time, as poisoning and death may follow from too rapid absorption through the skin. For domestic animals medicines are to be applied to the skin for local purposes or diseases only.

By the rectum, medicines may be given by the rectum when we cannot give or have them retained by the mouth; when we want local action; to destroy the small worms infesting the large bowels; to stimulate the natural movement of the intestine and cause an evacuation; and to nourish the body.

And by intravenous injection.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Solid measure:
60 grains (gr.) = 1 dram
8 drams = 1 ounce
16 ounces = 1 pound (lb)

Liquid measure:
60 minims = 1 fluid dram
8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce
16 fluid ounce = 1 pint
32 ounces = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon

PRESCRIPTIONS
In writing prescriptions roman numerals are used instead Arabic (ordinary figures) and the numerals follow the symbols. Thus: 3 vii for 7 drams; f 3 xii for 12 fluid drams, etc.

FIELD EXPEDIENTS
In garrison, doses must be accurately measured by scales or graduates, according to the tables of dry or liquid measure, but in the field the following rough expedients may be used:

Dry measure:
An Ordnance spoon =:
-1 ounce of lead acetate
- ¾ ounce of zinc Sulphate
- 2 drams of a powder
- 1 ounce of a salt

Ordnance cup = 7/8 of a quart

Full day's ration of medium-weight oats = 14 cups

Liquid measure:
- 1 drop = 1 minim
- 1 teaspoonful = 1 fluid dram
- 1 tablespoonful = ½ fluid ounce
- Tin cup = 28 ounces = 7/8 of a quart

At rest the healthy horse breathes from 13 to 15 times per minute.

The normal temperature of the horse in the internal part which is most easily accessible, the rectum, may be estimated at from 99 degrees to 101 degrees. Very old horses has been known to be as low as 96 degrees.

MEDICINES; THEIR ACTION AND USES
Page 103

- Antiseptics - Remedies which arrest putrefaction. They kill or prevent the development of those bacteria which produce decomposition. Examples: Corros. sub., carbolic acid, creolin.

- Disinfectants - Destroy the specific poisons of communicable diseases by killing or arresting the development of those germs which produce disease. Examples: Lime, sulphur gas, etc.

- Deodorants - Disguise or destroy odors. Examples: Iron sulphate, carbolic acid, etc.

- Rubefacients - Cause redness of the skin. Examples: Alcohol, turpentine, etc.

- Vesicants - Cause a discharge of serum from the skin. Example: Cantharides.

- Stomachies - Promote digestion. Examples: Gentian, ginger, etc.

- Vermicides - Kill worms. Examples: Turpentine, iron sulphate, etc.

- Parasiticides - Destroy parasites. Examples: Carbolic acid, creolin, etc.

- Purgatives - Evacuate the bowels. Examples: Aloes.

- Cholagogues - Promote secretion of bile. Examples: Aloes, calomel.

- Diaphoretics - Increase perspiration. Examples: Ethers. Same action produced mechanically by warm clothing.

- Diuretics - Increase secretion or urine. Examples: Potass, nit. turpentine.

- Tonics - Gradually but permanently improve appetite and increase vigor. Examples: Quinine, iron, gentian, etc.

- Anesthetics - Produce loss of consciousness. Example: Chloroform.

- Styptics - Check hemorrhage. Example: Tincture of iron.

- Caustics - Destroy tissue by burning. Examples: Lunar caustic, copper sulphate, etc.

- Expectorants – Act upon the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs and cause an expulsion of their secretions. Example: Chloride of ammonia. - Stimulants - Promptly but temporarily increase nervous vigor, thus increasing action of the heart and other functions. Examples: Alcohol, ammonia, ether.

- Alteratices - Correct morbid conditions without causing marked physiological effects. Examples: Mercury, iodine, iodide of potassium.

- Astringents - Contract living tissues. Examples: Alum, zinc sulphate, tannic acid.

- Sedatives - Depress (slow) both the nervous and circulatory systems. Examples: Aconite, acetanilid. potas. bromide.

- Anodynes - Relieve pain by diminishing the excitability of nerves and nerve centers. Examples: Opium, belladonna.

- Antispasmodics - Prevent or remove spasmodic contractions of voluntary or involuntary muscles. Examples: Belladonna, sulphuric ether.

- Carminatives - Aid in the expulsion of gas from the intestines by increasing natural movement, stimulating circulation, etc. Examples: Capsicum, ginger, aromatic spts. ammonia, sulphuric ether, etc.

- Febrifuges or antipyretics - Agents which reduce high temperature of the blood; reduce fever. Examples: Acetanilid. cold water.


VETERINARY MEDICINES

Acetanilid - Is a febrifuge and antiseptic. Used internally to lower fever in doses of from 1 to 4 drams. Used externally as an antiseptic in the form of a dry dressing.

Acid, arsenious (arsenic) - Is an irritant, corrosive poison, given internally in doses of from 1 to 6 grains as a digestive tonic, and for skin diseases, usually in combination with iron sulphate and gentian. Externally it is used to remove warts, in the form of an ointment, 1 part of arsenic to 8 or 10 of lard.

Acid. boracie - Action, antiseptic; a saturated solution is very useful in conjunctivitis. With oxide of zinc it makes a nice dressing for abrasions, scratches, etc.

Acid carbolic - A valuable antiseptic and disinfectant. A 1 to 20 solution makes a very good wash for all wounds.
A very good prescription for local use is the following:
- Carbolic acid, 6 drams.
- Glycerin, 1 ½ ounces.
Water to make 1 pint.

Acid, salicylic - A useful antiseptic; a saturated solution of salicylic acid in alcohol is a good dressing for indolent sores and ulcers. Salicylic acid dusted upon a wound will remove the granulations of proud flesh.

Acid, tannic - An astringent and antiseptic. It is given internally in diarrhea and dysentery. Dose, 30 grains to 1dram.
The following prescription may be used:
- Acid, tannic, ½ to 1 dram.
- Opium, powdered, | to 1 dram.
Make into one ball and repeat every two hours until the diarrhea is checked. Tannic acid is an excellent remedy, used in the form of a saturated solution (with witch-hazel water), for hardening tender shoulders.

Aconite – 1s a dangerous poison and should not be used internally, but locally.
Mixed with other drugs it makes a good anodyne liniment:
- Aconite, 2 ounces.
- Alcohol, 5 ounces.
- Opium, tincture, 4 ounces.
- Witch-hazel, distilled, 5 ounces.
Mix, and apply several times daily.

Alcohol - Stimulant. Given for weak heart in debilitating diseases, such as lung troubles, etc. Dose, 2 to 4 ounces in 1 pint of water, and repeated every four to six hours, as required. It is useful in the formation of liniments.

Aloes, Barbados - Is the general purgative for the horse.
Dose 6 to 8 drains.
- Aloes, Barbados. 6 to 8 drams.
- Ginger, 1 dram.
Make into a ball and give upon an empty stomach. The "cathartic capsule," to be supplied, will take the place of aloes. It will contain aloin, strychnine, ginger, and calomel.
A purgative should never be given in diseases of the respiratory system. It generally takes about twenty-four hours to operate.

Alum - Astringent. It is useful as a wash for sore mouths; used in the strength of ½ ounce to 1 quart of water. Externally it is a valuable remedy in the treatment of thrush. Burnt alum is useful for the removal of proud flesh.

Ammonia, aromatic spirits of - Stimulant and carminative. A very useful remedy in the treatment of colics, and exhaustion. Dose, 1 to 3 ounces, well diluted.

Ammonia, solution of - Used externally only, in combination with other drugs, as a stimulating liniment:
- Ammonia, solution of 1 part.
- Turpentine, oil of, 1 part.
- Olive oil, 2 parts.
To be well shaken before using. It is an excellent external application for sore throat.

Ammonia, chloride of - Used in all cases where an expectorant is indicated, such as diseases of the respiratory system. Dose, 1 to 1 drams.
For catarrhal diseases it is usually combined with quinine and nitrate of potash, prepared in the following manner:
- Ammonia, chloride of, 3 ounces.
- Quinine sulphate, 6 drams.
- Nitrate of potash, 3 ounces.
Make into twelve powders and give one every three or four hours.

Belladonna, fluid extract - Antispasmodic and anodyne. Used in cases of colic in conjunction with other medicines. Dose, 1 to 2 drams. When applied to the eyes it dilates the pupil and soothes the irritated membrane. Generally used in combination with sulphate of zinc or boracic-acid solutions.
A very useful wash for the treatment of conjunctivitis is made as follows:
- Sulphate of zinc, 20 grains.
- Belladonna, fluid. ext., 1 dram.
- Water, 3 ½ ounces.
Apply twice a day

Camphor gum - Antispasmodic and antiseptic. Dose, 1 to 2 drams.
A very good remedy for diarrhea is made as follows:
- Camphor, gum, 1 dram.
- Opium, powdered, 1 dram.
Make into a ball; give, and repeat every two hours until relief is afforded.

Externally it is useful for sprains, combined with other medicines, forming what is known as the soap liniment:
- Castile soap, 10 parts.
- Camphor, 5 parts.
- Alcohol, 70 parts.
- Water, 15 parts.

To be used only externally as a mild, stimulating, anodyne liniment.

A useful dressing for wounds is made of:
- gum camphor, 8 ounces.
- carbolic acid, 3 ounces.
This is especially valuable in fly time.

Cannabis indica (Indian hemp) - Antispasmodic and anodyne. Its main use is in colic, as it relieves pain without causing constipation. Dose, 2 to 4 drams.
- Cannabis indica, 2 to 1 drams.
- Ammonia, aromatic spirits, 1 ounce.
- Water, 1 pint.
Give at one dose and repeat in three-quarters of an hour if necessary. This is an excellent remedy for colic.

Cantharides, powdered (Spanish fly) - Used only for its blistering effect. Prepare by rubbing the cantharides and cosmoline together (1 to 5 or 6) with a spatula on a piece of glass.

Capsicum (cayenne pepper) - Stomachic and carminative. Given internally in combination with gentian and ginger in mild cases of indigestion attended with flatulency. Dose, ½ to 1 dram.

Charcoal - A mild antiseptic and deodorant. It is very good mixed with poultices, especially for wounds and sores that have a foul odor. It may be dusted on the surface of foul sores and will soon destroy the odor. Internally it is given in doses of 2 to 4 drams, and is useful in chronic indigestion and diarrhea.

Copper sulphate (blue vitriol, bluestone) - A caustic tonic. vermifuge, and astringent. Used principally as a caustic for thrush and canker. A good remedy for thrush or canker is equal parts of:
- sulphate of copper (powdered)
- sulphate of zinc
- sulphate of iron
"The three sulphates"
This powder can be applied two or three times daily. Used also internally as a tonic in chronic nasal catarrh. Dose, 1 to 2 drams.

Collodion - When painted over wounds it forms an air-tight coating and in small wounds keeps the edges in a fixed position and promotes healing. Especially valuable when applied to punctured wounds of joints.

Chloroform - Antispasmodic, stimulant, and anodyne. Useful in colics. Dose, 1 to 2 drams, well diluted. It may be added to anodyne liniments. When inhaled, it acts as an anesthetic.

Cosmoline - A by-product of petroleum. Used as a base for ointments. It is also valuable to apply upon the skin, when wound secretions are abundant, to prevent dropping out of the hair.

Creolin - A nonpoisonous, nonirritating antiseptic and parasiticide. It is one of the best medicines that we have, not only as a valuable application for all wounds, but to destroy all parasites with which the animal may become infested.
Used in solution or ointment in strength of 1 to 50 or 1 to 20. For mange it is used in a 1 to 10 solution.

Digitalis fluid extract of - A very dangerous poison, and should not be administered internally. A valuable diuretic when applied over the kidneys and well rubbed in.

Ether., nitrous, spirits of (sweet spirits of niter) - Stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic, and diaphoretic. Dose, 1 to 2 ounces. A very useful stimulant in all cases of weakness of the heart action. For its stimulating and antispasmodic actions it is given in colics combined with belladonna or cannabis indica.

Ether, sulphuric - Stimulant, antispasmodic, and carminative. Dose, 1 to 2 ounces well diluted. Combined with belladonna or cannabis indica its antispasmodic action is increased.

Fenugreek - Aromatic and stomachic. Sometimes combined with tonics to disguise their odors. Dose, 1 ounce.

Flaxseed meal - Used for poultices.

Gentian - Stomachic and bitter tonic. It improves the appetite and general tone. Dose, ½ to 1 ounce.

Ginger - Stomachic and carminative. Combined with purgatives it dimishes their tendency to gripe, and also somewhat hastens their action. Dose, ½ to 1 ounce.

Glycerin - Used as a base in the same manner as cosmoline. Useful, combined with equal parts of iodine, in the treatment of grease.

Iodine - Given internally in diabetes insipidus. Dose. 20 grains to 1 dram, to be repeated three times daily until the quantity of urine is lessened. Best given made into a ball with flaxseed meal. Externally it is used for the removal of swellings, curbs," enlarged tendons, etc. It is also a useful stimulant for indolent sores and ulcers.
A good solution for external use is made as follows:
- Iodine. 1 ounce.
- Iodide of potassium, 3 ounces.
- Water, 1 pint.
To be applied several times daily. Tincture of iodine is made of iodine, 1 ounce; alcohol, 1 pint.

