The Scottish name "Gowen" is probably derived from the Gaelic word of the same spelling which is interpreted "metalsmith." Very likely the early bearers of the Gowen name in Scotland and Ireland were followers of that trade. The word was also used to describe other metal workers-- goldsmiths, silversmiths, coppersmiths, tinsmiths and even blacksmiths. It is synonymous with "Smith" in English, "Schmidt" in German and "Kovaks" in Polish.
The name was interchangeably spelled Gowen, Gowan, Gowin, Gowing, Gowine, Goan, Goen, Goin, Goyn, Goyne, Goyen, Gouwen and other even more remote renderings-- sometimes among members of the same family. Clerks frequently added an "s" to the end of the name to give it even more variations.
The names"Gowin" and "Gouwen" are said to be of German and Dutch origin. The word "gow," from the Gaelic "gobha" signified a smith. The smith was a craftsman of importance in all of the clans, so the name has no particular connection with any one of the Scottish clans. The Gows are usually included in Clan Chattan though there are many of the name in Perth-shire, and 11 of the name appeared in the "Commissariot Record of Dunblane" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, according to George F. Black who wrote "Sur-names of Scotland."
Since a "V" was used interchangeable with a "W" in old English spelling, the name "Gowen" was often rendered "Goven." The name "Govan" was of territorial origin from the old lands of Govan in Lanarkshire, logical location for the beginning of the Gowen family, according to Black. Some credence can be given to this theory because "Gowen" was a very common name at Wigtown, a hamlet in the southern-most extremity of the country, some 30 miles south of Govan.
Even closer was Ayr, birthplace of the poet Robert Burns who is claimed as a kinsman by many in the Gowen family.
The word "Gowan" has a separate meaning in the language of the Scots--being also used to refer to a meadow daisy, accord- ing to Rev. Peter I. Gowan, Jr, a Presbyterian minister who was born March 13, 1843 and died December 2, 1912 in Wesson, Mississippi.
Brendan Gowen wrote October 24, 1997: "The Irish Gaelic for "Gowen" is "McGabhann" correctly linked to the name "Smith."
“McGabhann, pronounced ma-gow-an is derived from the word "gabha" pronounced gow-a, meaning "Smith" and "mc" meaning "son of." The Irish Gaelic for "Gowan" is also "Mc-Gabhann," suggesting that the names Gowen and Gowan both derived from the one name. The name "Gow-en" is perhaps a later derivative of "Gowan." It is possible name "McGab-hann" is Scottish or derived from a Scottish name. It is pos-sible that the Gowen name derived from another source, eg: "Goune" which is pronounced simi-liarily. It is then possible that that during the re-translation of Anglicised Irish names back to Gaelic that "Gowen", spelt very similiar to "Gowan" was then catagorized as a derivative of "Gowan" and translates back to "McGab-0hann," hence the link to Scotland. Most Scottish-derived names in Ireland are located in the north of the country as are many of the Gowans, however the largest gathering of Gowens is in the south of the country, There are also sig-nificantly less Gowens to Gowans in Ireland. Most Gow-ens in Ireland are related suggesting the name is a recent migrant family or the name is a recent derivative. It was re-cently suggested to me that "Gowen" derives from the French name "Goune" who were originally French Prot-estants who fled religious persecution from Catholic France."
When the Mayflower sailed in 1620 with the Pilgrim fathers aboard there was a little three-year-old boy somewhere in Scotland destined to follow their course 15 years later. This toddler was Thomas Gowen, born in1617 and destined, as far as present research reveals, to be the first bearer of the Gowen name on American soil. On the 7th, 8th month, 1635 18-year- old Thomas Gowen was listed as a "passenger for Virginia out of London" by "New England Historical & Genealogical Register." The entry read: "These underwritten names are to be transported to Virginia in the 'Globe' of London, Jeremy Blackman, Master, have been examined by the Minister of Gravesend, of their conformitie and have taken the oaths of allegeance and supremacie." The term "transported" was usually reserved for convicts who were to be banished to the colonies by the crown because of criminality or heresy. Thomas Gowen is mentioned as "bound for Virginia" in "Our Early Emigrant Ancestors" by John Camden Hotten. The term "bound" was usually reserved for indentured servants. Capt. Jeremy Blackman apparently had a career of sailing the trans-Atlantic route. On 26th, 3rd month, 1639 Jeremy Blackman, "mariner" and Thomas Stegg, "merchant" made a trade with the Virginia Council to import horses and export "neate cattle," according to "Acts of the Privy Council." During this period of English history, a neat scheme was de- vised to give a reprieve from the gallows to any person whose crimes were less than murder, treason, rape, witchcraft, highway robbery, arson or burglary, in order that they might be shipped to the colonies to "toyle in heavy and painefull workes." Parliament in 1718 passed an act to create a sentence of seven years of work in the American colonies, which became the standard punishment for crimes other than the most trivial or most heinous. Even the sentence for murder, provided there were extenuating circumstances, could be commuted to a term of 14 years or life in the colonies. The infamous Newgate prison in London and others contributed more than 500 felons each year for slave labor for the American plantations. Enormous profits were made by the tobacco merchants, who had a monopoly on the trade in human cargoes. The recruitment of labor to the American tobacco plantations and to domestic service of all kinds, from school- mastering to scullery work, was achieved in very large measure through the emptying of English jails, workhouses, brothels and houses of correction.
Through Bristol, more than 10,000 indentured servants came between 1654 and 1686. Bristol merchants would take convicts or indentured servants indiscriminately and with little scruple as to how they were obtained. The trade was profitable and the merchants could well afford to ship their charges free because of the high prices obtainable for human labor at the port of delivery. So a trading pattern was set for over a century –an outward cargo of laborers to be exchanged for a return consignment of tobacco. The crown viewed the practice as ideal. It emptied the jails, eliminated political prisoners, de-pleted the brothels, solved unemployment, removed dangerous prisoners of war, silenced heretics, paid debts, produced taxes, and threw "the fear of God" into the rest of the populace--all at no expense. Thomas Gowen may have been the first member of the family to be "transported," but he would not be the last. Fifteen years later William Alexander Gowen, a Scottish prisoner of war taken in the Battle of Dunbar, arrived on the ship "Unity" at Strawberry Bank Colony, later Portland, Maine. History tells us little about these individual immigrants and our genealogies even less. Not all of our ancestors came to America seeking religious freedom. Gowen researchers looking for noble ancestors should also prepare themselves to discover in their lineage the undesirables of 17th century English society. Very likely Thomas Gowen first set foot on American soil at Jamestown, Virginia, a settlement destined to be burned and destroyed by marauding Indians a few years later. Since no record has been found of his descendants, he may have lost his life there. The original settlement of Jamestown was made in May 1607 on the northeast bank of the James River.
A few years later another settlement was made across the peninsula from Jamestown, and it was called "the settlement on Charles River." Later the river became the York River. The settlement was renamed Yorktown, and York County came into being in 1634. The area was the scene of the final battle of the Revolutionary War with the troops of Generals Washington, Wayne and Lafayette forcing the surrender of the soldiers of Charles Lord Cornwallis.
Mihil Gowen, a slave of Christopher Stafford of York County, Virginia, was given his freedom September 16, 1657 in two declarations made by Anne Barnhouse, sister of Stafford. The declarations, recorded in "York County, Virginia Wills, Deeds and Orders, 1657-1659," made after the death of Stafford and after Mihil Gowen had served an additional four years with Robert Stafford, read:
"I, Anne Barnhouse of Martin Hundred, widow, have given Mihil Gowen, Negro, at this time servant to Robert Stafford, a male child born 25 August 1655 of the body of my Negro, Prossa, being baptized by Mr. Edward Johnson 25 September 1655 and named William, and I bind myself never to trouble Mihil Gowen or his son, William or demand any service of them. 16 September 1657."
"Mihil Gowen, Negro, of late serving my brother Xtopher Stafford, dcsd, by his last will & testament, had his freedom given him after the expiration of 4 years service to my uncle, Robert Stafford. I, Anne Barnhouse do absolve, quit and discharge the said Mihil Gowen from my service 25 October 1657.
A. B. [The mark of Anne Barnhouse
Witnesses: Arthur Dickenson Joseph Albrighton"
It is estimated that Mihil Gowen was born about 1630, place and parents unknown. Some researchers regard Mihil Gowen as a Portuguese Angolan, others a Melungeon; and others regard him as a mulatto. Apparently he came into the pos-session or employ of Capt. Christopher Stafford about 1645 perhaps on a voyage, perhaps on the docks of London. Capt. Richard Barnhouse was married to Anne Stafford, sister to Christopher Stafford.
Mihil Gowen may have served as a cabinboy on their ships. Capt. Stafford died about 1652, and Mihil Gowen was re-quired to serve his uncle Robert Stafford an additional four years.
If the sailing records of Captains Stafford and Barnhouse could be located, some additional information about Mihil Gowen might be learned. Probate records of Captains Staf-ford and Barnhouse, if found in York County, might also re-veal something.
Capt. Richard Barnhouse was born in England about 1595. He appears to be the “Richard Barnehouse of Bristol, sailor, aged 22, deposes July 28, 1617 that he has lived at Bristol for two years, and before that was a captive in Algiers,” according to “Genealogical Notes from the High Court of Admiralty Examinations” by J. R. Hutchinson, page 179. It is suggested that he was the Richard Barnhouse who gave bond to William Pester of Salem in 1638. Pester perhaps provided the ransom for his freedom in Algiers.
“Richard Barnhouse, Jr. appears as a resident of Gloucester County, Virginia in 1653, according to “Early Virginia Immigrants” by George Cabel Greer. “Capt. Richard Barnhouse” and “Richard Barnhouse, Gentleman” were residents of James City County, Virginia in 1656. Anne Stafford Barnhouse identifies herself as a widow August 25, 1655, suggesting that she was married to Richard Barnhouse, Sr.
It is unknown how the slave acquired the Scottish surname "Gowen." If Mihil Gowen were a Portuguese Angolan, as the family tradition of Melungeon ancestry implies, then, in spec-ulation, his original name might have been the Portuguese surname Goyon. When anglicized, it emerged as Gowen.
Paul Heinegg, writing in "Free African Americans of North Carolina and Virginia" suggests that "John Geaween" was the father of Mihil Gowen. Geaween earned his freedom March 31, 1641, according to "Virginia Council and Gene-ral Court Records, 1640-1641."
John Geaween [Gowen?] was one of the first Africans to earn his freedom in Virginia according to "Virginia Magazine of History & Biography," Volume XI, page 281. On March 31, 1641 the Virginia Court ordered:
"That John Geaween being a negro servant unto William Evans was permitted by his said master to keep hogs and made the best benefit thereof to him-self provided that the said Evans might have half the increase . . . and whereas the said negro having a young child of a negro woman belonging to Lieut Robert Sheppard . . . the said negro did for his said child purchase its freedom of Lieut. Robert Sheppard . . . the court hath therefore ordered that the child shall be free from the said Evans . ."
Tim Hashaw, Foundation member of Houston, Texas, wrote:
“Here's the story on John Geaween's mate. She was first known simply as Margarett, then later as Margarett Cornish. She was tried October 17, 1640 for having a child by Robert Sweat, a white man, whose descendant is Sande. Robert was required to confess in James City church, while Margarett, the negress was whipped.
Four months later, John Geaween purchased the freedom of his son by the negress slave woman of Robert Sheppard, regarded as Margarett Cornish. So she first had the son of John Gea-ween. They must have had some kind of marital arrangement because John Geaween was not punished for fathering the child. It appears then that after the discovery that she was bearing a white man's child, John Geaween filed to get his son and have him raised in a Christian home. So there may have been some other circumstances involved in what is already historic: the first African purchasing his son's freedom, aided by the fact that his "wife" had been involved in an adulterous affair. Such things were public scandals in 1640.
Still to be addressed is the possibility that Margarett came in on the White Lion in 1619, possibly as Paul Heinegg notes as a child then. We know women were among the 22 Africans be-cause of the presence of Issabella with Antony from the White Lion.”
Normally, under Virginia law, when a slave was set free, the minor children of his household were also freed. Mihil Gow-en and "the negress Prossa" were the parents of William Gow-en, "free colored" who was born August 25, 1655. William Gowen was given his freedom at the same time and with the same document that Mihil Gowen was freed.
Historian William Thornton reported that 32 Africans were listed in the Jamestown colony in its census of 1619.
The first shipment of slaves into Virginia now are identified as Portuguese Angolans by Engel Sluiter, a California historian who has delved into early Portuguese maritime records. The English colonists hardly knew what to do with the some two dozen blacks who landed from a Dutch ship at Jamestown in the summer of 1619.
There were no large plantations at that time to utilize slave labor. And the English colonists were accustomed to endentured servants who worked for their masters a specified number of years to pay for their passage to the New World and for their freedom--and they were unaccustomed to lifetime slavery.
Probably the condition of the slaves was not much worse than that of the endentured servants brought over from England. At times it might have been even better because the master had reason to take care of his slave who represented capital, whereas he had no similar incentive in regard to the condition of the endentured servant.
The development of slavery came extremely slow in Virginia. In 1681 only 2,000 black slaves were recorded there as opposed to 6,000 endentured servants. With the development of southern plantations, the importation of slaves rapidly increased. In 1754, 263,000 slaves were reported as taxable property. By 1860, 4,441,863 slaves were enumerated in the U.S. census.
Melungeon researchers point to several facts developed by Sluiter in his research suggesting that these early Angolan slaves were possibly a genetic component of the mysterious Melungeons. Many researchers have despaired of ever finding the origin of this enigmatic race. Their beginning has long been obscured in the mists of antiquity, but now progress is being reported in perhaps one genetic component of their forbears.
Most of the Angolans simply stepped off the gangplank into obscurity; only one possible member of the group, John Geaween, has been found in Colonial Virginia records examined thus far. By making a deal to raise hogs "on the halves" with his master, Geaween earned his freedom, according to "Virginia Council and General Court Records, 1640-1641."
On March 31, 1641 the Virginia Court ordered:
"That John Geaween being a negro servant unto William Evans was permitted by his said master to keep hogs and made the best benefit thereof to himself provided that the said Evans might have half the increase . . . and whereas the said negro having a young child of a negro woman belonging to Lieut. Robert Sheppard . . . the said negro did for his said child purchase its freedom of Lieut. Robert Sheppard . . . the court hath therefore ordered that the child shall be free from the said Evans . ."
Sluiter determined that the Angolans were placed aboard the Portuguese merchant-slave ship "Sao Joao Bautisto" at the Angolan port of Sao Paulo da Luanda on the African west coast. The ship, heading for the New World, was attacked in the West Indes by the Dutch ship, and its human cargo fell into the hands of the privateers. The Dutch captain promptly set sail for Virginia to sell his human prize.
The Portuguese had fallen into the slave trade by accident. Toward the close of the war with the Moors, the Portuguese captured a group of Moorish prisoners-of-war. The Moroccans offered an even larger group of Blacks to secure the release of the Moors, and the Portuguese accepted the ransom. Immediately they were in business.
In 1420 Prince Henry the Navigator came to power in Portugal and immediately set about to build up a navy and a merchant fleet. He organized skilled map makers, ship builders, navigators and seamen into an immense maritime task force in an effort to dominate the world's sealanes.
His aims were five-fold: He wanted to develop a Portuguese empire. He wanted to explore for a sea route to reach India and its lucrative spice trade. He wanted to fight the Muslims on their own soil. He wanted to accommodate the Catholics in their desire to Christianize the world. And he wanted to finance all of this expansion with the African slave trade.
His efforts were imminently successful. Portuguese captains in 1430 claimed Madiera, the Canary Islands and the Azores, uninhabited until then. Quickly the Cape Verde Islands, "Sao Tome & Principe, Guinea and Mozambique were added to the Empire. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and discovered the coveted Spice Route. Vasco da Gama in 1497 claimed Brazil. In 1506 Adm. Tristao da Cunha discovered the South Atlantic island that still bears his name today. The Portuguese Navy wiped out the Muslim Navy in a sea battle off Diu in 1509. Pedro Alvarez Cabral reached China in 1542 and established Macao in 1557.
