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Ancestral (Archaic) Occupations             
Occupations (N to Z)                 
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    N

  • NAGSMAN - a person who schools (trains) horses, usually for his employer
  • NAPERER - royal servant in charge of table linen
  • NAPIER - naperer
  • NARROW WEAVER - weaver of ribbons, tapes, etc
  • NAVIGATOR - laborer building canals or railways
  • NEATHERD - cowherder
  • NECKER - worker responsible for the feeding of cardboard into the machine that makes boxes
  • NEDELLER - néedle maker
  • NECESSARY WOMAN - servant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots
  • NETTER - net maker
  • NIGHT SOILMAN / NIGHTMAN - one who emptied cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets
  • NIGHTWALKER - watchman or bellman
  • NIMGIMMER - doctor
  • NIPPER - lorry boy, a young person employed by the carter or wagoner to assist with the collection and delivery of goods
  • NOB THATCHER - wig maker
  • NOON TENDER - guarded the goods on the quay while the officers were a lunch
  • NOTERER - notary (notery public)





  •  

    O

  • OCCUPIER - tradesman
  • OILMAN - sold the oil for lamps and later, for stoves
  • OLITOR - kitchen gardener (from Olitory-a kitchen garden)
  • ORDERLY - soldier who functioned as a servant for an officer
  • ORDINARY KEEPER - innkeeper
  • ORRERY MAKER - made a mechanical apparatus for showing the movements of the planets (named after the Earl of Orrery the inventor)
  • ORRICE WEAVER - designer of lace patterns to be woven with silk thread and silk
  • OSIER PEELER - removed bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving, usually women and children (also known as withy peelers)
  • OSTIARY - the doorkeeper of a monistary
  • OSTLER - originally applied to an innkeeper/taverner or one who received guests especially in an monastery (13th century) but later on it came to mean stableboy or a person who looked after horses, coming from the old French 'hostelier'
  • OUT CRIER - auctionéer
  • OUTWORKER - worker who carried on their occupation at home, e.g., cotton or woollen weavers but it applies to many occupations
  • OVERLOOKER - a textile mill superintendent or overseer (also on a plantation)
  • OVERMAN - a supervisor who checked the miners work and the quality of the mined coal (in a colliery)
  • OWLER - wool and/or sheep smuggler
  • OYSTER DREDGER/OYSTERER - one of the crew on board an oyster fishing boat