Iodoform - Antiseptic. Used externally as a dry dressing, either alone or combined with other drugs, such as boracic acid, acetanilid, etc.

Iron., tincture of the chloride of – A valuable tonic, building up the system and enriching the blood. Useful in purpura and in convalescence after all debilitating diseases. Dose, 1 to 2 ounces, well diluted. Used externally as an astringent and styptic in serious hemorrhages. A small piece of cotton saturated with it and applied to the bleeding part is the proper mode of application.

Iron., sulphate of (Ferrisulphate) - Tonic. It increases the appetite and builds up the system. Dose, ½ to 1 dram. Frequently combined with nux vomica, etc.

Lanolin - Used as a base for ointments in the same manner as cosmoline.

Lead acetate of - Astringent and a valuable remedy for relieving local pain. Used externally to cool and relieve sprains. Inflamed tendons and joints, and to relieve itching skin diseases.
The white lotion is made as follows:
- Acetate of lead, 1 ounce.
- Sulphate of zinc. 1 ounce.
- Water, 1 quart.
Shake well and apply several times daily.
The lotion is a very valuable remedy for the relief of all external diseases accompanied by heat and swelling; also an excellent dressing for wounds.

Lime chloride of - This is the best disinfectant that we have. Four ounces to 1 gallon of water is the proper strength. This solution should be used as a wash for the disinfection of stables. A small portion of chloride of lime placed around in stables will destroy the odor arising from decomposed urine.

Lunar caustic - Used for the removal of warts and proud flesh. Four grains to 1 ounce of water make a good application for the removal of the cloudiness remaining after an attack of ophthalmia.

Mercury bichloride of (corrosive sublimate; antiseptic tablets) - Dissolved in water this is the most energetic antiseptic; 1 to 1,000 solution is the proper strength to use in the treatment of all wounds. Two tablets to a quart of water give this strength ; if the bichloride is in bulk, use 15 grains to a quart of water, and add 15 grains of chloride of ammonia to insure complete dissolution.

Mercury, mild chloride (calomel) - Internally, a cholagogue. Dose, ½ to 2 drams.
It is not used alone, but is combined with aloes.
- Calomel, 1 dram.
- Barbados aloes. 1 drams.
- Ginger, 1 dram.
- Water to make a ball.
Externally, antiseptic and drying. Used in the treatment of ulcers and thrush.

Mercury, biniodide - Used as a blister; its effects are very penetrating. Used principally in the treatment of spavins, splints, sidebones, ringbones, and all bony enlargements.
- Biniodide of mercury, 1 part.
- Cosmoline, 5 to 6 parts.
Mix and rub together thoroughly. Apply with friction for at least ten minutes.

Nux romica powdered - A nerve stimulant and tonic. Dose, ½ to 1 dram. It is a very useful tonic in building up the tone of the system in convalescence from debilitating- diseases and general lack of vitality. Generally given in combination with gentian, iron, and other tonics.

Oil, linseed - Laxative (mild purgative). Dose, ½ to 1 quart. Do not use boiled oil.

Oil, olive - Generally used as a vehicle in making liniments and oily solutions.

Oil of tar (pine tar) - Useful for plugging holes and cavities in the hoof after all suppuration has ceased.

Oil of turpentine - Diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, vermifuge, and expectorant. Dose, 1 to 3 ounces diluted with oil. Externally it is used in the formation of liniments (see Solution of Ammonia).

Opium, tincture of (laudanum) - Anodyne, antispasmodic. Checks secretion of mucous membrane. On account of these properties it is a valuable remedy in diarrhea and dysentery. Very useful in the treatment of all abdominal pain where there are no symptoms of constipation, but as a rule belladonna and cannabis indica are preferable. Dose, 1 to 2 ounces. Externally, opium tincture is used to relieve pain of sprains and bruises.
A very good anodyne lotion is made as follows:
- Opium tincture, 4 ounces.
- Acetate of lead, 2 ounces.
- Water to make 1 quart.
Apply every few hours.

Opium powdered - Not used externally. It is used internally for the same purpose as the tincture. Dose, ½ lo 2 drams.

Potassium bromide - Nerve sedative. Dose, ½ to 2 ounces. In tetanus this medicine can be given in large doses.

Potassium nitrate (saltpeter) - Alterative, febrifuge, and diuretic. Dose, 1 to 4 drams. In the treatment of laminitis the dose is 2 to 4 ounces, repeated three times a day.
Externally it makes a good cooling lotion :
- Nitrate potassium (saltpeter), 5 ounces.
- Chloride of ammonia, 5 ounces.
- Water 16 ounces.
Mix and keep the affected parts saturated with this lotion.
Internally, saltpeter is a most excellent medicine in the treatment of catarrhal and febrile diseases. It is also useful in the treatment of swollen legs.

Potassium iodide - Alterative, diuretic, and expectorant. Dose, 2 to 1 drams. It is given to promote absorption of enlargements, such as enlarged glands in lymphangitis, and in partial paralysis resulting from injury to the brain or spinal cord. For such purposes full doses are given twice a day for two weeks.

Potassium permanganate - Disinfectant and deodorant. Useful for the removal of foul odors arising from unhealthy wounds; also for cleaning hands and instruments. From 1 to 1drams, water 1 pint, is the proper strength of the solution for use.

Quinine., sulphate of - Tonic, stomachic, antiseptic, and mild febrifuge. Dose, ½ to 1 dram, repeated three times a day. It is given in all febrile and debilitating diseases. Combined with sulphate of iron it is very useful in purpura.

In influenza and pneumonia it is generally combined with gentian and nitrate of potash, made into powders in the following proportions:
- Quinine sulphate, 1 ounce.
- Gentian, 3 ounces.
Make twelve powders and give three times a day.

Salol - Antiseptic. Used internally and externally for its antiseptic properties. Dose, 2 to 4 drams.

Sodium bicarhonate - Carminative, stomachic, relieves acidity of the stomach. Dose, 1 to 2 drams. This is an excellent medicine in chronic indigestion and flatulency

Sulphur - Parasiticide. This medicine may be used for the treatment of mange, but it is inferior to creolin or carbolic acid.

Witch-hazel - A cooling astringent wash, very useful when combined with other medicines in the form of liniments.

Zinc sulphate - Externally it is much used as a caustic and astringent for wounds, foul ulcers, etc.
It is an excellent remedy for the treatment of thrush and canker:
- Sulphate of zinc
- Sulphate of copper
- Sulphate of iron
Mix above in equal parts.

Zinc oxide - Antiseptic. Used either as a dry powder dusted on the wounds or can be made into an ointment with lanolin:
- Zinc oxide, 1 part.
- Lanolin, 6 parts.

Zinc chloride - An irritant and corrosive poison, never given internally. Externally it is applied as a stimulant, astringent, caustic, and parasiticide. It is also used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and deodorant. From 2 to 4 drams to the pint of water are used for ordinary antiseptic purposes.


DOSES
Grouped according to amounts; for reference and for convenience in memozing:

GRAINS
- Arsenic 1 to 6
- Iodine 20 to 60

DRAMS
- ½ to 1:
- Capsicum
- Iron sulphate
- Nux vomica, powered
- Quinine sulphate
- Tannic acid

- ½ to 2:
- Calomel
- Opium, powdered

- 1 to 2:
- Belladonna, fluid extract
- Camphor, gum
- Chloroform
- Copper sulphate
- Sodium bicarbonate

- 1to 4:
- Acetanilid
- Ammonia chloride
- Potassium nitrate

- 2 to 4:
- Cannabis indica, fluid extract
- Charcoal
- Potassium iodide
- Salol, Aloes

OUNCES
- ½ to 1:
- Gentian
- Ginger

- 1:
- Fenugreek

- ½ to 2:
- Bromide of potassium

- 1 to 2:
- Sulphuric ether
- Sweet spirits of niter
- Tincture. Chloride of iron
- Tincture. Opium

- 1 to 3:
- Aromatic spirits of ammonia
- Oil of turpentine

- 2 to 4:
- Alcohol
- Potassium nitrate (in laminitis)

END



U.S. Army Veterinary Hospital No. 18, Sougy-sur-Loire, France WW1. On the left is what is believed to be Major Daniel C. Martin, V.C. commanding the veterinary hospital. Remount Depot No. 23 was also located at Sougy. On the right is Sgt. Leonard Patrick Murphy my grandfather who my research is dedicated to. – Greg Krenzelok, Director, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group


MANUAL FOR FARRIERS, HORSESHOERS, SADDLERS AND WAGONERS OR TEAMSTERS 1914
(Revised January 15, 1917)


WAR DEPARTMENT, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF
December 16, 1914

The following instructions in elementary duties of the farrier, horseshoer, saddler, and wagoner or teamster, compiled in the Division of Militia Affairs, under the direction of Brig. Gen. Albert L. Mills, General Staff, Chief, Division of Militia Affairs, is approved and herewith published for the information of the Organized Militia.

It is believed that these instructions are all that need be mastered to do in a satisfactory manner the work ordinarily required. For situations not covered within, the services of a veterinarian or those especially skilled in the respective trades of the horseshoer, saddler, and wheelwright must be secured.

By order of the Secretary of War:
H. L. Scott,
Brigadier General, Chief of Staff

PREFACE
This manual is prepared as a guide for those who may be entrusted with Government animals but who may not have an opportunity to refer to professionals the many perplexing questions which arise in actual service. Many authorities have been consulted and the ideas gleaned there from have been incorporated where applicable to a pamphlet of this character. The subject of duties of the farrier has been prepared principally from notes by Dr. Ingild Hansen, Veterinarian, Quartermaster Corps.



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR HANDLING ANIMALS
Never threaten, strike, or otherwise abuse a horse. Never take a rapid gait until horse is warmed up by gentle exercise. Never put up an animal in heated condition; walk him until cool or throw a blanket over him and rub his legs. If wet, rub with straw until hair is dry.

In approaching an animal be sure he sees you. Therefore, go up to him from the front if practicable; if necessary to approach him from the rear, especially if in a stall, speak to him before nearing him. Command him firmly to "stand over," go up to his head on the left side, and pat on the neck.

An animal knows better how to meet an emergency than does a man; he does it instinctively; if he gets scared there is, almost without exception, a good reason for it. Therefore, do not punish a horse for getting scared, and never at all except for well determined viciousness, and then only at the very time of commission of the offense. Many times fright is due to defective vision, and if a horse is punished every time he thinks he sees something dangerous, he will grow to believe in his eyes, and will get scared at almost everything. If on the other hand he is petted when scared, he will see that there is nothing going to hurt him.

The old rule "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" is particularly applicable to the animals and the equipment in the field. An army cannot afford to carry the pound of cure, but it can transport the ounce of prevention mostly in the wits and the fingers of the farrier, saddler, horseshoer, rider, and the driver.

Never feed or water an animal when he is warm unless he is to move off again and at once—hay will do no harm. If the journey or exercise is ended, sponging out the mouth and nostrils give considerable relief.

Never kick an animal and never strike one except with a whip and immediately after he misbehaves. Never strike an animal about the head.

Animals are tied either to picket line or wagon, or are tethered out with a lariat, or they may be herded.

There are two sorts of picket lines used—high and low. The low or ground picket line has been almost entirely discarded. The high picket line is stretched as tight as practicable at about 4 feet from the ground, at the posts or forks placed about 30 yards apart. If wagons are parked on line the picket line may be run over every fifth wagon, which is run to the front for that purpose; loaded wagons should be used at the ends.

About 1 ½ yards of picket line are allowed per animal. The animals are tied on both sides of the line with shank just long enough for the animal to eat off the ground. If tied with too long a shank, animals are liable to get their forelegs over and thus cause rope burns, which are very difficult to cure and always leave a blemish.

Wagons are usually parked (that is, put in line) alongside each other and the picket line stretched parallel to the line of wagons and about 10 paces in front of the tongues or poles. The wagons are ordinarily spaced if animals are tied to picket line with an interval of about a yard between hubs. When animals are tied to the wagon tongue (two on each side), the distance between hubs should be about 7 yards.

The feed box should be washed out once a week, care being taken to get into the corners.

Nose bags should be cleaned frequently, care being taken to get into the cracks and to expose the inside to rays of the sun.

If weather is cold, before putting the bridle on, the bit should be warmed by holding in the hand or by blowing the breath on it.



CURRYCOMB
The currycomb's principal service is to clean the brush by drawing the brush across it every few strokes. The brush must be used with force (except about the head), putting the weight of the body into the stroke; this makes the work much easier and gives grooming very much the effect of a delightful massage, which the animal soon learns to appreciate, and for which he learns to like the giver.

In grooming, remember that the currycomb is a severe instrument when applied to bony or sharp points. Animals with tender skin (they are usually the most intelligent) can be easily ruined by carelessness or roughness in grooming, while if the spirit of the old adage "Scratch me and I'll scratch you" is duly appreciated by the man as well as it is by the animals, friendship is sure to result from the frequent and careful wielding of the soothing currycomb and brush.