Probing the West African coast, they reached the mouth of the Congo River in 1482 and claimed 1,000 miles of the coast as Angola. Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda as its capital in 1576 and brought in the Catholic Church who began to convert the inhabitants, scattered over 481,000 square miles, an area almost 150 times larger that Portugal itself. A native monarchy, the Manicongo, sought conversion and alliance with the Portuguese. As a result, today 3,000,000 Angolans are Catholic.
In contrast to the colonization efforts of the British, the French and the Dutch, the Portuguese did not plant colonies. They organized each territory as a state in the Portuguese nation, and the inhabitants of each became Portuguese.
Thus when the Portuguese Angolans stepped of the gangplank in Jamestown in 1719, they were Portuguese citizens, spoke the Portuguese language and were Christians. Perhaps they eventually linked up with the descendants of the Portuguese survivors of the Spanish colony of Santa Elena which was established by Capt. Joao Pardo in 1566 in present-day Parris Island, South Carolina.
It is suggested that it was their descendants that Capt. John Sevier encountered in the Appalachians when he was dispatched by John Murray Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia. His mission was to pacify the Indians before the outbreak of Lord Dunmore's War in 1774.
In a report to Lord Dunmore, Capt. Sevier mentioned his encounter with a mysterious people he found west of the mountains. He described them as dark skinned, of reddish-brown complexion, neither Negro nor Indian, but with European features and who claimed to be Portuguese.
Another description of the possible Melungeons was given by early explorers Abraham Wood and James Needlum. According to Wood's journal, "Eight days jorney down this river lives a white people which have long beards and whiskers and weares clothing."
Samuel Cole Williams, LLD, wrote in "Early Travels in the Tennessee Country," "There is a tradition among the early Cherokees that they respected a settlement of white men among them." "Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee" by Haywood also deals with the early white men who lived among the Cherokees. Mention is made that they displayed a cross, iron implements and were called to assembly by a bell, suggesting a Catholic influence.
Tim Hashaw, an investigative reporter of Houston, Texas wrote September 7, 2000:
“Engel Sluiter quotes the Spanish captain as saying there was at least two English corsairs involved in the raid on the slave ship Baustista. Furthermore, the Dutch ship is said to be a vessel from Flushing by an official of the Virginia colony who was present when it landed. Others saw the Dutch and the English ships together, while others recount the Dutch story of how they had been separated briefly in the Indies. “The Treasurer” arrived in Jamestown just four days after the Dutch dropped off its Africans. I know that at least one African female was taken off “The Treasurer.” This colony official is therefore the third eyewitness who places the Dutch man o war at Jamestown in 1619.
There is no doubt that the Flushing ship and the English "Treasurer" were both present at the pillaging of the Bautista's slave cargo. He says the Dutch and English ships had a consortship as early as in the Netherlands to go pirating together. Both ships were illegally involved in privateering against the Spaniards.
Thorton pretty much nails down the specific area of Angola hit by the Portuguese and their cannibalistic mercernaries. It was in the Melanje highlands and a royal capital was the target. He also describes the condition of the slave prison at Luanda. We can pretty much point directly to the community from whence the Bautista's Africans came. The best books about this are all in German!
I have also come across several more Spanish/Porto surnames among blacks in the Virginia colony which will support the Angola/Kongo Portuguese position. In addition, a third ship I have found which arrived in the late 1620s may actually be the ship upon which John Geaween arrived if not aboard the Dutch in 1619.
There is one other angle I would like to probe. When did the Melanje district of Angola receive its name? I know that "Melanje" is a Zulu word for white men, in their case the only white men were Portuguese. This does not necessarily mean that the Angolan place name came from the Zulu. But if Thorton is correct, and the Africans aboard the Dutch at Jamestown were all from one Angolan community, well then it is very possible that "Melanje" was remembered by them and used to describe themselves. Later it was anglicized to "Melungeon. This will be difficult to prove. I must learn if Melanje is an ancient name for the area. If so, the "Mystery of the Melungeons" may after about 150 years of published use, be finally solved.”
In February 1668, Mihil Gowen received a deed for "30 or 40 acres," according to "York County, Virginia Wills, Deeds and Orders." It is unknown why land transactions involving James City County land would be recorded in adjoining York County records. The deed read:
"Mihill Gowree. 30 or 40 acres situated in Merchants Hundred Parish in James City County, formerly belonging to John James, decd, and by him purchased of Capt. Richard Barnhouse and lately bound to escheat [forfeiture and reversion to the crown] and by a jury for said county under hand and seal of Col. Miles Carey, 20 December 1666 and now granted to said Gowree 8 February 1668."
By the time Mihil Gowen died, apparently November 24, 1708, the property was again in escheat, according to "York County, Virginia Wills, Deeds and Orders:"
"Inquisition, James City County, Virginia, 11 September 1717. It appears that Mihill Goen, late of said county of James City, dyed seized of 30 or 40 acres escheat 24 November 1708 by Christopher Jackson, surveyor of James City County is found to contain 37 acres."
"Mihil Goen" [either the estate of Mihil Goen or Mihil Gowen, Jr.] "transferred 37 acres of escheat land to Robert Hubbard February 2, 1718," according to James City County Deed Book 9. The metes and bounds read:
"Yorkhampton Parish; beginning at the corner of Mihil Goen, Hubbard & Francis Moreland, adjoining Graves Pack; down the Beach Spring Branch to the place called Horse Bridge," according to James City County Patent Book 10, page 415.
Other notes reveal: "Escheated from Mihil Goen, dec'd, by inquisition under Edmund Jennings, Esqr, Escheater 11 September, 1717.”
There is no evidence that Anne Barnhouse gave Prossa Gowen her freedom. Paul Heinegg suggests that Mihil Gowen, as a free man, may have taken another wife, a white woman, since there may not have been any more black women in the colony at that time.
Children born to Mihil Gowen and Prossa Gowen include:
William Gowen born August 25, 1655
Possible children of Mihil Gowen and his second wife include:
Mihil Gowen, Jr. born about 1656
Daniel Gowen born about 1657
Christopher Gowen born about 1658
Jason Gowen born about 1659
Thomas Gowen born about 1660
James Gowen born about 1663
William Gowen, [Mihil1] son of Mihil Gowen and Prossa Gowen, was born August 25, 1655, according to a statement by Anne Barnhouse which appeared in "York County, Vir-
ginia Wills, Deeds and Orders, 1657-1659." He was bap-tized one month later by Rev. Edward Johnson on Septem-ber 15, 1655. Being a child of two black parents, he received a "double dip" of black genes, in contrast to his siblings who may have been from a mixed marriage.
Children born to William Gowen include:
Edward Gowen born about 1681
Edward Gowen, [William2, Mihil1] suggested as a son of William Gowen by Paul Heinegg, was born about 1681. In 1704 he appeared on the tax rolls of Gloucester County, pay-ing tax on 100 acres in Kingston Parish, according to "The Quit Rents of Virginia, 1704." Edward Gowen is suggested as the father of:
Edward Gowen, Jr. born about 1702
Edward Gowen, Jr, [Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the son of Edward Gowen by Paul Heinegg, was born about 1702, probably in Gloucester County. He appeared as a "tax-able" on the 1720 tax list of Northampton County, Virginia located across the Chesapeake Bay from Gloucester County. "Edward Going" was settled in Charles City County in 1739, according to Charles City County Order Book, page 109. "Edward Goeing" received a deed in Charles City County from John Goodall "and Mary, his wife" which was recorded in the July court session of 1743, according to "Charles City County, Virginia Records, 1734-74." "Edward Going" gave a deed to John Shell in Charles City County which was
recorded in the May 1746 court session, according to "Charles City County, Virginia Records, 1734-74." Edward Gowen, Jr. may
have removed to Brunswick County on the North Carolina border about this time, "Edward Going of Brunswick County" was
mentioned in "Brunswick County, Virginia Deeds, 1745-1749:" Page 444 "June 2, 1748, From John Roper of Charles City County
to Edward Going of Brunswick County for £5 one certain tract of land of about 100 acres in Brunswick County on the south side
of Mill Creek, bounded by Simmons' corner and old line, the south fork, being part of a larger tract of 1601 acres which was
patented to the said John Roper on August 2, 1745. Witnessed by: John Roper Thomas Twitty William Linsey John [X] Roberts Recorded June 2, 1748" Virginia Easley DeMarce, the researcher who located this deed wrote, "Part of this tract was also sold to
George Hagood of Brunswick County, and then he sold it again to John Johnson. Land was located "in Brunswick County on both
sides of Bryery Creek, adjoining lines of Richard Russell, Benjamin Lanier, Richard Hagood and Thomas Twitty." Children born to
Edward Gowen, Jr. are believed to include: Phillis Gowen born about 1719 Michael Gowen born about 1720 Agnes Gowen born
about 1721 James Gowen born about 1725 Edward Gowen born about 1727 Thomas Gowen born about 1729 Joseph Gowen born
about 1730 Ann Gowen born about 1735 Phillis Gowen, [Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] re- garded as the daughter of
Edward Gowen, Jr, was born about 1719, probably in Northampton County. She was indicted by the grand jury in Charles City
County in November 1739 "for having a bastard child." Michael Gowen, [Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a
son of Edward Gowen, Jr, was born about 1720, probably in Northampton County. He was married about 1737, wife's name
unknown. He appeared in the 1750 tax list of Granville County, paying a tax on two tithables. "Mical Going" received a deed from
John McKisick April 18, 1752 to 225 acres "on both sides of Taillors Creek, being the upper part of the tract of 600 acres granted
to McKisick May 2, 1752 [?]" for "six pounds, Virginia money," according to Granville County Deed Book B, page 73. Witnesses
were Broadhead Trulove, Thomas Hunter and Francis Maley. He was taxed as a "black" tithable in the 1753 tax list of Osborn
Jeffreys. Jeffreys recorded him in 1754 as a "white" taxable. Michael Gowen, Thomas Gowen, and Edward Gowen "mulattos"
were listed in the roster of a company of militia- men commanded by Capt. Osborn Jeffreys, under the overall command of Col.
William Eaton October 8, 1754, according to "Colonial and State Records of North Carolina," Vol. 22, pages 370-380. The roster
of Capt. Osborn Jeffrey's company, one of eight in Col. Eaton's regiment is listed below: William Eaton, Colonel William Person,
Lieut. Colonel James Paine, Major Captain Osborn JEFFREY'S Company (83 men): Richard WHITE, Lieut. John McKISSICK,
Ensign 1. Francis BRADLEY, Sgt. 2. Howard WORLEY, Sgt. 3. John FARRELL, Sgt. 4. Wm McBEE, Corpl. 5. Thomas
COOK, Corpl. 6. William PERRY, Corpl. 7. John MARTIN, Corpl. 8. John SANDLAND, Sr. 9. Peter VINSON 10. Philemon
BRADFORD, Jr. 11. John SUTTON 12. Arthur FULLER 13. Timothy FULLER 14. Joseph FULLER 15. James SUTTON 16.
James WADE 17. John SANDLAND, Jr. 18. Robert ALLEN 19. Joseph FARRELL 20. Wm. MOXLEY 21. Robert MORGAN
22. Isaac WINSTON 23. Wm WHITE 24. John GREEN 25. Thomas HULAND 26. Thomas MULLINS 27. John YOUNG 28.
Wm PORCH 29. Thomas BRIDGES 30. Jeremiah PERRY 31. Ambrose CRANE 32. Francis PERRY 33. John PERRY 34.
William RIDINGS 35. William SMITH 36. Ezekiah MASSEY 37. James Brogden 38. John GOLDING 39. Thomas BROGDEN 40. John DAVIS 41. Julius ALFORD 42. Jacob POWEL 43. Wm MAYNARD 44. Gibson MARTIN 45. John BRADLY 46. Nathaniel PERRY 47. Wm. CADE 48. Andrew HARFIELD 49. John MOONEY 50. Michael PERRY 51.
William BREWER 52. Francis JOHNSTON 53. John BOOKER 54. Benjamin ARUNDEL 55. Thomas ARUNDEL 56. James
ARUNDEL 55. Thomas Arundel 56. James ARUNDEL 57. Austin HONEYCOT 58. Joseph BRIDGES 59. Roger REESE
60. Thomas JONES 61. William TAUNT 62. George MAYNARD 63. Nathaniel JONES 64. Andrew MARTIN 65. Joseph
NORRIS 66. Richard RAYBORN 67. John DUNCAN 68. Wm ADKINSON 69. Joseph MEDLIN 70. James BOLTEN 71.
Wm WINSTON 72. John WRIGHT 73. Samuel CARLISLE 74. John WILDER 75. John GARRET 76. Anthony LEWIS 77.
Nathan GRIMES 78. Thomas GOWEN, Mulatto 79. Michael GOWEN, Mulatto 80. Edward GOWEN, Mulatto 81. Robert
DAVIS, Mulatto 82. Wm BURNEL, Mulatto 83. Wm. MOONEY Michael Gowen was again a "black" taxable in the 1755 tax
list. "Michael Gowen and John Wilson, mullatoes," apparently in the same household, were taxables in the 1759 tax list of John
Pope. He reappeared in Pope's 1761 tax list with the notation that he "refuses to list his wife." This indicated that he considered
her to be "white" and therefore not taxable. "Mickael Gowin, mulatto" of St. John's Parish was a taxpayer, according to the 1762
tax list. Bute County was organized in 1764 with land from Granville County, and Michael Gowen found himself in the new
county. He was taxed there in the 1771 tax list of Philemon Hawkins. His household appeared in the Bute County court records as
"Michle Gowine & wife & Sons, Michle & David & Daughter, Elizabeath, William Wilson, 0 white/6 black/6 total." "Michael
Gowin, of Prince George Parish, Craven County, North Carolina" gave a deed to "Jenkins Gowin" of Granville County, North
Carolina June 3, 1778 to 80 acres in Granville County, "being part of 600 acres, part in Bute County, North Carolina and part in
Granville County on the south side of Taylor Creek," according to Granville County Deed Book 1, page 193. The deed also
stipulated that "Edward Gowin and wife were to live on said plantation until their decease" then it was to devolve to "Jenkins
Gowin." The deed was witnessed by John McKissick and William McBee. On the same date "Michael Gowin, planter of Prince
George Parish," wrote his will June 3, 1778, according to Craven County Will Book I, pages 193 and 194. The will, which was
probated in November 1778, left 80 acres, "being part of 600 acres in Bute and Granville County," to "Jenkins Gowin" of Granville
County. Jenkins Gowen is regarded as the nephew of Michael Gowen and the son of Edward Gowen. The deed conveyed the
land to Jenkins Gowen upon the death of Edward Gowen and his wife who had been given permission to live there by Michael
Gowen. The will repeated the stipulation that "Edward Gowin and wife" were to live on the plantation until they were deceased
and then the property was to pass to "Jenkins Gowin, "mulatto", according to "Abstracts of Granville County Wills" by Joseph W.
Watson. Michael Gowen died about October 1778, probably in Craven County. Jenkins Gowen apparently lost the property in the
following year. "Michael Gowing" was mentioned in a sheriff's deed dated August 3, 1779, according to Granville County Deed
Book M, page 179. The deed conveyed property that "Edward Gowing formerly lived on, and his brother, Michael Gowing,
formerly owned" to Charles Yarbrough by the Granville County sheriff apparently in a tax default. Abstract of the deed was
reproduced in "Kinfolks of Granville County, North Carolina 1765-1826" by Zoe Hargett Gwynn. The volume contained abstracts
of Granville County Deed Books H through Z. Jenkins Gowen was in the Granville County militia on May 25, 1778 and later
served in the North Carolina Continental Line during the Revolutionary War. Children born to Michael Gowen include: Michael
Gowen, Jr. born about 1738 Elizabeth Gowen born about 1742 David Gowen born about 1750 Michael Gowen, Jr, [Michael5,
Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] son of Michael Gowen, was born about 1738. "Michael Gowing, Jr." was sued "for
trespass" by Thomas Parker September 2, 1755, according to Granville County Court minutes. He was recorded as "Michile
Gowine, black" in his father's household in 1771. Elizabeth Gowen, [Michael5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] daughter
of Michael Gowen, was born about 1742. She was recorded in her father's household as "Elizabeth Gowine, black" in the tax list of
1771 of Granville County. David Gowen, [Michael5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] son of Michael Gowen, was born
about 1750, probably in Granville County. He was listed as "David Gowine, black" in the 1771 tax list of his father's household.