  •  

    P

  • PACKER - packs goods such as pickles or herring
  • PACKMAN - travelled around carrying goods for sale in a pack
  • PACK THREAD SPINNER - operator of the machine which made thread or twine
  • PAD MAKER - made small baskets used for measuring
  • PAGE - youth being trained for the medieval rank of knight and in the personal service of a knight or attendant upon someone of rank in the medieval period
  • PAINTRESS - woman employed in the pottery industry to hand paint the finished articles
  • PAPER-STAINER - one who made wallpaper
  • PALING MAN - A seller of eels
  • PALISTER - one who ensured the parks were safe and well kept
  • PALMER - one who had been, or pretended to have been, to the Holy Land
  • PANNIER MAN - fish monger
  • PANNIFEX - somebody who worked in the cloth trade
  • PANTER - keeper of the pantry
  • PANTLER - butler
  • PAPERER - inserted the néedles into the paper ready for sale in the néedlemaking trade
  • PARDONER - seller of indulgences
  • PARFUMIER / PERFUMER - manufacturer and purveyor of scents such as perfumes, colognes and even incense
  • PARGETER - applied ornamental plaster to buildings
  • PARITOR - church officer who attended the magistrates and justices at court for the pupose of executing their orders
  • PARKER - park caretaker
  • PASSAGE KEEPER - kept passages and alleys clean
  • PASTELER - pastry chef
  • PASTOR - shepherd
  • PATTEN MAKER - clog maker or the person who made wooden soles (pattens) to fit under normal shoes to protect from wet and muddy ground
  • PAVER / PAVIOUR - laid paving stones
  • PAVYLER - put up pavilions or tents etc
  • PEDASCULE - schoolmaster
  • PEELER - policeman, constable, bobby (from Sir Robert Peel founder of the police force)
  • PELTERER - one who worked with animal skins
  • PERAMBULATOR- surveyor
  • PERCHEMEAR - one who made parchment
  • PEREGRINATOR - itinerant wanderer
  • PERUKER - wigmaker
  • PESSONER - fish monger
  • PETERMAN - fisherman
  • PETTIFOGGER - shyster lawyer
  • PETTY CHAPMAN - itinerant dealer in small goods, a pedlar
  • PEWTERER - made pewter utensils (using any of various alloys having tin as chief component especially a dull alloy with lead)
  • PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENT MAKER - one who made scientific instruments
  • PHRENOLOGIST - diviner of a person's character based on the bumps on a person's head
  • PICKER - one who cast the shuttle on a loom
  • PIECENER / PIECER - one who worked in a spinning mill, employed to piece together any threads which broke (usually a child or woman)
  • PIGMAN - one who sold crockery or bred or looked after pigs on the farm
  • PIKELET MAKER - baker who specialised in making pikelets (a small pancake or crumpet)
  • PIKEMAN - miller's assistant
  • PIKER - tramp or vagrant
  • PILLER - robber
  • PILOT - ship steersman
  • PINDER - dog catcher
  • PINER - laborer
  • PINNER - pin make
  • PINNER UP - dressmakers assistant or one who sold broadsheets or ballards in the streets
  • PINSETTER - one who manually set up bowling pins before the advent of automated pinsetting machines
  • PIPER - innkeeper
  • PIRN WINDER - wound the yarn onto large wheel like bobbins which were then ready to feed the looms in a cotton mill
  • PISTOR - baker
  • PIT BROW LASS - female worker who worked on the surface of the mines
  • PITMAN - coal miner
  • PLAITER - maker of straw plaits used in making hats etc
  • PLAYDERER - one who made plaid
  • PLAIN WORKER - performed plain sewing or néedlework as opposed to an embroiderer
  • PLANKER - one who planks or kneads the body of the hat during felting
  • PLATELAYER - men who laid and maintained the railway tracks in Britain and the word actually predates railways being derived from the very old "plateways" which existed hundireds of years ago, mainly for moving coal
  • PLEACHER / PLAICHER / PLATCHER / PLASHER - hedge layer
  • PLOWMAN - farmer
  • PLOWWRIGHT - maker or repairer of plows
  • PLUMASSIER / PLUMER - made or sold plumes, ornamental feathers
  • PLUMBUM WORKER - plumber
  • POINTER - sharpened néedles or pins or lace maker
  • POINTMAKER / POINTMAN - made the tips of laces
  • POINTSMAN - railway worker who operated the points, used to change the line on which the train was travelling
  • POLDAVE WORKER - made poldave, a coarse fabric
  • POLEMAN - surveyor's assistant
  • POLENTIER - poulterer
  • POLLER / POWLER - barber
  • PONDERATOR - inspector of weights and measures
  • PORTABLE SOUP MAKER - converted soup into a dry form for transporting from place to place
  • PORTER - door or gatekeeper
  • POSTILLION - attacher of extra horses to wagons & coaches to help them up hills
  • POST BOY - carried mail from town to town, guard who travelled on the mail coach or outrider who travelled with the stagecoach as a postillion
  • POSTER - one who worked in the quarries breaking rocks
  • POTATO BADGER - seller of potatoes
  • POT BOY / MAN - one who worked in public houses washing and removing dirty pots also did other menial tasks
  • POTTER - maker or seller of pottery
  • POTTER CARRIER - chemist or pharmacist
  • POTTER THROWER - potter who used a wheel and therefore had to throw the clay
  • POULTER - seller of poultry
  • POWER LOOM TUNER - one who maintained the loom in mills
  • PRENTIS - apprentice
  • PRECEPTRESS - school mistress
  • PRICKER - witch hunter, pattern maker or a horseman
  • PRICK LOUISE - tailor
  • PRICKER - used a type of wire brush to make small holes inside ceramic sewer pipe to prevent spalling during firing
  • PRIG NAPPER - horse thief
  • PROCTOR - official of a university
  • PROP BOBBY - worked in mines checking the pit props
  • PROTHONARY - law clerk
  • PUBLICAN - innkeeper
  • PUDDLER - worked clay into puddle, worked with puddle to make things water tight eg canal walls or worked in puddling iron
  • PUGGARD - thief
  • PUGGER - produce clay paste by treading like grapes, usually women and children in brick manufacturing
  • PUG MILL OPERATOR - operated a machine for mixing clay and water, which then exuded a "pug" (a cylinder of clay of any diameter and indefinate length)
  • PUNKY - chimney sweep
  • PUREFINDER - old women and young girls who went about the streets gathering dog droppings which were used for tanning leather
  • PURSER - ship's officer in charge of provisions & accounts
  • PUTTER IN - put things in to some form of mechanised process





