Search billions of records on


This page belongs to greg krenzelok.


The insignia of the 7th Division consists of two black, equilateral triangles placed vertically on a red circular disc, with their apexes in juxtaposition at the center of the disc. Colonel W.W. Taylor, Jr., designed the double triangle, Division Chief of Staff, while the Division was at Waco, Texas. It is a happy coincidence that the outline of the design is a numeral 7 crossed by another 7 inverted, thus forming two triangles. The similarity of the double triangle to an hourglass was responsible for the nickname, “Hour-Glass Division”

7th Division Headquarters buildings, T-1044 and T-1045 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration buildings) are located between the flagpole in the above picture and are located on 2nd Street and are still there as of 2010. Most people in the area do not realize they are there and were the Headquarters for the 7th Division and General Stilwell in the early 1940's. The above image is a wonderful picture showing us the layout of their headquarters with the review stand below the flagpole. Barracks (B-63) T-1708 T-1709, T-1710, and T-1711 can be seen in the above picture and are located on 3rd Street and are facing the Headquarters building up on the hill. All the barracks in UNIT 4 are still standing as of the year 2010. Company orderly room (storehouses) (SA-1) and mess halls (M-170) are behind the barracks. I am not sure when the picture was taken and looking at the cars I would say the late 1940’s or early 1950’s.

Behind the headquarters buildings are the Officer’s Quarters Mess barracks (OQM-40) T-1024 and T-1025 they also are still standing. The OQM-40 barracks east of these up by the college were recently torn down in 2009. All the OQM-40 in UNIT 4 are still standing as of March 2010.

The 7th Division consisted of the 17th, 32nd and 53rd Infantry Regiments at this time. The 53rd Infantry were barracked in the area of the Headquarters in the UNIT 4 and 5 area.

7th Division Headquarters buildings, T-1045 and T-1044 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration buildings) 1941 Fort Ord

7th Division Headquarters building, T-1045 (A-22 building, 2 story administration building) 1941 Fort Ord

Joseph W. Stilwell
Major General U.S. Army
Commanding Seventh Division, Fort Ord, California 1941

1904 HOWITZER JOE STILWELL (Class of 1904): Sgt., Act.1st Sgt., Lieut.; Foot Ball Team, 1903; "A" Football; Indoor Meet, 1901, 1902, 1903, and 1904;. Field Meet, 1903 and 1904; Capt. Cross Country Team, 1904; Hop Mgr., 1903 and 1904.

NOTE: March 2016 while doing research at the Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University, California I was told that the Archives has in their collection one of General Stilwell's uniforms.

Taken at the early Headquarters at Camp Ord (East Garrison) when the 7th Division was in a tent encampment waiting for their barracks to be completed at Fort Ord (Camp Clayton), in Nov/Dec 1940. For a short time in 1940 7th Division Headquarters was at the Presidio of Monterey.

7th Division moves from Headquarters at Camp Ord to new Divisional HQ at the south end of the new Fort Ord. (Source: Ft. Ord Panorama, Greg Krenzelok Collection)

Born in Florida on March 19, 1883. Admitted to the United States Military Academy (at large) from the State of New York, August 1, 1900. Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Infantry, June 15, 1904; First Lieutenant, March 31, 1911; Captain, July 1, 1916; Major, July 1, 1920; Lieutenant Colonel, May 6, 1928; Colonel, August 1, 1935; Brigadier General, July 1, 1939; Major General, October 1, 1940. Served in General Staff Corps, August 25, 1920, to April 27, 1921, and July 1, 1928, to March 17, 1929.

Awarded Distinguished Service Medal for “Exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services, in a position of great responsibility,” in 1919. “As a Lieutenant Colonel (Infantry), General Staff Corps, U.S. Army, in the capacity of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, Fourth Army Corps, during the St. Mihiel Offensive, and later during the operations in the Woevre, he displayed military attainments of a high order. With great energy and zeal he pursued the developments of the enemy activities on the Corps front, securing invaluable information, which assisted in a marked degree in the planning of the operations. He contributed by the excellent performance of his task to the success of these operations.”

Bachelor of Science, U.S. Military Academy, 1904; graduate of Command and General Staff School, 1926; graduate of Infantry School, Advanced Course, 1924

Seventh Division Staff, Fort Ord, California 1941.

Left to right: Ernest J. Dawley, Brigadier General Commanding 7 th Division Artillery; W.E. Bergin, Lieutenant Colonel G-1; Rinaldo L. Coe, Lieutenant Colonel G-2; Joseph W. Stilwell, Major General Commanding 7th Division; John E. McMahon, Jr., Lieutenant Colonel G-4; Charles H. White, Brigadier General, Assistant to the Division Commander; Frederick McCabe, Lieutenant Colonel G-3; Edward P. Earle, Major, Assistant G-4; W.R. Scott, Colonel, C of S.

Notice the cavalry boots. Fort Ord still had U.S. Army horses at the time that this picture was taken.

7th Division Headquarters buildings, T-1044 and T-1045 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration buildings)are pictured in this Fort Ord postcard. The flagpole was not in at this time.

“Draftee’s See How its Done” 7th Division Troop “In-Review’ February 8, 1941 marching west down 3rd Street. 7th Division Headquarters buildings, T-1044 and T-1045 (unpainted) can be seen in the background with the review stand in front. At the end of 2nd Street and 3rd Street looking west can be seen T-1063 Theater building TH-3 which is now gone. This area would have been the southwest corner of the Fort Ord’s Main Garrison in 1941. Beyond the theater would be the Gym, Post Exchange, gas station, Quartermaster warehouses and 2nd Street main gate on State Highway No. 1. (Associated Press Photo)

General view of the farewell review honoring Major General Stilwell which was staged at Fort Ord Parade Grounds by the 15,000 men of the 7th Division. General Stilwell assumed command of the Third Army Corps Succeeding him at Fort Ord, as commander of the 7th Division is Brigadier General Charles White, who led this review. At the conclusion of the review the men massed on the field. (International News Press photo, 7-26-1941)

Note: The parade ground at Fort Ord in July of 1941 was on the south end boundaries of the barracks or south of 1st Street now renamed Divarty Street (“Divarty” stands for Division Artillery). In the above picture the OQM (Officer's Quarters and Mess) barracks can be seen in the background. These barracks are still standing as of 12-5-2010. The OQM barracks east of 2nd Avenue were removed by the California State University, Monterey (CSUMB) under Command of Dianne F. Harrison the president in April of 2009, which I had the great sadness to witness. These were the last of the 76th Field Artillery (Horse-Drawn) officer’s barracks.

The above March 5, 1941 aerial picture looking south to north shows the Fort Ord Parade Grounds before they were completed. Work on the parade grounds can be seen in this photo. (National Archives)

Fort Ord under construction on December 12, 1940. Taken I believe of Unit No. 17 barracks at the corner of 3rd Avenue and 4th Street area and the picture taken from the area of T-1009 OQM (Officer's Quarters and Mess) barracks located on 1st Street on the hill where the water tanks will be. 76th Field Artillery’s horse stables can be seen in the distance at the top right of the photo.

June 1940 brought the activation of numerous divisions after twenty years of peacetime demobilization, and the Seventh Division is today hard at work training at Fort Ord in the Monterey country of California.

The site located about 14 miles from Salinas and seven miles from the bay city of Monterey, was purchased by the government on August 4, 1917. It has over 15,000 acres of suitable terrain for maneuvers and training grounds, which provide excellent problems in the practical warfare to every branch of the service.

An integral force of the United States Army, the Seventh Division was activated with permanent station at Fort Ord, California with the following units:

7th Division Headquarters; Headquarters and Military Police Company (less band);
7th Signal Company
17th Infantry, Second Battalion
32nd Infantry (less Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment and Companies E and F, Second Battalion)
76th Field Artillery, Battery “F” (75mm. Gun Horse-Drawn)
76th Field Artillery, Third Battalion, (75mm. Gun Horse-Drawn)
31st Field Artillery (155mm Howitzer Truck-Drawn) less band
13th Engineers Battalion (Combat)
4th Ordnance Company (M. Maintenance)
7th Quartermaster Battalion
7th Medical Battalion

Effective August 1, 1940, the Seventh Division, United States Army, Fort Ord, California, began to function with the following organizations attached:

7th Division Headquarters
Headquarters and Military Police Company
7th Division:
17th Infantry
32nd Infantry
53rd Infantry
76th Field Artillery (75mm. Gun Horse-Drawn)
31st Field Artillery (155mm Howitzer Truck-Drawn)
13th Engineers Battalion
7th Quartermaster Battalion
7th Medical Battalion
7th Medical Regiment
Attached Medical Organizations, Seventh Division

The 7th Division Artillery:
31st Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Howitzer Truck-Drawn)
74th Field Artillery Battalion (75mm. Gun Horse-Drawn)
75th Field Artillery Battalion (75mm. Gun Horse-Drawn)
76th Field Artillery Battalion (75mm. Gun Horse-Drawn)

Note: In the 74th Field Artillery Battalion's Unit History Book they claim to have been the last horse-drawn unit in the Army.