Begin to groom where you naturally pat or caress the animal on his neck on the near (left) side, then gradually work to the tail and legs. Don't forget to groom the folds and cracks between and just in rear of the forelegs, and in the flanks but remember that these points are as ticklish as they are important. Go to the head last; use the brush or a cloth only, and these very carefully especially about the ears. Many a horse and mule is ruined by rough handling of his head. Clean out the feet with a blunt pointed instrument and examine them carefully; this is the most important part of the grooming; brush thoroughly the skin just above the rear part of tlie hoof. Brush the mane (especially near the roots), the foretop, and the tail thoroughly, but never touch them with a currycomb. Don't groom when the animal is wet or damp it only mats the hair but dry by rubbing lightly with a cloth or a wisp of hay or straw and, when dry, groom as usual. Remember that the feet, stomach, and the shoulders of a draft animal or the back of a riding animal are the three most essential points.

WATERING
The usual allowance of water for the horse is 5 gallons if not working and 10 gallons if at labor. In hot weather 20 or even 30 gallons will be needed. The rule as to not watering when animals are warm should not be understood to apply if they are to be kept moving for a half hour or more after they drink. But never water a warm animal and then let him stand, for it will cause founder.

Horses will sleep and receive considerable rest while standing up, but they will generally lie down if given suitable surroundings.

When a horse is reported sick, attend to him at once, no matter if it rains or shines, if it is day or night. If two or more horses are sick with the same symptoms, call the veterinarian. If a horse dies suddenly with no apparent cause, call the veterinarian.



Temperature - The normal temperature of horse, taken by thermometer in the rectum for three or four minutes, is 99° to 100° F. A permanent rise of 2° or 3° indicates fever. A persistence of high evening temperature lasting into morning shows an aggravation of the condition. A persistence of low morning temperature lasting into the evening indicates improvement.

Pulse - This is felt on lower jaw or inside forelimb inside the elbow joint. In the horse it should be 36 to 49 per minute. In old age it is less frequent. Young and nervous animals and females have a greater rapidity of the pulse.

Breathing - The young horse breathes 10 to 12 times per minute, the adult animal 9 to 10. Any excitement accelerates. Exercise, even walking few hundred yards, increases the respirations to 25 or 28 per minute; after trotting five minutes, to 52; after galloping five minutes, to 62.

Hurried breathing not caused by exercise, nor heat of atmosphere or not accompanied by distension of the abdomen, is indication of fever, especially if associated with rapid pulse and increased heat of the body.

The well horse has a smooth coat (including the hair at the root of the tail), skin pliable and easily rolled on the flesh, clear, bright, open eyes, salmon-pink colored membranes in the nostril, light yellow colored urine, erect ears; he holds his neck at an angle considerably above the horizontal, stands on four feet squarely, plants his feet in regular cadence in walking or trotting, and has no unusual discharges from any part of the body. He has a good appetite this being probably the best means of telling his state of health.

Medicines - In treating animals it should be borne in mind that few medicines of themselves do the curing. Nature does it. Man helps by giving food which is easily digested, by giving extra care to the sick, and by guarding, as it were, against the attack of any enemies in the shape of germs which are ready to seize the weak or wounded.

RESTRAINT OF ANIMALS
It will be necessary in some cases to restrain the animal while it is being treated, but it will be remembered that by a kind handling the animal will not be so refractory as when treated in a rough manner. Beating, kicking, jerking should be absolutely avoided. It does not quiet the animal, but does frighten him and serves to demonstrate the lack of sense in the man doing it.

There are three principal methods of restraint, viz, hobbling, putting on a twitch, and throwing.

Hobbling is the least severe, consisting of simply raising one of the forefeet almost to the elbow and tying or strapping the leg in the bent position. A loop is passed around the leg at the pastern (just above the hoof), and with the leg in the bent position the ends of the strap or rope passed around the forearm and made fast. If rope is used, the skin should be protected by several layers of cloth, such as pieces of oat sack. If a strap be used, it should have a keeper at the back near the buckle, or a keeper be improvised by a small rope or several strands of a strong cord.

To prevent kicking or to make the animal stand for very short opposite the side on which the animal is being treated. If he attempts to go down on that leg, follow him down still holding the foot and leg in the same relative position; don't try to resist, for if you do give him that which you took away from him a point of support for his leg—and he can lunge.

The twitch is made of a strong stick 1 ½ feet long, 1 1/2 inches diameter. Near one end two holes about 3 inches apart are made to pass a ½ inch (diameter) rope. A loop about large enough to hold the closed fist is made in the rope by passing the ends through these holes and tying knots in the ends; or any method may be used by which a loop about the size of the fist can be fastened near the end of the stick.

The hand is passed through the loop and the upper lip is gathered in the hand and the loop is passed over the hand and onto the lip. The stick is given several turns so that the rope twists, thereby exerting a pressure on the sensitive upper lip, and this will ordinarily make the animal quiet. The twitch should not be twisted too severely.

To throw an animal (which should be rarely necessary), hobble, as before explained, the foreleg on the side on which you wish him to lie when down.

The casting harness, Plate IV, figure 1 (note: see below), should be used if available. Wrap the pasterns of the rear legs (between the fetlock ankle and the hoof) very carefully with cloth to prevent rope burn. If casting hame be not available, double the lariat and tie a knot near the middle so as to form a loop large enough to fit like a collar over the horse's shoulders. The loop is passed over the head and onto the shoulders like a collar, the knot being so adjusted that it will come on the horse's breast. Pass the two ends between the forelegs under the belly and then between the hind legs. Then pass the ends one under the right and one under the left hind ankle, previously wrapped, and then along the side and up through the loop around the horse's neck. There is an assistant on each end, one on each side; another assistant holds the head and stands on the side on which the animal is intended to lie.

The reins are off the neck and passed to the shoulder opposite the side on which the animal is to lie, and are grasped by the thrower (the man handling the reins) with the hand farthest from the head; the other hand grasps the ear on the opposite side.

The head is drawn to the side by the reins and the command "pull" is given. At this signal the two assistants at the sides pull forward on the ends of the lariat, thus drawing the hind feet forward; the head is drawn further back toward the girth and the animal settles down on its side. The thrower quickly places his knee on the neck near the head, and raises the muzzle of the horse from the ground. The assistants at the sides carry the ends of the rope to the hind legs and make fast near the hoofs where the cloth has been previously placed. The horse thus fettered cannot get up nor struggle effectively as long as a man has his knee on the animal's neck and holds its nose off the ground.

DISINFECTANTS
Heat is the best disinfectant. Boiling for not under 15 minutes serves very well. Soap and water and then sunlight are, next to heat, probably the best germ killers in most practical instances. In especially malignant diseases, such as glanders and rinderpest, where thorough disinfection is imperative, total destruction by fire is the best method. Oil sprinkled on ground and burned is very good.

Chemical disinfectants are effective if they reach the microbes. Disinfecting vapors are, next to heat, most effective. Sulphur placed in a shovel or other metal container and burned in an infected building or room which has been thoroughly sealed will generate fumes which will thoroughly disinfect in 24 hours. One pound of sulphur is required per 1,000 cubic feet. Liquids come next in efficacy. Creolin (Pearson) 1 part, water 25 parts; carbolic acid 1 part, water 20 parts; corrosive sublimate (mercury chloride) 1 part, water 1,000 parts, are good. Never use a sponge in cleaning wounds—always cotton; then burn or boil or otherwise disinfect it. Whitewash or paint simply cover up objectionable matter.

DISPOSE OF AN ANIMAL
When it is advisable, either from necessity or from dictates of humanity, to dispose of an animal, the easiest method is by shooting with either a rifle or a pistol. Care must be taken to see that no person or animal is in rear of or within close distance of the animal, for even after having passed through a portion of the animal's body bullets occasionally still have considerable velocity. The barrel of the weapon should be held at right angles to and the muzzle not over 2 inches from the center of the forehead, aimed at a point above the eyes about half an inch below the lowest hairs of the foretop.

EQUIPMENT FOR THE FARRIER
General Orders, No. 115, War Department, 1911, gives a list of veterinary medicines and equipment and allowances for organizations of the Regular Army which have public animals. The total weight of such supplies to be transported in field or store wagons, or on store pack mules, will not exceed a quantity based on a rate of 18 pounds, including containers and cases, per 100 animals. These supplies will be transported in combat trains in all cases where organizations have store wagons or store pack mules, and in field wagons for other organizations. In mounted organizations the work of the farrier is performed under the supervision of the veterinarians; therefore the following information regarding the veterinarian's equipment is given.

Each veterinarian is supplied with a veterinarian's field equipment weighing about 150 pounds, which consists of a set of "Veterinarian's field chests," veterinarian's saddlebags and their contents. (See PI. IV, p. 35.)



Veterinarian's field chests - Each set consists of 5 chests. Of the two large chests, one is supplied with 10 empty bottles, 14 or 16 ounces, height not to exceed 7 ½ inches; the other containing 18 empty round jars with screw tops, 3 ¾ inches high by 2 ¾ inches in diameter. These two chests with the other three chests (to be supplied empty) contain the veterinarian's field supplies. Instruments and appliances for field chests

Instruments and appliances for field chests
- 1 casting harness (Figure 1)
- 1 catheter (Figure 2)
- 1 clipper, hand (Figure 3)
- 1 drenching bottle, rubber (Figure 4)
- 1 flat, tooth, straight and angular (Figure 5)
- 1 graduate glass (Figure 6)
- 1 hoof-knife set, in roll (Figure 7)
- 1 stomach tube, with stylet (Figure 8)
- 1 syringe, metal, 2-ounce (Figure 9)
- 1 tray, enameled, 10-inch (Figure 10)

A veterinarian's saddlebag should contain the following articles: Figure 11 - 1 hypodermic syringe and case; 1 tray, tin (to be filled with sponge or gauze when packed).

Figure 12 - 1 case, surgical, small, vest-pocket size, to contain the following:
- 1 scalpel.
- 1 bistoury, probe pointed.
- 1 bistoury, sharp pointed.
- 1 tenaculum.
- 1 probe, silver, jointed two sections.
- 1 director, grooved.
- 2 forceps, artery, with catch.
- 6 needles, suture, curved and half curved assorted sizes.
- 1 scissors curved or flat.

For organizations which have animals but which have no veterinarian, such as Infantry, Engineers, and Signal troops, a "Veterinary pannier" is supplied. (See PI. V.) It weighs approximately pannier" is supplied. (See PI. V.) It weighs approximately 70 pounds.

The contents of a veterinary pannier are not prescribed in detail. A pannier should be equipped with such supplies as are appropriate and necessary for any particular march or expedition. Panniers supplied to organizations having no veterinarians are for use as containers of veterinary medicines and dressings. Panniers may be supplied to Cavalry and Field Artillery regimental headquarters and may also be equipped with instruments and appliances selected from the veterinarian's field equipment; or one of the veterinarian's field chests may be used for this purpose in lieu of the pannier supplied regimental headquarters.

One authority has suggested the following list of veterinary supplies. Under ordinary conditions it should suffice for 100 animals for 10 days:

Medicines:
- 3 aloes balls
- ¼ pound ammonia, aromatic spirits
- ¼ pound ammonia liniment
- ¼ pound charcoal
- ½ pound chloronaphtholeum or kreso
- ½ pound colic mixture
- ½ pound cosmoline
- ¼ pound iodine tincture
- ½ pound lime, chloride of
- 3 ounces mercury, bichloride of
- ¼ pound oil, linseed
- ½ pound oil, olive
- ¼ pound ointment, antiseptic
- ¼ pound tar, pine
- ¼ pound three sulphates (copper, iron, and zinc)

Dressings:
- ¼ pound absorbent cotton
- 1 package antiseptic gauze

Bandages:
- 1 flannel
- 4 cotton, white
- 1 pound oakum
- 1 pound soap), Castile

The above list: might be amended by omitting the third, fourth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and fifteenth items, increasing quantity of olive oil to 1 quart, changing fifth item to ''1 pound of Creoline, Pearson," adding 1 pound of turpentine, and increasing amount of absorbent cotton to 1 pound.

In the Organized Militia when continuous service in the field is expected the same equipment should be carried as by Regular troops. In time of peace such an elaborate outfit is unnecessary; the possession by each troop of the prescribed "Farrier's field equipment" specified in General Orders, No. 115, War Department, 1911), and certain additional supplies, will meet the requirements.




FARRIERS FIELD EQUIPMENT
(See Plates VI and VII, pp. 39 and 40)


For the farrier an outfit much simpler than that for the veterinarian is prescribed. Eighteen pounds are allowed for the entire equipment required by the farrier in the performance of his special duties:

- 1 basin, granite, 1-quart
- 4 bottles, l-pint
- 1 for colic, drench
- 1 for restorative in heat exhaustion and rise in temperature
- 1 for antiseptic wash (creolin, Pearson)
- 1 with detachable rubber neck, for drenching bottle
- 1 farrier's instrument pocket case
- 1 graduate glass, 2-ounce
- 1 dose syringe, metal, 4-ounce

Additional equipment and supplies needed:
- 1 funnel, enamel, 1-quart
- 10 bandages, gauze, about 4 inches wide, and 5 yards long
- 10 bandages, cotton, same dimensions
- 5 pounds cotton, absorbent
- 10 days' supply of medicines (See table below)

There is also issued to the farrier when he acts as horseshoer.