  •  

    Q

  • QUARREL PICKER - glazier
  • QUARRIER / QUARRYMAN - quarry worker
  • QUILLER - one who operated a machine that wound yarn onto spools
  • QUILTER / QUILTRESS - one who quilted material
  • QUISTER - one who bleached things
  • QWYLWRYGHTE - wheelwright (one who makes wheels, or works with wood)





  •  

    R

  • RACK MAIDEN - girl employed in the tin mines of Cornwall to dress the ore
  • RAFFMAN - one who dealt in raff (saleable rubbish)
  • RAFF MERCHANT - seller of fibre used to make raffia bags etc
  • RAG CUTTER - one who cut up rags into small pieces to be used for making paper etc
  • RAG GATHERERS - employed to clear the rags from the machinery in the mills (usually children)
  • RAG MAN - one who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags
  • RAG AND BONE MAN - one who went from street to street with a cart and collected any old rubbish, usually in exchange for a small item, e.g. a block of soapstone
  • RAG PICKER - sorted through the left over rags to find re usable ones
  • RAKER - street sanitation worker
  • RATONER - rat catcher
  • RATTLEWATCH - town watchman
  • RECTIFIER - one who distilled alcoholic spirits
  • REDAR - interpreter of dreams
  • REDSMITH - goldsmith
  • REEDER - worked with reeds for hedging or thatching
  • REEDMAKER - made the pipe for a musical instrument or made a weavers implement (a reed) or reed cloth or the comb used in tapestry
  • REELER - operated the machine that wound the yarn onto the bobbin
  • REEVE - church warden
  • REEVER - shriever
  • REGISTRAR - official who registers events such as land purchases or births
  • RENOVATOR - one who repaired clothing
  • REVENUER - taxman who enforces tax laws on liquor
  • RICKMASTER - Captain of Horse
  • RIDDLER - wool stapler
  • RIFTERE - reaper
  • RIGGER - hoist tackle worker; works on a ship's rigging
  • RIPPER / RIPPIER - one who sold fresh water fish at the markets or maker and seller of baskets
  • RIVERMAN - worker on a river boat
  • ROCKMAN - worked in a quarry usually placing the charges on the rockface
  • ROCKGETTER - rocksalt miner
  • ROLLER COVERER - one who covered the rollers for the spinning process
  • ROLLEYWAY MAN - maintained the underground road in the mines
  • ROLL TURNER - carder of wool, cotton etc into rolls prior to spinning
  • ROMAN CEMENTER / PLASTERER - one who worked with roman cement used in stuccoing
  • ROPER - maker of rope or nets
  • ROVER - archer or operator of a machine used in cotton mills which prepared the carded fibre into rolls
  • RODMAN - surveyor's assistant
  • RUBBISHER / RUBBLER - sorted the small stones in the quarries
  • RUGMAN - dealer in rugs
  • RUNNER - smuggler, messenger and ironically one who worked for the magistrate best remembered as Bow Street Runners
  • RUSTLER - cattle thief