General Stilwell left the 7th to take command of the III Army Corps with the headquarters at the Presidio of Monterey. “Uncle Joe” was not too happy about the promotion to a desk job, he told the troops in his farewell review speech in his honor. He was literally loved by the men of the 7th Division where under his command and leadership, order came out of chaos in a short time. He held his post with the III Army Corps until February 1942.

Robert S. Roode, 7th MP’s, Fort Ord, CA.

November 5, 2016

Hi Greg
I saw the web site and thought it was wonderful. My Father was attached to the 7th MP’s and before that was in the 74th field Artillery:

Robert S. Roode
Drafted in 1941 and sent to Fort Ord for training, started in the 74th Field Artillery and he told me he rode horses all day long and was so sore he could not take it. He was able to join the 7th division Military Police and stayed with them thru the duration of the war. He made it to Sergeant and received two Bronze Stars most likely in Okinawa. Like many men of his day, he never talked about how he received his medals.

Thanks again
Chris Roode

Post Headquarters for Fort Ord and Officer’s Club T-2798 and T-2799 (Administration Buildings) is located on 2nd Avenue and are the red tiled roofed building that is still standing as of 2010. Above on the hill is T-2858 (E-2 building, post exchange) which is no longer standing and Chapel (CH-1) T-2878 which is still standing but is without its steeple. Firehouse (F-2) T-2898 was beyond that. 1940's.

Note: the roof of T-2859 (A-22 building, 2 story administration building) can be seen just right of the flagpole. This was the Corps troops area of Fort Ord in the 1940's.

Post Headquarters for Fort Ord T-2798 and T-2799 (Administration Buildings) 1941 looking north east.

Post Headquarters for Fort Ord T-2798 and T-2799 (Administration Buildings)1941 looking south east.

Post Headquarters for Fort Ord T-2798 and T-2799 (Administration Buildings) later in the 1940's. Post Headquarters was located next to the Corps troop barracks area that you can still see today on the hill. Building T-2859 (A-22 building, 2 story administration building) can be clearly seen in this picture behind the Post Headquarters building and next to T-2858 the E-2 post exchange building.


Click on the below link:

Fort Ord Buildings, Completion Report Pictures 1941-1942

Red dot marks the 7th Division Headquarters buildings, T-1044 and T-1045 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration buildings) with the HQ flagpole to the left of the red dot. DLIFLC & POM Archives

“A Building Every 54 minutes at Fort Ord” was the claim. (Source: National Archives)

Barracks going up at Fort Ord, California 1940. DLIFLC & POM Archives

The construction of Stilwell Hall the million-dollar Soldiers Club overlooking Monterey bay 1941. DLIFLC & POM Archives

The Fort Ord Station Hospital administration building T-3010, the entrance into the hospital was right across from the Red Cross Station. Heavy ground work is being done in this area as of March 2010. DLIFLC & POM Archives

Click on the below link:

Fort Ord Station Hospital WW2

Post Chapel T-2661 and Red Cross Building T-2662 at Fort Ord, California 1941 these buildings have been restored and are in use today. DLIFLC & POM Archives

1940 Fort Ord Panorama Newspaper (Greg Krenzelok Collection)

Fort Ord Streets and Units September 15, 1941. Created by G.L. Krenzelok


Headquarters and M.P. Company
17th, 32nd, and 53rd Infantry Regiments
7th Reconnaissance Troop (refer to footnote a)
13th Engineer Battalion, (Combat)
7th Medical Battalion (refer to footnote b)
7th Signal Company (refer to footnote c)
7th Quartermaster Battalion (refer to footnote d)
31st Artillery Battalion, (155mm, Tractor Drawn) (refer to footnote e)
48th Artillery Battalion, (105mm, Truck Drawn)
57th Artillery Battalion, (105mm, Truck Drawn)

19th Engineer Regiment
57th Medical Battalion
54th Signal Battalion (refer to footnote f)

47th Engineer Regiment
391st Engineer Company (Depot)
1st Medical Regiment
7th Surgical Hospital
102nd Signal Intelligence Company
255th Signal Construction Company
80th Ordnance Company (Depot)
82d Ordnance Company (Heavy Maintenance)
1st Battalion 47th Quartermaster Regiment
69th Quartermaster Battalion (temp. Presidio)
79th Quartermaster Company
Company A 204th Quartermaster Battalion
2nd Platoon 22nd Quartermaster Company
5th Platoon 1st Veterinary Company

147th Field Artillery Regiment
74th Field Artillery (Horse-drawn)
75th Field Artillery (Horse-drawn)
76th Field Artillery (Horse-drawn)
1st Station Hospital
176th Signal Radio Repair Company
68th Quartermaster Pack Troops (Pack Mule)
97th Quartermaster Battalion (Bakery)
757th Tank Battalion

DEML Headquarters
Headquarters Section
Quartermaster Section
Medical Section
Veterinary Section
Chemical Warfare Section
Finance Section (attached)
Detachment 9th Ordinance
Service Company
Detachment 8th Signal Service Company
2nd branch of School for Bakers and Cooks


Note: Printed on the Monterey Peninsula by Peninsula Printing, 465 Alvarado Street, Monterey, California.

Footnote a:
a. 7th Reconnaissance Troop was formed on a foundation contributed by twenty men from the 11th Cavalry at the Presidio of Monterey on August 1, 1940. These men received the same training as other “horse soldier” but who were exacting in their capacity as soldiers. Now, these same men have profited by their patience and diligence. Theirs is the reward of seeing an outfit born and raised with them in the role of foster-fathers. Captain M.J. Mattison will command the 7th Reconnaissance Troop. Troop officers are 1st Lt. Cecil Himes and 1st Lt. Donald B. MacArthur. Equipment has not yet been delivered to the troop, but when received will consist of twenty scout cars. They are armed with one .50 cal. machine-gun, two .30 cal. water-cooled machine-guns mounted on a circular track, that runs completely around the car. – FORT ORD PANORAMA, 9-20-1940 (DLIFLC & POM Archives)

Menu and Roster:
Thanksgiving Dinner 1941
7th Reconnaissance Troop
Fort Ord, California

Fruit Cocktail
Dill Pickles
Ripe Olives
Celery Hearts
Roast Turkey and oyster dressing
Cranberry sauce
Giblet Gravy
Snow Flaked Potatoes
Creamed Corn
French Peas
Asparagus Tips
Parker House Rolls and butter
Coconut Cake
Fruit Cake
Minced Pie
Pumpkin Pie
Ice Cream
Mixed Nuts
Mixed Candy
Fruit Punch


Milo H. Matteson, Commanding

Mortimer M. Merritt, Executive
George L. McElmurray
Donald B. McArthur
Stanley A. Young

Roy O. Hieb
William J. Owen
Carl Lervold

Lewis Francisco

George R. McKinley
William C. Pryor, Jr.

Elmer Blough
Joseph DeMarco
Chester R. Eckard
Raymond L. Flanner
Orville Hensley
Mark M. Keza
Walter Matras
William I. Priest
Harry L. Scott
Hubert E. Suggs
Clarence E. Shipman

Elmer C. Bitters
Norman L. Blanford
Edward J. Boyle, Jr.
William H. Bryant
Clare D. Cromer
Forrest R. Evans
Frank Ferreira
John C. French
Kimio Hatashita
Paul S. Hemphill
Lloyd Heurlin
Stephen J. Hughes
Clare K. Jensen
Worthy G. Lewis
Warren R. Pfaff
William L. Stockwell
Gilbert T. Willmarth

Alex Alavezos
Andy C. Anderson
John M. Babcock
Jesse L. Bachant
Mervin D. Baker
Eldon W. Bauman
Charles G. Conant
Jacob H. Davasher
Carl K. Daubenspeck
James S. Farwell
Ivan S. Fisher
William J. Foletta
Lloyd S. Fred
Rollin G. Gardner
Nicholas C. Glaviano
William T. Gochis
Joseph A. Halle
Ngon Jin Hom
Walter E. Hubner
Cleveland E. Jones, Jr.
Raymond M. Kines
John S. Lockhart
Steve Marquez
John F. McGill, Jr.
Antonio Mendieta
Paul J. Mortillaro
Walter A. Salter
George A. Scheilds
James M. Stephens
Joe M. Toste
Kameo Toyota