"David Gowen" received 39 lashes in Granville County for petty larceny, according to Granville County court minutes. Agnes
Gowen, [Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a daughter of Edward Gowen, Jr, was born about 1721, probably in
Northampton County. She appeared January 9, 1743 in Louisa County, Virginia when the court ordered that "she receive 25 lashes
on her bare back because she had a bastard child," according to "Louisa County, Virginia 1743-1814: Where Have All the Children Gone?" "Agnes Going" was recorded November 12, 1757 as "under the care of" Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting, according to
"Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy," Vol. 6 [Virginia] by Hinshaw. This entry suggests that she was receiving
provisions and perhaps other assistance from the Quaker church. Paul Heinegg suggests that Agnes Gowen was the commonlaw
wife of a slave. On April 10, 1770 the church wardens of Trinity Parish were ordered to "bind out all her children under 21 years,
except the youngest." Her son, Sherwood Going was bound out to William Phillips. On February 12, 1776 Agnes Going appeared
in court to file a complaint about the ill-treatment "Sherrod Going was receiving from his master, William Phillips." "Agnes Going,
free colored" was enumerated in 1787 as the head of a household which contained a "white male, 16-21," according to "The 1787
Census of Virginia" by Netti Schreinder-Yantis." She owned two head of cattle, but was not tithable herself. The "white male"
might have been her son, Daniel Going who would have fit the age bracket. Children born to Agnes Gowen are believed to
include: Moses Going born about 1743 Joseph Going born about 1747 Sarah "Sally" Gowen born about 1751 David Going born
about 1752 Benjamin Going born about 1755 Sherwood Going born about 1756 Joshua Going born about 1758 Samuel Going born
about 1760 Daniel Going born about 1766 Moses Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] born about 1743, is
identified as a son of Agnes Gowen in "Free African Americans in North Carolina and Virginia" written by Paul Heinegg. He
suggests that he was born in January 1743 in Louisa County. In 1760 Moses Going, "soldier under Capt. William Christian in the
regiment of Col. Byrd," received a Land Bounty Certificate. Moses Going, a Revolutionary soldier, made an oath that he had also
served "as a soldier under Capt. James Gunn in Col. Byrd's regiment in 1760," according to "Virginia Magazine of History and
Biography." Moses Going was married about 1762, wife's name Agnes, the same as his mother. Moses Going appeared on the tax
rolls of Trinity Parish in Louisa County in 1770 living on the farmstead of John Fox. Two years later he was the head of his own
household, according to "Louisa County, Virginia Tithables and Census, 1743-1785."
Moses Going bought 353 acres of land January 13, 1777 from Michael Ailstock and his wife, Rebecca Ailstock, "free col- ored", according to Louisa County Deed Book E-F, page 14. On June 9, 1777 "Moses Going of Louisa County and Agness, his wife deeded the 353 acres to Robert Harris for £100," ac- cording to Louisa County Deed Book E-F, page 156. The sur- vey ran "from Charles Smith's corner to Francis Smith's corner and to Opher Smith's line." Both Moses Going and Agness Going acknowledged the transfer.
It is believed the land was sold in preparation for Moses Going to enter Revolutionary service. On April 27, 1780, Moses Go- ing was in Henry County, Virginia, on the North Carolina bor- der, according to "Virginia Colonial Militia, 1651-1776," His brother, Sherwood Going enlisted in the Fourteenth Vir- ginia Regiment for three years service about that time, and it is believed that Moses Going accompanied him. Sherwood Going stated in his Revolutionary pension application that he reenlisted in 1780 for an additional 18 months.
1780, Moses Going filed suit against Duncan Carmichael in nearby Halifax County, Virginia "on an attachment." "Complaintant did not further process, case dismissed," according to Halifax County Plea Book 10, page 143, as researched by Jack Harold Goins,
Editorial Boardmember of Rogersville, Tennessee. In 1783, Moses Going was permitted to build a grist mill on Morth Mayo River,
according to Henry County Court Order Book 3, page 85. Jack Harold Goins wrote, "Looking at North Mayo River [present day
map], it flows into the South Mayo River, thus becoming the Mayo River as it flows into North Carolina." About the same time,
David Going, regarded as a kinsman, was given permission to build a grist mill on nearby Spoon Creek. The land of David Going
lay in Halifax County in 1763. When Pittsylvania County was organized in 1766, his land was in the new county. When Henry
County was organized in 1776, the land of David Going then lay in that county. In 1783 and 1784, David Goins paid tax in Henry
County for himself and "William Goins, Charles Goins and Jacob Goins," regarded as his sons. John Goins, a contemporary
neighbor, was given permission to build a grist mill on Blackberry Creek. When the Revolutionary war ended, The state of Georgia
was opened for intensive settlement, and generous land grants were offered to Revolutionary soldiers to induce them to pioneer
there. Moses Going, accompanied by Jesse Going, regarded as his son, accepted the offer, travelling there about 1786. After
inspecting the farmland of the area, Moses Going returned to Virginia for his family. Agnes Going and the younger children
remained in Virginia until preparation was made for them in Georgia. She removed to nearby Henrico County about 1786. She
appeared on the tax rolls there the following year. She paid tax on "one tithe, two horses and six cattle, according to "The 1787
Census of Virginia." "Aggy Gowin, parent" was a witness at the marriage of "Elizabeth Gowin" to John Douglas January 29, 1787,
according to "Henrico County, Virginia Marriage Bonds, 1780-1851." About 1789 Moses Going and Agnes Going moved their
family to Georgia. Moses Going appeared as a taxpayer on 575 acres of second class land in Wilkes County in Capt. William
Lucas' District. He also paid tax on 684 acres of second class land in Franklin County, Georgia in 1790. Nearby residents were
John Going, Reuben Going, Aaron Going and William Going. All except William Going were shown as "free mulatto." Taxpayers
on Capt. Lucas's District returned lands on the waters of Ogeechee River, Long Creek and Rocky Comfort Creek. The entire
area was put into Warren County in 1793, and the same taxpayers were found in Capt. Hubert's District of Warren County in the
1794 tax list. "Moses Going, William Going and Jesse Going" who seemed to be closely associated were listed as taxpayers on the
county's first tax rolls in 1793 and 1794. Moses Going deeded 100 acres in Warren County to Warren Andrews July 21, 1793
which was "part of 780 acres originally granted to Ignatius Few in 1791," according to Warren County Deed Book A, page 606.
Moses Going owned a gristmill and a sawmill on the Ogeechee River which was mentioned in a 1795 deed from Eleazer Mobley
to Francis Beck. The deed refers to the "road leading from Going's Mill to Georgetown." "Moses Going and his wife Agnes Going"
gave a deed to James Cozart of Franklin County, Georgia to 648 acres of land May 29, 1795, according to Franklin County Deed
Book M, page 132. Consideration was £100 sterling. They gave a deed to William Stith, Jr. October 7, 1795 to 465 acres, "being
the western portion of 750 acres granted in 1791 to Ignatius Few," according to Warren County Deed Book A, page 365. He
received a Revolutionary land grant in Warren County in 1799. Moses Going appeared as a taxpayer on 350 acres of second class
land in Wilkes County on the Ogeechee River in the 1800 tax list. On October 16, 1800 he sold land "lying partly in Wilkes County
and partly in Warren County on the Ogeechee River," according to Warren County Deed Book B, page 14. "Moses Going and his
wife Agnes Going" gave a deed to James Cozart of Franklin County, Georgia to 648 acres of land May 29, 1795, according to
Franklin County Deed Book M, page 132. Consideration was £100 sterling. They gave a deed to William Stith, Jr. October 7, 1795
to 465 acres, "being the western portion of 750 acres granted in 1791 to Ignatius Few," according to Warren County Deed Book
A, page 365: "Warren County } Georgia } "This Indenture, made this Seventh day of October in the Year of our Lord One
Thousand and Seven Hundred & ninety-five between Moses Going and Aggy, his wife of the County of Warren and State
aforesaid of the one part & William Stith, Junr. of the sd. county of the other part, Witnesseth That the sd. Moses & his wife, for
an in consideration of the sum of Two Thousand Dollars to them in hand and well and truly paid by the said William at or before
the Sealing and delivery of these presents, the Receipt wherof is hereby acknowledged granted, bargained & sold, & by these
presents do grant, bargain and sell until the said Wm. his heirs & assigns all that tract or parcel of land situate, lying and being on
the North Side of Ogeechee River in the County of Warren containing, by estimation, Four hundred and sixty-five  acres [be
the same more or less, bounded as follows, viz: Beginning at a live oak on Rials Branch running thence N34 degrees W fifteen ch.
& 50 links to a pine, thence N33 degrees West 15 chains to a post oak, thence N7 degrees W 7 chains to a post oak, thence N76
degrees E 9 chains to a post oak, thence N5 degrees W 3 chains to a stake, thence S80 Deg. W 20 chains to a pine, thence S50
Deg. W 34 chains to a Sugar Tree on Ogeechee, then down the meanders of sd. River to the mouth of Ryals Branch, then up the
said branch to the Beginning, being the Western part of a tract of Land containing Seven Hundred and Eighty Acres granted to
Ignatius Few on the Second day of March in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred & Ninety One with all and
Singular the rights, members and appurtances whatsoever to the Said tract or parcel of land being, belonging or otherwise
appertaining & the remainder, reversions, rents, issues and profits thereof & of every part thereof. To have and to hold the sd.
tract of land & premises, and all and singular the appurtenances belonging to the said William his heirs & assigns to their only use,
benefit and behoof of the said Wm, his heirs & assigns forever, and the said Moses & his wife for themselves and their heirs the
tract of land & premises aforesaid & every part thereof unto the sd. Wm, his heirs & assigns, against them, the sd. Moses &
Aggy & their heirs, assigns & every other person or persons, shall and will warrant forever, and by these persents, In Witness
whereof the sd. Moses & wife doth herewith set their hands and seals the day & year first above written, sealed & delivered in
presence of: Robt. Abercrombie Moses Going [seal] Wm. Friend Agnes [X] Going [seal] Wm. Stith Georgia } Warren County }
Before me, Thomas Friend, one of the Justices of the Peace for this County, personally came & appeared Robt. Abercrombie &
Wm. Stith, Senr, both of this county, Esqrs, who being duly sworn, make oath & say that they are Subscribing Witnesses to the
within written Indenture of bargain and Sale & that they saw the within named Moses & Agnes Going, duly sign, seal & execute
the same & acknowledge it as their act & deed. Sworn to before me this 20th day of November 1797. Thomas Friend, J.P.
Recorded Feb. 21st 1798 Transcribed from Book D, Folio 110-111 the 23rd of June 1853. F. W. Shivers, Recorder" Moses Going
and Agnes Going gave a deed March 28, 1797 to Samuel Howell to 100 acres on Long Creek which had been granted in 1784 to
Edmond Nugent, according to Warren County Deed Book A, page 538. Moses Going and Agnes Going gave a deed to Prior
Gardner June 23, 1797 to 92 acres on Long Creek, according to Warren County Deed Book 6, page 13. Moses Going "of Wilkes
County" received a sheriff's deed to land sold as property of William Sanders March 7, 1799, according to Warren County Deed
Book A, page 632. Moses Going received a land grant in Warren County of 60 acres in 1799. Moses Going filed suit July 5, 1801
against Joseph Boren for the non-payment of a note. The note in the amount of $62.50 executed August 8, 1799 was written by
Joseph Boren to John Henley. John Henley assigned the note to Moses Going October 10, 1800: "Washington, August 8, 1799 On
or before the twenty-fifth day of December One Thousand Eight Hundred, I promise to pay or cause to be paid unto John Henley,
Jr. or bearer Sixty-two dollars and fifty cents for value received of him, the day and date above written. Joseph [X] Boren I assign
the above note to Moses Going for value rec'd this 10th of October, 1800. John Henley Teste: Peter B. Carroll Received of the
above twenty-three dollars. Received three dollars. Serve on the defendant. Crt. July 1801 Thomas W. Grimes, LWC Georgia To
the Sheriff of Wilkes County, Greeting: Moses Going } vs } Joseph Boren } The defendant, Joseph Boren is hereby required
personally or by his attorney to be and appear before the Honorable the Inferior Court at a court to be held in and for the County
of Wilkes on the fourth Monday in July instant, then and there to answer the Plaintiff in an action on the case & to his Damages
One Hundred Dollars or in default thereof the said court will proceed thereon as to Justice shall appertain. Witness the Honorable
Edward Butler, Esq, one of our said Inferior Court Justices this 3rd day of July 1801. Nathaniel Willis, clk. July term 1801 And
now at this term, the defendant by his attorney Peterson Thweate comes into Court and for answer saith he shall pay the demands
of the Plaintiff or part thereof, and of this he puts himself upon his Country. Jury No. 1 We find for the Plaintiff thirty-six dollars
and fifty cents with interest. Wm. West. LMC Moses Going } vs } Joseph Boren } Judgement $35.50, eighteen months interest,
4.38. Rec'd of the above the sum of Thirty Dollars fifty eight cents, June 9, 1802. Cost $11.50, Paid 7.00 Tho. Going for Moses
Going It is believed that Moses Going died about 1817 and that Agnes Going survived him. When the "free persons of color" were
required to register in Georgia in 1819, she stated to the Columbia County Court clerk that she was 66 years old and had arrived in
Georgia in 1787. Other individuals of interest to Going/Gowen chroniclers also appeared in the "free persons of color" registration.
The list of "free blacks," compiled by W. L. Kennon, county court clerk, was printed in the "Augusta Chronicle & Gazette" in its
edition of March 10, 1819: Individual Born Arrived Age Profession William Going VA 1777 50 Millwright William Going GA 19
Farmer [son of William] Sally Going VA 1790 52 Weaver Polly Going GA 25 Weaver Wyat Going GA 28 Blacksmith Nancey
Going GA 23 Weaver Lucinda Going GA 21 Weaver Sally Going GA 9 Agness Going VA 1787 66 Patsey Going GA 34 Weaver
[her children] Thomas Going GA 4 John Going GA 2 Nancey Going GA 27 Weaver Moses Going [Jr.] VA 1789 45 Farmer
Elizabeth Going GA 8 Sherwood Going GA 11 Two years later, H. Lamar, the County Court Clerk, compiled another list of "free
blacks" in Columbia County. It was published in the August 6, 1821 edition of the "Augusta Chronicle & Gazette:" Individual Age
Born Yrs. in GA Profession Moses Going 46 VA 30 Farmer Billy Going 53 VA 35 Millwright Sarah Going 58 VA 34 Weaver
Nancy Going 22 GA 22 Weaver Polly Going 26 GA 26 Weaver Lucinda Going 20 GA 20 Weaver Sally Going 11 GA 11 Weaver
Jaymie Friedman Frederick, Foundation Editorial Boardmember of Scobey, Montana, wrote in March 1996 that she regarded her
Georgia ancestors to be descended from Moses Going. She wrote: "We came up with who we believed were our James Going's
uncles: Hiram B. Goins [cs1850, Arkansas], Abner A. Goins [cs1850 Missouri] and Absalom Jefferson Goins [cs1850, Arkansas.]