  •  

    S

  • SADDLER - one who made saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles
  • SADDLE TREE MAKER - one who made the frames for saddles that the saddler used
  • SAGGAR (also SAGGER) MAKER - one who made the fireclay containers in which the stoneware was placed ready for firing
  • SAGGAR (also SAGGER) MAKER'S BOTTOM KNOCKER- was the saggar maker's assistant who tapped the bottom of the pots
  • SALT BOILER - one who obtained salt by boiling water
  • SALTER / DRYSALTER / SAUCER - one who made or dealt in salt
  • SARCINET WEAVER - silk weaver
  • SALOONIST - saloon keeper
  • SANDESMAN - ambassador or messenger
  • SAND HOG - those who dug the tunnel under the river
  • SANDWICHMAN - wears a sandwich billboard for advertising
  • SAW DOCTOR - made, repaired, maintained and sharpened a wide range of cutting tools and saw blades and also maintained and aligned mechanical parts of a range of production machines
  • SAWYER - saws timber to boards
  • SAY WEAVER - one who made Say, material used for table cloths or bedding
  • SCAGIOLA MAKER - one who made imitation marble
  • SCALERAKER / SCAVENGER - employed by the parish to clean the streets
  • SCAPPLER - one who roughly shaped the stone prior to being finished by the stonemason
  • SCAVELMAN - employed to keep the waterways and ditches clear
  • SCHRIMPSCHONGER - artisan who carves in bone, ivory, or wood
  • SCHUMACKER - shoemaker
  • SCOTCH DRAPER / SCOTCHMAN - sold goods door to door with payment to be made by installments
  • SCREENER - screened the ore at the mines surface
  • SCRIBE - clerk
  • SCRIBLER - a minor or worthless author
  • SCRIMER - fencing master
  • SCRIVENER - clerk, notary
  • SCRIBBLER - employed in a scibbling mill where the wool was roughly carded before spinning
  • SCRIBER - employed at the docks to mark the cotton bales with the approximate weight ready for selling by the brokers
  • SCRIPTURE READER - employed by the local clergy to go from house to house reading parts of the bible to try and encourage people to attend church, also read scriptures during some services
  • SCRIVENER - wrote out legal documents etc
  • SCRUTInéeR - election judge
  • SCUTCHER - beat the flax to soften the straw in the bundles
  • SCULLERY MAID - female servant who performed all the menial tasks
  • SCULLION - male servant who performed all the menial tasks
  • SEAL PRESSER - employed in the glass industry to seal the bath against air intake which could spoil the finished surface
  • SEARCHER - customs man
  • SECRET SPRINGER - one made watch springs
  • SEEDSMAN - sower of seeds
  • SEDGEMAN - skilled workman who applied sedge (type of grass) which was used as an early roofing material
  • SELF ACTING MINDER - one in charge of the automatic spinning mule in the mills
  • SEMI LORER - maker of leather thongs
  • SEMPSTER - seamstress
  • SENESCHAL - A senior steward at the Manor
  • SEWER HUNTER - scavenger who concentrated on the sewers trying to find valuable objects
  • SEWER RAT - bricklayer who specialised in making and repairing sewers and tunnels
  • SEWING CLERK - collector of clothing piecework
  • SEWSTER - seamstress
  • SEXTON - employee or officer of a church who cared and upkept church property and sometimes rang bells and dug graves
  • SHAGREEN CASE MAKER - one who worked with shagreen leather
  • SHANTY MAN - lumberman
  • SHARECROPPER - tenant farmer who would be paid with part of the crop
  • SHEARER - removed the fleece from sheep
  • SHEARGRINDER - sharpened shears, scissors
  • SHEARMAN or SHERMAN - shearer of cloth, metal
  • SHEATH MAKER - one who made scabbards for swords
  • SHEEPMAN - sheep herder
  • SHEPSTER - dressmaker
  • SHINGLER - A roof tiler who used wooden tiles (shingles)
  • SHIP HUSBAND - repairer of ships while in harbor
  • SHIP MASTER - owner or captain of a ship
  • SHIPWRIGHT - constructor or repairer or ships
  • SHOE FINDER - seller of shoe maker's tools
  • SHOESMITH - cobbler, one who shoed horses
  • SHOE WIPER - servant who polished shoes
  • SHOT FIRER - one in charge of blasting in mines or quarries
  • SHRAGER - one who trimmed and pruned trees
  • SHRIEVE - sheriff
  • SHUFFLER - yardman on the farms
  • SHUNTER - one who moved rolling stock around the railway yards
  • SHUSTER - shoe maker
  • SHUTTLE MAKER - made the shuttles for the weaving mills
  • SICKLEMAN - reaper
  • SIDESMAN - one who assisted the churchwarden