Horseshoer's emergency equipment:
- 1 shoeing hammer
- 1 pincers
- 1 hoof knife
- 1 jointed horseshoe. No. 2
- 1 rasp
- Horseshoe nails, as required
- ¼ pound oakum
- ¼ ounce bottle chlorolin or kreso




DUTIES OF THE FARRIER
Farrier's instrument pocket case (in canvas roll). See plate VII.

Contents:
- 1 bistoury, curved, blunt 1 (Figure 1)
- 1 director (Figure 2)
- 1 scissors, curved (Figure 3)
- 1 forceps, artery (Figure 4)
- 1 probe (Figure 5)
- 1 clinical thermometer (Figure 6)
- 1 scalpel (Figure 7)
- 1 hoof knife (Figure 8)
- 1 forceps, dressing (Figure 9)
- 6 needles, curved
- 1 silk, skin

Uses:
(a) Bistoury, curved, blunt, for opening of abscesses; use scalpel, making small opening at lowest point of abscess, and when pus (matter) shows enlarge opening with probe-pointed bistoury. Do not make opening larger than necessary to give pus easy flow. Wash and disinfect before and after opening and keep area clean.

(b) Curved scissors for clipping the hair off parts when knife is to be used, and for trimming ragged edges off. Keep instrument clean, use an antiseptic solution (noncorrosive), such as creolin and water.

(c) Artery forceps, for picking up a cut artery for ligation. Arterial bleeding is recognized by the blood coming in spurts corresponding to the pulse. When the artery is picked up, tie silk around it and remove forceps. Also used for removing foreign substance from wound.

(d) Needles, for sewing up fresh-cut wounds. Start sewing from top of wound; tie each stitch and do not close wound entirely at its lowest point but leave outlet for pus that may form. Take stitches out if suppuration is detected down in the wound (the wound has in that case become infected before being dressed or not been properly cleansed). If no suppuration occurs, remove stitches when wound appears to have healed 3 to 5 days. Few wounds will heal without suppuration in a horse or mule unless dressed when wound is quite fresh and absolutely clean.

(e) Suture silk, for sewing up wounds. It must be clean and be well soaked in pure Creolin before used. After the wound is sewed up, dust iodoform on it or apply a little Vaseline.

(f) Probe, used to find out if any foreign substance is in the wound for example the bullet in a shot wound.

(g) Tenaculum is used to pick up ends of arteries and tissues.

(h) Director: Little used, except as a probe. For deep cutting (very rarely done) it is sometimes used as a guide for the bistoury or scalpel.

Clinical thermometer: Insert in rectum for three or four minutes. After using the thermometer the mercury should be shaken down. Before using, it should be examined to see that it registers under 95°.

The farrier should always have with him:
1. Instrument pocket case.
2. Colic mixture - 5 doses (see "Medicine" below).
3. Antipyretic (antifever) mixture—5 doses (see "Medicine" below).
4. Antiseptic (Creolin), ¼ pint (see "Medicine" below).
5. 1 dose syringe, 2 ounces.
6. Clinical thermometer.
7. Bandages, cotton (4).
8. Bandages, gauze (4).
9. Cotton, absorbent, 2 pounds.
10. 3 feet rubber tubing with funnel to fit, or drenching bottle.

Conditions of service should determine what other articles of the field equipment, if any, ought to be so carried. For example, in very hot weather a bottle of heat-exhaustion restorative should be taken; if horses are soft or have just had a change of diet, a pint of colic drench might be useful; if the wagons do not closely follow the column, some antiseptic wash might be carried. All articles of the field equipment not carried by the farrier personally should be packed in a box of convenient size, which should be left in the field wagon.

Every mounted command liable to go into the field unaccompanied by a veterinarian should keep on hand 10 days' field-service supply of such necessary and simple medicines as can be properly prescribed and administered by the farrier. Such medicines, for a command numbering about 70 horses and mules, would be about as shown in the table below under "Medicines." The financial allowance is 25 cents at home or 30 cents in tropical stations per quarter per animal. In case the strength is materially above or below 70, quantities should be varied accordingly.

MEDICINES
Medicines are of assistance in healing, but their principal purpose is to keep away outside interference, mostly microbes, from the animal while nature does the healing. When necessary to give medicine, this may be accomplished by:

(1) Introducing it through the mouth into the intestinal tract.
(2) By inhalation (through the nostrils or mouth and the lungs).
(3) By absorption through the skin.
(4) By injection under the skin.
(5) By injection into and absorption through the rectum.

Through the mouth medicine may be given in various ways, vie, in the shape of powder either dry or dissolved in water and then sprinkled on the food; an electuary made by mixing the medicine with honey or syrup together with enough dope (some sort of food) to make it into a puttylike mass, and this placed on the back of the tongue with a paddle, or formed into a cylindrical form usually called a "ball," about 2 inches long and three-fourths of an inch in diameter, wrapped with tissue paper and placed on the back of the tongue; a drench, made by adding the medicines to water or some other liquid and pouring slowly from the mouth of a bottle placed between the cheek and the elevated lower jaw; syringe, the contents of which are squirted onto the back of the tongue (this is the best method; see below).

Giving liquid medicines: Fill a syringe with the medicine. Face the horse, take hold of its tongue with left hand (do not pull the tongue out, but simply hold it); insert nozzle of syringe over tongue and squirt the medicine in; turn loose tongue and with left hand hold horse's head high until the sound of swallowing is heard.

If a dose syringe be not available, "drenching" may be resorted to, although as usually performed this method is mostly a waste of medicine, the horse usually swallowing little. The liquid medicine should be placed in a bottle, preferably one having no shoulders. The muzzle of the horse is elevated until the lower jaw is slightly above horizontal; this may be done by hand with some animals, but others require the head to be drawn up by a strap or rope thrown over a limb of a tree or other elevated point of support; ordinarily the shank attached to the halter may be used, but it is better to use, in addition to the halter, a non-slipping loop placed over the nose and in the mouth, so as to come against the roof of the mouth in rear of front teeth. With head in the elevated position, the month of the bottle is placed between the molars and the incisors (back and front teeth) and the contents very slowly poured onto the tongue. If the animal chokes, let his head down. Do not strike or rub the throat or windpipe "to make him swallow."

Inhalation is used usually to relieve a stoppage of the breathing apparatus, such as occurs in case of a cold; it is given by causing a vapor or steam to be breathed into the lungs. Several arrangements can be made for accomplishing this; ingenuity will enable any farrier to devise some means; the simplest is to pour the steaming liquid onto clean hay in a sack which has been fastened over the animal's head.

Absorption through the skin is accomplished by applying the medicine to the skin, sometimes by standing the animal in a tub, and sometimes by soaking cloths in the medicine and applying with bandages.

Injections under the skin are administered by the hypodermic syringe, but are rarely resorted to, and are given by a veterinarian only and usually for the purpose of relieving an animal's suffering.

Injections into the rectum are resorted to for the purpose of cleaning it out, or as a means of administering moderate heat in order to increase the circulation in adjacent parts, or to provide nourishment when the animal is prevented by weakness, injury, or other incapacity (such as in lockjaw) from taking food into the mouth, or to reduce the temperature (cold water) in case of fever.

MEDICINES FOR TEN DAY FIELD SERVICE FOR 70 ANIMALS
- Creolin, Use: antiseptic, Amount for ten days: 1-1 pound bottle, Dose: For external use, 1 tablespoon to 1 pint of water; for internal use, ½ to 1 tablespoonful mixed with 6 to 8 tablespoonful of olive oil.

- Glauber salts, Use: laxative, Dose: 2-1 pound cans, Amount for ten days: 2-1 pound cans, Dose: 2 to 4 handfuls in feed or dissolved in water as a drench.

- Acetanilide in alcohol, Use: fever reducer, Amount for ten days: 4 ounces dissolved in 1 pint of alcohol, Dose: mix on receipt of ingredients; keeps indefinitely. (See under "Colds" pg. 46.) Note: see below, dose: 2 ounces; do not repeat within 12 hours.

- Fluid extract of cannabis, Use: pain deadener, Amount for ten days: 2 ounces, Dose: 1 teaspoonful in colic mixture.

- Olive oil, Use: Emollient, Amount for ten days: 1 quart, Dose: 2 ounces in various mixtures.

- Cosmoline, Use: scab softener, Amount for ten days: ½ pound, Dose: coating.

- Castile soap, Use: cleaner, Amount for ten days: 5 pounds, Dose: as required.

- Lugol's solution: Iodine, 5 parts; potassium iodide, 10; water, 100, Use: saddle sores, scratches, and eczema, Amount for ten days: 1 fluid ounce iodine, 4 ounces potassium iodide, Dose: mix on receipt of ingredients; apply externally; time, daily.

- Iodoform, Use: disinfectant for drying up open wounds, Amount for ten days: 1 ounce, Dose: Sprinkling on wound.

- Iodine solution, Use: disinfectant fresh open wounds, Amount for ten days: 1 pint, Dose: pour onto or coating of the exposed flesh.

- Colic mixture, Use: abdominal pain, Amount for ten days: fluid extract cannabis Americana, 1 part; creolin, (Pearson) 1 part; olive oil, 2 parts. Dose: See "Disease, internal colic," (pg. 46) Note: see below.


COLD, CATARRH, STRANGLES, PNEUMONIA, INFLUENZA
(page 46)
Inflammation of mucous membranes, with or without rise of temperature.

Symptoms - Dullness, discharge from nostrils, cough, heavy breathing.

Causes - Exposure and infection.

Treatment - If cold, put blanket on. Take temperature in the animal's rectum; if over 102° F., put animal under shelter, but be careful to keep it in well-aired place.

Give fever mixture: Acetanilide, 1 tablespoonful dissolved in 8 tablespoonful alcohol, and half an hour later give creolin (Pearson), half tablespoonful with 8 tablespoonful olive oil.

Don't again give acetanilide until 12 hours, even if temperature is still above 102° F. Give 2 ounces of olive oil four times daily. If swelling shows around throat, heat a small quantity of olive oil and rub in on swelling twice a day; don't heat the oil more than can be borne by finger kept continuously in it. If lumps appear under lower jaw and break open, they do not indicate glanders.

If temperature rises to 104° F. or above, indications are that animal has pneumonia. The animal will then not lie down and breathes quicker than normal.

Let animal have the feed it wants and give a bran mash once a day not over 1 quart of wheat bran and only sufficient hot water to make it damp.


COLIC
(page 46)
Abdominal pain without inflammation.

Cause - Faulty feeding.

Symptoms - Sudden attack; paws, looks anxiously at flank, goes down, sits, rises, shakes himself. These symptoms more or less violent.

Treatment.—Take feed away from reach of animal. Give a dose of "colic mixture"—fluid extract cannabis Americana, 1 teaspoonful; creolin (Pearson), 1 tablespoonful; olive oil to fill 2-ounce syringe.

Rub animal's abdomen with straw and cover with blanket. Walk animal slowly until it is relieved. Inject lukewarm soap water in rectum, 1 gallon or more. Don't repeat dose of medicine before three hours, even if animal still suffers. Don't feed animal until six hours after pain disappears. Don't offer water before attack is over and then only in small quantity—half a bucket full. If animal's temperature rises it is indicative of intestinal inflammation and chances for recovery are not good. Bo not in such cases give "fever mixture," but give only creolin (Pearson), 1 tablespoonful with 8 tablespoonful of olive oil, and repeat every fourth hour.

END





MANUAL FOR STABLE SERGEANTS 1917

War Department
Washington, June 14, 1917

The following Manual for Stable Sergeants, prepared at the Mounted Service School, Fort Riley, Kansas, is published for the information and guidance of all concerned. 20-16213 A. G. 0.1

By order of the Secretary of War:

TASKER H. BLISS
Major General, Acting Chief of Staff

Official:
H.P. McCain
The Adjutant General

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED
- Adams: A Text Book of Horseshoeing.
- Bureau of Animal Industry: Special Report on Diseases of the Horse.
- Chauveau: Comparative Anatomy of Domesticated Animals.
- Dun: Veterinary Medicines, Their Actions and Uses.
- Fitzwygram: Horses and Stables.
- Flemming: Operative Veterinary Surgery.
- Friedburger and Frohner: Pathology and Therapeutics of Domestic Animals.
- Gay: Productive Horse Husbandry.
- Goubaux and Barrier: The Exterior of the Horse.
- Hayes: Points of the Horse.
- Hayes: Veterinary Notes for Horse Owners.
- Henry: Feeds and Feeding.
- Hutyra and Marek: Pathology and Therapeutics of the Diseases of Domestic Animals.
- Jordan: The Feeding of Animals.
- Law: Veterinary Medicine.
- Liautard: Manual of Veterinary Surgery.
- Moller: Operative Veterinary Surgery.
- Merillat: Veterinary Surgical Operations.
- Neumann: Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals.
- Quitman: Notes on Veterinary Materia Medica.
- Sisson: A Text Book on Veterinary Anatomy.
- Smith: Veterinary Hygiene.
- Smith: A Manual of Veterinary Physiology.
- Strangeway: Veterinary Anatomy.
- Veterinary Department, English Army: Animal Management.
- White: Principles and Practice of Veterinary Medicine.
- Williams: Principles and Practice of A'eterinary Medicine and Surgery.
- Winslow: Materia Medica.
- Woodhull: Military Hygiene.
- Wyman: Diagnosis of Lameness in the Horse.