Our James Going kept popping up around these men who were all Georgia-born, as was the father of James Going. All of their
children were born in Kentucky. Absalom Jefferson Goins moved to Poplar Bluff, Missouri in 1855 and remained there until his
death. He had come from Crittenden County, Kentucky. Absalom Goins was enumerated as the head of a household in the 1850
census of Lawrence County, Strawberry township, Household B-413: "Goins, Absalom 45, born in GA, farmer Parthenia 35, born
in KY, wife Thomas M. 16, born in KY, male Harriet 14, born in KY, female Mirtis A. 13, born in KY, female William M. 12,
born in KY, male Ofelia J. 8, born in KY, female Margaret J. 5, born in KY, female James B. 1, born in AR, male Jackson 11,
born in KY, male" Absalom Jefferson Goins was located in Butler County, Missouri in 1860: Goins, A. J. 56 Martha 46 Marrow 26
Martinson 23 Jackson 20 Jane 18 Margaret 15 James B. 11" Children born to Absalom Jefferson Goins and Parthenia include:
Absalom Jefferson Parthenia Martha Thomas Marrow Goins William Martison Goins Ofelia Jane Goins James Broadfoot Goins
Hiram Goins was shown as the head of Household No. 482 in Strawberry township, Lawrence County in the 1850 census:
"Goins, Hiram 51, born in GA, farmer Evaline 44, born in GA, wife Elina 20, born in KY, female Emarilla 12, born in KY, female
Thomas 26, born in KY, farmer, male Allen 14, born in KY, male Alonzo 13, born in KY, male Martin 9, born in KY, male
Elizabeth 7, born in KY, female" We immediately started searching in Livingston County, since Crittenden was formed from
Livingston in 1842. We found all of these Goins men listed in the 1840 census. All of these guys were listed as "free mulattos" and
owned slaves! Boy, was I confused now, but I kept on digging! I found where all of these Georgia Gowan/Going/Goins men came
to Livingston County from Wilkes and Greene Counties, Georgia in 1801. Greene County was organized in 1786 with land from
Wilkes County. The first that arrived in Kentucky were Aaron Goins, Reuben Goins, Gallant/Garland Goins, Patsy Goins and
Elizabeth Goins. They were listed in the Old Salem Baptist Church records in 1804, and believe it or not, the present-day church
still has the original church meeting minutes. From the minutes, I got my first clue that my family was not very popular in
Kentucky. Poor Aaron was being constantly called down by the church council for speaking harshly to others and was made to
apologize publicly. I knew something was wrong when I found a reference to an apology Aaron had to make to a black slave!
How many people were forced to apologize to slaves in 1805? In 1809, "Sister Going" got our whole bunch excommunicated for
stating that the Goings "did not believe what the Salem Church was preaching, and that they believed in a more Calvinistic
doctrine." Although they were considered white by the church members, the tax collectors certainly considered them black. My
g-g-g- grandfather, John Going showed up around 1806, and after two years of being reported as "white" on the tax rolls, as his
kinsmen were, they all became "mulattos." We searched through land records and established that John L. Goins [aka Levi Goins]
ca1796 Georgia; Hiram B. Goins, 1799 Georgia; Abner A. Goins, 1803 Georgia and Absalom Jefferson Goins, 1805 Georgia were
all brothers, sons of John Goins. They inherited their father's farm upon his death in 1820, along with "their aunts Mary, Lucy, and
Massa." The farm, about 800 acres, was valuable. It had a sawmill and a gristmill located on it. My g-g-g- grandfather John L.
Goins was married to Rebecca Harris in 1835, across the Ohio River in Pope County, Illinois. I suspect they went there to marry
as Kentucky at that time would not license mulattos to marry. The Goins family may have felt it necessary to leave Georgia
because of the racial prejudice they encountered, but Kentucky wasn't much better. Minutes of the Crittenden County Circuit
Court in 1837 and 1838 show that John L. Going was twice charged with assault, along with his brother, Abner. The charges,
obviously harrassment, were always dropped before reaching the courtroom. There were several land disputes with their
neighbors; I concluded that the neighbors were trying to 'run them off.' Luckily the county court judges must have been fairly
decent, as the family members managed to hold on to their land throughout all the persecution. John Levi Going received a deed
from his brothers to 235 acres from his father's estate in a deed dated September 2, 1842, according to Crittenden County,
Kentucky Deed Book A, page 94:
"Abner A. Going, Hiram Going and Jefferson Going, heirs of
John Going, Sr, dec'd, to John L. Going, all of Crittenden County,
$1 and for the further consideration of relinquishing to John L. all,
claim, right, interest and title asheirs to the tract of land containing 235 acres on which John L.
Going lives, including a saw and grist mill on Brushy fork of
Crooked Creek. This land is a portion of a 400-acre tract granted
to John Going, dec'd in his lifetime by patent July 27, 1819 and
being the portion that fell to their father in a division between
Mary Going, Lucy Going and Massy Going, his sisters and our
Aunts and being the portion by a division amongst the heirs set
apart to John L. Going as a legal heir of their father, John Going,
but which since his death been deeded.
Witnesses: Abner Going, Wm. H. Calvert, Hiram [X] Going
S. Marble Jefferson Going" In
1844, John L. Going and his wife, Rebecca Harris Going and
Abner Going and his wife, Matilda Jenkins Going were arrested for
the crime of fornication! John and Rebecca had removed to adjoining
Union County, Kentucky, but their troubles followed them.
Again, the neighbors turned them in and had arrest warrants drawn up against them. The whole Going gang left Crittenden County
in 1847 and removed to Arkansas and Missouri. Only John remained in Union County. Last summer, Mom and I went there and
learned even more! The local historian, a man in his 80s, had a friend whose father had known the Goings. They were suspected
of counterfeiting and selling the bogus money to people on their way to the California gold rush. When they were alerted that the
sheriff was coming, the Goings left for Missouri and Arkansas. From then on, these Going men "passed for white." I never found
where they had any more legal troubles in Missouri or in Arkansas. We were fascinated to learn that they were known to be
fortune-tellers, the most renowned being Nancy Goins. To this day in Marion, Kentucky, people say, "If you want good luck, just
say 'Nancy Goins!'"
She convinced her clients that she was their good luck charm and could help them attain any goal! Not long
after they left Kentucky, a schoolhouse was built on the old farm and was named the Goins School. The Goins family cemetary
lies beside the old school, long rotted away. The school children were told that it was an Indian burial ground. The stones are
unmarked and were hauled from the river to the gravesite. I later learned from a local genealogist that the Goings were looked
down upon and were considered troublemakers. [Then why did they suddenly become model citizens and not continue to make
trouble after they left Kentucky?] She also reported that there were caves on their Kentucky farm, and when trouble came [which
was often], the offender hid out in the caves until the coast was clear again." Children born to Moses Going and Agnes Going are
believed to include: Anne Going born about 1763 John Going born about 1765 Reuben Going born about 1766 Jesse Going born
about 1767 James Going born about 1768 Elizabeth Going born about 1769 Mary Going born about 1770 Sherwood Going born
about 1772 Moses Going, Jr. born about 1774 Thomas Going born about 1775 Frances "Fanny" Going born about 1785 John H.
Going born about 1787 Anne Going, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] daughter of Moses Going and
Agnes Going, was born about 1763 in Louisa County. She was brought to Henrico County by her mother about 1788. She was a
witness to the marriage of David Going and Chloe Webb there July 17, 1789. She "being of lawful age, daughter of Agnes Goine"
was married in Henrico County to Dudley Miner December 22, 1795 while her father was away in Georgia. Meredith Childers,
brother-in-law to the bride, was surety. The Miner family later removed to Hancock County, Tennessee, along with the Goins
family. John Going, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] son of Moses Going and Agnes Going, was born
about 1765 in Louisa County. "John Going served in the Third Virginia Regiment, the Fifth Virginia Regiment and the Seventh
Virginia Regiment of the Continental Line during the Revolutionary War," according to "Virginians in the Revolution," page 21. He
accompanied his mother in a move to Henrico County about 1786. His mother paid his taxes there in 1787, according to "The 1787
Census of Virginia." He was security for the marriage bond of his sister, Mary Going in Henrico County in December 1791. "John
Geoine" was the bondsman for the marriage of David Going and Chloe Webb July 17, 1789 in Henrico County. He testified that
"Clawey Webb was over the age of 21." After his parents removed to Georgia, he relocated to Botetourt County, Virginia, about
1794, taking his sister, Frances "Fanny" Going with him. Apparently John Going removed to Georgia to join his family. On October
22, 1794 "John Goins of Greene County" received a deed from John Fluker of Oglethorpe County to 200 acres "on the waters of
the Ogeechee bounded on the northwest by Henry's land" for "£86 lawful money." The land had been originally granted to James
Espey January 21, 1785. In 1796 the Georgia State Legislature established that two brothers, "Reuben Going and John Going, men
of color of Greene County . . . are hereby authorized and enabled to take, hold and enjoy property, both real and personal,"
according to "Ambiguous Lives" by Adele Logan Alexander. Their younger brother, Thomas Going also gained his limited rights
through a private legislative act, according to "Digest of the Laws of the State of Georgia, 1735-1800." The Georgia State
Legislature provided: Emancipation "And being it further enacted that Reuben Going and John Going, of Greene County, be and
they are hereby authorized and enabled to take, hold and enjoy property both real and personal. Provided nevertheless, that nothing
herein contained shall extend or be construed to extend, to enable the said free mulattoes and negro slaves when liberated as
aforesaid to serve as justices in any case whatsoever nor to render them or either of them a witness in any cause or case where
the personal right or property of any white person or persons is or are concerned, nor to entitle them or any of them to have or
hold, directly or indirectly any office of trust or profit, civil or military within this state. Thomas Stevens, Speaker of the House of
Representatives Benjamin Taliaferro, President of the Senate Concurred February 13, 1796 Jared Irwin, Governor" "John Going"
received a land grant of 11 acres in Greene County in 1807. After a half century of bachelorhood, "John Gowens" was married to
Mrs. Margaret Clarke November 6, 1816, according to Botetourt County, Virginia Marriages, 1772-1850." "John Gowing"
appeared as the head of a household in the 1820 census of Greene County. Of John Gowens and Margaret Clarke Gowens
nothing more is known. Reuben Going, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Moses
Going and Agnes Going was born about 1766 in Louisa County. He accompanied his parents in a move to Georgia in 1789. In
1796 the Georgia State Legislature established that two brothers, "Reuben Going and John Going, men of color of Greene County .
. . are hereby authorized and enabled to take, hold and enjoy property, both real and personal," according to "Ambiguous Lives" by
Adele Logan Alexander. Their younger brother, Thomas Going also gained his limited rights through a private legislative act,
according to "Digest of the Laws of the State of Georgia, 1735-1800." "Reuben Gowin" received land Certificate No. 137 July 7,
1801 in Livingston County, Kentucky. The certificate called "for 400 acres on Crooked Creek, including any improvements." On
the same date, Joseph Mercer received a Certificate No. 138 for 400 acres on Hurricane Creek. Reuben Going took over this land
in 1804, according to the research of Anna J. Going Friedman. On the same date, "Aaron Gowin" received land Certificate No.
139 for 400 acres of land on Camp Creek in Livingston County. At the same time "Garland Gowin" received Certificate No. 136
entitling him to 400 acres of land on Crooked Creek and "to include any improvements." His land was surveyed for him March 16,
1804. He was a chain carrier on the survey of 400 acres of land for Jesse Handley June 4, 1804, according to Plat Book A. Jesse
Going, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Moses Going and Agnes Going was born
about 1767 in Louisa County. Jesse Going was married February 12, 1799 to Jenny Ailstock, according to "Albemarle County,
Virginia Marriages, 1772-1850." Since they were married on the same date as James Going and Beckey Ailstock, they are
believed to be brothers marrying sisters. It is believed that he accompanied his father in a move to Georgia about 1786. He was
listed with him in the 1793 and 1794 tax lists of Warren County, Georgia. Children born to Jesse Going and Jenny Ailstock Going
are unknown James Going, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Moses Going and
Agnes Going, was born about 1768 in Louisa County. He was married February 12, 1799 to Beckey Ailstock, according to
"Albemarle County, Virginia Marriages, 1772-1850." The Ailstock family was a prominent mulatto family in Louisa County.
Rebecca "Becky" Ailstock was a daughter of Absalom Ailstock, a mulatto who served in the Revolutionary War, according to an
account of him in "Free African Americans of North Carolina and Virginia." Children born to James Going and Beckey Ailstock
Going are unknown. Elizabeth Going [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of Moses Going and
Agnes Going, was born about 1769 in Louisa County. "Aggy Gowin, parent" was a witness at the marriage of "Elizabeth Gowin" to
John Douglas January 29, 1787, according to "Henrico County, Virginia Marriage Bonds, 1780-1851." Mary Going, [Moses6,
Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] daughter of Moses Going and Agnes Going, was born about 1770. She "gave
her own consent" to marriage with Meredith Childers December 23, 1791 in Henrico County. "John Goyne," brother of the bride,
was security. "Aggy Goyne" and Richard Loving were witnesses. Sherwood Going, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3,
William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Moses Going and Agnes Going, was born about 1772. He was a namesake of his uncle,
Sherwood Going. The orphans of Sherwood Going" [unnamed] were successful in the 1832 gold land lottery of Georgia. It was the
final lottery of the state. Moses Going, Jr, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Moses
Going and Agnes Going, was born about 1774. Financial misfortune befell Moses Going, Jr. and in 1804 he was jailed for his debts,
according to a legal notice published in a Lincoln County newspaper: "Matthew Raybon and Wm. Beggins, Executors of Benjamin
Ship. vs. Moses Going.
CA SA To their Honors, the Judges of the Inferior Court for the County of Lincoln. The petition of Moses
Going, humbly sheweth, that he is now confined in the common jail of said county, in view of a Ca Sa, at the instance of Matthew
Raybon and William Beggins, executors of Benjamin Ship, for a sum of money which he is unable to pay, and that he is willing to give up all his estate, both real and personal for the benefit of his creditors, and therefore prays that he may be discharged from
confinement, agreeable to the laws and constitution of the state. Ordered that the said Moses Going be brought up before the said
court. The said Moses Going appeared in support of the said petition: Whereupon it is further ordered, That the said Moses Going
do give notice to his creditors as the law directs, to appear by themselves or attornies, at the court house in the County of Lincoln,
on the first Tuesday in October next; to shew cause, if any they have, why the said Moses Going should not be discharged, in
terms of the act of assembly in such cases made and provided. A. Tatom, Clerk Taken from the minutes, July Term 1804." In
1819, Moses Going, Jr, was recorded in the "free black" registration conducted by W. L. Kennon, County Court clerk of Columbia
County as "age 45, born in Virginia, a farmer, arrived in Georgia in 1789." Two children, believed to be his, were recorded in
consecutive entries with him: Sherwood Going born about 1808 Elizabeth Going born about 1811 "Moses Going, free colored,"
appeared in the 184th District of adjoining Lincoln County in the 1830 census, page 74, as the head of a household composed of:
"Going, Moses free colored male 55-100 free colored female 24-36 free colored male 0-10" Sherwood Going, [Moses, Jr.7,
Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Moses Going, Jr. was born about 1808. He was
recorded as "age 11, born in Georgia." in the 1819 list of "free blacks" in Columbia County. Elizabeth Going, [Moses, Jr.7, Moses6,
Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Moses Going, Jr. was born about 1811. She was recorded
as "age 8, born in Georgia in the 1819 list of "free blacks" in Columbia County. Thomas Going [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4,
Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the son of Moses Going and Agnes Going, was born about 1775 in Louisa County,
Virginia. He was brought to Georgia in 1789 by his parents. On February 13, 1796 the Georgia State Legislature established that
two brothers, "Reuben Going and John Going, men of color of Greene County . . . are hereby authorized and enabled to take, hold
and enjoy property, both real and personal," according to "Ambiguous Lives" by Adele Logan Alexander. Thomas Going began an
medical practice about that time Three years later, on February 18, 1799, Thomas Going also gained his limited rights through a
private legislative act, according to "Digest of the Laws of the State of Georgia, 1735-1800." Emancipation "Be it therefore
enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Georgia in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the
same, That from and after the passing of this act, that the aforesaid Thomas Going, of the County of Wilkes, be and is hereby
vested with and entitled to all the rights and privileges and immunities belonging to a free citizen of this state; Provided
nevertheless, nothing herein contained shall extend or be construed to extend to entitle the said Thomas Going, to serve in the
capacity of a juror in any cause whatever nor to render him a competent witness in any cause or case where the personal rights or
property of any white person are or is concerned; nor to entitle the said Thomas Going to vote at elections, nor to have or hold
directly or indirectly any office of trust or emolument, civil or military, within this state. David Meriwether, Speaker of the House
of Representaives Robert Walton, President of the Senate Attested to February 18, 1799 James Jackson Governor" Thomas Going
"received payment for Moses Going" of $36 from Joseph Boren June 9, 1802 in the settlement of a suit, according to Wilkes
County court records. During the decade, he removed to Claiborne County, Mississippi Territory, probably settling in the town of
Gallatin which is no longer found on modern maps. He was enumerated there in the 1810 census in the "Names of the Heads of
Families in the Counties of Claiborne and Warren, Mississippi, Territory." The household was composed of "1 Free Person of
Color and 4 Slaves." By 1816, Dr. Thomas Going had influenced his uncle Dr. Samuel Going to join him as a partner in his medical
practice in Claiborne County. They appeared in consecutive entries in the Mississippi State Census of that year. Thomas Going
was the head of a household composed of "1 Free Person of Color and 3 Slaves. Samuel Going was the head of a household
composed of "10 Free Persons of Color." One February 9, 1820 Thomas Going and C. Warring, his bondsman, posted a bond of
$200 for a marriage license. On the following day, Thomas Going obtained a license to marry Sally Allen, a white woman: "State
of Mississippi } Claiborne County } To any judge, justice of the peace or minister of the gospel duly qualified to celebrate the rites
of matrimony, Greeting. You are hereby authorized and licensed to join in the Holy State of Matrimony Thomas Going and Sally
Allen, both of said county, you making due return hereof to the Register of the Court of Claiborne County in the time prescribed by
law with Certificate of said marriage. Given under my hand and office this Tenth day of February, One Thousand Eight Hundred
and Twenty. P. A. Vandover, Clerk by George Winchester" Apparently Sally Allen was a widow with two daughters. The family
appeared in the 1820 census of Claiborne County, page 7: "Going, Thomas free colored white female 26-45 white female 16-26
white female 10-16 7 slaves" Three members of the household were engaged in agriculture. Nearby on page 9A of the 1820
census appeared: "Going, Samuel free colored white female 26-45 9 other free colored 2 slaves" Five members of the household
were engaged in agriculture. An obituary notice appeared in the Saturday, August 22, 1840 edition of "The Southern Star" of
Gallatin, Mississippi: "Died on Saturday last, after a short illness, Mr. Thomas[?] Going for a long time a citizen of this county.