  • SILK ENGINE TURNER - turned the wheel on automatic silk weaving looms
  • SILK THROWER - worker in the silk industry
  • SILKER - sewed the ends of the fabric to prvent the layers from separating
  • SILK DRESSER - prepared the silk for weaving
  • SILK MERCER - sold silk cloth and items made from silk
  • SILK TWISTER - silk spinner
  • SIMPLER - agriculturist that we would call herbalist today
  • SILVERSMITH - worked with silver
  • SISSOR or CISSOR - tailor
  • SIZER - applied the size to cloth or worked in a paper mill
  • SKEINER MAKER - made wheels used in spinning industry upon which yarn was wound
  • SKEPPER / SKELPER - one who made and sold beehives
  • SKINKER - tapster in an ale house
  • SKINNER - dealer in hides, mule driver
  • SKIPMAKER - one who made the skips used in mining and quarrying for moving men or materials to the surface
  • SKIPPER - master of a ship
  • SLAPPER / SLAPER - one who worked in a pottery preparing the clay for the potter
  • SLATER - roofer
  • SLAYMAKER - apparently an Old English name meaning maker of slay's--wooden pegs used in weaving
  • SLOPSELLER - seller of readymade clothes in a slop shop
  • SLUBBER - operated the machine used to prepare cotton for spinning
  • SLUBBER DOFFER - removed the bobbins from the spindles in the mills
  • SMACKMAN - worked on a sailing ship (as a sloop or cutter) used chiefly in coasting and fishing
  • SMALLWARE MAKER - who made smallware, e.g. tapes, braids etc
  • SMELTER - worker in a metal smelter, smelt fisherman
  • SMIDDY - smith
  • SMITH - metal worker
  • SMUGSMITH - smuggler
  • SNAPPER - worker in glass factory who placed molded bottle (by neck) into furnace hole
  • SNOBSCAT - one who repair shoes
  • SNUFFER MAKER - made the candle snuffer
  • SOAP BOILER (SOPER) - soap maker
  • SOJOURNER CLOTHIER - travelling clothes salesman
  • SOLICITOR - lawyer
  • SORTOR - tailor
  • SOUTER - shoe maker
  • SPALLIER - tin worker who performs chiefly menial tasks
  • SPERVITER - keeper of sparrows
  • SPICER - grocer or dealer in spices
  • SPINNER - spins yarn
  • SPLITTER - operated a splitting machine or one who split things by hand, e.g. stone, timber etc
  • SPOONER - made spoons
  • SPURRER or SPURRIER - maker of spurs
  • SQUIRE - (esquire) practitioner of a profession, a gentleman
  • SUPERCARGO - officer on merchant ship in charge of cargo
  • SUTLER - followed soldiers to encampments, set up tents to sell supplies, foodstuffs and dry goods
  • STABLER - ostler
  • STALLMAN - keeper of a market stall
  • STAMPMAN - worker of an ore crushing machine
  • STATIONER - bookseller, seller of paper & writing implements
  • STATIST - politician
  • STAY MAKER - corset maker
  • STEEPLE JACKER - painted flag poles etc.
  • STEERSMAN - ship's helmsman
  • STENTERER - operated the cloth finishing machine
  • STEP BOY - employed to help passengers to enter or leave the coach
  • STEVEDORE - laborer who unloads and loads ships' cargoes
  • STEWARD - manager of property, purveyor of supplies or someone who attended passengers on conveyance
  • STICHER - one who does decorative stitching
  • STOCKINGER - knitter, weaver, or dealer in stockings
  • STOKER - tends the fire of an engine boiler
  • STONEMAN / STONEWARDEN - a surveyor of highways
  • STONE PICKER - employed to remove the stones from the farmers fields before planting
  • STONE WORKERS - worked with stone eg masons, quarriers etc
  • STOREMAN - one responsible for stored goods
  • STOWYER - one who stowed the nets away on fishing boats
  • STRAVAIGER - vagrant
  • STRAW JOINER - one who thatched roofs
  • STRAW PLAITER - one who made straw braids for the hat industry
  • STREAKER - one who prepared the body for burial
  • STREET ORDERLY / BOY - street cleaner
  • STRIKER - blacksmiths helper or harpooned the whale
  • STRIPPER - employed in the woollen trade to remove the rubbish from the carding machines
  • STRINGER - made the strings for bows
  • STUFF GOWSMAN - junior barrister
  • STUFF WEAVER - wove stuff (the coarse part of flax)
  • SUCKSMITH - one who made ploughshares
  • SUMNER - summoner or apparitor
  • SUMPTER - porter
  • SUTLER - merchant or peddler in an army camp
  • SWAILER - miller or dealer in grain
  • SWAIN - herdsman
  • SWEEP - chimneysweep
  • SWELL MAKER - one who made shallow baskets
  • SWINEYARD / SWINEHERDER - pig keeper
  • SWINGLER - one who beats flax to remove woody parts
  • SWORD CUTLER - sword maker