CARE OF SICK ANIMALS
207. Nursing - By nursing is meant the prompt and well directed attention to the comforts and needs of the patient. Good nursing is therefore of the utmost importance in the care of the sick and injured.

208. The sick stall - The first and most important point is to place the sick animal in a clean, light, well-ventilated box stall, free from drafts and located as far as possible from other animals. Clean bedding should be provided and the stall kept free from manure and moisture. If such a stall cannot be obtained, a double stall, with the kicking bar removed and ropes or bars placed across the back of it, will answer the purpose. During cold seasons, paulins or horse covers may be hung in such a manner as to protect the patient from drafts, care being taken to allow sufficient air to enter this improvised stall. Horses suffering from diseases of the nervous system, such as tetanus, require to be kept absolutely quiet, and must be removed as far as possible from all noise. It is best that only one man be allowed to attend them, as a change of attendants may cause excitement and thus increase the severity of the disease. A horse suffering from colic requires a well bedded space sufficiently large to prevent injuring himself while rolling during the spasms of pain. In such cases a man should be constantly in attendance, as the animal may become cast and unable to get up without assistance. In the field sick animals should be kept by themselves and made as comfortable as circumstances may permit.

209. Clothing.—Clothing, when required, should be provided according to the season. It should be light as well as warm, and should be changed, brushed, and aired at least once a day.

210. Bandaging for warmth. - When circumstances require it, the legs should be well hand-rubbed and wrapped in flannel bandages evenly and loosely applied. Bandages should be changed and the legs well rubbed twice daily.

211. Shoes - Animals which are likely to remain on sick report for some time should have their shoes removed.

212. Feeding sick horses - Only the choicest food, and food suitable to the requirements of each case, should be provided. The grain ration must be reduced, and the appetite tempted with daintily prepared food, such as fresh grass, bran mashes, carrots, or steamed oats. Green alfalfa, or cured alfalfa which has been soaked for an hour or two in clean water to which a small quantity of salt has been added, is usually eaten with great relish. A lump of rock salt should be kept in the manger at all times. Food should be given often and only in such quantities as the patient will readily eat. The feed should be placed within easy reach, and any portion left over should be at once removed and the feed box thoroughly cleaned and washed. Food that is wet, such as bran mashes or steamed oats, soon sours in warm weather and gets cold or may freeze during the winter. If eaten in this condition it may cause diarrhea or colic. Horses suffering from colic should have food withheld for at least 12 hours after all pain has disappeared, and then fed only in small quantities during the next 24 hours.

213. Watering sick horses - A supply of fresh water should be kept constantly within reach and changed at least three times a day or oftener in warm weather.

214. Grooming" sick horses - Horses that are weak and depressed should not be worried with unnecessary grooming. Such animals should be carefully hand-rubbed or wisped at least once a day, and their eyes, nostrils, and docks should be wiped out with a sponge or soft cloth. The feet must also be cleaned. Animals that are only slightly indisposed should be groomed in the usual way. Animals with tetanus should not be cleaned at all.

CARE OF THE INJURED
216. Seriously injured animals - When an animal is seriously injured and stands with difficulty, it should be placed in sling (par. 243, fig. 37) to partially support the weight of the body. For slinging, a single stall, having a level floor, free from bedding, is more suitable than a large one.

217. Slightly injured animals - When an animal is but slightly injured there is no necessity of placing it in slings. An ordinary stall with a level floor is all that is required. After an injury has been dressed the patient should be allowed to stand without being disturbed. If very lame and movement is painful, the quieter he is kept the more quickly will recovery take place.

218. Rest - Absolute rest and perfect quiet are essential, and when secured they hasten the process of recovery without inflicting unnecessary pain.

219. Restraint of injured animals - In some cases it becomes necessary to restrain the animal so that he cannot injure himself by rubbing or biting the affected parts. This may be done by cross tying (see par. 235), or by the use of the neck cradle (par. 233, fig. 30), or side rod (see par. 234, fig. 31).

220. Bandaging injured parts - Bandages are used on the legs of injured animals to check bleeding, to protect the injured parts, and to support packs used in applying hot and cold lotions. Bandages should be adjusted evenly, and not so tight as to cause pain or obstruct the circulation.

221. Feeding, watering, and grooming of injured animals - See paragraphs 211, 212, 213.

MISCELLANEOUS
222. Feeding horses that bolt their feed - Horses that eat rapidly and greedily are said to bolt their feed. To compel such animals to eat more slowly, let 1 pound of dry bran form a part of each feed, or place several large round stones in the feed box among the grain.

223. Feeding idle horses - Horses which for any reason are compelled to stand idle for a day or more should have their grain ration reduced to 6 or 7 pounds a day, depending upon the condition of the horses, and 2 pounds of bran in the form of a mash should form a part of each daily ration.

224. Feeding thin horses and delicate feeders – Such animals should be kept by themselves and fed a little at a time and often. The diet should be changed frequently, and should consist of grass, alfalfa, bran, either dry or in the form of a mash, linseed meal, steamed oats, and hay slightly damp and sprinkled with salt. A supply of fresh water should be kept constantly within reach.

225. Halter pulling - Halter pullers may be secured by fastening ropes or chains across the stall behind them, or they may be turned loose in a box stall. The habit may be broken in the earlier stages by a slip noose about the flank, the rope being carried forward between the front legs, through the halter ring, and fastened securely to the manger or a post. To prevent injury, a folded sack or piece of cloth should be secured beneath the rope at the point where it passes over the back.

226. Windsucking and crib biting - These are incurable vices which usually increase with age. Causes unknown. They are thought, however, to be a result of idleness, and to be learned by imitation. Keep such horses by themselves to prevent others from learning the habit. Place them in smoothly finished stalls without mangers or racks and feed off the floor.

227. Condition - Condition is fitness for work. Horses that have been idle from injury or disease are not in condition, and should not be put to hard or fast work until they have received from one to three weeks' preparation in the way of gradually increasing exercise. Walking is the exercise which develops muscles; walking alternated with steady short trots, is the best method of getting horses in shape.

227½. Exhaustion - Exhausted horses should receive a good stimulant (aromatic spirits of ammonia, nitrous ether, etc.), and their legs and body should be well rubbed and massaged. They should also be provided with a good bed. If on the march they should be unsaddled or unharnessed, a rest should be permitted and a drink of water provided, after which they may be taken slowly to camp. In hot weather put the animal in the shade and apply ice or cold water to the head. In cold weather blanket the body and bandage the legs. When rested, feed bran mashes, grass, hay, and steamed oats.

ADMINISTRATION, ACTIONS, AND USES OF MEDICINES
244. Administration of medicines - Medicines may enter the body through any of the following channels: By the mouth; by the lungs and upper air passages; by the skin, externally; by the rectum; by the skin, hypodermically by injection into a vein (intravenously).

245. by the mouth: (a) In the form of powders, by placing the drug upon the tongue or in the food. When given in the food the powder should be mixed with the handful oi wet bran or oats, for if placed in the dry oats the powder will sift through them to the bottom of the box where the animal will not get it; if it has a marked taste it should be well covered up in plenty of bran mash.

(b) In the form of a ball, made by rolling the drug in tissue paper or by putting it into a capsule. To give a ball: The ball is held by the four fingers of the right hand. The left hand grasps the horse's tongue, carefully pulls it out, and turns it upward in the right interdental space so that it opens the mouth. With the right hand the ball is carried well back into the mouth and dropped at the root of the tongue. When the right hand is withdrawn, the left^ hand carries the tongue to the middle of the mouth and releases it. When the tongue is released the ball is carried backward into the pharynx and swallowed.

(c) In the form of a drench, by first elevating the head and then slowly pouring the liquid into the mouth. This is a difficult procedure at times, and in all cases needs to be done carefully and slowly, pouring only a little into the mouth at a time in order to avoid wasting the medicine and to prevent choking the animal. If the animal should cough the head must be lowered at once to allow the liquid which has entered the larynx to be expelled.

(d) By injecting the liquid into the back of the mouth by means of a syringe.

246. By the lungs and upper air passages - Medicines are brought in contact with the mucous lining of the respiratory tract by inhalation. Inhalations are given by placing a bucket containing hot water or scalded bran, to which 1 ounce of turpentine, carbolic acid, or creolin has been added, in the bottom of a gunny sack. The horse's nose is then inserted into the top of the sack where it is held from 20 to 30 minutes. Or hot bricks may be placed in a pail and tar or other medicine poured upon them and the animal allowed to inhale the vapor. Liquids should under no consideration be injected or poured into the nostrils.

247. By the skin - Medicines are applied to the skin for their local action only: (a) To destroy parasites; (6) for their antiseptic action; (c) for their soothing or stimulating effect; (d) for their blistering action.

248. By the rectum - Medicines may be given by the rectum when the animal is unable to swallow; also to destroy worms in the rectum, and to cause evacuation of the bowel. For the latter purpose warm water is most useful.

249. By the skin, hypodermically - Medicines are given under the skin, in concentrated form (alkaloids), when prompt action is desired. Such medicines are to be used only as directed by the veterinarian.

250. By injection into a vein - Medicines are administered into a vein when rapid action is required. This method is used only by veterinarians.

Weights and Measures:

251. Weights.
- 60 grains (gr.) = 1 dram
- 8 drams = 1 ounce
- 16 ounces = 1 pound (lb.)

252. Liquid measure:
- 60 minims (min.) = 1 fluid dram
- 8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce
- 16 fluid ounces = 1 pint
- 32 fluid ounces = 1 quart
- 4 quarts = 1 gallon

253. Solutions are liquid preparations containing substances which readily dissolve.

(a) A saturated solution is made by adding to a liquid all of a drug that the liquid will dissolve.

(b) To make:
- One per cent solution of creolin, add 1 part creolin to 99 parts water.
- Two per cent solution of creolin, add 2 parts creolin to 98 parts water.
- Three per cent solution of creolin, add 3 parts creoUn to 97 parts water.
- Four per cent solution of creolin, add 4 parts creolin to 96 parts water.
- Five per cent solution of creolin, add 5 parts creolin to 95 parts water.
- Ten per cent solution of creolin, add 10 parts creolin to 90 parts water.
- Twenty per cent solution of creolin, add 20 parts creolin to 80 parts water.
- Fifty per cent solution of creolin, add 50 parts creolin to 50 parts water.
Water and creolin are used above merely as example. Other fluids: alcohol, ether, glycerine, etc. are also used in making solutions.

(c) To make:
- One per cent solution of a solid drug, add 1 part of the solid to 100 parts of water.
- Two per cent solution of a solid drug, add 2 parts of the solid to 100 parts of water.
- Three per cent solution of a solid drug, add 3 parts of the solid to 100 parts of water.
- Four per cent solution of a solid drug, add 4 parts of the solid to 100 parts of water.
- Five per cent solution of a solid drug, add 5 parts of the solid to 100 parts water.
- Ten per cent solution of a solid drug, add 10 parts of the solid to 100 parts water.

254. Mixtures are liquid preparations containing substances which do not dissolve.

266. Liquid measure - approximate value.
- A drop = 1 minim
- A teaspoonful = 1 dram
- A tablespoonful = 4 drams (1/2 ounce).
- Ordnance tin cup, old style = 28 ounces.
- Ordnance tin cup, new style = 22 ounces.

One minim always equals one-sixtieth part of a dram; a drop does not, for drops of various liquids differ in size and weight.
266. Metric measures:
- 1 c.c. stands for 1 cubic centimeter and equals 16 minims.
- 4 c. c. equal 1 dram by measure.
- 30 c. c. equal 1 ounce.
- 500 c. c. approximately equal 1 pint.
- 1,000 c. c. approximately equal 1 quart.

257. Dry measure—approximate value - An ordnance spoon holds approximately 1 ounce of:
- Salt
- Zinc sulphate.
- Lead acetate.
- Potassium nitrate.
- Potassium permanganate, etc., when heaping full.

An ordnance spoon holds approximately 2 drams of:
- Gentian
- Fenugreek
- Ginger.
- Nux vomica, etc.

ACTIONS AND USES OF MEDICINES
258. Antiseptics - Agents, used on or in the body in the treatment of wounds or diseases, which prevent the growth and development of germs. Ex.: Carbonic acid, bichloride of mercury, iodine, creolin, etc.

259. Anesthetics - Agents that produce loss of the sense of touch or pain. Ex.: Chloroform and ether.

260. Astringents - Agents which contract tissues and check secretions. Ex.: Alum, zinc, tannic acid, etc.

261. Anodynes - Agents which relieve pain. Ex.: Opium, belladonna, cannabis indica.

262. Antispasmodics.—Agents which prevent or allay spasmodic contraction of voluntary or involuntary muscles. Ex.: Belladonna, cannabis americana.