Aged 65 years." The deceased died on August 15, 1840, accordingly. If the subject were Dr. Thomas Going, then he may have
succumbed to yellow fever which frequently reached epidemic proportions during hot weather periods in towns along the
Mississippi River. Cities as far north as St. Louis was affected by this scourge. Since he died without heirs it is believed that his
wife and her children also died before the death of Dr. Thomas Going. Children born to Dr. Thomas Going and Sally Allen Going
are unknown. Frances "Fanny" Going, [Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the daughter of
Moses Going and Agnes Going, was born about 1785 in Louisa County. She was brought to Henrico County by her mother about
1786. Apparently she remained in Virginia with other family members when the family removed to Georgia. She accompanied her
brother John Going in a move to Botetourt County about 1794. She was registered there February 3, 1806. Her entry in the county
clerk's journal read, "A dark mulatto, 5 feet, 4 inches, born free, by 14th Regt [or Augt] from Clk of Henrico." "Fanny Goin" was
married December 6, 1806 to Beverly Legans, according to "Botetourt County, Virginia Marriages, 1773-1850." John H. Going,
[Moses6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the son of Moses Going and Agnes Going, was born
about 1787, probably in Louisa County, Virginia. However, he, at the age of 63 stated to the censustaker in 1850 that he was born
in Georgia. John Going, "mulatto" appeared as a taxpayer in Livingston County, Kentucky in 1830. He was recorded in the 1840
census as "free colored" as the head of a household: "Going, John H. Free Colored Male 55-100 Free Colored Female 36-55 Free
Colored Female 20-30 Free Colored Male 10-20 Free Colored Female 10-20" On May 26, 1847 John H. Going applied to the
Crittenden Circuit Court for manumission papers in order that he might travel to Claiborne County, Mississippi to claim his portion
of the estate of his brother, Thomas Going "who has been dead for some years and died without children." John H. Going stated
that he understood that he was "one of his heirs." An obituary notice appeared in the Saturday, August 22, 1840 edition of "The
Southern Star" of Gallatin, Mississippi: "Died on Saturday last, after a short illness, Mr. Thomas[?] Going for a long time a citizen
of this county. Aged 65 years." The deceased died on August 15, 1840, accordingly. If the subject were Dr. Thomas Going, then
he may have succumbed to Yellow Fever which frequently reached epidemic proportions during hot weather periods in towns
along the Mississippi River. In his petition, John Going stated that because of his dark skin he might be mistaken for a runaway
slave. He added that he was a free man of color and had been from his birth. He declared that he had lived, "where he now lives"
in Crittenden County for nearly 35 years and is well and favorably known by the residents. He also stated that his father had
always been a free man of color and that his mother Agnes was "an Indian by blood." John H. Going presented an affidavit from
Thomas S. Phillips who declared that he had known John Going for 30 years and that he is well known in the community as a free
man of color and was of African and Indian blood. He further declared that the brother of John Going, Thomas Going and their
uncle, Samuel Going were well-known physicians in partnership in Claiborne County, Mississippi and that Thomas Going has died,
leaving an inheritance to John H. Going, thus making it necessary for him to travel to Mississippi. A second affiant, Ira Nunn also
presented a declaration to the court. Nunn was a well-known, prominent and successful man in Crittenden County, according to
"Nunns of the South." He stated that both he and the applicant were raised in Greene County, Georgia. The Crittenden County
Court approved the application May 29, 1847 and provided a document to John H. Going stating that he was a free man of color
and had been since birth and was therefore entitled to all rights thereof. The family of John H. Going was enumerated in 1850 as:
"Goens, John H. 63, wagonmaker, born in Georgia Sarah M. 24, born in Kentucky P. S. 5, born in Kentucky Tennessee 5, born in
Kentucky William 3, born in Kentucky Felix A. 3, born in Kentucky Aaron 11/12, born in Kentucky" John H. Going, "age 73,
wagonmaker, born in Georgia," reappeared for the last time in the 1860 census as the head of a household. He did not own any
land and appeared in the Belles Mine area of Crittenden and Union County, Kentucky. Joseph Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4,
Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the son of Agnes Gowen, was born about 1747, probably in Louisa County. He was bound
out to James Bunch November 28, 1759, according to "Fredericksville Parish Vestry Book," page 29. He was listed as a "taxable"
in James Bunch's Trinity Parish household in 1767, according to "Louisa County, Virginia Tithables," page 10. It is believed that he
was married about 1770, wife's name unknown. The large mulatto Bunch family was prominent in the colonial period in Virginia,
North Carolina and South Carolina. Paul Bunch, who received a patent for 265 acres on the Roanoke River January 1, 1725,
according to Paul Heinegg. One branch of the family lived in Charleston, South Carolina. George Goins, grandson of Joseph Going,
was later married to Emily "Lively" Bunch.
Jack Harold Goins, Foundation Editorial Boardmember of Rogersville, Tennessee,
wrote October 27, 1994 that Paul Bunch was the son of John Bunch who came from England to Lancaster County, Virginia as an
indentured servant in 1665. "Joseph Going" was enumerated as the head of a household of seven "whites over 16" in the 1782
census of Fairfax County, page 17, according to "Heads of Families, Virginia, 1790." Joseph Going served as a Revolutionary
soldier, according to the research of William P. Grohse, historian of Sneedville, Tennessee, who reported that he was wounded in
battle. "Joseph Goings" on May 19, 1784 received "£4:2:3" for service in the militia, according to Virginia Payroll Account No. 683.
Joseph Going was recorded as taxable in the 1787 census of adjoining Albemarle County on "3 horses and 2 cattle." ac- cording to
"The 1787 Census of Virginia,." page 139. Nearby were enumerated the households of his mother, Agnes Going and brothers,
Benjamin Going, Sherwood Going, David Going and Joshua Going. It is believed that children born to Joseph Going include: Joseph
Goins born about 1765 Joseph Goins, [Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Joseph Going, was born
about 1770, probably in Louisa County. Ruth Johnson, Foundation member of Kingsport, Tennessee, wrote in 1992 of her ancestor:
"Joseph Goins, a Revolutionary War [War of 1812?] veteran and my seventh-generation grandfather, was born about 1770. Rev.
Arthur Hamilton Taylor, a Pres- byterian minister who researched the Goins families in Hancock County, Tennessee and who
assisted them economically, showed the birthplace of Joseph Goins as Albemarle County, Virginia. William P. Grohse, Sneedville
historian, reported that he was the son of Joseph Goins, Sr. who fought in the Revolutionary War and was wounded in battle.
Joseph Goins was married about 1790 to Millie Loving [Lovin, Loven?] who was born in 1770 in Scotland, ac- cording to Rev.
Taylor. She was brought to America at the age of six by an aunt who settled in Charleston, South Carolina. William P. Grohse
stated that she was born in Bedford County in 1772 to James Loving who was born in 1749 to Abraham Loving. Millie Loving
Goins lost three uncles in the Revolutionary War. Richard Loving was a witness to the marriage of Mary Going to Meredith
Childers December 12, 1791 in Henrico County. In 1793, Joseph Goins was a resident of Fairfax County, Virginia where a
daughter was born." "Joseph Gwinne" was enumerated as the head of a household in the 1830 census of Hawkins County,
Tennessee:: "Gwinne, Joseph white male 50-60 white female 50-60 white female 10-15" "Joseph Going, infantry corporal, on
January 7, 1835 has not received a Bounty Land Warrant for his service in the War of the Revolution," according to
"Revolutionary War Records of Virginia," page 240 by Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh. "Joseph Gowin, age 70-80," living alone, was
listed in the 1840 census of Hawkins County, page 234. Appar- ently in 1840 Joseph Goins and Millie Loving Goins were living in
separate, adjoining households. "Joseph Goings" appeared as the head of Household 302-302 in the 1850 census of Hancock
County, 33rd subdivision, east part. The family was enumerated November 27, 1850 as: "Goings, Joseph 84, born in Virginia,
cooper, illiterate Milli A. 80, born in Virginia Leathey 36, born in North Carolina, female, illiterate" Hancock County had been
created in 1844 with land from Hawkins County and Claiborne County. Joseph Goins died in 1859 in Hancock County, a
nonagenarian. Millie Loving Goins also died there, before 1860." Children born to them include: Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins born
in 1793 George Goins born in 1803 Harden Goins born in 1805 Aletha Goins born about 1814 Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Joseph7,
Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of Joseph Goins and Millie Loving Goins, was born in 1793
in Fairfax County, according to William P. Grohse. She was married about 1822 to Solomon Dickinson Collins who was born in
Wilkes County, North Carolina in 1799. He was the son of a Revolutionary soldier, Solomon Collins and his wife Edy Dickinson
Collins. Solomon Collins was born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania in 1760. Solomon Dickinson Collins appeared in the 1830
census with nine members in his household. He appeared on the 1836 tax list of Hawkins County, Tennessee. Solomon Dickinson
Collins was enumerated as the head of household in the 1840 census of Hawkins County: "Collins, Solomon white male 40-50
white female 40-50 white male 10-15 white male 10-15 white male 5-10 white male 5-10 white female 0-5 white female 0-5" They
reappeared in the 1850 census of Hancock County, Civil Division 33, page 10: "Collins, Solomon D. 57, born in North Carolina
Gincie 57, born in Virginia Franklin 25, born in Tennessee Baley 22, born in Tennessee Enoch 21, born in Tennessee Thalamos 18,
born in Tennessee, son Elizabeth 13, born in Tennessee Lethy 11, born in Tennessee Millie 7, born in Tennessee They reappeared
in the 1860 census of Hancock County: "Collins, Solomon 65, born in North Carolina Jane 50, born in Virginia Franklin 35, born in
Tennessee Enoch 30, born in Tennessee Lethy 25, born in Tennessee Elizabeth 21, born in Tennessee Sary 19, born in Tennessee
Amelia 16, born in Tennessee" "Solomon Collins" died June 28, 1863 in Nashville, Ten- nessee. Fourteen children were born to
Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins: Mahala "Big Haley" Collins born March 30, 1824 Franklin
Collins born in 1825 Silas Collins born in 1827 Bailey Collins born in 1828 Enoch "Ink" Collins born in 1830 Solomon Dickinson
Collins, Jr. born about 1831 Thalamos "Tommy" Collins born in 1832 Betty Collins born about 1836 Elizabeth Collins born in 1837
Richard Collins born about 1838 Millie Ann Collins born in May 1843 Amelia Collins born in 1844 Malitha "Kate" Collins born in
May 1845 Sally Collins born in 1846 Mahala [meaning "tenderness" in Hebrew] "Big Haley" Collins, first child of Solomon
Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born March 30, 1824. She was married about 1840 to John
Mullins. He was identified as the son of Jim "Irish Jim" Mullins. In 1855 they continued in Hancock County, living above Vardy,
Tennessee on Newman's Ridge.. Grohse wrote, " "During the Civil War a band of Confederate raiders came over to kill or
capture two of their boys who were home from the Union Army and their son-in-law Howard Collins. Jane Mullins Collins
[Howards wife] saw the raiders coming and screamed to her husband Howard who took a shot at them. They fell back a little or
dropped to see who all they had to fight. Meanwhile, the soldiers jumped over the low bluff. The raiders came to the bluff but
didn't get to shoot either of them. Howard Collins sprained or broke a finger jumping, but I understand he or one of the others got a
shot at the raiders and got safely away. The angry bushwackers then burned the house. They let the family take the burning
bedclothes out but they had to be watched as fire broke out in them again. Calvin was the baby and Mary Ann was a slip of a girl
old enough to carry him on her hip. A skip of snow was on the ground and the children were barefoot. Old John Mullins was mad
and loaded up a muzzle with all it would hold. Then, as the raiders were leaving going down Blackwater Valley, he fired from the
top of the bluff. He left the ramrod in the gun. It was loaded so heavily it burst at the end of the muzzle but the ramrod stuck in rail
fence clear across the valley near where the Becky Hurley house stood, short distance from Vardy church." John Mullins was
enumerated in 1880 as the head of a house- hold in Hancock County: "Mullins, John 65 Mahala 56 Millie 30 Calvin 19 Goins, Sarah
11, granddaughter Mullins George 4, grandson" He died "in the fall of 1900," and she died "in September 1901," according to Ruben
Mullins, a son. She died in 1895, according to James Callahan. William P. Grohse, Hancock County historian, reported that he died
in 1902. Fred Brown, staff writer for the "Knoxville News-Sentinel" in an article published July 22, 1990, wrote of Mahala "Big
Ha- ley" Collins Mullins: "'Big Haley' weighed around 500 pounds, give or take an exaggerated 100 pounds. Though her girth,
thought to be the result of elephantiasis, was renowned, tonnage wasn't the thing that immortalized her in the hills. It was
moonshine. She and her sons made the finest in the region. In the late 1800s thirsty Kentuckians, Virginians and North Carolinians
came by horseback and wagon to haul off loads of Big Haley's best. She made apple brandy from the Northern Spy and Limber
Twig, two of the tastiest apples ever produced in the dimpled highlands of Hancock. From the corn came a creation of molecular
superior- ity, a supple elixir, which she either sold by the dipper from a wooden keg or by the jug. There have been many fetching
stories about Mahala Mullins, but there is one that surfaced recently that might be the best yarn of all. In the days of the Whisky
Tree, near the ridge in Snake Hollow, if a person felt the need for some liquid stimu- lation, he would ride by the hollowed out
beech tree, put in 50 cents and take out a jug. Kyle Bowlin of Treadway, a person who knows more about Hancock County than
he should, picks up the story here. 'It was the whiskey honor system. Nobody would ever dream of taking more than what they
paid for, or taking any of the money. If they had, they wouldn't have got- ten to the end of Snake Hollow.' Her reputation for fine
spirits began to irritate local law enforcement authorities, and a number of federal agents. A new sheriff decided that he would
make a quick name for himself and arrest Big Haley. He got a judge, who was familiar with and had sampled some of Big Haley's
best to issue a warrant. The old judge smiled as he signed the official papers, handing them over to the new sheriff. 'Don't fail to
bring her in,' he admonished the law of- ficer. Armed with the warrant, the sheriff set out for Newman's Ridge. When he got to
her log cabin, the sheriff went up to the door, knocked and went on in. He announced that he had a warrant for Big Haley's arrest
and had come to take her in. At this point the sheriff discovered one intriguing fact; Big Haley was too big to get through the door.