  •  

    T

  • TABLER - boarding house operator
  • TACKLER - an overlooker of power loom weavers
  • TACKSMAN - middleman who leased a large piece of land from the owner and sublet it in small lots
  • TAILOR - one who made or repaired clothes
  • TALLOW CHANDLER - made or sold candles
  • TALLY CLERK - kept count of goods arriving or departing from warehouses, docks etc
  • TALLYMAN / TALLYFELLOW - one who sold goods that were paid for in installments
  • TAN BARK STRIPPER - collected the bark that was used in the tanning process
  • TANNER - leather maker
  • TAPER WEAVER - one who made the wicks for candles
  • TAPITER / TAPICER - one who wove worsted cloth
  • TAPLEY - One who puts the tap in an ale cask
  • TAPPIOLOGIST - someone who taps the wheels of trains to check for cracks and flaws
  • TAPSTER - bartender or barmaid
  • TAR BOY - applied tar (as antiseptic) to sheep when they were nicked by shearers
  • TASKER - reaper
  • TASSELER - one who made tassels used in furnishings or nobleman
  • TAVERNER - innkeeper
  • TAWER / TAWYER - white leather maker
  • TEAMER / TEAMER MAN / TEAMSTER - person in charge of a team of horses
  • TEASER - one who opens up matted wool for carding
  • TEEMER - person who emptied grain from the cart or who poured the molten steel into the moulds
  • TENTER / TENTERER - one who stretched the cloth on a machine while it was drying or looked after and maintained the machine used in the process
  • TEXTOR - weaver
  • THACKER - thatcher
  • THATCHER - one who covered roofs with straw or reeds
  • THIRDBOROUGH - an underconstable
  • THRESHER - one who separated the grain from the husks and straw
  • THROWSTER - one in the textile trade who twisted the strands of fibre together into yarn
  • TICKET WRITER - person (usually female) who hand wrote or painted the price tickets on goods displayed for sale and painted the signs that go up to make a window display
  • TICKNEY MAN / WOMAN - sold earthenware from town to town
  • TIDE GAUGER / SURVEYOR - monitored the state of the tide
  • TIDESMAN / TIDE WAITER - customs official
  • TIEMAKER - one who made wooden railway ties
  • TIGER - small groom or pageboy in livery
  • TILER - one who put tiles in place either on the roof or floor
  • TILLER - farmer
  • TILLMAN - plowman
  • TIMES IRONER - servant responsible for ironing the daily newspaper
  • TINCTOR - dyer
  • TINKER - traveling repairman
  • TINMAN - a tinsmith or tinker
  • TINNER - tin miner, tinsmith
  • TINTER OR TEINTER - artists who performs tinting
  • TIPPER - one who put the metal tips on arrows etc
  • TIPPLER - kept an ale house
  • TIPSTAFF - policeman
  • TIREWOMAN - female dresser, especially in the theater
  • TIXTOR - weaver
  • TOBACCO SPINNER - maker of cigars
  • TODHUNTER - employed by the parish to hunt foxes
  • TOE RAG - who worked at the docks as a corn porter
  • TOILINET MANUFACTURER - made toilinet (a kind of quilting)
  • TOLLER / TOLLGATE KEEPER / TOLLIE / TOLMAN / TURNPIKE KEEPER - worked at the toll gate to collect fees for use of the road
  • TONSOR - Latin for barber
  • TOOL HELVER - made tool handles
  • TOPMAN - sailor who works in the ship's rigging
  • TOP SAWYER - upper man in a saw pit
  • TOPSMAN - head cattle drover
  • TOUCH HOLER - one who worked in the gun manufacturing industry
  • TOW CARD MAKER - one who made tow cards, used in the textile industry
  • TOWN CHABERLAIN - one who looked after the towns affairs
  • TOWN CRIER - one who made public announcments in the streets
  • TOWN HUSBAND - employed by the parish to collect the money from the fathers of illegitimate children for their upkeep
  • TOWNSWAITER - customs man
  • TOZER - worked in the wool mills employed to tose or tease the cloth
  • TRAMMER - young person who worked in the mines
  • TRAMPLER - lawyer
  • TRANQUETER - person who made hoops
  • TRANTER - peddler
  • TRAPPER - employed in the mines to open and shut the doors for the miners
  • TRAVERS - toll bridge collection
  • TREEN MAKER - made domestic articles from wood
  • TREENAIL MAKER - one who made the long wooden pins used in shipbuilding
  • TRENCHERMAKER - made wooden boards or platters for serving food from or cutting and slicing food on
  • TRENCHERMAN - cook
  • TREPANGER - one who used a circular saw to cut timber
  • TRIMMER - trims a ship by re-arranging its cargo
  • TROACHER - pedlar
  • TRONER - weighing official at the markets
  • TROTTER / TROTMAN / TROTT - messenger
  • TROUCHMAN / TRUCHMAN - interpreter
  • TROVER - smuggler
  • TRUGGER - one who made long shallow baskets
  • TUBBER - one who made tubs and barrels ie a cooper
  • TUBMAN - English barrister
  • TUCKER - cleaner of cloth goods
  • TUCKER IN - maid who attended the bedroom and "tucked in the bedclothes"
  • TURNER - gymnast, lathe worker
  • TURNKEY - prison warder or jail keeper
  • TURNSPIT - one who operated the spit handle
  • TWEENIE / TWEENY - maid who worked "between the stairs" she assisted the cooks and the housemaids
  • TWISTER / TWISTERER - one who operated the machine used for twisting yarns and threads together
  • TWIST HAND - one who operated a lace machine