Howard F. Albin
John B. Alves
Tony E. Alves
Axel V. Anderson
Clement W. Anderson
Theodore Anderson
John P. Arriet
Arthur H. Beach
Edwin Besson
Ildefonso T. Beltran
Johnnie Bonavia
Phillip J. Boynton
John P. Breznik
Leonard C. Brink
Robert L. Brittendall
Lowell B. Bryant
Leonard L. Carroll
Felix E. Castruita
Earl E. Christensen
Monroe I. Crawford
Roy M. Creel
Dudley M. Curtis
Albert Del Carlo
Henry A. Del Carlo
Manuel Del Corral
Rey D. Delgado
Peter Del Re
Mark A. Edgar
Richard D. Ermoian
Arnold L. Evans
John Ferreira
John A. Gilroy
Kenneth L. Gisseman
Jose L. Gomez
Samuel Gomez
John Graham
Lester D. Grigsby
Jack H. Gruber
David Guisti
Kenneth R. Halstead
William Hamburg
Zeb H. Harrell
Kenneth A. Hayworth
William L. Jacobson
Arvo Kalliokoski
McKinley L. Knight
Alton E. Lambert
Adolph C. Lange
Louis E. Lavigna
Richard G. Little
Jack Lovs
Melvin G. Lucchetti
Joe H. Martinez
Edward Matinzo
Manuel J. Mello
William A. Monticello
Lino M. Montoya
Lailan G. Moss
Robert D. Murray
Thomas L. Mylar
Bednard L. Nichols
Clarence Ortega
Lawrence W. Pelanconi
Ernest Rentsch
Frederick W. Robbins
Frank S. Rodriguez
Cecil L. Rowe
Arthur Ruffer
Rudolph H. Sallinen
Jack Schaaf
Albert L. Showalter
Eugene L. Taldo
Virgil L. Talley
Paul Terribilina
Felix W. Thompson
Anothony S. Torres
James D. Turner
Victor Valstad
Arthur M. Weinberg
Norman J. Whitlock
James C. Wheat
Gordon Young
John Yrigoyen


a. 7th Reconnaissance Troop was formed on a foundation contributed by twenty men from the 11th Cavalry at the Presidio of Monterey on August 1, 1940. These men received the same training as other “horse soldier” but who were exacting in their capacity as soldiers. Now, these same men have profited by their patience and diligence. Theirs is the reward of seeing an outfit born and raised with them in the role of foster-fathers. Captain M.J. Mattison will command the 7th Reconnaissance Troop. Troop officers are 1st Lt. Cecil Himes and 1st Lt. Donald B. MacArthur. Equipment has not yet been delivered to the troop, but when received will consist of twenty scout cars. They are armed with one .50 cal. machine-gun, two .30 cal. water-cooled machine-guns mounted on a circular track, that runs completely around the car. – FORT ORD PANORAMA, 9-20-1940 (DLIFLC & POM Archives)

b. 7th Medical Battalion, “grandson” of the 7th Sanitary Train of World War One has developed into a sturdy and healthy unit since it was formed here a few weeks ago. On July1, 1940, organization of the battalion was authorized and cadre from the 3rd Medical Battalion, Fort Lewis, was ordered to Monterey Presidio July 12. The non-commissioned officers, who incidentally did a fine job of organization, included Tech. Sgt. William Wesche, Staff Sgts. Ronald O. Bell, Lee R. White, John E. Snider, Anthony P. Narkin, William F. Moriarty and Sgts George C. Jacobs and Howard J. Kohn. The 7th Sanitary Train was later redesigned the 7th Medical Regiment until it demobilization in 1922. Staff Sgt. John E. Snider who served in the old 7th Sanitary Train during World War One, now take pride once again being part of his old unit. On August 4, 1940, the old organization was moved to its permanent site at Fort Ord to join its fellow “dust mates” of the 7th Division. (Note: Fort Ord and the reservation was known for its dusty conditions”. The organization at present consists of 182 enlisted men and four officers. Colonel Wilson C. von Kessler is C.O. and Division Surgeon with Captain George J. Matt and Lt. Edward P. Drescher as company commander of Hq. and Hqs. Company and Company “A”, respectively. Lt. Allan B. Eaker is Battalion Plans and Training Officer. The Battalion is at present under going intensive training in both medical subjects and close order drill. Under the direction of Lt. Milton H. Fuller, Jr., 53rd Infantry, Company “A” tried its hand at rifle marksmanship during the past week. From scores established, it is only fair to warn the Infantry outfit to look out for their laurels, as some excellent shots were uncovered. All in all, the 7th Medics are coming up fast, so watch their dust. - FORT ORD PANORAMA, 1940, week unknown. (DLIFLC & POM Archives)

c. 7th Signal Company, on July 9, 1940 a cadre of 19 enlisted men of the 3rd Signal Company, Fort Lewis, Washington received orders to proceed to Fort Ord to form the 7th Signal Company. Upon arrival at Fort Ord the organization immediately became an orphan outfit. They were first attached to the 11th Cavalry (horse mounted), next the M.P.’s then the 13th Engineers took us up their wings. The first two weeks were very busy ones for us as we had to construct articles, which were considered by the Quartermaster Corps as luxuries. The third week started the cadre’s real headache when the hopefuls of the Signal Corps started arriving. Since that time we have had quite a busy period as have all organizations with the Division. The first Signal Corps officer who took command of our organization was 2nd Lt. Robert W. Studer, who had been on duty with 3rd Signal Company from which the cadre was selected. The members of the organization were very pleased to have an officer in charge with whom all were acquainted. At the present time the Company is in command of Captain Harry A. Mills, Sig-Res, who is assisted by 1st Lt. James B. Smith, Sig-Res., 1st Lt. Stanley C. Olin, Sig-Res., 2nd Lt.’s Robert W. Studer and George P. Kullberg. This organization has grown from a mere handful of men to a Company of 172 enlisted men headed by 5 officers. – FORT ORD PANORAMA, 9-20-1940. (DLIFLC & POM Archives)

d. 7th Quartermaster Battalion was recently organized to perform quartermaster services for the 7th Division, is responsible for a number of vital function affecting the division as a whole. Among the responsibilities of the battalion is the supply and distribution of all classes of Q.M. supplies and equipment, including motor supplies; transportation of troops and supplies by land and water; maintenance and operation of all utility services, including salvage, sales commissary, sterilization and bath, laundry, bakery, and such other Q.M. units as might be attached; operation of labor pools that may be established within the division; provision of shelter for division headquarters and all division troops; procurement and disposal of all real estate and handling of all claims; maintenance of graves, registration service and supervision of all mortuary matters. To perform these services, the 7th Quartermaster Battalion was organized as part of the 7th Division on July 12, 1940, and was moved from the Monterey Presidio to Fort Ord on July 28. At the present the entire personnel is undergoing intensive training to carry out their mission. The battalion has a strength of 16 officers and 270 men, distributed as follows: Division Q.M., 2 officers and 4 enlisted men; Battalion Headquarters, 4 officers; Headquarters Detachment, 2 officers and 20 men; Headquarters Company, 5 officers and 146 men (including motor maintenance service and car platoon); and Truck Company, 3 officers and 100 enlisted men. Major James B. Edmunds commanded the battalion from July 12 to August 5, when he relinquished command to Lt. Colonel Harvey Edward, the present commander. - FORT ORD PANORAMA, 10-11-1940. (DLIFLC & POM Archives)

e. 31st Artillery Battalion, the first shot fired by the 31st Field Artillery in 22 years broke the silence October 19, 1940, Battery A, in position near Potts triangulation station, opened service practice shortly before 9 a.m. with a line shot on the first round. A war time regiment, the 31st was demobilized in December 1918, and remained so until August of this year (1940). Since then the regiment has been reorganized under the command of Lt. Colonel Ray W. Barker. In less than 12 weeks the 31st has undergone complete mobilization and training from the recruit stage. Records show that the service practice with sub-caliber guns was the first firing accomplished by the 31st Field Artillery since 1918. Lt. C. W. Coleman of “C” Battery drew the first problem and placed the burst of his first round in direct line with the target. - FORT ORD PANORAMA, 11-1-1940. (DLIFLC & POM Archives)

f. 54th Signal Battalion, the communication system of the Third Army Corps is beginning to shape up in the form of the 54th Signal Battalion. On January 24, 1941, a cadre of 52 enlisted men from the 60th Signal Battalion, Fort Lewis, Washington headed by 1st Lt. Lawrence O. Anderson and 1st Lt. Louis R. Cole arrived at the East Garrison. The cadre will be activated as the 54th Signal Battalion February 10 and come to full strength of approximately 550 men on or shortly after February 18. It is expected that the Battalion will be moved to barracks in the Corps Troop area of the Main Garrison in the near future. There is expected to be some slight confusion at first, for as 1st Sgt. Hopkins of “B” Company says, “I’ve been living in a tent for the past two years and I’ll have to get orientated again to living in a building. Recruit training for the five hundred new men will probably occupy the first six weeks. At the end of that period, signal equipment, including radio, telephone, telegraph and transportation should be available for section training. Lt. Colonel Ira Troenl will command the Battalion. Other officers assigned include Major Andrews, Captains Robert A. Blakeney, John D. Malnight, Herbert B. Kellery, Mills and Martin; 1st Lts. Louis R. Cole, Lawrence O. Anderson, Marnet Maersch, Paul G. Gray, Clement E. Fritz, Harold C. Reynolds, William E. Jennings, Herbert C. Weavill, Ralph M. Ebert, Raymond L. Porter, Charles M. Beach and Luis J. Boem and 2nd Lts. Paul Triplett, Charles F. Ziegler, Charles F. Franklin, George W. Dunn and Phillip A. Bauman. The original cadre of non-commissioned officers was headed by Tech. Sgts. Clifford H. Fellows and Fred C. Swabbs, and Staff Sgts. Charles M. Hopkins and Einer H. Thuesen. - FORT ORD PANORAMA, 2-7-1941. (DLIFLC & POM Archives)

Under the Constitution the Congress is given the power to “raise and support armies” for the defense of the nation and the power to declare war. Congress determines the size of the Army and appropriates the funds to maintain the military. At the outbreak of WW2 the active Army of the United States consisted of some 174,000 men scattered over 130 posts, camps, and stations and we had no field army. There existed framework of three and one-half infantry divisions at half strength among the posts. The Air Corps consisted of six-two tactical squadrons. Our equipment was mainly obsolete surplus from the First World War with few modern weapons in our arsenal after two decades of paring over the defense budget. At the outbreak of the war in Europe the President issued a proclamation of limited emergency and authorized an expansion of the Army to 227,000 men, and the National Guard to 235,000 men. Request to federalize the National Guard was submitted in May 1940, and finally approved on August 27, 1940, and funds for initial construction were available by September 9, 1940. The first National Guards units were inducted into federal service on September 16, 1940. The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 became law on September 16, 1940 and funds for construction were available on September 24, 1940. Reserve officers were called to duty, as their services were required. Expansion of the Air Corps and pilot training programs were initiated in the spring of 1941 and the Lease-Lend Act was passed. On September 25, 1941, the total manpower of the armed forces increased to 1,600,000 and officer strength was approximately 111,000.