263. Alteratives - Agents which reestablish the healthy functions of the body. Ex.: Potassium nitrate and potassium iodide.

264. Carminatives - Agents which aid in the expulsion of gas from the stomach and intestines. Ex.: Ginger, turpentine, aromatic spirits of ammonia.

265. Caustics.—Agents which destroy tissue by burning. Ex.: Copper sulphate, lunar caustic (silver nitrate).

266. Cholagogues - Agents which promote secretion of bile. Ex.: Calomel, aloes.

267. Disinfectants - Agents which destroy the germs that cause infectious diseases. Ex.: CMoride of lime, carbolic acid, creolin, formalin.

268. Deodorants - Agents which disguise or destroy odors. Ex.: Creolin, carbolic acid.

269. Diuretics - Agents which increase the excretion of urine. Ex.: Nitrate of potash, turpentine, nitrous ether.

270. Expectorants - Agents which act upon the mucous membranes of the respiratory organs and favor the removal of their secretions. Ex.: Ammonia chloride, tar, turpentine.

271. Febrifuges (antipyretics) - Agents which reduce fever. Ex.: Nitrous ether, quinine, cold water.

272. Laxatives - Mid cathartics. Ex.: Small doses of oil, bran mash, green foods.

273. Purgatives (cathartics) - Agents which empty the bowels. Ex.: Aloes, salts, and linseed oil.

274. Parasiticides - Agents which kill animal and vegetable parasites infesting the skin. Ex.: Carbolic acid, creolin, salicylic acid.

275. Stomachics - Agents which promote digestion. Ex.: Gentian, ginger, fenugreek.

276. Styptics - Agents which check hemorrhage. Ex.: Tincture of iron.

277. Stimulants - Agents which promptly but temporarily increase nervous vigor. Ex.: Alcohol, aromatic spirits of ammonia, ether.

278. Sedatives - Agents which soothe the nervous system. Ex.: Bromide of potassium, cannabis indica.

279. Tonics - Agents which gradually but permanently improve the general health and increase vigor. Ex.: Iron, sulphate, gentian, nux vomica.

280. Vesicants (blisters) - Agents which cause inflammation of the skin with a discharge of serum under the epidermis. Ex.: Cantharides, biniodide of mercury.

Blistering - Clip the hair, and brush away the dirt from the part to be blistered, then apply the blister and rub briskly for from 5 to 20 minutes, the amount of rubbing depending on the thickness of the skin and the effect desired. The longer the rubbing is kept up the more severe mil be the effect. In thin-skinned horses, rubbing for five minutes is usually sufficient. The animal should then be controlled by cross tying or tying the head up short to prevent him from biting, rubbing, or lying on the blistered area. The tail must be tied up if within reach of the blister. The blister should be left on for 24 hours and then washed off and the parts kept clean and well-oiled to prevent cracking of the skin. Blisters should not be applied to the back of joints or to any acutely inflamed parts.

281. Vermicides - Agents which kill intestinal worms. Ex.: Turpentine, copper sulphate, iron sulphate.

282. Vermifuges - Agents which remove intestinal worms by purgation. Ex.: Aloes, linseed oil.

VETERINARY MEDICINES
283. Acetanilid - Antiseptic. Used externally as a dusting powder, alone or in combination with other drugs.

284. Acid, arsenious (arsenic) - Irritant, caustic poison. It is sometimes given as a tonic in the form of Fowler's solution in ½ to 1 ounce doses.

285. Acid, boracic (boric acid) - Nonirritant antiseptic. Used in all strengths up to a saturated solution as a mild soothing antiseptic in diseases of the eyes, and as a wet or dry dressing for wounds. Also in the form of an ointment for burns, etc., strength 10 per cent. Used alone or in combination with other drugs.

286. Acid, carbolic (phenol) - A caustic, disinfectant, and antiseptic. Pure carbolic occurs in crystals which may be dissolved by heat and the addition of glycerin, alcohol, or water. Carbolic acid is a powerful poison and is readily absorbed from raw surfaces, hence must not be used too freely in strong solutions. A 5 per cent solution may be used to disinfect the unbroken skin, but on raw surfaces, a 2 per cent solution is sufficiently strong. When applied externally in full strength it bums the skin and causes it to turn white. This burning action may be stopped by the application of alcohol. In poisoning, alcohol, brandy, or whisky should be given.

287. Acid, salicylic - A useful antiseptic, but irritating to the tissues and but slightly soluble in water. A saturated alcoholic Solution is of value in the treatment of indolent sores and ulcers.

288. Acid, tannic - Astringent. Dose: ½ to 2 drams. Useful internally in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery, given alone or in combination with other drugs. Externally it is used to check bleeding from raw surfaces; in solution, in alcohol or witch-hazel, it may be used to harden tender shoulders. ""It is also useful in the form of an ointment, 1 to 4, for scratches, -etc.

289. Alcohol - Stimulant and antiseptic. Dose: 2 to 4 ounces in a pint of water every four to six hours, as required. Of great value in the treatment of debilitating diseases.

290. Aloes, Barbados - Purgative. Dose: 6 to 8 drams. This is a slow but powerful-acting cathartic, taking about 24 hours to operate. Of value whenever an active purge is desired. May be given in the form of a ball or in solution in hot water. It should not be given when there is great weakness, a tendency to diarrhea, or in respiratory diseases.

Ginger is generally given with aloes to overcome the griping which it causes:
- Aloes 6-8 Drams
- Ginger 1-2 Drams
Make into a ball.

291. Alum - Astringent and styptic. Used externally in the treatment of thrush. In a 2 per cent solution it is valuable as a wash for sore mouths.

292. Ammonia, aromatic spirits - Stimulant and carminative. Dose: 1 to 2 ounces diluted with 1 pint of water. Of great value in exhaustion, and in the treatment of colics.

293. Ammonia, aqua (solution of ammonia) - Used externally only and in the form of stimulating liniments:
- Aqua ammonia (1 part)
- Turpentine (1 part)
- Olive oil (2 parts)
Shake well before using.

Of value to relieve the pain caused by insect stings, i. e., bees, wasps, etc.

294. Ammonia, chloride of - Expectorant. Dose, 2 to 4 drams. Useful in all irritable conditions of the respiratory mucous membranes.

295. Belladonna, fluid extract of - Antispasmodic and anodyne. Dose: Dose: ½ to 2 drams. Used internally in colics to relieve pain and spasms. Useful in eye lotions to relieve pain and to dilate the pupil. In the treatment of painful affections of the eye the following is of value:
- Zinc sulphate (20 grains)
- Belladonna, fluid extract (1 dram)
Water to make 4 ounces.

Drop a few drops into the eye twice a day with a dropper.

296. Camphor, gum - Antispasmodic, stimulant, expectorant, antiseptic. Dose, 1 to 2 drams. It is useful in the treatment of diarrhea. Externally it is used in liniments for its stimulating and anodyne actions. A useful preparation known as soap liniment is made as follows:
- Castile soap (10 parts)
- Camphor, gum (5 parts)
- Alcohol (70 parts)
- Water (15 parts)

297. Cannabis indica or cannabis americana, fluid extract of - Anodyne, antispasmodic. Dose: 2 to 4 drams. Very much used in the treatment of colics, as it relieves pain without causing constipation; also of value in the treatment of tetanus to control the muscular spasms.

298. Cantharides, powdered (Spanish fly) - Vesicant. Used only for its blistering effect, made up in an ointment with cosmoline in the strength of 1 part cantharides to 4 or Q parts of cosmoline. Prepare by rubbing the ingredients together with a spatula.

299. Charcoal - A mild antiseptic and deodorant. Used as a dry dressing for foul-smelling wounds, either alone or in combination with other drugs.

300. Chloroform - Antispasmodic, anodyne, and carminative. Dose: 1 to 2 drams. Local anesthetic when rubbed into the skin and a general anesthetic when inhaled.

301. Creolin - Disinfectant, antiseptic, parasiticide, and deodorant. Used principally as an antiseptic in 1 to 2 per cent solutions; also in the same strength or up to 5 per cent to destroy parasites of the skin. Useful in the form of an ointment; strength, 5 to 10 per cent. To disinfect nail wounds in the foot .apply creolin full strength on cotton or oakum. A good ointment for parasitic skin diseases is made as follows:
- Acetanilid (10 parts)
- Creolin (5 parts)
- Cosmoline (20 parts)
Melt the cosmoline and while cooling add the other ingredients. Creolin is also used internally as a vermifuge, 1 ounce in a quart of water, given on an empty stomach. To kill rectal worms, give 1 ounce creolin in a quart of water as an injection.

302. Chloro-naphtholeum. (Kreso).—Action same as creolin, but not so useful, being more oily and less refined. Principally used as a disinfectant.

303. Collodion - Used as a protective dressing for wounds. When painted on the skin it rapidly dries and leaves a thin protective coating. The skin must be dry or the collodion will not adhere.

304. Cosmoline (petrolatum, vaseline) - Used as a base for ointments and as a soothing agent applied to blistered or abraded surfaces.

305. Digitalis, fluid extract of - A dangerous poison.

306. Ether, spirits nitrous (sweet spirits of niter) - Stimulant, antispasmodic, and diuretic. Dose: 1 to 2 ounces. This is one of the most generally useful' drugs we have. Used in the treatment of fevers, especially those accompanied by weakness. An excellent remedy in the treatment of colic, combined with belladonna or cannabis indica.

307. Ether, Sulphuric - Stimulant, antispasmodic, carminative, and, when inhaled, anesthetic. Dose: 1 to 2 ounces well diluted. Useful in the treatment of thumps. Given in colics, especially flatulent colics, to diminish the production of gas and cause its expulsion. It may be given alone or with other drugs.

308. Flaxseed meal (linseed meal) - A laxative food, and an excellent poultice material.

309. Formalin - Antiseptic, disinfectant, and deodorant. Used externally only. It is very irritating and should not be used stronger than 1 dram to a quart of water (approximately one two-hundredth) for ordinary purposes.

310. Genetian, powdered - Stomachic, and bitter tonic. Dose: ½ to 1 ounce. It increases the secretions of the stomach and intestines and improves the appetite. Usually combined with other drugs.

311. Gentian, fluid extract - Action, uses, and dose, same as the powdered drug. May be given diluted, when the animal will not take the powder in the feed.

312. Ginger - Stomachic and carminative. Dose: 2 drams to 1ounce. Used in indigestion accompanied by flatulency. Also in combination with purgatives to hasten their action and lessen the griping caused by them.

313. Glycerine - Used as a base in the same manner as cosmoline. Used internally in cough mixtures to moisten and soothe the throat. The following is a useful cough remedy:
- Fluid extract belladonna (4 drams)
- Nitrous ether (2 ounces)
- Glycerine (1 do.)
- Water to make (8 do.)
Mix and give one-half ounce three times daily.

314. Iodine crystals - Alterative, absorbent, and antiseptic. Seldom used internally. Used externally, iodine is a powerful antiseptic. The tincture is made by dissolving 1 ounce of the crystals in a pint of alcohol. A good solution for external use is made as follows: Lugol's solution:
- Iodine (1 ounce)
- Potassium iodide (3 do.)
- Water (1 pint)
Either the tincture or the solution is valuable in the treatment of wounds, sores, ulcers, curbs, splints, enlarged tendons, etc. For such purposes it is applied once or twice daily with a small cotton swab.

315. Iodoform. Antiseptic - It contains more than 90 per cent of iodine and is a valuable agent in the treatment of wounds. It may be used alone or in combination with other drugs, as:
- Acetanilid and boric acid, equal parts.
- Iodoform sufficient to give a light yellow color.

316. Iron, tincture, chloride of - Styptic and tonic, a valuable agent for building up the system and enriching the blood. Useful during recovery from debilitating diseases. Dose: 1 to 2 ounces, well diluted.

317. Iron, sulphate of - Tonic, astringent, and vermicide. Dose: ½ to 1 dram. Used internally as a tonic and to destroy worms. Used externally as an astringent dusting powder.

318. Lead, acetate of sugar (sugar of lead) - Astringent. Used externally in the form of white lotion, for its cooling and soothing action in the treatment of sprains, bruises, itching skin diseases, cuts, burns, and scratches. All local conditions with heat, pain, and swelling are benefited by its use.

White lotion is made as follows:
- Lead acetate (1 ounce)
- Zinc sulphate (1 do.)
- Water to make (1 quart)
Shake well and apply several times daily.

319. Lime, chloride of - Disinfectant and deodorant. Must be fresh and kept in sealed jars. Used 6 ounces to the gallon of water to disinfect stables.

320. Liquor cresolis (solution of cresol) - Antiseptic and disinfectant. Used externally in 1 to 2 per cent solutions. It is a powerful antiseptic and much less poisonous than carbolic acid. It forms a soapy solution and is a very efficient cleaning agent.