  •  

    U

  • ULNAGER - one appointed to examine the quality of woollen goods to be sold
  • UPHOLDER - upholsterer and also a seller of secondhand goods
  • UPRIGHT WORKER - chimney sweep





  •  

    V

  • VALET - male servant that attended a nobleman or gentleman
  • VALUATOR - who valued objects
  • VENATOR (VENUR/VENEUR) - huntsman
  • VASSAL - servant of the lowest order
  • VATMAN - one who put the paper pulp into the moulds in paper-making industry or worked with vats e.g. in beer and wine making
  • VERDERER - official in charge of the royal forest
  • VERGER - one who worked with the priest in the running the church
  • VERGE MAKER - one who made the spindles used in clocks and watches
  • VERRIER - glazier
  • VESTMENTMAKER - one who made the gowns worn by priests
  • VICTUALER - A roadside seller of food/drink
  • VIEWER - one who worked at the mines in a managerial capacity
  • VILLEIN - one who paid dues to the lord of the manor in return for use of the land
  • VINTAGER / VINEROON - grape farmer, wine maker
  • VINTNER / VINTER - wine merchant or wine grower
  • VIRGINAL PLAYER - player of a musical instrument similar to a harpsichord
  • VULCAN - blacksmith or smithey





  •  

    W

  • WABSTER - weaver
  • WADSETTER - under Scottish law a creditor to whom a wadset is made; a wadset is a right, by which lands, or other heritable subjects, are impignorated by the proprietor to his creditor in security of his debt
  • WAGONER - wagon or cart driver
  • WAILER - one employed in the mines to remove the impurities from the coal
  • WAINWRIGHT - builder or repairer of wagons
  • WAIT / WAKEMAN - night watchman
  • WALKER / WAULKMILLER - cloth worker
  • WALLER - one who built walls either brick or dry stone, also a person who worked making coarse salt
  • WANTER / WANTCATCHER - mole catcher
  • WARDER -in charge of prisoners
  • WAREHOUSEMAN - in charge of or employee in a warehouse
  • WARPER - set the warp thread on the looms or employed to move boats by hauling on the warps (the ropes attached to the boats)
  • WARRENER - in charge of a portion of land used for breeding rabbits and other small game
  • WASHMAN - tin coater
  • WASTEMAN - checked the old workings for gas and maintaining them in the mines or employed to remove waste
  • WATCH FINISHER - assembled watches and clocks
  • WATCHMAN - town official who guarded the streets at night
  • WATER BAILIFF - official in charge of the fishing rights on a stretch of water
  • WATER CARRIER - carted and sold fresh water
  • WATER GILDER - trapped water fowl
  • WATER LEADER / LEDER / LODER - transported and sold fresh drinking water
  • WATERMAN - worked with or on boats usually on rivers
  • WATTLE HURDLE MAKER - made a type of fence from wattle to keep the sheep in
  • WAY-MAKER - employed to make roads
  • WAY MAN - surveyor of roads
  • WEATHERSPY - astrologer
  • WEAVER - a maker of cloth (usualy for garments)
  • WEBSTER / WEBBER - weaver (originally a female weaver)
  • WEIGHER - worked on the docks to weigh the cargo as it was unloaded
  • WELLMASTER - one in charge of the local well with the responsibility of ensuring clean water for the village
  • WELL SINKER - dug wells
  • WELL WRIGHT - made the winding equipment used to raise the bucket in the well
  • WET GLOVER - made leather gloves