The components of the Army of the United States were: Regular Army, National Guard and Organized Reserves pertain to two functional subdivisions, the “arms’ and the “service”. The arms engage directly in combat and known collectively as the line of the Army. The arms are: The Air Forces, Cavalry, Coast Artillery Corps, Corps of Engineers, Field Artillery, Infantry, and Signal Corps. While not so classified, the Armored Force has many characteristics of the separate arms and to a limited extent may be so regarded. The services are administrative agencies designed to maintain the efficiency and morale of the combat force. The services are: Adjutant General’s Department, Chaplains, Chemical Warfare Service, Finance Department, Inspector General’s Department, Judge Advocate General’s Department, Medical Department, Ordinance Department, and the Quartermaster Corps. The ground force in the continental United States comprised of four field armies of nine army corps and twenty-nine divisions, twenty-seven infantry, two cavalry divisions, fifty-four Air Force combat groups and five armored divisions. Now time was needed to mold this into an efficient fighting force and there were many lessons for this Nation to learn in the process. The Regular Army is our only permanent, professional military force. It consists of officers and soldiers who have chosen as a career the lifetime study of military matters. The military instructors, strategists, technicians, and technical experts in the Regular Army form the structural foundation of an enlarged Army and constitute the backbone of the land forces required for any national defense effort undertaken by the United States. The historic policy has been to maintain a small standing army, trained officers and enlisted men around which an adequate military force can be constructed in a time of national peril. The goal is to provide a highly trained well-equipped, disciplined organization to serve as a model and furnish instructions to build up a larger force needed in time of war.

The National Defense Act of 1916 and the amendments of 1920, 1923 and of June 15, 1933, this Act created the Army of the United States consisting of the Regular Army, National Guard and the Organized Reserves by providing a sound military policy. It established a territorial organization of the United States into nine corps areas, based on population, with troops and administrative agencies for mobilization. The training of civilians was provided through the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps and Citizens’ Military Training Camps. Means were included for the mobilization of the industry. Each arm and service was provided with a chief of branch and the function of the General Staff was set forth. The enormous task of organizing, equipping, and shipping to work camps the companies of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Certain civilian duties devolve upon Regular Army officers. Flood control projects, inland waterways, harbors, and many of the construction projects of the Public Works Administration and the Works Project Administration came under direction of the Corps of Engineers.

The strength of the Army was allotted approximately as follows: 30 per cent to the twenty-nine divisions of the four field armies; 20 per cent to corps, army, and GHQ troops to support the divisions; 11 per cent to the Army Air Forces; 8 per cent to the overseas garrison, including Alaska; 3 per cent to the harbor defenses; 10 per cent to the overhead to maintain and operate some 550 posts or stations, the supply depots and the ports of embarkation. The remainder was undergoing recruit training in the replacement training centers.

November 8, 1941

1st Division: Fort Devens, Massachusetts
2nd Division: Fort Sam Houston, Texas
3rd Division: Fort Lewis, Washington
4th Division: Fort Benning, Georgia
5th Division: Fort Custer, Michigan
6th Division: Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri
7th Division: Fort Ord, California
8th Division: Fort Jackson, South Carolina
9th Division: Fort Bragg, North Carolina
1st Cavalry: Fort Bliss, Texas
2nd Cavalry: Fort Riley, Kansas
1st Armored Division: Fort Knox, Kentucky
2nd Armored Division: Fort Benning, Georgia
3rd Armored Division: Camp Polk, Louisiana
4th Armored Division: Pine Camp, New York
5th Armored Division: Fort Knox, Kentucky

November 8, 1941

26th Division (Massachusetts): I Corps Area, Training area: Camp Edwards, Massachusetts.
27th Division (New York): II Corps Area, Training area: Fort McClellan, Ala.
28th Division (Pennsylvania): III Corps Area, Training area: Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pa.
29th Division (Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, District of Columbia): III Corps Area, Training area: Fort Meade, Md.
30th Division (Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee): IV Corps Area, Training area: Fort Jackson.
31st Division (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi): IV Corps Area, Training area: Camp Blanding, Fla.
32nd Division (Michigan, Wisconsin): VI Corps Area, Training area: Camp Livingston.
33rd Division (Illinois): VI Corps Area, Training area: Camp Forrest, Tenn.
34th Division (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota): VII Corps Area, Training area: Camp Claiborne, La.
35th Division (Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska): VII Corps Area, Training area: Camp Joseph T. Robinson, Ark.
36th Division (Texas): VIII Corps Area, Training area: Camp Bowie, Texas.
37th Division (Ohio): V Corps Area, Training area: Camp Shelby, Miss.
40th Division (California, Nevada, Utah): IX Corps Area, Training area: Camp San Luis Obispo, Calif.
41st Division (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming): IX Corps Area, Training area: Fort Lewis, Wash.
43rd Division (Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island, Vermont): I Corps Area, Training area: Camp Blanding, Fla.
44th Division (New Jersey, New York): II Corps Area, Training area: Fort Dix, N.J.
45th Division (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma): VIII Corps Area, Training area: Fort Sill, Okla.

In addition to the National Guard infantry divisions, other units were assigned as army corps and field troops, which included: 22 observation squadrons, 16 coast artillery regiments, 9 antiaircraft battalions, 22 antiaircraft regiments, 24 field artillery regiments, 9 cavalry regiments, 8 infantry regiments, 1 medical battalion, 1 military police battalion, 4 tank battalions, 5 antitank battalions, 1 signal battalion, 2 engineer regiments, 2 radio intelligence companies, and 2 medical regiments.


SQUAD – 16 or less men, rank of commander: Sergeant or corporal.

SECTION – 2 to 136 men, rank of commander: sergeant.

PLATOON (called “subflights” in Air Force) – 4 to 177 men, rank of commander: second or first lieutenant.

COMPANY (called “batteries” in the Field and Coast Artillery) – 12 to 700 men, rank of commander: captain.

BATTALION (called “Squadrons” in the Cavalry and Air Corps) – 128 to 1250 men, rank of commander: lieutenant colonel or major.

REGIMENT (called “groups” in the Air Forces) – 800 to 3700 men, rank of commander: colonel.

BRIGADE (called “wings” in the Air Forces) – 3400 to 6900 men, rank of commander: Brigadier General. Note: found only in the Infantry, cavalry, field artillery and coast artillery. The triangular infantry contains no brigades.

DIVISION (infantry, cavalry and armored) – triangular: 15,500 men, square: infantry 17,000 to 20,000 men and cavalry 10,000 men. Note: composed of brigades, regiments and battalions.

CORPS (often called “army corps” to distinguish it from arms and services which have the word “corps” as part of their names, such as the Corps of Engineers and Medical Corps. 65,000 to 90,000 men, rank of commander: Lieutenant General. Note: composed of infantry divisions of both types or of cavalry divisions or armored.

ARMY – 200,000 TO 400,000 men, rank of commander: General. Note: composed of corps and of additional units from several arms and services.

A theater of operations comprises land and sea areas invaded or defended; including what is necessary for administrative establishments and agencies pertaining to the forces in the theaters. Its area is defined by the War Department. There may be one, two, or several theaters of operations. A theater of operations is divided into a combat zone, the area for active operations or forward area and immediate administration of the combat forces, and a communication zone area. The combat zone is divided into army, corps, and division areas. The army service area is the territory between the corps rear area and the combat zone rear boundary. The mass of army administration and army service troops are located in this area along with supply, transportation, and evacuation for the immediate support of the forces. The zone of the interior comprises the area of the national territory. The mission of the zone of the interior is to exploit and develop the national resources in men and materials required for military purposes and to supply the field forces in the areas of operations.

The Field Forces of the Army of the United States, organized during the 1940-41 emergency, consisted of general headquarters (GHQ), four field armies, the Army Air Forces, the Armored Force, and a GHQ reserve. This constituted the tactical organization which is concerned with the training of an efficient field force and its possible use in war, in contrast to the administrative organization exercised through the corps area commanders which is concerned with the procurement of manpower, basic training of newly procured men, the administration of military posts and stations. The Chief of Staff is the field commander and in addition to his duties as such, in peace is assigned by the president to command. He continues to exercise command after the outbreak of war until the president designates another commander.