321. Lunar caustic (silver nitrate) - Caustic. Used for the removal of excessive granulations (proud flesh) and warts and to stimulate slow healing ulcers.

322. Mercury, bichloride of (corrosive sublimate) – Antiseptic and disinfectant. Put up in tablets containing 7 ½ grains of mercury. One tablet to a pint of water makes a 1-1000 solution, the strength most commonly used in the treatment of wounds. If in bulk, used 7 ½ grains of bichloride of mercury to a pint of water, and add 7 ½ grains of ammonium chloride or table salt to insure solution of the mercury.

323. Mercury, mild chloride of (calomel) - Cholagogue, purgative, antiseptic, and drying. Dose: ½ to 1 dram. Frequently combined with aloes to make the physic ball:
- Calomel (½ to 1 drams)
- Aloes (4-6 do.)
- Ginger (1 do.)
Water to make a ball.

Used externally as a dry dressing in the treatment of thrush.

324. Mercury, biniodide of (red iodide) - Used as a blistering agent in the treatment of spavin, splints, ringbone, sidebone, thickened tendons, etc.

A mercury blister is prepared as follows:
- Biniodide of mercury (1 part)
- Cosmoline or lard (5-6 parts)
Mix and rub together thoroughly.

325. Nux vomica, fluid extract of - A nerve stimulant and tonic. Dose: 1 to 2 drams. Very useful in the treatment of debilitating diseases. Usually given with other drugs, gentian, iron sulphate, etc.

326. Nux vomica, powdered - Action and dose the same as the fluid extract. These drugs must not be given for more than five or six days at a time, as poisoning may result.

327. Oil, linseed - Laxative. Dose: 1 to 2 pints. Much used in the treatment of colics. The raw oil should always be used.

328. Oil, olive - Laxative. Dose: 1 to 2 pints. Principally used in making oily solutions for external use and as a soothing application in irritable conditions of the skin.

329. Oil, turpentine - Stimulant, diuretic, antispasmodic, antiseptic, carminative, expectorant, and vermicide. Dose: 1 to 3 ounces well diluted with oil. This is a most useful drug and of great value in the treatment of colics, especially flatulent colic. As a vermicide a single large dose, 2 to 4 ounces, is given in a pint of linseed oil, on an empty stomach. Used externally in stimulating liniments and to disinfect nail wounds. Given as an inhalation in respiratory diseases, 1 to 2 ounces to a pail of boiling water.

330. Opium, tincture of (laudanum) - Anodyne, and antispasmodic. Dose: 1 to 2 ounces. It checks secretion from mucous membranes and is of value in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery.

331. Opium, powdered - Action same as tincture. Dose: 1 to 2 drams.

332. Potassium arsenate, solution of (Fowler's solution) - Alterative and tonic. Dose: ½ to 1 ounce.

333. Potassium bromide - Nerve sedative. Dose: 1 to 2 ounces. Used to allay nervous excitability. In tetanus it is given in very large doses, 2 to 8 ounces.

334. Potassium iodide - Alterative, diuretic, and expectorant. Dose: 2 to 4 drams.

335. Potassium nitrate (saltpeter).—Alterative, febrifuge, diuretic. Dose: 2 to 4 drams. Internally much used in the treatment of fevers. In the treatment of laminitis it is used in large doses, 2 to 4 ounces, two or three times daily. Externally it is used as a cooling lotion in the treatment of sprains and bruises:
- Potassium nitrate (5 ounces)
- Ammonia chloride (5 do.)
- Water (1 pint)
Mix and keep the affected parts saturated with the solution.

336. Potassium permanganate - Antiseptic, disinfectant, and deodorant. Used externally as an antiseptic in the treatment of wounds, 1 to 2 drams to the pint of water. Full strength it is mildly caustic.

337. Quinine, sulphate of - Tonic, stomachic, antiseptic, and febrifuge. Dose: ½ to 1 dram three times daily. Used in the treatment of all febrile (fever) diseases.

338. Soap, castile - A cleaning agent. Used in removing grease and dirt from the skin surrounding the margins of wounds. Should not be applied to raw surfaces. Also used in making soap liniment.

339. Sodium bicarbonate - Stomachic. Dose: 2 to 8 drams. Used externally to allay itching and the pain of slight burns, ½ to 1 ounce to a pint of water. Used internally in chronic indigestion.

340. Sulphur - Parasiticide. Used in the form of an ointment in the treatment of skin diseases such as mange and eczema:
- Sulphur (1 part)
- Lard (4 parts)
Apply twice a day.

341. Tar, pine - Antiseptic, stimulant, expectorant, and parasiticide. Dose: 2 to 4 drams. Used as a protective dressing in the treatment of corns and punctured wounds of the foot. Also in the treatment of skin diseases. A good application is made as follows:
- Tincture iodine (2 ounces)
- Sulphur (1 ounce)
- Oil of tar (4 ounces)
- Olive or linseed oil to make 1 pint.
Mix. Shake well before applying. First thoroughly cleanse skin, and, when dry, rub the mixture in well and leave on for several days. Wash off and repeat if necessary.

342. Witch hazel - Astringent. Used externally as a cooling application to reduce swelling and relieve pain.

343. Zinc, sulphate of - Antiseptic and astringent. Used externally in the form of white lotion, for the treatment of bruises, collar sores, sore shoulders, saddle sores, etc.

344. Zinc oxide - Mildly astringent and antiseptic. Used as a dry dressing for wounds, either alone or in combination with other drugs: Zinc oxide, boric acid, and acetanilid, equal parts. Also used as an ointment in the treatment of abrasions and scratches:
- Zinc oxide (1 part)
- Cosmoline (4 parts)

345. Bandages. Flannel - Use chiefly on the legs for warmth, support, protection, and the retention of dressings. Cotton - Used for the retention of dressings and the protection of wounds.

346. Dressings.
Absorbent cotton - Used as a substitute for sponges in the cleansing of wounds; to make packs by soaking it in medicinal solutions; and to retain dry dressings in contact with the surfaces of wounds.

Antiseptic gauze - A light, loosely woven variety of cloth, which has been saturated with an antiseptic and dried. Used as a covering for wounds. Gauze must be kept clean and the par. that is to come in contact with the wound should never be touched with the fingers or hands.

Oakum - Prepared fiber from old ropes. Used principally in packing horses' feet. It may also be used as a substitute for sponges, and, in the absence of cotton and gauze, as a covering for wounds.

347. Packs.—Packs are made by soaking cotton, gauze, oakum, or similar material in hot or cold medicinal solutions, after which they are applied to the part with a bandage

348. Poultices.—Poultices are preparations for the local application of heat and moisture. They are made usually of flaxseed meal and bran, but other substances, such as oatmeal and bread, may be used. The material from which they are to be made is stirred up in hot water until thick and pasty. This mass is then spread on a piece of sacking or cloth of any kind and applied, while hot, directly to the part and held in place by means of bandages or other appliances. When poultices are intended for use on wounds, such as punctures of the foot, etc., from 2 to 4 drams of carbolic acid or creolin should be added to the mass to render it antiseptic. Poultices are most useful about the feet. They should be changed twice daily and immersed in hot water every hour to keep them fresh and to prevent drying. Their application should not be continued for more than three or four days at a time.

THE FIELD MEDICINE CHEST
349. The field medicine chest - The following supplies are ordinarily sufficient for a troop of cavalry for one month, and are intended for use in the field when no veterinarian accompanies the troops. They should be carefully and tightly packed in a well-made box with a hinged lid, hasp, staple, and padlock. The drugs should be kept in glass stoppered bottles, if obtainable, and all bottles and boxes should be plainly labeled with name and dost of contents and the labels well pasted on. Use the oakum for packing the bottles, and as it becomes used up for other purposes replace it with sacking or other suitable material. To prevent the wasting of medicine in the field, great care should be taken not to make up at any one time more than is actually needed.

- Basin, granite, 1-quart (1)
- Drenching bottle, pint, leather covered (1)
- Twitch, short, to fit in box (1)
- Farrier's instrument pocket case, in canvas or leather cover (1)
- Eye dropper (1)
- Graduate glass, 2-ounce (1)
- Syringe, metal or hard rubber, 2 to 4 ounces capacity (1)
- Extra corks, assorted sizes (1 Dozen)
- Ammonia, aromatic spirits of (8 ounces)
- Ammonia liniment (8 do.)
- Belladonna, fluid extract of (1 do.)
- Bandages, cotton (1 dozen)
- Bandages, flannel (1/3 do.)
- Bichloride of mercury tablets (2 ounces)
- Cotton, absorbent (16 do.)
- Cannabis Indica or Americana (4 do.)
- Creolin or Kreso (16 do.)
- Drying powder (8 do.)
- Ether, nitrous (8 do.)
- Eye lotion, saturated solution of boracic acid, (4 ounces)
- Gauze, antiseptic (1 package)
- Iodine, tincture of (8 ounces)
- Lead acetate (8 do.)
- Oakum (2 pounds)
- Potassium nitrate (8 ounces)
- Potassium permanganate (2 do.)
- Soap, castile (1 ½ pounds)
- Tar, pine (1 do.)
- Zinc sulphate (8 ounces)
- Zinc ointment, in 4-ounce tins (8 do.)
- Silk for sutures and needles in packet case.

WOUNDS
350. A wound is an injury to any part of the body involving a separation of the tissues of the affected part. Wounds are classified as incised, lacerated, punctured, bruised, and gunshot. Incised wounds are clean cuts made by a sharp instrument. Lacerated wounds are injuries in which the tissues are more or less torn. They are made by blunt objects, such as hooks and the teeth of horses and mules. Punctured wounds are made by pointed objects, such as nails, splinters, thorns, and the prongs of forks and rakes. Bruised wounds are injuries in which the skin is not broken, such as are caused by falls, kicks, the bumping of various parts of the body against blunt objects, and by pressure from the saddle and collar. Gunshot wounds are those made by bullets or pieces of shell.

DRESSINGS
361. A dressing is a form of local treatment producing a continuous action. It consists in the methodical application, upon the surface of a wound, of medical substances, and the use of such protective agents as gauze, cotton, or oakum, suitably arranged and held in position by bandages or other means. Wounds are not healed by treatment. The object of treatment is to keep the injured parts clean and protected, and nature repairs them. Cleanliness is, therefore, the all-important principle in their handling. Not only should the wound itself be clean but also the dressings, the instruments, and the vessels in which these are contained. The person doing the dressing should have his hands thoroughly clean, and should procure in a clean basin or bucket an antiseptic solution, and a sufficient quantity of clean cotton, gauze, or oakum.

He should also make ready the necessary instruments, as follows:

Instruments - Scissors, knife, forceps, probe, syringe, and a needle and some thread, if required ; all to be clean and placed in a tray or a basin and immersed in any good antiseptic solution, except bichloride of mercury, which will corrode them.

GENERAL TREATMENT OF WOUNDS
352. Stop the bleeding (hemorrhage) - If bleeding is profuse and from large vessels, the first step is to stop the flow of blood. This may be done by grasping the bleeding vessel or vessels with the forceps and tying them with a piece of silk, string, horsehair, or any suitable material which may be at hand. If the vessel cannot be tied, a thick pad made of cotton, gauze, oakum, or clean cloth may be made and bandaged tightly over the wound. This arrangement is called a compress and should not be kept on for more than three or-four hours, after which it must be removed and a clean dressing with less pressure applied. If the wound be in a location which will not permit bandaging, the bleeding may be stopped by packing it tightly with cotton or gauze held in place by stitches in the skin drawn tightly over the packing. Slight hemorrhages, such as follow injuries to the small vessels and capillaries, may be checked by baths of cold water or by compresses of cotton or oakum, either dry or soaked in a solution of tincture of chloride of iron.

353. Clean the wound and remove all foreign bodies – When the bleeding has stopped, cut the hair from the edges of the wound and remove all dirt, clots of blood, splinters, and foreign bodies of every kind. This may be done by carefully syringing the parts with clean warm water, or a warm antiseptic solution. Foreign bodies may be removed with the forceps or by passing small pieces of cotton soaked in an antiseptic solution gently over the surface of the wound. These pieces of cotton must be thrown away after using and not put back in the solution. The object of this is to keep the solution and the rest of the material clean. Wounds that are clean and dry should not be washed.

354. Apply an antiseptic - Tincture of iodine, iodoform, boracic acid add, or a solution of carbolic acid, creolin, or bichloride of mercury.

355. Close the wound - Sutures and bandages are used for this purpose, but no wound that has been dirty must ever be entirely closed. Sutures as a rule may be dispensed with entirely. They may occasionally be used in parts where there is little flesh, such as around the forehead, eyelids, and nose. They are less useful in fleshy parts, because the movements of the muscles and the swelling resulting from the inflammation of the injured tissues cause them to pull out. Again, sutures must not be used when the edges of the wound are badly torn. In applying sutures, the borders of the wound must be brought together in their natural position, care being taken not to allow the edges of the skin to curl inward. The thread, with the aid of a needle, is passed through the skin at one side of the wound and out at the other. The sutures should be from one-fourth to one-half an inch from each edge, about three-fourths of an inch apart, and their depth should be about equal to their distance from the edge of the wound. They should be drawn just tight enough to bring the edges of the skin together. As a rule, they should be removed in about eight days.

