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Colonial Times-
A Brief History

The Winner Family

This is a short account of the history of colonial times. Here, we find a starting point to engulf ourselves in the immediate sorroundings. We will also realize the social and political activities that influenced our ancestors in great ways.
Enter here if you would like to move on to the list and accounts of early American Winner's.

1600's- In the early 1600’s the meaning of wealth and ranking was of land or gold.Many of new settlers opt for the land knowing that this was good investment to hand down from generation to generation and to be relieved of the landlord/tenant living conditions found back home.

There were shipping companies that took out grants from mother countries for profiting, such as the Gilbert & Raleigh Company and the Virginia Company. The greatest quest was to get settlers over to the New World to populate and obtain cash crops, such as tobacco, for profits. The Companys used advertising as their greatest assets and free land as a lure. Some were offered 50 acres if they worked for 7 years on company plantations and he would pay his travel expenditures. Additional grants were giving to each individual whom he brought with him or who he would finance to come over later.

The Virginia Company sunk great deals of money into the settlements and was losing. In dire need of finances, they incorporated land patents to groups that sought private settlements such as the English Seperatists, who we know as the Pilgrims. The Virginia Company failed miserably not being able to mange the rapid influx and was taken over by Royalty. Virginia became the first Royal Colony 1624. Many were the struggles and in one year alone 300 individuals died of Indian attacks in one day year 1622. But the early settlers were brave and hearty people and the soon learned through great hardship that they could survive.

The products of the new world were already being sampled in Europe as tobacco was introduced by slave traders in England as early as 1565; sugar cane and its by-product, Demon Rum, were being produced in the Caribbean; and fish and furs were being harvested from the Northern continent. By the end of this period, a dozen hardy colonies were functioning as a valuable component of the British colonial empire.

The Puritan Generation were the idealist generation of the Colonial period. They were, for the most part, children and grandchildren of the Protestant Reformation in Europe. They left England determined to build a perfect moral society in America and in their young adulthood accomplished much of what Americans remember of the colonial experience.

The beginning of this cycle in colonial history roughly coincides with the English colonization of the Atlantic Coast of North America. This spiritual event was known as the Puritian Awakening. Meanwhile,British in efforts to rid England of her poor and decrepit sent a total of 40,000 convicts to the new world.Unfortunately this caused great grievences on the people of the colonies.

1700's-The Colonies grew and tradesmen from all kinds of craftsmanship and agriculture backgrounds forged ahead in the new world. Englanders were astonished at the cities that were built such as Boston, Manhattan, Philadelphia,and Charlestown. While the French were fought back to the Canadian borders and the Engish pressed on for governship of the colonies, people of the area became more and more independent and stood firm against the ruling and taxations of the King. Riots and grumblings could be heard more and more. Newspapers and phamphlets printed outcries of unfairness and the persuit of freedom. Astute men of prmonience gave their opinions,such as Sam Adams, George Manson, Patrick Henry, and John Dickinson and came to be of great importance throughout the cities and coutrysides.

The Revolutionary War broke out as King George the third tried to impose taxes on the American Colonies. Already feeling the pinch from lesser movements of control from The "Mother"country, America was already in rebellion against her.

Pressure from the Mother country

The Sugar act of 1764 increased duties on imports that were not from British orgin; the Currency Act,a law that barred the Colonies from printing their own currency, arousing the ire of many Americans. The Colonists, naturally, objected to these acts. At a town meeting in Massachusetts, taxation without representation was cried out against and co-operative protest throughout the Colonies was suggested. Non-importation, or declining to accept merchandise imported from Britain, became the protest of choice in the Colonies.

The Stamp Act

In 1765, the British imposed the Quartering and Stamp Acts. The Quartering Act obligated the Colonies to provide lodging and supplies for British soldiers. The Stamp Act, the first direct levy on the Colonies and passed to generate funds for the British. Newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, broadsides, legal documents, dice, and playing cards were taxed by this act. Stamps, issued by the British, were attached to the taxed items to indicate that the tax had been paid.

The non-importation efforts were increased and the "Sons of Liberty", a secret group whose purpose was to frighten the agents who were to collect the Stamp tax, was formed. Their efforts were effective – all the designated agents had quit before the Stamp Act had gone into effect. Griviences broke out and arguments assailed. Who was going to enforce this act, the military or the Parliment?

In 1767, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts to help pay the expenses involved in governing the American Colonies. This law instituted levies on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. In response to these new taxes, the Colonies again decided to follow the policy of non-importation. A letter called the "Pamphlet Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies" stated that Parliament could not tax the Colonies, called the Townshend Acts unconstitutional.

In 1768 the Massachusetts Circular Letter, written by Samuel Adams and endorsed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives, assaulted Parliament's continued taxation of the Colonies without proper representation and called for united resistance by all the Colonies. The British governor of Massachusetts abolished the state's legislature and British troops were brought to Boston.

In 1769, the Virginia House of Burgesses approved resolutions denouncing the British actions against Massachusetts and proclaiming that the citizens of Virginia could be taxed only by the governor and legislature of the Colony.

Then, in 1770, due to the reduced profits from non-importation, Parliament revoked all of the Townshend Act levies except for the tea tax. In reply to Parliament's easing of its taxation laws, the Colonies reduced their boycott of British imported goods. On Monday, March 5, 1770, the hostility between the Colonists and British soldiers esculated. An roit started and left 5 colonists dead. This was called the Boston Massacre.

The Boston Tea Party

In 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act, decreasing the tax on imported British tea and in effect, giving British merchants an inequitable edge in selling their tea in the Colonies. On November 27, when British tea ships arrived in Boston harbor, many citizens wanted the tea sent back to England.

1774-On December 16, a group of Colonists, sparsely disguised as Indians, sneaked onto the ships and tossed 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor.
Britain responded to this act, known as the Boston Tea Party, by passing the Intolerable or Coercive Acts in 1774. These acts included the Boston Port Bill (June 1), Administration of Justice Act (May 20), Massachusetts Government Act (May 20) and Quebec Act (May 20). The Quartering Act was also broadened to include occupied buildings.
Boston was fortified and ammunition belonging to Massachusetts was seized by British troops. No fighting occurred, though American militiamen were ready to resist. Groups of Minute Men, militia who were to be prepared on a minutes notice were organized and a Provincial Congress and Committee of Safety were formed by Massachusetts to decide when they would be called into action.

In 1775, Parliament passed the New England Restraining Act. This prohibited the New England Colonies from trading with any country other than Britain.

“The Shot Heard ‘Round the World”

On April 18th, the Boston Committee of Safety discovered a British plan to send troops to Concord to seize ammunition. Paul Revere and William Dawes were sent to relay the warning and alert the Minute Men. On the 19th, the British troops came upon the Minute Men at Lexinton. During the encounter,a shot – “the shot heard ‘round the world” – was fired and the American Revolution had begun-1776.

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