General Headquarters (GHQ) is the headquarters of the field force. There is but one GHQ, regardless of the number or location of the theaters of operations. A general headquarters of the field forces, Army of the United States, was established at the Army War College, Washington D.C., on July 26, 1940, by order of the Secretary of War. It consisted, initially, of a chief of staff, a general staff group, and an administrative staff group. It functions under the direction of the Chief of Staff of the Army as the principal officer of the Army. It is concerned with the training of tactical units. In the event of war it may be presumed that the Chief of Staff of the Army would become at once the commanding general of the field forces and assume active charge of military operations. The establishment of a functioning general headquarters serves to provide him with the nucleus of a staff, which is organized, trained, and ready to establish itself wherever circumstances may require. The term “GHQ” is not a new one for the Army of the United States. On May 18, 1917, at Chaumont, France during WW1 General Pershing established his general headquarters; it was discontinued in August 1920. From 1920 to 1940, the Chief of Staff of the Army exercised administrative as well as tactical control of the activities of the military through the agencies of the War Department and the corps area and department commanders. While this arrangement had advantages during a period of peace and harmonious international relationships, it was quite obviously unsuited for war.

The field army is composed of a headquarters, army troops, and a variable number of divisions: these divisions together with certain auxiliary units called corps troops are organized into army corps, each with a corps headquarters. Several armies together with certain GHQ troops and aviation may be organized into a group of armies under a designated commander. The commander of a field army holds the grade of lieutenant general. The field army, the army corps, and the division are classified as “large” units. Four armies were formed and organized September 1, 1941. With the passage of the enactment for ordering members and units of reserve components into active military service, units of the National Guard were concentrated in training centers, which, in most instances were far away from the home states and stations. Their territorial status disappeared in a sense as they became at once units of the field forces and passed outside the control of corps area commanders.

The army corps is a tactical unit consisting of a corps headquarters, auxiliary units called corps troops, and a variable number of divisions. The initial apportionment of army corps to the four field armies with their several headquarters is as follows:

FIRST ARMY (Governors Island, New York)
I Corps, Columbia, South Carolina
II Corps, Wilmington, Delaware
VI Corps, Providence, Rhode Island

SECOND ARMY (Memphis, Tennessee)
VII Corps, Birmingham, Alabama
Note: VII Corps West Coast 1941.


In July 1941, Major General Robert C. Richardson, Jr. assumed command of VII Corps and on 21 December 1941 assumed command of the Northern California Sector of the Western Defense Command. Image source: General Robert C. Richardson Jr. Collection.

In July, 1941, Major General Robert C. Richardson, Jr. assumed command of VII Corps, and a few weeks later, during August and September, led the Corps through Army maneuvers in Arkansas and Louisiana. As troops of the Second and Third Armies attached, maneuvers, withdrew and attacked again in one of our biggest shows of American military might, VII Corps more than once distinguished itself in the sham battle. It still had its original three divisions, and maneuver directors attached the 2d Armored and 2d Cavalry Divisions to the Corps for several exercises. More and more people realized that their troops were now training and preparing for war and the real thing, the day when they would be called to repel an invader or to be invaders themselves against the Axis powers. Late in September the troops moved back to the comparative luxury of their barracks, to review the lessons they had learned and to correct the weaknesses that two months in the field had disclosed.

War stuck quickly and without warning Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese on 7 December 1941, and within two days the United States was at war with Germany, Japan, and Italy. The West Coast was threatened, and our best trained troops were rushed to the West Coast. Two weeks after the Japanese attack on our Pacific island bases, Headquarters VII Corps was established in San Jose, California, where it served in the dual role of securing the Northern California Sector of the Western Defense Command from enemy attack and of training and preparing units for movement to the combat zones. The 27th and 43d Infantry Divisions were given their final training and combat equipment and shipped westward against Japan. Special training in amphibious operations was conducted for the 3d Infantry Division. The 7th Motorized stressed desert warfare. The 35th Infantry Division continued training while performing security missions in Southern California.

Desert operation was featured during the summer of 1942, when the Corps conducted maneuvers in the dry heat of the California desert in July, August, and September. Armored and motorized units of the 3d and 5th Armored and the 7th Motorized Divisions drove across the wastelands in temperatures reaching 120 degrees F. in the shade, under conditions reported to be worse than on the Northern African desert battlefields. These grueling weeks emphasized more than ever the physical toughness required of the American Soldier and his combat equipment.

November, 1942, saw the Corps Headquarters once more on the move, this time back across the continent to Jacksonville, Florida. Under the Second Army, VII Corps carried out an extensive training program in the southeastern states, activating and initiating training of new divisions, testing the combat efficiency of others, and conducting field exercises and maneuvers.

Note: The VII Corps (Major General Robert C. Richardson, Jr. commanding) was stationed California from 21 December 1941, after the Japanese attack on our Pacific island bases until November 1942 when the Corps Headquarters once more on the move crossed the continent to Jacksonville, Florida where it was assigned to the Second Army and prepared for overseas. VII Corps continued to train and prepare for deployment. The VII Corps landed on D-Day in 1944. It was one of the two assault corps for the First Army during Operation Overlord and targeted Utah Beach in the amphibious assault. The 101st Airborne and 82nd Airborne Divisions were attached to the VII Corps. The VII Corps participated in many battles during the advancement across France and Germany. The VII was inactivated in 1946.

Note: Originally Headquarters Northern California Sector was established at the National Guard Armory San Jose, California by the Seventh (7th) Division in accordance with Plan Rainbow No. 5, but with the arrival of the VII Corps ( Note: Commanding: Major General Robert C. Richardson), it also assumed command of the Northern California Sector.

National Guard Armory located at 240 North 2nd Street, San Jose, California. Originally built by the WPA in 1933. Image Source: U.S. Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group Collection – Greg Krenzelok Director.

Note: RAINBOW WAR PLAN Various plans prepared between 1939 and 1941 to meet Axis aggression involving more than one enemy. Each plan was named with a color; RAINBOW 5 was published in October 1941.

Sources: History of the Western Defense Command, Center of Military History, Carlisle Barracks, PA. Mission Accomplished, The story of the United States VII, Lt. General J. Lawton Collins.

Major General Robert C. Richardson, Commander of Northern California Sector; Major General W.H. Simpson, Division Commander; and Brigadier General C.P. George. Location: California West Coast March 22, 1942. Image Source: U.S. Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group Collection – Greg Krenzelok Director.


General Richardson's foot locker. Image Source: U.S. Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group Collection – Greg Krenzelok Director.

Contents of General Richardson's foot locker also purchased. Note: a lot of the books are the General's text books from West Point, most signed and dated, he was in the Class of 1904. Included in the collection is the General's M1904 halter, saddle pommel pockets from WW1, and a 16x20 portrait of Richardson wearing his summer uniform with three stars. Image Source: U.S. Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group Collection – Greg Krenzelok Director.

The U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group is proud and honored to announce a new addition to our "Horse Soldier" museum collection.

Major General Robert C. Richardson VII Army Corps maneuvers 1941. Image Source: U.S. Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group Collection – Greg Krenzelok Director.

Image on the right: General Richardson's paperwork, Subject: Northern California Sector and VII Army Corps, dated March 26, 1942. During the concern of a Japanese attack on the West Coast the War Department and the Western Defense Command worked on coming up with a plan to protect the West Coast and to organized the units assigned to each sector. Once the threat was lowered the new concern was defending the West Coast and at the same time going on the offensive and training the troops for overseas theaters of war. Troop movement was great with a lot of troops coming and going, several plans were organized. In this letter from Richardson are his recommendations for the VII Army Corps and the Northern California Sector and the troops needed. Note: Red dots marks important units to this research. Source: Records, Robert Charlwood Richardson papers, Box no. 38, Hoover Institution Archives.

Western Defense Command and VII Army Corps and Northern California Sector (N.C.S.) stamps used on General Richardson's paperwork. Hoover Institution Archives

The VII Corps Headquarters was rushed to the West Coast after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Major General Robert C. Richardson, Jr. at the time was commanding the VII and was given charge of overseeing the defense of California. He also became the commander of the California Defense Sector of the Western Defense Command. Part of his command would have been the 7th Division at Fort Ord and included the 74th, 75th, 76th, Field Artillery still horse-drawn and the 107th Cavalry (horse/mechanized) who were stationed throughout California protecting our coast and other sensitive areas. Originally the Headquarters of the VII Corps and Northern California Sector was established at San Jose, California by the Seventh (7th) Division in accordance with Plan Rainbow No. 5.

Note: RAINBOW WAR PLAN: Various plans prepared between 1939 and 1941 to meet Axis aggression involving more than one enemy. Each plan was named with a color; RAINBOW 5 was published in October 1941.