356. Drainage - In all wounds drainage is necessary for the removal of serum and pus that would otherwise accumulate in them. The escape of such material must be provided for at the lowest part of the wound. If the wound be a vertical (upright) one, this may be accomplished by leaving out a stitch at the bottom. In horizontal wounds (wounds running lengthwise with the body), a small vertical opening must be made below the line of stitches.

357. Dressings - Wounds that have been sutured and also wounds that are to be treated without suturing, should be dried carefully with dry gauze or cotton, painted with tincture of iodine, or dusted with an antiseptic powder, covered with dry gauze or cotton and a bandage applied. Or, cotton soaked in an antiseptic solution may be put on and held in position by a bandage, care being taken to avoid undue pressure. If the location of the wound will not permit bandaging, the injured parts may be painted with tincture of iodine or dusted with an antiseptic powder, and covered with a clean piece, of cloth or gunny sack, the inside of which may be lined with a piece of gauze large enough to cover the wound.

358. Rest and restraint - This will depend entirely upon the nature and extent of the wound. If the injury be slight, the animal may continue at work; otherwise he may be kept in a box stall, cross-tied, or placed in slings.

359. After care - All wounds should be kept dry, and dressings should be changed only often enough to keep the wound clean. As little washing as possible should be done, and the parts should be topped instead of rubbed. After cleaning and drying a new dressing must be applied.

360. Flies - The healing of wounds that can not be covered is sometimes retarded by the presence of flies. Such wounds should be painted once or twice daily with either of the following preparations:
A - Creolin, ½ ounce, Oil of tar, 1 ounce, and Oil, olive, 10 ounces, mix.
B - Carbolic acid, 3 ounces and Camphor, 8 ounces, mix.

361. Maggots (screw worms) - Wounds sometimes get flyblown and maggots appear. Their presence is recognized by a thin bloody discharge from the wound and the red, angry appearance of its edges. If the bottom of the wound is carefully examined, movement of the worms may be seen.
Treatment - With forceps, pick out all the worms that are visible and wipe out the cavity with a swab of cotton that has been saturated with a solution of carbolic acid 1 to 5. Or turpentine 1 part and olive oil 3 parts may be used in the same way.

362. Excessive granulations (proud flesh.) - In sluggish, slow-healing wounds, small rounded, fleshy masses are often formed, which protrude beyond the edges of the wound. These fleshy masses are called excessive granulations or proud flesh. Treatment - The growths must be kept down by the use of astringents, or caustics, such as alum, nitrate of silver, or sulphate of copper or zinc.

SPECIAL TREATMENT OF WOUNDS
363. Incised wounds - See "General treatment of wounds." Lacerated wounds - Trim away all torn and ragged edges and treat as directed under general treatment of wounds. If pockets are formed, provide drainage.

Punctured wounds - Punctured wounds, except those around joints, should be carefully probed to ascertain if any foreign bodies are present. If so, they must be removed, and, if the wound runs in a downward direction, an opening should be made a little lower down to allow for drainage. The wound is then swabbed out with a strip of gauze that has been saturated with tincture of iodine, or it may be syringed out very carefully with an antiseptic solution, care being taken not to force the stream in a downward direction. After cleaning the interior, a dusting powder should be applied to the surface.

364. Punctured wounds or joints and tendon sheaths - Punctures of the synovial membrane of joints or tendons, which allow the synovia to escape, are always serious and often result in permanent disability or death of the animal. The conditions are commonly known as open joint and open bursa, respectively. Treatment - Do not probe unless a foreign body is known to be present, as the introduction of the probe, even though clean, may injure the delicate structures of the joint or tendon sheath. Remove the hair; cleanse the parts, but do not use the syringe; paint the opening of the wound with tincture of iodine, apply a biniodide of mercury blister, and cover with gauze and a bandage. Place the animal in slings or a cross-tie; clean the wound daily, if required; paint with tincture of iodine, and re-bandage. If the wound be a large one, omit the blister and treat with antiseptics. Feed laxative foods and keep fresh, cool water before the animal at all times.

BRUISED WOUNDS (CONTUSIONS) AND ABRASIONS
365. Under this heading are considered sore backs and sore shoulders, etc.; otherwise known as chafes and galls of the back or shoulders or any part that comes in contact with the saddle, harness, or equipment.

366. Sore backs - This term includes all injuries produced by the pressing or rubbing of any part of the saddle or saddle equipment against the skin and its underlying tissues, the nature and severity of such injuries depending upon the amount of pressure and the length of its duration. Sway-backed horses, roach-backed horses, horses with bulging barrels or barrels tapering upward and backward, or horses with abnormally high or abnormally low withers, are more liable to such injuries than others.

Causes:
1. Faulty placing of the saddle, i,. e., too far forward or too far back.

2. Improper folding of the blanket; blanket wrinkled dirty, and containing sand , burrs, splinters, thorns, etc., in its folds.

3. Improper adjustment of the equipment, and unequal distribution of weight.

4. Drawing the cincha too tight and improper adjustment of the cincha and quarter straps.

5. Poor riding, i. e., lounging in the saddle and shifting from one side to the other.

6. Improper adjustment of the stirrup strap, i. e., too long or too short or unequal in length.

7. Long continuous work under the saddle.

8. Profused sweating and rain.

Symptoms - Hard, hot, painful swellings, appearing usually within an hour after unsaddling. These lesions are best detected by passing the hand over the back, when swelling and tenderness may be discovered. As a result of continuous pressure the skin often becomes bloodless, dies, dries up, and gets hard and leather like. This dead piece of skin is called a sitfast. Later, if the animal is continued in use, the skin sloughs off, leaving raw sores of various sizes and depths. Injuries to the withers or along the top of the spine, frequently terminate in abscesses. (See Abscess.)

Treatment - Ascertain and remove the cause, if possible. In fresh cases, apply cold irrigations or baths with gentle hand rubbing. This is to be followed by the application of cold in the form of packs saturated and kept wet with cold water and held gently in position by means of a surcingle or bandage. The pad may be oi oakum, or it may be made by folding a gunny sack three or four times. Ice packs or cold lotions may also be used. Injuries to the withers and ridge of the spine should be irrigated or bathed with cold water, but without pressure and without massage. When sitfasts appear, apply warm baths or warm linseed poultices until the dead skin becomes loose; it is then removed with the forceps and a knife, after which the injury is treated with tincture of iodine or an antiseptic powder. Slight galls, chafes, or abrasions (spots rubbed bare) are treated with white lotion, zinc oxide ointment, powdered boracic acid, or a solution of tannic acid 1 ounce in a pint of witchhazel or alcohol.

Prevention - Adjust carefully and properly the saddle, the blanket, and the equipment; keep the blanket clean, dry, and free from foreign material; sit properly in the saddle, and dismount frequently and walk. After long marches, loosen the cincha slightly and leave the saddle on for from 30 minutes to an hour after dismounting, where an injury has occurred, the blood vessels are compressed and almost bloodless. If pressure be now suddenly and completely removed, blood is vigorously forced into the paralyzed vessels and may rupture their walls. On the other hand, if the saddle be allowed to remain for some time in position, circulation may be gradually restored without injury.

367. Injuries from packsaddles and aparejos - The causes, nature, and treatment of these injuries are the same as those produced by the riding saddle.

368. Sore shoulders.
Causes - Dirty, ill-fitting, and improperly made collars; excessive weight of the pole, causing pressure on the top of the base of the neck; improper adjustment of the hames or trace plates; unequal length of traces; working with. head drawn to one side; long continuous work in the harness; rough roads, and poor driving.
Treatment - Same as for sore backs (par. 366). Prevention - Fit the collars properly and keep them clean; keep the mane closely trimmed at the base of the neck; adjust the pole chains properly, and drive with care.

369. Bruises of the limbs.
Causes - Kicks, falls, treads, and, in draft animals, blows from the pole.
Treatment - Cold irrigations and cold packs. When the inflammation is reduced apply tincture of iodine or a blister, if required.

GUNSHOT WOUNDS
370. Gunshot wounds are those made by bullets or pieces of shell. Treatment - Do not probe for bullets unless they can be distinctly felt through the skin. Leave them where they are and they will either become embedded in the tissues or expelled by the process of suppuration (formation of pus). The tract of the bullet must not be irrigated nor should any attempt be made to explore its depths. The point of entrance, and that of exit, too, if there be one, should be treated locally with antiseptics, preferably tincture of iodine. The animal should be watched daily for the formation of an abscess which may develop and disclose the location of the bullet.

SEROUS SACS
371. By the term serous sac is meant a collection of serum, a straw colored, sometimes bloody, watery fluid, under the skin.

Causes - Blows and bruises, particularly about the buttocks.

Symptoms - A uniformly soft, painless, fluctuating swelling, varying in size from that of an egg to a man's head. They often resemble windgalls and hernias (ruptures of the abdominal wall), from which they must be carefully differentiated.

Treatment - Bathe twice a day for a week with cold water, and follow each bath by applications of white lotion. If, at the end of this time the swelling has not disappeared, apply tincture of iodine or a blister. About two months are required to effect a cure. Opening the enlargement is inadvisable and should be left to the veterinarian. The animal may be worked, except when the swelling is so located as to be injured by the saddle or harness.

SUPPURATION – ABSCESS
372. Suppuration - By this term is meant the formation and discharge of pus (matter). An abscess is a local collection of pus in the tissues of any part of the body. From eight days to two or three weeks' time is usually required for its development.

Causes - It is usually the result of an inflammation caused by an injury. Abscesses also frequently occur in the course of certain diseases, such as distemper, pneumonia, and pharyngitis.

Symptoms - Heat, pain, and swelling in the injured part. The swelling is at first small and hard. It gradually increases in size, however, and finally becomes soft and elevated in the middle into a prominent hairless spot. This is called pointing or coming to a head. In a few days after pointing begins the abscess opens and its contents (pus) escape.

Treatment - Small abscesses in the early stages may be scattered by the application of cold packs or tincture of iodine. The best results, however, are usually obtained by the use of warm baths or warm linseed poultices. When the swelling becomes soft in the center, it should be opened at its lowest point, using a sharp instrument to cut through the skin and a blunt one to enlarge the opening and prolong it into the cavity of the abscess. A sharp instruments must not be deeply inserted into the cavity, as large blood vessels may be injured and fatal bleeding follow. After opening, the cavity must be flushed once or twice daily with an antiseptic solution until pus ceases to flow. Abscesses, like serous sacs, sometimes resemble windgalls and hernias from which they must be carefully differentiated, as opening a hernia would be fatal.

BURNS AND SCALDS
373. Treatment - Bathe or tie up the parts with any mild antiseptic solution, or dust the surface with borac acid or flour and cover with cotton and a bandage. If sloughing occurs, treat as an ordinary wound.

378. Rope bums - Abrasions or lacerations usually at the back of the hind-pasterns.

Causes - Getting the foot over the halter shank, picket line, or lariat. It is generally the result of leaving the halter shank too long tying.

Symptoms - The injury may be a simple chafe of the skin or it may involve the underlying tendons and ligaments.

Treatment - Trim away all torn and ragged edges, clean the wound thoroughly and apply an antiseptic. See paragraphs 347, 354, 357,358, and 359. Should the parts at any time become dry, hard, and painful, they may be softened by daily applications of zinc oxide ointment or creolin and olive oil (creolin ¼ ounce, olive oil 4¼ ounces).

379. Inflammation - A condition into which the tissues of the body enter as a result of an injury.

Symptoms.—Pain, heat, swelling, and redness (invisible in dark skin and in skin covered with hair), all of which occur as the result of an increased flow of blood to the injured part.

Treatment.—Bathe or irrigate the inflamed area several times daily with cold water. When the parts will admit it, cold packs may be applied.

DETECTION OF LAMENESS
380. Lameness - Lameness is any irregularity in the gait.

381. Classification of lameness - Lameness is divided into two classes:

(a) Swinging-leg lameness, which is shown by a shortened stride and more or less dragging of the leg. Seen in diseased and injured muscles.

(b) Supporting-leg lameness, shown when the leg supports the weight of the body. This form occurs in diseases and injuries of bones, tendons, ligaments, and the foot.

382. Severe lameness is readily recognized, even when the animal is at rest. Distinct symptoms, such as pointing or frequently raising the injured limb, are usually seen, the animal's instinct leading him to place the affected part in a position to relieve the pain.

383. Examination for lameness - In making an examination for lameness, the animal, having free use of his head, should be led at a slow trot toward and from the observer. Too short a hold on the halter shank prevents free play of the muscles concerned in locomotion. In examining the lame limb, place it in its natural position and inspect its various parts both with the hand and eye, comparing them carefully with those of the sound leg for the purpose of detecting differences in shape, size, temperature, and sensitiveness to touch and pressure. In all cases examine the foot thoroughly and carefully, removing the shoe if necessary. Heat, pain, and swelling are valuable guides in the detection of lameness. The hoof tester or pinchers, carefully and gently employed, is useful in locating injuries of the foot.

Note: the section on lameness continues in the book.

END



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