He measured her, measured the door and shook his head. When he returned to town he reported to the judge, 'She's catchable, but
not fetchable.' When she died, the problem arose about what to do about getting her body through the door. They sawed the legs
off her bed, boxed it up, and it became her cof- fin. They opened a hole in the back wall of her chimney big enough to ease the
coffin through the fireplace and then replaced the brickwork after the funeral.'" Twenty children born to them, and they raised 14,
according to an affidavit prepared in November 8, 1906 by a son: Martha Jane Mullins born about 1841 Sally Mullins born about
1843 Millie Mullins born about 1845 Larkin Mullins born about 1847 Jim Mullins born about 1848 Burton Mullins born about 1849
Elby Mullins born about 1850 Richard "Dick Mullins born about 1852 Mary Ann Mullins born about 1853 Ruben Mullins born in
February 1855 John Mullins born about 1856 Oliver Mullins born about 1858 Calvin Mullins born about 1860 Jerry Mullins born
about 1865 Martha Jane Mullins, daughter of John Mullins and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1841. She was
married about 1866 to Howard Collins. He was a son of Simeon Collins and Frankie Collins and a grandson of the pa- triarch
Vardeman "Vardy" Collins and Peggy Collins. She died in 1913, according to the manuscript of William P. Grohse. Sally Mullins,
daughter of John Mullins and Mahala "Big Ha- ley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1843 in Hancock County. She was married
there about 1867 to Gib Davidson. They lived in the home with Mahala "Big Haley" Collins. Their youngest son, Willie Davidson
shot and killed his uncle Calvin Mullins "in the back of Mahala's house in 1895," according to James Callahan. "He had a badly
ulcerated leg, and accordingly, was acquitted." Sally Mullins Davidson died in 1912. Millie Mullins, daughter of John Mullins and
Mahala "Big Ha- ley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1845. In 1906, Ruben Mullins stated that she had been dead over 20 years.
William P. Grohse stated in his manuscript that she died in 1915. Larkin Mullins, son of John Mullins and Mahala "Big Haley"
Collins Mullins, was born about 1847. He was married about 1860 to Sarah "Aunt Tony" Collins. Later he was remarried to the
widow of Shep Gibson. He died in 1915, according to the manuscript of William P. Grohse. Burton Mullins, son of John Mullins
and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1849. He died "in wartime [at Camp Nelson, Kentucky]," according to an
affidavit by Ruben Mullins, suggesting that he was a casualty of the Civil War. Elby Mullins, son of John Mullins and Mahala "Big
Haley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1850. He was married about 1873 to Eliza Seals. He died about 1890, according to an affi-
davit of Ruben Mullins. Richard "Dick" Mullins, son of John Mullins and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1852.
Nancy Dulin became his commonlaw wife about 1875. He died about 1891, according to an affidavit of Ruben Mullins. Mary Ann
Mullins, daughter of John Mullins and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1853. She was mar- ried about 1882 to
Haynes Miser, according to James Callahan. This couple reared Hattie Bales, the grandmother of James Callahan, after her father
Calvin Mullins was killed. Hattie Bales also lived at times with Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins. Mary Ann Mullins Miser was
later married to Rev. George Harrison Roberts, according to the research of Phillip E. Roberts, a great-great-grandson. Her third
husband was App Miner. She died in 1937, according to the manuscript of William P. Grohse. Ruben Mullins, son of John Mullins
and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins, was born in February 1855 in Hancock County, according to an affidavit he submitted
November 8, 1906 in Muskogee, Indian Territory to the Dawes Commis- sion. They had removed to the Indian Territory about
1903. He was married about 1880 to Elizabeth Gibson. In his affidavit he stated that his grandfather, Solomon Dickinson Collins,
"was a full-blood Cherokee who crossed into Ten- nessee and settled there because he was afraid the chief would kill him if he
returned to the tribe." His claim was denied. John Mullins, son of John Mullins and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins, Mullins, was born
about 1856. He was married about 1879 to Julia Ann Gibson. Later he was remarried to Maggie Lovins. Oliver Mullins, son of
John Mullins and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1858. He was married about 1871 to Ollie Miser. He was
shot and killed in September 1882 in Sneedville by Sheriff Grant Jarvis, according to James Callahan. Calvin Mullins, son of John
Mullins and Mahala "Big Haley" Collins Mullins, was born about 1860. He was married in 1883 to Frances Martin. He was
remarried to Coose Lawson in 1887. He was shot and killed in 1895 by his nephew, Willie Davidson, son of Gib Davidson and
Sally Mullins Davidson, according to James Callahan. Children born to Calvin Mullins and Coose Lawson Mullins include: Hattie
Mullins born February 18, 1887 Frank Mullins born about 1889 Robert Mullins born about 1891 Hattie Mullins, daughter of Calvin
Mullins and Coose Lawson Mullins, was born February 18, 1887. She was married to Robert Bales about 1920. Children born to
them include: Conner Bales born March 24, 1910 Ellen Bales born February 2, 1912 Ollie Bales born January 17, 1914 Josephine
Bales born February 10, 1920 Cornell Bales born July 10, 1924 Clarence Bales born June 16, 1926 Conner Bales, son of Robert
Bales and Hattie Mullins Bales, was born March 24, 1910. He received a life sentence as a classic psychopath and habitual
criminal. He died in prison in Michigan City, Indiana. Clarence Bales, son of Robert Bales and Hattie Mullins Bales, was born
June 16, 1926. He was married about 1950 to Norma Jean Hawkins. Children born to them include: Robert Clarence Bales born
December 14, 1953 Robert Clarence Bales, son of Clarence Bales and Norma Jean Hawkins Bales, was born December 14,
1953. He was married about 1976 to Donna Sherman. Franklin Collins, second child of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia
Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born about 1825. During the Civil War, he served in Company H, First Tennessee Cavalry
Regiment, U.S.A. He did not marry. Silas Collins, third child of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins
Collins, was born in 1827. He was married about 1846 to Orpha Collins, daughter of Martin Collins and Elizabeth "Betsy" Collins.
He enlisted in Company A, First Tennessee Cavalry Regiment, U.S.A. He died May 11, 1863 from injuries received in a Civil War
battle fought May 4, 1863 at Triune, Tennessee. He was buried in the Murfreesboro National Cemetery. Children born to them
include: Semion Collins born in 1845 Zilpha Collins born in 1847 Isaac Collins born in 1849 Mary Elizabeth Collins born October 30,
1852 Asa Collins born November 23, 1854 Wheeler Collins born March 28, 1856 Frances Collins born March 4, 1858 Minty
Collins born March 10, 1860 Lewis Collins born January 9, 1862 Zilpha Collins, daughter of Silas Collins and Orpha Collins Collins,
was born in 1847. She was married about 1866 to Riley Jones, according to the research of Margaret Long Mabrey, a descendant
of Sparta, Tennessee. Children born to Riley Jones and Zilpha Collins Jones include: Caldonia Jones born about 1872 Caldonia
Jones, daughter of Riley Jones and Zilpha Collins Jones, was born about 1872. She was married about 1890 to John Harvey Long.
They were buried in Goins Chapel Cemetery on Newmans Ridge. Children born to John Harvey Long and Caldonia Jones Long
include: Robert Coleman Long born about 1895 Robert Coleman Long, son of John Harvey Long and Caldonia Jones Long, was born about 1895. He was married about 1930 to Mary Elizabeth Seals.
Children born to them include: Margaret Long born about
1935 Margaret Long, daughter of Robert Coleman Long and Mary Elizabeth Seals Long, was born about 1935. She was married about 1956, husband's name Mabrey. In 1997, Margaret Long Mabrey lived in Sparta, Tennessee where she was active in the research of her branch of the family.
Lewis Collins, son of Silas Collins and Orpha Collins Collins, was born January 9, 1862. He
was married about 1886 to Sarah H. Gibson who was born April 9, 1867 to Tom Gibson and Celia Gibson. She died September 12,
1938, and Rev. Lewis Collins died February 4, 1939. Children born to them include: Rodeford "Coon" Collins born in 1888 William
Make Collins born in 1890 Elizabeth "Lizzie" Collins born in 1892 Orpha Collins born February 28, 1894 Clemmie Collins born in
1896 Walter Collins born July 28, 1898 Dana Collins born in 1900 Grace Collins born in 1902 Recia Collins born about 1905 Hattie
Collins born about 1908 Walter Collins, sixth child of Lewis Collins and Sarah H. Gib- son Collins, was born July 28, 1898. He was
married about 1918 to Nora Gibson who was born August 24, 1902. He died November 24, 1978. Children born to them include:
Opal Mae Collins born May 13, 1920 Dorothy Ruth Collins born about 1922 Ethel Collins born about 1924 Clarence Collins born
about 1927 Walter Collins, Jr. born about 1930 Irene Collins born about 1933 Opal Mae Collins, daughter of Walter Collins and
Nora Gibson Collins, was born May 13, 1920. She was married about 1937 to Henry Morgan Johnson who was born September
1, 1917. Opal Mae Collins Johnson died May 4, 1957. Children born to them include: Elmer Johnson born April 21, 1939 Mattie
Ruth Johnson [twin] born August 27, 1940 Goldiene Johnson [twin] born August 27, 1940 Bailey Collins, son of Solomon Dickinson
Collins and Vir- ginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born in 1828. He was married about 1851 to Melissa Rhea, daughter of
Sam Ray and Patsy Ray. He enlisted July 10, 1862 in the First Ten- nessee Cavalry. In 1906 he continued to live at Sneedville.
Children born to Bailey Collins and Melissa Rhea Collins in- clude: Manda Collins born in 1858 Willie Collins born in 1862
Commodore "Bud" Collins born June 20, 1866 Landon Collins born about 1868 Mary "Sis" Collins born March 1, 1870 Leham
Collins born about 1872 Solomon Collins born about 1875 Sallie Collins born about 1877 Lizzie Collins born about 1880 Commodore
"Bud" Collins, son of Bailey Collins and Melissa Rhea Collins, was born June 20, 1866. He was married about 1890 in Lee County,
Virginia to Laura Anderson who was born there January 6, 1874. They remained in Lee County until 1906 when they moved to
Sneedville and opened Citi- zens Bank of Sneedville. He was its president for 47 years. He died there April 1, 1953. Children born
to Commodore "Bud" Collins and Laura An- derson Collins include: Martha B. Collins born about 1895 Martha B. Collins,
daughter of Commodore "Bud" Collins and Laura Anderson Collins, was born about 1895 in Lee County. Following her father's
death, she succeeded him as president of Citizens Bank, a post she held until she was 80 years old. Enoch "Ink" Collins, son of
Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born in 1830 in Hawkins County. He enlisted December
8, 1862 as a private in the First Tennessee Cavalry, U.S.A. He did not appear in the 1890 Veterans Census, suggesting that he
was deceased before that time. Solomon Dickinson Collins, Jr, son of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins
Collins, was born about 1831. He was married about 1866 to Nancy Stacy. He died before 1890. Thalamos "Tommy" Collins, son
of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born in 1832. He appeared as an 18-year-old in the
1850 census of Hancock County. Betty Collins, daughter of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins,
was born about 1836. She was married about 1855 to Thomas Moore. She was remarried to McKinley Collins as his second wife.
Richard Collins, son of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Vir- ginia Jane "Gincie" Goins, Collins, was born about 1838. He was
married about 1861 to Sarah Davidson. He enlisted as a private in Company D, Eighth Tennessee Cavalry and was killed in battle
in June 1864. Millie Ann Collins, daughter of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born in May
1843. She died in 1860, unmarried. Amelia Collins, daughter of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins,
was born in 1843. She was married about 1863 to Hamilton Miser. In 1864, she joined some other women to walk to Knoxville to
secure war relief supplies, according to Rev. Taylor. On the way, they were robbed by Confederate raiders. When they arrived,
the early shipment from Boston and Philadelphia had already been distributed. The later shipment had not arrived. Malitha "Kate"
Collins, daughter of Solomon Dickinson Collins and Virginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born in May 1845. She was married
about 1866 to Thomas Anderson who later abandoned her. In 1906 she continued in Sneedville. Sally Collins, daughter of Solomon
Dickinson Collins and Vir- ginia Jane "Gincie" Goins Collins, was born in 1846. She was married about 1867 to Gilbert Davidson
and died shortly afterward.
George Goins [Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Joseph Goins and Millie Loven Goins, was born in 1803 in Surry County, North Car- olina, according to Rev. Taylor. It is believed that George Goins was married about 1825, wife's name unknown.
In the 1850 census he was enumerated living in a household headed by "Frances Gowins." Four of the children in the household were born before his marriage to Emily "Lively" Bunch in 1839. In the Federal Census of 1830 completed November 24, 1830, 385 "free colored" individuals were enumerated in Hawkins County.
"George Goen" appeared as the head of a "free colored" household in the 1830 census of Hawkins County , page 73, along with Betsy Goen, page 43; Fountain Goen, page 64 and his brother, "Harden Goen," page 72 who also headed "free colored" households.
"John Goen" and "William Goen" headed white households recorded on page 73. "Crispin Goin" headed a white house-hold recorded on page 80. Names of heads of households in "free colored" families were not recorded by the enumerators in 1830. Individuals in the "white" households were identified by sex and age bracket. None of the three individuals above appeared in the 1836 tax list of Hawkins County.
George Goins, Alexander Goins, Martin Goins, Elisha Goins, Fountain Goins and Zach Goins appeared on the 1836 tax list of Hawkins County.
"George Gowen" was married to Emily "Lively" Bunch, daughter of Joseph Bunch and Rachael Bunch in Hawkins County August 5, 1839. They may have had a common-law marriage prior to that date. P. G. Fulkerson, an attorney of Tazewell wrote a column for the Sneedville newspaper en-titled "Recollections."
In one issue he wrote about the Bunch family:
"There were some families by the name of Bunch living on Newman's Ridge in Hancock County. James Bunch used to furnish the country for miles around with Clinch River fish when I was a boy. He was over six feet high, broad shouldered and a man of great physical power. At one of our old musters, he and Ambrose Day got into a dispute. Bunch struck him with one lick with his fist, and the blow killed him. The killing created a great deal of excitement in the country. It was reported and believed that the legisla-ture had actually passed a law prohibiting Bunch from hitting a man with his fist. The only other case of this kind that I remember occurred when Dan McVey killed Thomas H. White's grandfather in Tazewell. There was a woman on Newman's Ridge named Lively Bunch. She was a dark brunette, straight as an arrow and hand-some. She was a leader in her neighborhood in politics as well as in local affairs. She attended, with her cakes and cider to sell, every public gathering, and she made money. One day, in Tazewell, she called my brothers and me at a muster and gave us and some of our help all the cakes and cider we could consume. The next day we told our father that a good-looking woman had given us a big treat and never charged us a cent. He re-plied, "Yes, I know. I had just paid the bill.
There are a large number of people living on Black-water Creek and Newman's Ridge commonly called Melungeons, who are dark skinned, have long black hair and are of the white race. Many articles have been written and published in our large daily papers con-cerning them and their origin. In 1840 and 1841 my father Dr. James Fulkerson lived at Mulberry Gap, just across the mountain from them and was their physi-cian. The old people told him they were from Portugal.
Their first settlement in this local community was known as Vardy. Vardy Collins lived there, hence it's name. Judge N. C. Smith said that a few of the Melun-geons at an early date lived in Carter County and that a banker there had married one of them--a beautiful girl. As a young lawyer, Judge Smith had reason, in a law-suit, to trace her ancestry and established the fact that years before, her people had landed in Charleston, South Carolina and were from Portugal."