The War Department on 17 March 1941, announced the formation of four defense commands within the continental limits of the United State. The Western Defense Command was created, consisted of the States of Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Arizona and Alaska. Lt. General John L DeWitt Commanding General of the Fourth (4th) Army and first Commanding General of the Western Defense Command, Headquarters: Presidio of San Francisco.

December 7, 1941: Japan makes a surprise attack on the military installations in Hawaii. Rainbow Plan No. 5 become effective, Category "B" in effect. The Northwestern, the Northern California, and Southern California Sectors were established. Auth: (WD Rad #242 to 4A dtd 27 Nov 41)

December 14, 1941 – Category of defense on West Coast changed from Category "B" to Category "C". Auth: (WD Rad #477 to WDC, dtd 14 Dec 1941)

December 19, 1941 – The Southern Land Frontier Sector, Western Theater of Operations, activated under the command of the Commanding General, 3rd Cavalry Brigade. The El-Centro Sub-Sector of the Southern Land Frontier Sector attached to the Southern California Sector.

December 19, 1941 – Commanding General (Richardson) VII Army Corps, designated the Commanding General, Northern California Sector. Auth: GO #8, Hq WDC & 4A, 19 Dec 1941.

20 March 1942 - A War Department letter received clarifying instructions of 11 December 1941. The below is one of the pertinent points:

Point no. 4 - The III and the VII Army Army Corps Headquarters and Corps troops: the 3rd, 7th, and 35th Divisions will pass to control of the Commanding General of Army Ground Forces not later the 15th April 1942. Note: Army Ground Forces was responsible for the organization, training and preparation of the U.S. Army for overseas service.

Auth: (WD AGO ltr AG 381, dtd 11 Mar 42, subj: Defense of Continental U.S. to CG's of Def Comd.)

August 31, 1945 – Northern California Sector was deactivated. Auth: (WDC GO # 15, dtd 19 Aug. 45)

Major General Robert C. Richardson, Jr., Commanded the VII Corps from 21 August 1941 to 1 June 1943.

Lt. General Robert Charlwood Richardson's military career spanned the first half of the 20th Century. After completing high school, he received an appointment to attend the US Military Academy at West Point, New York and graduated in 1904 with a commission as a 2nd lieutenant in the US Cavalry. He was sent to the Philippines where he joined the 14th US Cavalry and saw combat action during the Philippine Insurrection.

Returning to the United States, he was with the 14th Cavalry at the Presidio of San Francisco, California for the 1906 earthquake where led his cavalry troop from the Presidio as part of the Government’s response to the earthquake and subsequent firestorm.

During World War I, then (temporary) Major Richardson sailed with General Barry to France from New York December 1, 1917. Fluent in French, Richardson served as Aide and observer with foreign armies until January 9, 1918. On June 14, 1918, he was assigned to the Operations Division, General Staff, AEF as Liaison Officer for G.H.Q Allied Headquarters and with American Armies, Corps, and Divisions, during the combat operations of 1918. He escorted Allied missions in St. Mihiel Offensive. By now a temporary Lt Colonel, Richardson was Liaison Officer with Headquarters, 1st Army for the opening of Meuse-Argonne Offensive and the Operations Officer Representative at Advance G.H.Q. Major Richardson was one of the chief planners of the Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives, reporting directly to Pershing.

In March 1928 and was assigned to the 13th Cavalry at Fort Riley, Kansas. By June 1938 he had been promoted to the rank of brigadier general and became commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade at Fort Bliss, Texas until February 1939 when he became Commandant of the US Cavalry School at Fort Riley.

Prior to World War II, Richardson commanded the 1st Cavalry Division from 1940-1941.

President Roosevelt sits with General MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz while Lt. General Robert C. Richardson and Admiral Leahy stand by during 7th Division Review. July 27, 1944. At Schofield Barrack, Hawaii. Source: Image, Robert Charlwood Richardson papers, Box no. 55, Hoover Institution Archives.

Note: Richardson was Commanding General of all Army personnel in the Central Pacific while simultaneously serving as Commanding General of the Hawaiian Department and as Military Governor of Hawaii at the time when the above image was taken.

In August 1943 Richardson had been designated Commanding General of all Army and Air Forces in the Central Pacific Area under Nimitz. General Richardson was the first senior Army general officer to ever serve as Joint forces subordinate commander under a non-Army flag officer, Fleet Admiral Nimitz. Admiral Nimitz was the Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Ocean Areas and directed the operations of all Army and Air Forces. Nimitz retained also immediate command of the Pacific Fleet, assuming the respective titles of CINCPOA and CINCPAC. On 20 July 1943 Nimitz received a directive from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to assume the offensive. Offensives starting in 1943 under Richardson's command: Gilberts Islands, Tarawa, Makin, Marshall Islands, Roi, Namur, Kwajalein, Engebi, Eniwetok, Truk (by-passed), Marianas, Saipan, Guam, Palau, Pelelieu, Angaur, Ulithi, Yap, Leyte, Ryukyus Islands, Kerama Retto, Okinawa, and le Shima. The ultimate destination, of course, was Tokyo by way of Truk, Saipan, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, or whatever islands were deemed to be the best route. During the last desperate battle at Japan's doorstep all Army commands in the Pacific were placed under General MacArthur. Richardson was on the Missouri (first row of officers), 2 September 1945 at 0900 hours, at Surrendering Ceremony of Japan. Others showing were MacArthur, Stilwell, Percival, Wainwright, etc. Richard in my opinion is one of our great forgotten American generals.


Fort Ord Panorama: Major General Richardson can be found on the front page of the Friday May 1, 1942 Fort Ord Panorama newspaper: "REVIEW HONORS MAJ. GEN. RICHARDSON". General Richardson is reviewing the 107th Cavalry for their horses are taken away. It is a great article and tribute to his presence at Fort Ord and California.

Original image found on the front page of the Friday May 1, 1942 Fort Ord Panorama newspaper: "REVIEW HONORS MAJ. GEN. RICHARDSON". Source: Image, Robert Charlwood Richardson papers, Box no. 38, Hoover Institution Archives.

Major General Robert C. Richardson Jr. Review. Source of Fort Ord Panorama: Presidio of Monterey, DLIFLC Archives.

BETTER VIEW: General Richardson couldn't see the mounts being loaded into the portees closely enough from the reviewing stand Saturday, so he stepped down from his armored car and walked into the demonstration area. He's shown here with Colonel King, Col. Fitch and other staff officers. (Right) Major General Robert C. Richardson, center. Image source of Fort Ord Panorama: Presidio of Monterey, DLIFLC Archives.

Major General Robert C. Richardson Jr. in the left armory car as the 107th Cavalry horse/mechanized pass in review, May 1, 1942 at Fort Ord, California. Source: Image, Robert Charlwood Richardson papers, Box no. 38, Hoover Institution Archives.

Note: In the future we will create tribute and webpage for General Richardson Jr. There is also a great story on how we found the foot locker and its contents.
Greg Krenzelok
U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group

THIRD ARMY (San Antonio, Texas)
IV Corps, Jacksonville, Florida
V Corps, Camp Beauregard, Louisiana
VIII Corps, Brownwood, Texas

FOURTH ARMY (Presidio of San Francisco, California)
III Corps, Presidio of Monterey, California
IX Corps, Fort Lewis, Washington

The I Armored Corps, with headquarters at Fort Knox, Kentucky, operated directly under general headquarters and was not a component of a field army. Their was no unit of the Air Force which could have been considered as a corresponding organization to the army corps. The location of the headquarters of a field army, army corps, or division is subject to change since these units of the field forces is connected was not connected with the territorial administration of corps areas.

The Division is the basic, large unit of the combined arms. It comprises a headquarters and troops of the essential arms and services, all in correct proportion and so organized as to make it tactically and administratively a self-contained force capable of independent action. There are three kinds of divisional organization: The infantry division, the cavalry division, and the armored division. Infantry divisions have three different forms: The infantry division “Square,” as used by the National Guard and by the Regular Army divisions of foreign service department: the infantry division “Triangular,” as used by Regular Army units of the field forces; and the infantry division “Triangular,” motorized. The commander of a division is a major general. He is provided with a personal staff, a general staff, and a special staff or administration staff. It is the smallest military unit to include a general staff. Each of the several types or kinds of divisions may be considered as consisting of a command element, combat or fighting elements, and service element. Regular Army divisions are numbered from 1 to 25; National Guard divisions from 26 to 75; and divisions of Organized Reserve units from 76 and higher. Divisions on active service within the continental limits of the United States as of November 1, 1941, consisted of the following:

9 Triangular Infantry Divisions of the Regular Army, one division the “4th” was motorized.

18 Square Infantry Divisions of the National Guard.

2 Cavalry Divisions.

5 Armored Divisions

The new military organization is divided into two basic parts: Areas and Armies with the Army Air Corps as a separate command.

And “Area Command” is a territorial command, the “Army” is a tactical command so called because it engages in tactics, moves and fights. The Area administers is permanent; it supplies and mobilizes men has charge of posts.

