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The Simplified Haplogroup Locale Chart
(PDF version has been removed)
Revised 1 April 2008

The alphabetical designations/names of Y-DNA and mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplogroups were assigned independently of one another by different researchers* . This is often confusing to newcomers who think, for example, that a B Y-DNA haplogroup and a B mtDNA haplogroup refer to the same locale and/or time frame. However, this is not the case - as can be seen in the below very simplified locale chart. 

This is a locale chart – not a migration chart.
Any locale similarity (for example N) is merely accidental.
Entries in italics need sources.
See also the additional information at the below links (includes links to haplogroup descriptions).

mtDNA Locale

 

Y-DNA Locale
(M/P/L=other nomenclature; source for most of these is the Genographic site as of 6 July 2007)

A

Americas

Sub-Saharan Africa

A
=M91

B

Americas
Oceania

Sub-Saharan Africa

B
=M60

C

Americas

Central Asia
East Asia
Australia/New Guinea

C
=M130
C3=M217

D

East Asia
Americas

Central Asia

D
=M174
D1
=M15
D2
=P37.1

E

East Asia

East Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Middle East
West Eurasia
Central Asia

E
=M96
E3a=M2 E3b=M35

F

East Asia

Central Asia

F
=M89

G

 

[India/Pakistan]→central Asia, Europe, Middle East. G2 (P15) in Europe and Middle East

G
M201
G2=P15


H

West Eurasia

West Eurasia
Central Asia

H
=M69
H1=M52

I

West Eurasia

West Eurasia

I
=M170
I1a=M253
I1b=P37.2

J

West Eurasia

West Eurasia
Middle East

J
=M304
J2=M72

K

West Eurasia

Australia/New Guinea

K
=M9
K2=M70

L

Sub-Saharan Africa

East Asia

L
=M20

M

East Asia

Australia/New Guinea

M
=M4

N

East Asia

East Asia

N
=LLY22

O


? [Oceania?]

East Asia

O
=M175
O1a=M119 O2=P31
O3=M122

P

Oceania

East Asia
Americas

P
=M45

Q

Oceania

East Asia

Q
=M242
Q3=M3

R

Various
(shared ancestor from N)

West Eurasia
East Asia
Australia/New Guinea

R
R*=M207
R1=M173
R1a=M17
R1b=M343
R2=M124

S

[Aboriginal Australia  ?]

Indonesia, Oceania

S

T

West Eurasia

Middle East

T

U

West Eurasia

Clarification needed – these apparently are not in use at this time (see YCC, and ISOGG); Genographic does refer to YAP (Northeast Africa) but that is not known as Haplogroup Y

 

U

V

West Eurasia

V

W

West Eurasia

W

X

Americas, via West Asia

X

Y

Central Asia (So. Siberia)

Y

Z

Central Asia
North Eurasia

Z

mtDNA

Y-DNA

 

*After a period of initial confusion, the Y-DNA haplogroup names became better organized when the Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) was formed.  Hence the names now reflect the migration out of Africa, and the oldest Y-DNA haplogroup is A.  mtDNA haplogroup names are still in flux and perhaps, in time, will be revised.  In the present naming system, the oldest mtDNA haplogroup is L, found in sub-Saharan Africa. The mtDNA groups were identified and names before the Y-DNA groups and sequential development was not yet envisioned.  The mtDNA Native American groups were put together alphabetically as A, B, C, and D; however, these letters are not closely related in the tree. 

For additional information, see these links:

International Society of Genetic Genealogy
Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree

http://www.isogg.org/tree
Includes descriptions of each Y-DNA haplogroup

Simple migration charts:
Y-DNA
http://www.kerchner.com/images/dna/ydna_migrationmap_(FTDNA2006).jpg
mt-DNA
http://www.worldfamilies.net/migration_map_wfn.gif

Not quite so simple migration charts:
Dr. J. Douglas McDonald - maps of Y and mtDNA haplogroups
http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf

Animated mtDNA migration slide show
http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/genetics/mtDNAworld/one.html

More complete descriptions of most (but not all) haplogroups:
Genographic Project -  Atlas of the Human Journey
 -
click on the Genetic Markers link at
https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html
At this time, Genographic includes all the Y-DNA haplogroups but does not include all mtDNA haplogroups (e.g., see above in italics).

Genographic Y-DNA Cross Reference Chart
(Y-DNA “M numbers” → Y-DNA Haplogroups)  [M168=?]

Web site with links to more haplogroup information:
Y-DNA
http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm
http://worldfamilies.net/y-haplogroups.html

mt-DNA

http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-mtdna.htm
http://worldfamilies.net/reference_mtDNA.html

Haplogroup Discussion Group
DNA-ANTHROGENEALOGY
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/DNA-ANTHROGENEALOGY

        
Sources

Genographic Project
https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic

Wade, Nicholas.  Before the Dawn Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors.
New York: Penguin Press, 2006.  (Pages 57 and 59.)

Wells, Spencer.  Deep Ancestry:  Inside the Genographic Project.
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2006.

Yahoo Discussion Lists:  ISOGG and DNA-Anthrogenealogy
The first draft was based on the charts in Wade and feedback was requested from participants of the above lists. 
The current chart has been revised as stated below and the contributors are noted in (   ) .
 In some cases Wells’ book was used to confirm suggestions.

Intro remarks  minor revisions (Alice Fairhurst)
                                2nd paragraph with was moved to end of chart.

mtDNA B - Oceania added (G. K. Bopp)
mtDNA  D -  East Asia added (G. K. Bopp)

Y-DNA  J - East Asia changed to Middle East  (James A. Honeychuck)

Y-DNA G – Based on FTDNA description
      
Y-DNA Haplogroups S and T – Press release:  Scientists reshape Y chromosome haplogroup tree gaining new insights into human ancestry
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/cshl-sry032608.php

Other  – Saharan/Sub-Sahara changed to Sub-Saharan Africa (Steven Perkins)
                Link to McDonald charts added

Some of the entries in italics are based on sources that need further investigation and/or that are not included here yet.

These suggestions from Vincent Vizachero have not yet been added (may appear in next revision):
     mtDNA Haplogroup X is found in Europe at reasonably high frequency.
     mtDNA - include North Africa under H, J,  L, M, T, and U
          http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v71n5/024272/024272.web.pdf
          http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/~vincent/papers/980656.web.pdf

The url for this page is:
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gkbopp/DNA/HaploChart.htm
Or use the tiny version:
http://tinyurl.com/2etmov

GKBopp
DNA Project Notes

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