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Revised 10 November 2007

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Presentation order. Those with matches (family groups), results are presented by haplogroup. Family groups (color-coded matches) are usually listed in kit number order. DYS numbers with white background in color coded groups indicate an apparent mutation from the presumed ancestral haplotype for that group. If an ancestral haplotype has not yet be determined, the white back ground indicates markers that differ from the most frequent value. Participants awaiting results are listed at the end of the chart. Presentation order is subject to change.
Kits beginning with N are participants who joined this study after testing in the Genographic project (off site link -->


DYS# - DYS Numbers. DYS numbers as reported by FTDNA. (note that these are not in numerical order).
DYS = DNA + Y chromosome + [unique DNA] Segment.
HUGO (Human Genome Organization) assigns DYS numbers.
DYS #19 is also known as #394
According to FTDNA, the red markers show a faster mutation rate than average. However, managers of large surname studies report variations that differ from those in a mixed random group.
(The allele values for DYS 464abcd reflect FTDNA's May 19, 2003 adjustment - all reduced by one.)

DYS 464e. For most participants, DYS 464 is replicated 4 times (a b c d). About 1.5% have additional replications. See DYS 464.

Group (or Family Group). Family groups are groups of two or more participants who match. Unless there is evidence to the contrary (e.g., those with very common haplotypes and no shared paper trail), it is assumed they share a common ancestor. The common ancestor may, or may not, be known. Group 1 was assigned to the first participants with a match.. The next participants with a match were assigned Group 2, the next Group 3, and so on (missing sequential numbers are McK- variations). The numbers have no other significance. Group descriptions are revised from time to time.

Hg - Haplogroup (ancient ancestry).
Haplogroups in green have been confirmed by SNP testing.
Haplogroups in red have been predicted by Family Tree DNA based on unambiguous results in the individual's personal page. FTDNA sees no reason to order a SNP test to confirm a predicted haplogroup.
Haplogroups in black are estimated by FTDNA (comparative results are not clear and unambiguous). If the kit holder wants to know his SNP with 100% confidence, consider ordering a SNP confirmation test.
FTDNA descriptions (below)
For more information, participants should review personal page at FTDNA.
See also

Locus - Numerical order of DYS number presentation by FTDNA. This is useful when discussing results, since the presentation order of the DYS numbers is not in numerical order.

MRCA - Most recent common ancestor.

Null FTDNA: A value of 0 for any marker indicates that the lab reported a null value or no result for this marker. All cases of this nature are retested multiple times by the lab to confirm their accuracy. Mutations causing null values are infrequent, but are passed on to offspring just like other mutations, so related male lineages such as a father and son would likely share any null values.

Number - Kit number issued by FTDNA to participant. For sorting purposes, 0 has been added to four digit codes. Codes beginning with N are participants who joined after testing in the National Geographic Genographic Project.
Codes pre 15 March 2004

Participant Surname - Gen.
- Spelling variation of participant. In most cases, this differs from spelling of earliest known ancestor
. The number following the name is the reported number of generations from the common ancestor. n/a indicates details not available. < identifies participants whose paper trails have not yet connected to others. A surname followed by c indicates a common haplotype.

464abcd - These markers are unusual; see Genetic Distance calculations by FTDNA.

**# 9950 is a "NEW" Kinney surname haplotype due to a false paternal event. Participant reported solid paper trail to Henry Kinne of MA (Group 2) but did not match. See link on kit number for more information.


E3b is believed to have evolved in the Middle East. It expanded into the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene Neolithic expansion. It is currently distributed around the Mediterranean, southern Europe, and in north and east Africa. [From Family Tree DNA]

I, I1, and I1a are nearly completely restricted to northwestern Europe. These would most likely have been common within Viking populations. One lineage of this group extends down into central Europe. [From Family Tree DNA]

J2 lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations. [From Family Tree DNA]

R1a is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. This lineage is believed to have originated in a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe. [From Family Tree DNA]

R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. [From Family Tree DNA] Note: R1b was known as HG1 in an earlier classification system.

K - Other Known Tests/Projects - Other Variations
K*NN*Y & variations results are here.
CUNI - one test; does not match any of our participants (est. HG R1b).
CUNNICK - One Cunnick 12 marker test matched 6419; however, extended results indicate no close match.
KAHONE, KANE, KANEY, KEARNEY, KENNY (one or more of each) private tests listed at FTDNA. If they signed the release form, any match will appear on the private page of our matching participant.
KEANE - Keane/Kane Ocathain/O'Cahan & Other Variations
- The Glennon surname project tested two Irish Kenny males of a certain area to see if their DNA matched others in the Glennon project (ancient literature indicates a connection). These two men (MK and KK) do not have a close match with each other (20 out of 25) or with other surnames in the Glennon project. The closest match to our participants: MK 22/25 with 28154 (Group 11) and [MK?] 20/25 with 8952 (Group 10); these participants both have very common haplotypes and are not close to each other (16/25). Relationships between any of these lines would be long before the existence of surnames.

McK - Other Known Tests/Projects - Other Variations
& variations results are here.
McCENEY (pronounced McSeney) - his results are included above in Group 77 Common Haplotypes; his site:
McKENNEY - Richard W. McKenney began this study to identify relationships between McKenney families in North America. This project was later combined with the Kinney project (Georgia Kinney Bopp, Admin.) for a few years; in November 2007 it was established under McKinney (Jody McKenney Thomson, Admin.).

Related Links

DNA Project Notes
Meaning of Results
Non-Paternal Event          
Genetic Distance calculations by FTDNA
Frequently Asked Questions
Codes pre 15 March 2004

Interpreting Genetic Distance links at FTDNA
See also:

Georgia Kinney Bopp
DNA Project began October 2002


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