The Ninth Corps Area consists of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah and Alaska. And is responsible of housing, feeding, supplying, procurement of and providing medical attention for the military personnel in this geographical area unit of the United States. The Corps Area so far as building and maintenance are concerned, controls the various posts and camps. Some of the activities of the Ninth Corp Area are the organization of reception, replacement and unit training centers. Also the supervision of the R.O.T.C. (Reserve Officer’s Training Center) units in colleges, high schools and military schools. The administration of posts, camps and stations rest with the Ninth Corps Area, while most of the ground forces that garrison these establishments are under the commanding general of the Fourth Army and his division commanders.

The Fourth Army consisting of the Third Tactical Corps headquartered at the Presidio of Monterey, California and made up of the 7th Division and the 40th Division at San Luis Obispo and the Ninth Tactical Corps headquartered at Fort Lewis, Washington made up of the 3rd and 41st Divisions embraces most of the ground forces in the Ninth Corps Area. Fort Lewis, Washington is the largest camp in the area consisting of two divisions. Fort Ord, California in the Monterey Bay area is 2nd with more the 31,000 men and is the headquarters for the Seventh Division. The Army explains that Corps are tactical units are not connected to Corps Areas, a geographical division.

ARMIES The Fourth and Ninth Armies have separate headquarters because they are a non-geographical tactical units. They are completely staffed and ready to move whenever ordered and does not depend on the Corps Area organization.

The Western Defense Command is designated as a “ Theatre of Operations” and consists of the States of Washington, California, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Arizona and the Territory of Alaska. The Western Defense Command embraces the entire Pacific Coast of the United States, which by its geographical location is particularly subject to attack, to attempt invasion by the armed forces of nations which the United States is at war.

G-1: Group Personnel Officer or Section
G-2: Group Intelligence Officer or Section
G-3: Group Operations Officer or Section
G-4: Group Supply Officer or Section - Section concerned with supplies, construction, and transportation. War Plans Division

S-1: Squadron Personnel Officer or Section
S-2: Squadron Intelligence Officer or Section
S-3: Squadron Operations Officer or Section
S-4: Squadron Supply Officer or Section

July 11, 1941

There are two types of divisions in the Army: the triangular like at Fort Ord, and the square like that at San Luis Obispo. Most of the National Guard units are of the older square organization. Regular Army units are of the triangular type. They are called by these names because of the placing of regiments in a square or triangular position. Both, however are motorized to give a greater rapidity movement.

Effectiveness of the triangular division was demonstrated by field exercises held in 1940, and the general order establishing throughout the Regular Army was issued October 1, 1940, because it provided increased fire power, flexibility and allowed the fullest advantage of modern weapons. Among the main changes were addition of reconnaissance troops, and elimination of artillery and infantry sections in division headquarters. Also the number of machine guns, automatic rifles, mortars and anti-tank weapons was increased. This is the way a division lines up:

Division (triangular), 15, 245 men
Division (triangular motorized), 16,129
Division (square), 22, 272 men
Brigade, 6,989 men
Regiment, 3,419 men
Battalion, 932 men
Company, 223 men
Platoon, 52 men
Squad, 12 men

Thus the triangular divisions are much smaller than the World War square divisions of the present squares divisions. Formation of an anti-tank company for each regiment, doubling the number of mortars and machine guns and substitution of 105-mm howitzers for 75-mm guns increase firing power considerably. This is the way the 7th Division at Fort Ord lines up; three infantry regiments, three battalions of 105-mm howitzers, three horse-drawn battalions of 75-mm guns. It is not fully equipped but soon will be.

In contrast, the armored force is a smaller unit, probably about 10,000 men although the official figures are not available, and equipped with even greater striking force. These are the units that the Nazis used to force a penetration into enemy territory and they were followed up with the regular infantry. It was composed as follows:

Division, (number of men not available)
Brigade, (number of men not available)
Regiment (light), 1768 men
Battalion (light), 303 men
Company, 93 men
Platoon, 38 men
Section, 9 men
Regiment (medium), 1493 men
Battalion (medium) 532 men
Company, 164 men
Platoon, 35 men
Section, 13

In addition to small arms and grenades, armored divisions have the most modern artillery, anti-tank mortars, and heavy tank weapons. The first one established in the United States was garrisoned at Fort Knox, Kentucky, the Second Armored Division at Fort Benning, Georgia, and two others have only recently been formed.

With the approval of a site at Santa Maria-Lompoc in California, work has begun on what may be a training center for an armored division.

A brief note on the organization of an infantry division (WW2) may be helpful to the non-military reader.

A modern infantry division has approximately 14, men. About 60 per cent are infantrymen; the rest are artillerymen, engineers, medics, signalmen, reconnaissance troops, quartermasters and ordnance men. A division is a well balanced fighting unit.

In addition, special units, such as tanks, tank destroyers; antiaircraft or long-range artillery may be attached to the division for specific missions. These units function as an integral part of the division as long as they are with it.

In battle a division generally operates under an organizational setup known as combat teams. A combat team is composed of one regiment of infantry, a battalion of artillery and the necessary attachments of signal, medical, engineer and reconnaissance troops. There are three combat teams in a division. Each combat team may be likened to a miniature division.

For special missions to be accomplished by the division, it is sometimes necessary to form what is known as a task force. A task force may consist of infantry mounted on tanks, for example, with the mission of exploiting a breakthrough or racing on ahead of the main body of the division to seize an important bridge, road junction or town. The task force operates as an independent unit under its own designated commander until the special mission has been accomplished.

Below the division level the units are:

REGIMENT – Three infantry regiments and the division artillery of four battalions are the main units of the division. A regiment has approximately 3,000 men. An artillery battalion has about 500 men.

BATTALION – Three battalions and four separate companies make up one regiment. A battalion has approximately 850 men.

COMPANY – Five companies make up one battalion. The companies include three rifle companies, one heavy-weapons company, and one headquarters company. A company has approximately 180 men.

BATTERY – In the artillery, the battery corresponds to the company in the infantry, but a battery has only approximately 100 men.

PLATOON – Four platoons make up one company. A platoon has approximately 40 men.

SQUAD – Three squads make up one platoon. A squad has 12 men.


CORPS – Two or more divisions make up one corps

ARMY – Two or more corps make up one army

ARMY GROUP – Two or more armies may make up on army group.

Source: John P. Delaney “The Blue Devils in Italy”. A History of the 88th Infantry Division in World War II, 1947


Artillery Aids All Armed Forces; Background Defense in Battles

Field Artillery has two principal missions in combat. It supports infantry, cavalry and armored forces by fire, engaging those targets that are most dangerous to supported arms. And it gives depth to combat by counter-battery fire, by attacking hostile reserves and by dislocating the enemy’s communications system and agencies of command.

The flexibility of artillery fire is one of the greatest assets. It is capable of intervening over a zone of great width and depth, and of shifting rapidly and concentrating its fire in accordance with the situation without changing its position.

Field Artillery is classified according to its means of transport, to its caliber or to its tactical employment. If referred to by the manner in which it moves, field artillery is known as horse-drawn, horse, pack or motorized.

Horse-drawn artillery includes guns and caissons (wheeled chest for ammunition on which cannoneers ride) pulled by six-horse teams. Between horses and field gun is a limber (two-wheel chest containing tools and ammunition on which the cannoneers sit)

Horse artillery differs from horse-drawn only in that the cannoneers ride horses to lessen the load on draft animals, thus allowing guns to maintain the pace of fast moving cavalry.

Motorized artillery is sub-divided into truck-drawn, tractor-drawn, and portee, according to the type of prime mover used.

Pack artillery is used in mountainous or difficult terrain. Its 75-mm howitzers are transported on mules in six loads, heaviest of which weighs 254 pounds. Ammunition is also packed on mules, normal load being 10 rounds.

Field Artillery is designated as light, medium and heavy. Light artillery includes 75-mm guns, howitzers and 105-mm howitzers and is usually employed against personnel, machine guns and tanks. The 4.5-inch gun and 155-mm howitzer are classified as medium artillery and are designed for use against personnel, materials, trenches, dugouts and to silence enemy artillery. Heavy artillery includes 155-mm guns and eight-inch howitzers. Its shells are hurled at bridges, forts and other installations.

Organization of field artillery has kept pace with changes in the organization of the infantry and armored divisions. Triangular divisional artillery had dropped old regimental organizations, so that there are now three battalions of 105-mm howizers.

Modern warfare gives field artillery a new mission of anti-tank defense. In each 155-mm field artillery battalion there is organically assigned one battery of eight 75-mm anti-tank guns. This gives eight such guns to each Triangular Division, 16 to each Square Division and 32 to each Corps Field Artillery Brigade.

Use of bombardments aviation for direct support of ground troops in the present war has not lessened the utility of field artillery. Both are needed.

The term “artillery” derives, oddly enough, from the Latin “ars” meaning art, and as late as the 17th century artillery meant all engines for discharging missiles.

Cannon had been used since Germans inaugurated it at the siege of Cividale in 1331, but for another century its sole use was to batter down fortifications.

Three centuries following invention of artillery, most artillerists were civilians, called “artist”. Guns were mounted on carts until the French invented the limber. Profiting by use of horse artillery as introduced by Frederick the Great in 1759, Napoleon habitually brought it into the forefront of battle.