  • WET NURSE - woman employed to suckle the child of another (common practice with the rich)
  • WETTER - dampened paper during the printing process or in the glass industry who detached the glass by wetting
  • WHARFINGER - owner of a wharf
  • WHEEL TAPPER - railway worker who checked for cracked wheels by striking them with a long handled hammer and listening for a clear ring
  • WHEELER - wheel maker, attended to the spinning wheel in the textile industry and one who led the pit ponies that pulled the tubs underground in the mines
  • WHACKER - horse or oxen team driver
  • WHEELWRIGHT / WRIGHT - maker or repairer of wagon wheels
  • WHEERYMAN - in charge of a wheery (a small light rowing boat)
  • WHIG - horse driver (Scottish term)
  • WHIPCORD MAKER / WHIPMAKER - made whips
  • WHIPPERIN - managed the hounds in a hunt
  • WHITEAR - hide cleaner
  • WHITE LIMER - plastered walls using lime and water plaster
  • WHITE SMITH - tin smith
  • WHITENING ROLL MAKER - made the whitening used in whitening walls of cottages
  • WHITTAWER - one who made saddles and harness
  • WHITENER / WHITESTER / WHITSTER - one who bleached cloth
  • WHITEWING - streetsweeper
  • WHITSTER - bleacher of cloth
  • WHITTAWER - preparer of white leather
  • WILLOW PLAITER / WEAVER - one who made baskets etc
  • WINDSTER - silk winder
  • WOODBREAKER - one who made wooden water casks
  • WOODRANGER / WOOD REEVE / WOODWARD - in charge of the forest or woods
  • WOOLCOMBER - operated machines that separate the fibres ready for spinning in woolen industry
  • WOOL DRIVER - one who brought the wool to market
  • WOOL FACTOR - wool merchants agent
  • WOOLEN BILLY PIECER - worked in the woolen mills to piece together the broken yarns
  • WOOL MAN /WOOL SORTER / STAPLER - one who sorted the wool into different grades
  • WOOLSTED MAN - a seller of woollen cloth (from worsted man)
  • WOOL WINDER - one who made up balls of wool for selling
  • WORSTED MANUFACTURER / SHEARMAN - one who made worsted
  • WRIGHT - builder or repairer
  • WYRTH - laborer





  •  

    X

  • XYLOGRAPHER - one who used and made wooden blocks used in printing illustrations
  • XYZANTHIST - one who looked for suitable wood for building homes (later, a woodcarver)





  •  

    Y

  • YARDMAN - railroad yard worker
  • YATMAN - gate keeper (to an estate or a ferryboat)
  • YEARMAN - one contracted to work for a year
  • YEOMAN - farmer who owns his own land





  •  

    Z

  • ZINCOGRAPHER - designer who etched in relief a pattern on zinc plates used for printing
  • ZITHERIST - player of a simple, flat many-stringed instrument
  • ZOETROPE MAKER - craftsman who made zoetropes, an optical toy in the form of a cylinder with a series of pictures painted on the inner surface which gave the impression of continuous motion when viewed through slits in the rotating cylinder
  • ZOOGRAPHER - described and classified



Online/Offline References

Library of Congress, Stanford Law Library, National Archives,
Smithsonian Institute, National Institute of Health Library,
Harvard University Libraries, Johns Hopkins Archival Library,
National Dairyman's Association, National Cattleman's Association,
National Federation of Labor, International Trade Alliance,
United Methodist Church, Vatican Libraries
Friends and Genealogists



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