"George Gowin, white male, 20-30" was enumerated as the head of a household in the 1840 census of Hawkins County,
page 235, adjacent to "Joseph Gowin, white male, 70-80," page 234. George Goins was surety for the marriage of Emeline Bunch, his step-daughter, to Boyd Stewart May 5, 1846. George Goins received a large land grant for 5,000 acres, No. 26381, November 14, 1848 in Hancock County, in partnership with Gilford Frost and Joseph Bunch, brothers-in-law:
"The State of Tennessee
Know ye, That in consideration of an Entry made in the Entry Taker's Office of Hawkins County, now Hancock County, of No. 852, dated the 7th day of March 1842 by George Goins, Gilford Frost and Joseph Bunch, there is granted by the State of Tennessee unto the said Goins, Frost & Bunch and their heirs a certain tract of land containing Five thousand acres . . . on the north side of Clinch River and the waters of Blackwater Creek on Newman's Ridge . . . beginning on Rachel Bunch's corner . . . surveyed October 3, 1848.
In witness whereof, N. S. Brown, Governor of the State of Tennessee, has hereunto set his hand and caused the Great Seal of the State to be affixed at Nashville on the 14th day of November in the Year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty eight and of Amer-ican Independence the 73rd."
"Francis Gowins" was recorded as head of Household 370- 370, Hancock County, 33rd subdivision, east part in a cluster of families named Miser. The family was enumerated De- cember 3, 1850 as:
"Gowins, Francis 40, born in NC, female, $300 real
George 48, born in NC, shoemaker, illiterate
Kendy 23, born in TN, male
Polly 20, born in TN, illiterate
Gilford 16, born in TN, attending school
Howard 13, born in TN
Sally 8, born in TN
William 4, born in TN
Tabba 6, born in TN, attending school"
The 1860 census of Hawkins County included households headed by "George Gowings," Binda Gowings, William Goins and Lewis Going. A second "George Gowings," age 15, born in Tennessee, lived in the household of an Anderson family.
"John Goen" and "William Goen" headed white households recorded on page 73. "Crispin Goin" headed a white household recorded on page 80. Names of heads of households in "free colored" families were not recorded by the enumerators in 1830. Individuals in the "white" households were identified by sex and age bracket. None of the three individuals above appeared in the 1836 tax list of Hawkins County.
In 1860, the household was listed as: "Gowings, George 57, born in North Carolina
Bunch, Lively 65, born in North Carolina Emily Bunch retained her maiden name after she was married to George Goins. George
Goins was killed during the Civil War by Dave Collins in a raid by Confederate soldiers, ac- cording to Rev. Taylor. He walked
home after he was shot, but pitched into the door and died. Children born to George Goins and Emily Bunch Goins in- clude:
Kendy Goins born in 1827 Mary J. "Polly" Goins born in 1830 Guilford Goins born in 1834 Howard Goins born in 1837 Jesse "Doc"
Goins born in 1838 Burton McGinnis Goins born Feb. 1, 1842 Sally Goins born about 1843 Alfred Absolom "Alp" Goins born in
1844 Tabitha "Tabba" Goins born about 1845 William Henry Harrison "Dick" Goins born in 1848 Kendy [Kendrew?] Goins
[George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of George Goins and Emily Bunch Goins, was
born in 1827. "Kendrew Gowen" was married July 13, 1846 to Lyda Williams in Rutherford County, Tennessee. Mary J. "Polly"
Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of George Goins and Emily Bunch
Goins, was born in 1830 in Hawkins County.
Guilford Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of George Goins and Emily Bunch Goins, was born in 1834 in Hawkins County. He appeared as a 16-year-old student in the 1850 census of his parents' household.
Howard Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of George Goins and Emily Bunch Goins, was born in 1837. He appeared at age 13 in the 1850 census.
Jesse "Doc" Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of George
Goins and Emily Bunch Goins, was born in 1838. He was married about 1858, wife's name unknown. He was remarried about 1859 to Massey Testerment, daughter of Abraham Testerment and Mary "Polly" Testerment. "He drove a gov- ernment team during the Civil War and later drew a pension," according to Rev. Taylor.
Children born to Jesse "Doc" Goins and Massey Testerment Goins include:
John Goins born about 1862
Burton Goins born about 1864
Volentine Sevier Goins born in 1873
John Goins [Jesse "Doc"9, George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Jesse "Doc" Goins and Massey Testerment Goins, was born about 1862. Of this individual nothing more is known.
Burton Goins [Jesse "Doc"9,
George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Jesse "Doc" Goins and Massey Testerment
Goins, was born about 1864. Of this individual nothing more is known. Volentine Sevier Goins [Jesse "Doc"9, George8, Joseph7,
Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Jesse "Doc" Goins and Massey Testerment Goins, was born in
1873 at Kyles Ford, Tennessee, according to his son Robert R. Goins, a Foundation member of Bartlesville, Oklahoma. Volentine
Sevier Goins was married about 1900, wife's name unknown. Children born to Volentine Sevier Goins include: Robert R. Goins
born about 1917 Burton McGinnis Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of
George Goins and Emily "Lively" Bunch Goins, was born February 1, 1842 at Sneedville. His Civil War pension appli- cation
shows his date of birth as April 1, 1842. He enlisted in Company A [Company H in one report], First Tennessee Cav- alry
Regiment May 9, 1862, showing his address as Blackwa.- ter, Virginia. He became a corporal and later the company
quartermaster sergeant in Company A. He was honorably dis- charged in Nashville April 4, 1865. His military record de- scribed
him as 5'6" tall, blue eyes, auburn hair, dark complex- ion, weighing 150 lbs. Other members of this regiment were Pvt. Alfred
Goins, Pvt. Claiborne Goins, Pvt. John Goins, Pvt. R. J. Goins, Pvt. William Goins, Pvt. Zachariah Goins and Pvt. Alfred Gowen.
He was married about 1870 to Sarah Jane Wyatt. She died May 10, 1873 in Hancock County, according to Mary England, Editor
of "Reflections," the Claiborne County, Tennessee Historical Society's publication. He was remarried about 1874 to Mary AnnLawson, believed to be a daughter of Serena Lawson. Mary Ann Lawson Goins died January 25, 1885 in Lee County, Virginia. In 1887 he removed from Lee County back to Hancock County. He at the age of 47 was married for the third time to Rebecca Cox, age 37 May 25, 1889 in Jonesville, Virginia. She was born December 23, 1850 near Dryden, Virginia, the daughter of David Cox.
They removed to Jefferson County, Iowa in 1880 and returned to Lee County in 1884. He died at his home at Olinger, Vir- ginia
January 21, 1922. He received Pension No. 1,064,208 for $50 monthly as the result of wounds in both hips and a chest injury
resulting from a horse falling on him during the war, rendering him disabled. Children born to Burton McGinnis Goins and Sarah
Jane Wyatt Goins include: George Washington Goins born March 8, 1872 [unnamed child] born March 10, 1873 Children born to
Burton McGinnis Goins and Mary Ann Law- son Goins include:
Samuel J. T. Goins born January 5, 1877
William H. Goins born January 8, 1879
Thomas Jefferson Goins born February 1, 1881 Charley Burton Goins born May 12, 1883 No children were born
to Burton M. Goins and Rebecca Cox Goins. George Washington Goins [Burton McGinnis9, George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5,
Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Burton McGinnis Goins and Sarah Wyatt Goins, was born March 8, 1872. He
became a physician and served in the Spanish-American War. He was married about 1901 to Lucy Hestile. Later he was
remarried, wife's name Fannie. He died in 1919 at Jefferson Barracks in St. Louis, Missouri. Children born to George Washington
Goins and Fannie Goins are unknown. Six children, names unknown, were born to George Washington Goins and Lucy Hestile
Goins, according to Rev Taylor. An unnamed child was born to Burton McGinnis Goins and Sarah Jane Wyatt Goins March 10,
1873 and died the same day. Samuel J. T. Goins [Burton McGinnis9, George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3,
William2, Mihil1], son of Burton McGinnis Goins and Mary Ann Lawson Goins, was born January 5, 1877. He was married about
1900 to Rachel Orr of Olinger, Virginia and removed to Centralia, Washington. William H. Goins [Burton McGinnis9, George8,
Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Burton McGinnis Goins and Mary Ann Lawson
Goins, was born January 8, 1879. He was married about 1898 to Laura Coldiron who was born in April 1878. He became an
engineer on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. They later lived in Corbin, Kentucky. Children born to them include: Zollie
Frances Goins born in 1899 Paul Thomas Goins born in 1905 Zollie Frances Goins [William H.10, Burton McGinnis9, George8,
Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of William H. Goins and Laura Coldiron Goins, was
born in 1899. She was married about 1919 to John Tipton. Paul Thomas Goins [William H.10, Burton McGinnis9, George8,
Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, William2, Mihil1], son of William Goins and Laura Coldiron Goins, was born in 1905.
Later he lived in Harlan, Kentucky. Thomas Jefferson Goins [Burton McGinnis9, George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward,
Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Burton McGinnis Goins and Mary Ann Lawson Goins, was born in 1881. In 1927 he lived
in Tooele Utah. Charley Burton Goins [Burton McGinnis9, George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2,
Mihil1], son of Burton McGinnis Goins and Mary Ann Lawson Goins, was born May 12, 1883. He died February 16, 1910 "of
bronchial trouble," according to William P. Grohse. Sally Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3,
William2, Mihil1], daughter of George Goins and Emily "Lively" Bunch Goins, was born about 1843. She appeared in the 1850
census of Hancock County as a six-year- old. Alfred Absolom "Alf" Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4,
Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of George Goins and Emily Bunch Goins, was born in 1844. He was married about 1867 to
Margaret Babb, daughter of Phillip Babb and Frances Babb. They removed to Indiana, then to Iowa. They were enumer- ated in
1880 in Jefferson County, Iowa: Goins, Absolom 35, born in Tennessee Margaret 44, born in Virginia Minerva 12, born in Indiana
William 10, born in Indiana Doctor 7, born in Indiana John A. 4, born in Indiana" Later they moved to Pleasant Hill, Missouri
where they died. Tabitha "Tabba" Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter
of George Goins and Emily "Lively" Bunch Goins, was born about 1845. She appeared in the 1850 census as a five-year- old.
William Henry Harrison "Whistlin' Dick" Goins [George8, Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1],
son of George Goins and Emily Bunch Goins, was born in 1848, according to Rev. Taylor. He had an obstruction in his breathing
that made him wheeze. "While trying to pass through the Confederate lines to enlist in the Union Army, he was arrested and
imprisoned," according to Rev. Taylor. "He had a habit which made him walk to a corner and turn three times. The way he was
pointed the last time is the direction he was likely to take that day." William Henry Harrison "Whistling' Dick" Goins enlisted
March 9, 1862, along with Claiborne Coins, in First Tennessee Cavalry Regiment, Company A, showing their residence as
Sneedville. He was married about 1873 to Rebecca "Becky" Goodman who was born to Bill Goodman and Rachel Bunch
Goodman about 1851. Children born to William Henry Harrison "Dick" Goins and Rebecca "Becky" Goodman Goins include:
Sarah Goins born about 1875 William Goins born about 1878 Harden Goins Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3,
William2, Mihil1], son of Joseph Goins and Millie Loven Goins, was born in 1805, according to the research of Jim Callahan of
Nashville, Indiana. "Harden Goen" appeared as the head of a "free colored" household in the 1830 census of Hawkins County,
page 72. He was listed in the 1836 tax list of Hawkins County. He was married in Iowa to Addie Goins, according to Rev. Taylor.
Children born to Harden Goins and Addie Goins Goins are unknown. Aletha Goins Joseph7, Joseph6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4,
Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of Joseph Goins and Millie Loven Goins, was born about 1814. Jim Callahan, fam- ily
researcher shows her date of birth as 1807. She was married about 1830 to Gilford Frost who was born October 28, 1782. It is
believed that he died about 1845. "Aletha Goins" appeared at age 36 in the 1850 enumeration of her fa- ther's household. About
1850, she was remarried to James Livesay, a veteran of the War of 1812 whose wife, Ellender Caldwell Livesay had died in 1849.
James Livesay died April 11, 1857 and was buried in Panther Creek Cemetery in Hancock County. Children born to Guilford Frost
and Aletha Goins Frost in- clude: Samuel Frost born December 12, 1840 Children born to James Livesay and Aletha Goins Frost
Livesay include: Washington "Wash" Livesay born February 12, 1851 David Livesay born about 1853 Harden Livesay born about
1855 Samuel Frost, son of Gilford Frost and Aletha Goins Frost, was born December 12, 1840, according to Jim Callahan. He took
his mother's maiden name and was thereafter known as Samuel Goins He volunteered December 9, 1861 for service in the
Twenty-ninth Tennessee Infantry Regiment, CSA. He was wounded in the right lower leg July 22, 1864 in a battle fought three
miles southeast of Atlanta, according to Rev. Taylor. "Gangrene set in, but was stopped by the mountain remedy of oak bark tea,
but he had a running sore for the rest of his life." He was married to Mrs. Elizabeth Lawson Ray, daughter of Stokely Lawson and
Matilda Ashe Lawson as her third husband "on the third Saturday in April 1869 at a meeting at Wallens Creek Baptist Church in
Lee County, Virginia." In her application for a Confederate widow's Pension No. 8435 Elizabeth Lawson Ray Ray Goins stated
that they were married in 1871 Previously she was married to Robert Ray, and upon his death, she was married to Anderson Ray
who also died. Samuel Goins died in 1926 in Hancock County, according to "Tennessee Confederate Widows and Their Families"
abstracted by Edna Weifering. Elizabeth Lawson Ray Ray Goins died in December 1953 at age 97. Washington "Wash" Livesay,
son of James Livesay and Aletha Goins Frost Livesay, was born February 12, 1851. He was married December 27, 1873 to Julia
Ann Lawson, daughter of Stokely Lawson and Matilda Ashe Lawson. Washington "Wash" Livesay was killed in Lee County by
Larkin Mullins and Andy Mullins, father and son, who were attempting to bring him across the Tennessee state line to face
criminal charges in trial. Six children were born to them. David Livesay, son of James Livesay and Aletha Goins Frost Livesay,
was born about 1853. He married a Kentucky woman and moved to Montana, according to Jim Callahan. Harden Livesay, son of
James Livesay and Aletha Goins Frost Livesay, was born about 1845. ==O== Alexander "Alec" Goins who was born in 1875 in
Hancock County, was married to America Collins, according to Jim Callahan. Children born to Alexander "Alec" Goins and
America Collins Goins are unknown. ==O== Fannie Goins who was born in Hancock County April 18, 1904 was married about
1922 to George Moore, son of Jerry Bell Moore. ==O== George W. Goins and Susannah Goins gave a deed March 28, 1876 to
Gilford Minor for "all their interest in the Zachariah Minor land lying in the 4th District," according to Hancock County Deed Book
1, page 436. ==O== John Goins was enumerated as the head of a household in the 6th District in the 1880 census of Hancock
County: "Goins, John, 47, born in Georgia Synda J. 37, James H. 17 Mary J. 15 John 12 Howard 11 Artia 9 Alex 5 Freeling 2
Goins, Artia 75, mother of householder"
Mrs. Nellie Goins, "daughter of William and Elizabeth Perkins [?]," according to
Rev. Taylor, was born in Tennessee in 1814. She appeared in the 1860 census of Hancock County in the household, No. 776-776,
of her daughter Elizabeth Goins Sizemore: "Sizemore, Owen 37, born in Tennessee Elizabeth 25, born in Tennessee William 5, born
in Virginia Lydia 3, born in Virginia
Goins, Nellie 46, born in Tennessee"
Lydia Sizemore, daughter of Owen Sizemore and
Elizabeth Goins Sizemore, was born February 27, 1858 in Hancock County, according to Rev. Arthur Hamilton Taylor. She was
married April 4, 1875 to Jacob Witt Stewart, son of Boyd Stewart and Emma Bunch Stewart. Rev. Taylor described Lydia
Sizemore as "medium tall, hooked nose, shows Indian blood, pleasant, friendly, with a long memory. She helped with much of this
record." Seven children were born to her. ==O== Tennessee Loyd Goins, son of Lydia Goins, was born November 12, 1874 in
Hancock County. He was married February 15, 1893 to Kyrie Collins, according to Rev. Taylor. He wrote, "He was a
farmer-carpenter, light complexioned, fairly tall, heavy shoulders, prominent nose. He was inclined to play very mean tricks on
anyone he came in contact with, especially Mr. and Mrs. George Allen Johnson. Kyrie Collins Goins showed Indian blood
strongly. After her son Mathias was killed, Kyrie's whole person- ality changed. She was mad at everybody, particularly any of
the Presbyterians. Tennessee and Kyrie were divorced, and she was remarried to an 80-year-old man from Knoxville. Following
the death of her son, she was never right in her mind afterward. At times she would do some bad things, such as the time she
urinated on one of the girls of the community. She was sentenced to 60 days in jail for this. She served about half of the sentence.