For close in defense of Field Artillery

Under the 1939 Tables of Organization the Browning automatic rifles, formerly carried by the U.S. Field Artillery, are supplanted by that very excellent weapon, the M-1 rifle. A light regiment (horse-drawn) is now equipped with sixty-six of these rifles, with six rifles assigned to each gun battery. This is a movement in the right direction. However, it is but a short, timid step where a broad , bold leap was needed.

The sturdiness and simplicity of construction and reduced recoil of the M-1 rifle makes it an idea weapon for close-in defense of artillery. It will stand a great deal of hard usage and take considerable amount of grit and dust in its action without resultant misfires or other malfunctions. Because of the reduced recoil, single rear peep sight, and semi-automatic operation of the M-1 rifle, a recruit can be taught to use it effectively in a shorter period of time than for any other small arm.

Although we are now armed with this excellent weapon, we are not equipped with a sufficient number to provide for adequate close-in defense. The BC of a gun battery in position would find it impossible so to dispose his six rifles as to furnish adequate security to all elements of his battery. The most reasonable disposition would appear to be to assign two rifles to the firing battery, two to the OP, and two to the limber position. In this manner, all elements would be furnished some protection, but the protection would be adequate for no element.

Source: Captains G.L. Hart and J.W.Haines (May/June 1940) “Close in Defense of Field Artillery” The Field Artillery Journal” United States Army Fires Bulletin, Fort Sill, Oklahoma

Fort Benning, Georgia; Fort Ord, California; Fort Knox, Tennessee’s; Camp Jackson, South Carolina; Fort Dix, New Jersey; Camp Custer, Michigan; Fort Edwards, Massachusetts; Camp Blanding, Florida; Camp Shelby, Mississippi; Camp Robison; Camp Claiborne, Louisiana; San Louis Obispo, California; Camp Forrest; Camp George Meade, Maryland; Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania.

Sunday October 19, 1941

35 miles of paved roads, 1200 buildings, 45 acres of parking and living quarters of 25,000 men and women will be open for inspection at the Fort Ord open house.

Among things to seen were target practice with the new Garand rifles, light and heavy machine guns, side arms, 37mm anti-tank guns, hand grenades; maneuvers of horse-drawn and mechanized artillery units; signal corps activities; the use of flame thrower; and movements of chemical warfare units. The 757th Tank Battalion will demonstrate the 13-ton tanks and jeeps. To aid to the comfort of visitors a noon meal, a regular army dinner will be sold in the mess halls for 25 cents a plate. A fleet of jeeps will carry the thousands of visitors on tours of the camp laundry, bakery, cold storage plants, hospitals, ordinance shop and fire departments.

74th, 75th, and 76th Field Artillery Battalion horse-drawn units galloped down out of the hills and went through a series of split second maneuvers ending with playing of musical chairs with the song “ Hut Sut”. As a climax, the artillerymen loaded their 75mm field pieces and let go a salvo at an imaginary enemy.

Then came the tanks, 20 of the growling monsters rumbling out of a smoke screen with a haft company of troops of the 32nd Infantry regiment on foot to assault positions held by theoretical defenders. The sham battle that ensued gave every man, women and child in the audience a vivid picture of the type of war being waged over in Europe. The final demonstration of the day was 15,000 troops marched in review and received the applause of the 40,000 visitors.

11:00 AM TO 11:45 AM – At the Target range, demonstration of Infantry combat using the new Garand rifles, Machine guns, 37mm Anti-Tank guns, bayonets and hand grenades. Observers please watch from firing point.

12 NOON TO 12:45 PM
At the Mess Halls will be a demonstration of an Army mess. Those wishing to pay 25 cents per person (regulations require this) may join in the noon meal at any of the Company messes. Your guide will help you make a choice. During this hour, band concerts in the open and organ music at the chapels will be given.

1:00 PM TO 2:00 PM
a. Demonstration No. 3 – Spectators along First Street looking south
b. The Post Commander greets the Visitors
c. Horse Artillery in musical drill
d. Bridges by the Engineers
e. “When wheels stop the Pack train comes”

2:00 PM TO 3:30 PM
At the Review Field demonstration No. 5, 7th Division
a. The Division Commander addresses Visitors
b. The Division passes in Review
c. Artillery display of Equipment

From 10:00 am to 2:00 pm (1:00 pm for 7th Division Units) – The following exhibits, establishments and entertainments are open to all visitors for sight seeing tours and individual visitors.

1. The Post as a whole
2. The Company barracks – to see the arms and equipment of the unit and its kitchen, dining room, sleeping accommodations, day and recreation rooms.
3. The Chapels for usual Sunday services, organ recitals during the noon hours.
4. The Theaters from 12 noon to 1:30 pm to see training films.
5. The Laundry, Bakery, Cold Storage and Fire Departments.
6. Post Hospital
7. Ordinance Repair Shop
8. Service Clubs with their cafeterias, libraries and guest houses in charge of hostesses.
9. Chemical Warfare Exhibit.
10. Jeep rides.

A tank from the 757th Tank Battalion at Fort Ord is pictured here spinning in an obstacle constructed by the 391st Engineers Depot of Fort Ord. (Photo by Fort Ord Panorama from International News, 11-18-1941)

By Vaughan E. Alien
Click on the below link:
Historical Account 757th Tank Battalion

Scout cars of the 7th Reconnaissance Troop massed at Fort Ord, California, June 20, 1941 for the movement of troops to the Hunter Liggett Reservation for the war practice maneuvers to be staged by the Fourth Army the last week in June. Major Milo M. Mattison commanded the mobile unit. Some 2,000 vehicles transported the men with the exception of the 53rd Infantry Regiment, which traveled afoot. (Associateded Press)


Click on the below link:

Fort Ord Handbook 1945

Looking down from the 7th Division Headquarters buildings at the 53rd Infantry Regiment barrack's (1941) on 3rd Street from left to right: T-1704, T-1705,T-1706,T-1707, T-1708, T-1709, T-1710 and T-1711. Note: barrack T-1710 was located in front of the flagpole, review stands and between the Headquarters buildings T-1044 and T-1045 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration buildings). Behind each of the barracks are the company orderly room (storehouse) and mess hall and then 2 more barracks and then a A-5 Company Recreation building. Picture taken Feb. 2010

7th Division Headquarters buildings, T-1044 and T-1045 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building) Source: National Archives

7th Division Headquarters buildings, T-1044 and T-1045 completion sheets (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building) Source: National Archives

T-1044 completed: March 10, 1941
T-1045 completed: January 31, 1941

7th Division Headquarters building, T-1044 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building)

7th Division Headquarters building, T-1044 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building)

7th Division Headquarters building, T-1044 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building)

7th Division Headquarters building, T-1044 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building)

7th Division Headquarters building, T-1045 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building)

7th Division Headquarters building, T-1045 (A-22 buildings, 2 story administration building) 2010

Click on the below link: Interior pictures of the 7th Division Headquarters Buildings

Interior pictures of the 7th Division Headquarters Buildings T-1044 and T-1045 Fort Ord, California 2010

Duration: 30 minutes

A Chuck Conners Production

"To all those who's lives were entwined with Fort Ord's heritage, we salute you. "

YouTube link:

September 30, 1994
Duration: 30 minutes

Source: Fort Ord Closure Ceremony September 30, 1994 film. Producer Richard Dyer, Public Affair Officer.

NOTE: Turn you volume way up, there is sound. It takes a little while for the video to start.

YouTube link:

Note: As the original Fort Ord (Main Garrison) was in 1941. North border: 13th and 12th Streets (today Imjin Pkwy roughly), eastern border: area of 5th Avenue, southern border: 1st Street (known as Divarty St.) today, western border: 1st Avenue (along Hwy 1). This is the rough outline of the building area, 2010.

Sign Our Guestbook


If you would like to leave a comment about this Research Website please leave me a post. Please e-mail me with questions. If you do not want to leave your name or e-mail address in the guest book just make up one. A name and e-mail address must be filled in to leave any comments. We welcome your comments!

A Quick Link to this Website is:

Return to The Fort Ord U.S. Army Station Veterinary Hospital (Horse) WW2 homepage:

Click on the below link:
Fort Ord U.S. Army Station Veterinary Hospital (Horse) WW2

Click on the below Homepage links:

Click on the below link:
11th Cavalry Presidio of Monterey, 1919 to 1940

Click on the below link:
76th Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Battalion

Click on the below link:
East Garrison/Camp Ord 1940's Army Building Documentation 2013

Click on the below link:
The Army Veterinary Service During the Great War, WW1

Click on the below link:
Sergeant Leonard Murphy Veterinary Hospital No. 18, A.E.F., WW1


Motto: “Illic est Vires in Numerus” There is Strength in Numbers

“Working Hard to Preserve Our Country’s History wherever it is being lost”

U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group is a group of individuals that are concerned about the preservation of the History of the Veterinary Corps, Remount Service and Cavalry or wherever our country’s history is being lost in conjunction with our beloved “Horse and Mule”. There is no cost to join and membership is for life. We believe by uniting together in numbers we will be a more powerful force to be heard. Our membership list is private and only used to contact our members. Email us and become a member.

Greg Krenzelok

FACEBOOK: U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group

Click on the below link:

U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group