She would publicly curse anyone who showed friendship for the Wardell Collins family." Tennessee Loyd Goins was remarried to
Sophie Miser Goins, his niece by marriage. After three children were born, she abandoned her family and went to Maryland
where she was remarried to Corda Clevenger. Later she returned for her chil- dren. Children born to Tennessee Loyd Goins and
Kyrie Collins Goins include: Flora Goins born February 12, 1893 Mollie Goins born July 20, 1895 Julia Goins born in June 1897
Mathias Goins born November 1900 Lillian Goins born about 1902 Children born to Tennessee Loyd Goins and Sophie Miser
Goins Goins include: Corrine Goins born March 16, 1934 Perry Dean Goins born about 1935 Mildred Goins born February 22, 1936
Flora Goins, daughter of Tennessee Loyd Goins and Kyrie Collins Goins, was born February 12, 1893. She was married about
1918 to Luther Davidson. Luther Davidson died of pneumonia April 6, 1938, and his brother Robert Davidson also died of
pneumonia on the same day. Flora Goins David- son remarried and was living in St. Charles, Virginia. She died there on
Halloween night, about 1960, according to William P. Grohse. "Some boys scared her, and she fell over dead. She was fair, had
blue eyes and black hair." Children born to them include: James Davidson born in 1919 Monroe Davidson born April 21, 1924
Mollie Goins, daughter of Tennessee Loyd Goins and Kyrie Collins Goins, was born July 20, 1895 in Hancock County. She was
graduated from high school at Jonesville, Virginia and was graduated in 1921 from Knoxville General Hospital Nursing School. She
was married about 1924 to Bruce Elmer Burkhart, a World War I veteran. Children born to them include: Anna Jane Burkhart
born July 8, 1932 Julia Goins, daughter of Tennessee Loyd Goins and Kyrie Collins Goins, was born in June 1897 in Hancock
County. She attended school in Johnson City, Tennessee and in Jonesville, Virginia. She also graduated from nursing school in
Knoxville. She was married about 1927 to Tee Gibson. In the 1930s they lived in Hancock County. Mathias Goins, son of
Tennessee Loyd Goins and Kyrie Collins Goins, was born in November 1900. He was married to Eliza Anderson Saddler, a
divorcee about 1926. She was a daughter of Tom Anderson and Ruthie Williams Anderson. Mathias Goins was shot and killed by
Deputy Sheriff Wardell Collins on the steps of Vardy School February 11, 1931. Children born to Mathias Goins and Eliza
Anderson Saddler Goins include: William Ralph Goins born April 12, 1928 Lillian Goins, daughter of Tennessee Loyd Goins and
Kyrie Collins Goins, was born about 1902 in Hancock County. She was married about 1919 to a preacher named Taylor. She was
killed July 17, 1924 in an automotive accident in Lee County, Virginia. Corrine Goins, daughter of Tennessee Loyd Goins and
Sophie Miser Goins Goins, was born March 16, 1934. She was men- tally retarded due to rickets, according to Rev. Taylor. She
was institutionalized. Perry Dean Goins, son of Tennessee Loyd Goins and Sophie Miser Goins Goins, was born about 1935. He
became a long- shoreman in Baltimore. Mildred Goins, daughter of Tennessee Loyd Goins and So- phie Miser Goins Goins, was
born February 22, 1936. She was a midget. She died about 1975 in Maryland. ==O== Sarah "Sally" Gowen, [Agnes5, Edward,
Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the daughter of Agnes Gowen, was born about 1751 in Louisa County. She was
bound out November 28, 1759, according to Fredericksville Parish Vestry Book, page 29. "Sally Gowen" registered as a "Free
Negro" in Campbell County, Virginia May 12, 1802. Her entry read, "5'8", 45 years old, Mulattoe, born free in Louisa County,
according to "A Register of Free Negroes and Mulattoes." Children born to Sarah "Sally" Gowen include: Amy Gowen born about
1768 Amy Gowen, [Sarah "Sally"6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of Sarah "Sally" Gowen, was born
about 1768 in Louisa County. She was bound apprentice by the Churchwardens of Trinity Parish there January 9, 1775. "Amey
Gowen" was registered in Campbell County January 20, 1802. Her entry read: "5'2½", 34 years old, yellow complection, born
free." David Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the son of Agnes Gowen, was born about
1752 in Louisa County. He was taxable in his own household in Fredericksville Parish in 1772. He was a taxable in the household
of Pouncy Bunch in 1774. In 1775 he was recorded in the household of his brother, Moses Going, according to "Louisa County,
Virginia Tithables" in 1775. In 1778 he was recorded in the household of Joseph Bunch. David Going was enumerated in
Albemarle County with "1 horse" in "The 1787 Census of Virginia." David Going was married to Clawey [Chloe] Webb in Henrico
County. Date of the marriage bond was July 17, 1789, and the bondsman was his cousin, "John Geoine" who testified that Clawey
Webb was over age 21. His cousin, Anne Going was a witness. David Going was enumerated as the head of a household of eight
"free colored" in the 1810 census of Albemarle County. Children born to David Going and Chloe Going are unknown. Benjamin
Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the son of Agnes Gowen, was born about 1755 in Louisa
County. He appeared in the 1787 tax list of Albemarle County, He paid a tax of "3 horses and 2 cattle," according to "The 1787
Census of Virginia." Benjamin Going "of this county" was the surety for the mar- riage of "Agg Going" to Richard Newman
September 7, 1793. The bride is regarded as his daughter. He reappeared there in the 1810 census as the head of a household
composed of four "free colored" in the 1810 census. Children born to Benjamin Going are believed to include: Agnes "Agg" Going
born about 1775 Agnes "Agg" Going, [Benjamin6, Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a daughter of
Benjamin Going, was born about 1775 in Albemarle County. She was married there September 7, 1793 to Richard Newman,
according to "Albemarle County, Virginia Marriages, 1772-1850." Sherwood Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2,
Mihil1] "free colored," son of Agnes Going, was born about 1756, probably in Louisa County. He was identified as the son of
Agnes Going in "Free African Americans in North Carolina and Virginia." The Louisa County Court on April 10, 1770 ordered that
the church wardens of Trinity Parish "bind out all her children under 21 years except the youngest." Sherwood Going was bound
out to William Phillips. On February 12, 1776 Agnes Going appeared in court to file a complaint about the ill-treatment "Sherrod
Going was receiving from his master, William Phillips." He enlisted for three years service in 1777 in the Fourteenth Virginia
Regiment under command of Col. Charles Lews and re-enlisted in 1780 for an additional 18 months, according to statements in his
pension application dated October 9, 1828 in Albemarle County. "Sharod Going" endorsed the Revolutionary pension applica- tion
of Charles Barnett, "mulatto" who was born about 1764 in Albemarle County. Charles Barnett declared that he had "enlisted in the
Seventh Virginia Regiment at Charlottesville." "Sharod Going" corroborated his statement, and in his en- dorsement mentioned, "I
was with him at Chesterfield Court House." "Sherard Gowen" received a grant September 30, 1783 of 196 acres "on the waters of
Buck Mountain Creek," according to "Virginia Land Grants, 1782-1783," page 575. Sherrod Going was a resident of Albemarle
County in 1787 when he appeared on the tax list there taxable on "one tithe, two horses and four cattle." "Sherod Gowin" received
a land warrant in the Military District of Ohio, however it is believed that he sold the warrant rather than move to the new area.
"Sherwood Gowing" was married June 5, 1791 to Susannah Simmons in Stokes County, North Carolina, according to "Stokes
County, North Carolina Marriages, 1783-1850." "Sherod Going" was married to Susannah Simmons June 5, 1791 in Albemarle
County by Parson William Woods, according to her pension application. A copy of their marriage certificate certified by the
Albemarle County Clerk was attached in substantiation. No explanation is offered for the two different marriage records. The
pension application of "Sherard Going" and that of his wife "Susannah Simmons Going" were abstracted in "Virginia Pension
Abstracts of Revolutionary War, War of 1812 and Indian Wars," Volume 19 by Lucy Kate McGhee. In the application given to
the court at Charlottesville, he stated, "I am a colored man and very illiterate" and that he had lost his discharge. He stated that he
had a wife and two boys, "a boy about the age of 8 or 9 and another about the age of 10 or 12." He reported that he owned 200
acres of mountainous land with 30 or 40 acres cleared. He was a day laborer and owned one cow. His application was endorsed
by an affidavit signed by A. C. Nanis. "Sherrod Going" was enumerated as the head of a household of 12 "other free" people in
the census of 1810 of Albemarle County. "Sherod Gowing" appeared as the head of a nine- member household in a cluster of 12
Gowing households of "free colored" in the 1820 census of Albemarle County, page 8A. Three members of his family were
engaged in agriculture. The household was rendered as: "Gowing, Sherod free colored male over 45 free colored female over 45
free colored male 14-26 free colored male 14-26 free colored female 0-14 free colored male 0-14 free colored female 0-14 free
colored male 0-14 free colored male 0-14" He reappeared in the 1830 census of Albemarle County, page 252 as the head of a
household composed of 10 free colored individuals: "Gowen, Sherwood free colored male 55-100 free colored female 36-55 free
colored male 36-55 free colored male 24-36 free colored male 24-36 free colored female 24-36 free colored male 24-36 free
colored male 0-10 free colored male 0-10 free colored male 0-10" Sherwood Going died September 4, 1837, about age 81.
"Susannah Simmons Gowin" made an application for a rein- statement of a widow's pension November 27, 1841. In it she stated
that her age was "about 70," that she had lived in Albe- marle County all of her life and she was the "widow of Sherod Gowin,
deceased." She declared that she had received a widow's pension from the date of her husband's death September 4, 1837 through
November 23, 1837. An endorsement attached to her application read, "She is a coloured woman of high respectability and her
declaration is entitled to full credit." Joshua Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as the son of
Agnes Gowen, was born about 1758 in Louisa County. He was enumerated in the 1787 census of Albemarle County as the owner
of "3 horses and 2 cattle," according to "The 1787 Census of Virginia." Nearby were enumerated the households of his mother,
"Agness Gowen" and his brothers, "Benjamin Going, Joseph Going, Sherwood Going and David Going." It is believed that a
descendant of Joshua Going was: Joshua Goins born about 1829 Joshua Goins, [?7, Joshua6, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3,
William2, Mihil1] regarded as a grandson of Joshua Going, was born in Virginia, probably in Albemarle County, according to the
research of Gary Traugh of Parkersburg, West Virginia. Gary Traugh states that this branch of the family was closely associated
with the Ailstock family. Joshua Goins was the father of: Julia Ann Goins born February 24, 1859 Julia Ann Goins, [Joshua8, ?7,
Joshua6, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] daughter of Joshua Goins, was born February 24, 1859 in Virginia,
probably Albemarle County, according to Okeema Traugh, a great-granddaugher of Parkersburg, West Virginia. Julia Ann Goins
was married about 1877 to Adam Tabler. In 1920 they lived in Athens County, Ohio. Julia Ann Goins Tabler, "black female," died
at Kelvert, Ohio September 7, 1920 of "mitral insufficiency," according to her death certificate signed by Paul R. McLaughlin,
M.D. She was "aged 61 years, 7 months, 14 days." She was buried in Kelvert Cemetery September 10, 1920. Children born to
them are unknown. Samuel Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Agnes Gowen, was
born about 1760 in Louisa County. He apparently was influenced to move to Georgia by Moses Going, his older brother. Samuel
Going became a physician. He was married January 28, 1799 to Elizabeth Slade, according to "Early Records of Wilkes County,
Georgia," page 544. The marriage was also recorded in "Ceded Lands of St. Paul Parish & Early Wilkes County, Georgia," page
9. She was born about 1782. He was influenced to remove to Claiborne County, Mississippi Territory by his nephew, Thomas
Going who had located there before 1810. He became a business partner with his nephew in a medical practice, according to an
affidavit made by Thomas S. Phillips May 28, 1847 before the Crittenden Circuit Court in Cirttenden County, Kentucky. Samuel
Going was enumerated in Claiborne County there in the 1816 census in a consecutive entry with his nephew as the head of a
household composed of "10 free colored inhabitants." In the federal census of Claiborne County in 1820, page 9A Samuel Going
was recorded as the head of a houshold composed of "one white female, 26-45, 10 free colored and two slaves." Five members of
the household were engaged in agriculture. His nephew, Thomas Going was recorded nearby [page 7] as the head of household
composed of "one white female 26-45, one white female 16-26, one white female 10-16, one free colored male and seven slaves."
Three members of the household were engaged in agriculture. On April 26, 1833 Samuel Going wrote his will: In the Name of
God, Amen: I, Samuel Going of Claiborne County and State of Mississippi, being in feeble health and likely to die, but of sound and
disposing mind do make and ordain this my last Will and Testament: Item 1st. It is my will and desire, after the payment of all my
just debts that my beloved wife Betsey and our four children, Martha A, Elizabeth, Ellenor and Josiah Going shall have and
possess all the property of which I may be possessed, both real and personal, to have and to hold the same in equal proportions for
and during the natural life of my said wife Betsey, and at her death, the whole to be equally divided between my four above named
children for them and each of them to have and to hold in fee . . . I do hereby nominate and appoint my beloved and trusty son,
William Going my Executor to settle and pay my debts and to have the provisions of this, my will duly performed. Signed and
acknowledged in the presence of: Wm. H. Wyck Jon McCaleb Samuel Going Humphrey Shearman" Duly Recorded Lucas Gee,
Clk. Children born to Samuel Going and Elizabeth "Betsy" Slade Going include: William Going born about 1800 Martha A. Going
born about 1802 Elizabeth Going born about 1804 Ellenor Going born about 1807 Josiah Going born about 1811 William Going,
[Samuel6, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], son of Samuel Going and Elizabeth "Betsy" Slade Going, was born
about 1800, probably in Wilkes County, Georgia. He was named by his father as the executor of his will written May 28, 1847.
Martha A. Going, [Samuel6, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of Samuel Going and Elizabeth "Betsy"
Slade Going, was born about 1802. She was mentioned in the will of her father written May 28, 1847. Elizabeth Going, [Samuel6,
[Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of Samuel Going and Elizabeth "Betsy" Slade Going, was born about
1807. She was mentioned in the will of her father written May 28, 1847. Josiah Going, [Samuel6, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3,
William2, Mihil1], daughter of Samuel Going and Elizabeth "Betsy" Slade Going, was born about 1811. He was mentioned in the
will of his father written May 28, 1847. Ellenor Going, [Samuel6, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1], daughter of
Samuel Going and Elizabeth "Betsy" Slade Going, was born about 1802. She was mentioned in the will of her father written May28, 1847. Daniel Going, [Agnes5, Edward, Jr.4, Edward3, William2, Mihil1] regarded as a son of Agnes Gowen, was born about 1766 in Louisa County. He may have been the "white male 16-21" recorded in the household of his mother in the enumeration of 1787. He was enumerated in 1787 in Albemarle County as taxable on "1 tithe and 1 horse," according to Paul Heinegg "Daniel Going, formerly a private in the Fifth Regiment, Virginia Continental Line was living in East Tennessee in 1818," according to "Pension List of 1818," published in 1820 in Washington, D. C. "William Goings of Hancock County, Tennessee" was listed on the same page.
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