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Ancestral (Archaic) Occupations             
Occupations (A to C)                 
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| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |

| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

    A
  • ACATER / ACATTER - supplied food provisions, e.g. a ships chandler
  • ACCIPITRARY - falconer and one who trains birds of prey
  • ACCOMPTANT - accountant
  • ACCOMPTANISS - a woman who acted as chaperone to young ladies
  • ACCOUCHEUR / ACCOUCHEUS - an assistant for women in childbirth
  • ACCOUTREMENT MAKER / ACCOUTRE - supplier of military accessories, later supplier of fine clothing to the upper class
  • ACKERMAN / ACREMAN - a measurer of land and property, a ploughman, an oxherder
  • ACTUARY - kept public accounts of business
  • ADMINISTRATOR - directed plantation workers, a forman, or directed the another
  • ADVERTISEMENT CONVEYANCER - sandwich board man (street vendor)
  • ADVOCATE DEPUTE - Scottish law officer who could act a public prosecutor
  • ADVOWEE - normally a nobleman, who had the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
  • AERONAUT - a wire walker, a trapeze artist in the circus or music halls, a balloonist
  • AFFEEROR - official in the manorial courts who assessed the monetary penalty and also collected taxes and dues and were also called Assessor
  • AGISTER - official of the Royal Forests or in the New Forest it is the title for the one in charge of the ponies
  • ALABASTERER - worked with alabaster
  • ALBLASTERE - crossbow man (a soldier) or a huntsman for the gentry
  • ALCHEMIST - medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold
  • ALDERMAN - senior councillor one position down from Mayor in the local council
  • ALE-CONNER / ALE FOUNDER - official who tests the quality and measure of ale served in public houses
  • ALE DRAPER - seller of ale
  • ALE TASTER - tested ale and beer for quality first recored in 1377 in London, appointed by the Manor and forerunner of the Inspector for Weights & Measures
  • ALE TUNNER - employed by the brewery to fill ale casks (tuns} with ale
  • ALEWIFE - woman who keeps an alehouse or tavern
  • ALL SPICE - the term for a grocer
  • ALMANAC MAN - official appointed by the Court of Sewers who warned the inhabitants of the Trent River (England) area of higher than normal tides
  • ALMONER - gave out alms or charity to the poor on behalf of the parish
  • ALMSMAN - received alms
  • ALNAGER - official who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval (see Aulnager)
  • AMANUENSIS - secretary or stenographer
  • AMBER CUTTER - cut ambergris
  • AMBER & JET CUTTER - cut and polished amber for jewelry
  • AMBLER - officer of the Royal Stable who broke in horses
  • AMEN MAN - parish clerk
  • ANCHOR SMITH - made anchors
  • ANCHORESS - female hermit or religious recluse
  • ANCHORITE - male hermit or religious recluse
  • ANILEPMAN - smallholder (tenant of the manor)
  • ANGLE IRON SMITH - made angle iron ie. flat iron bars bent at right angles lengthways
  • ANKLE BEATER - young person who helped to drive the cattle to market
  • ANNATTO MAKER - helped in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing
  • ANTIGROPELOS MAKER - made waterproof leggings
  • ANVIL SMITH - made anvils and hammers for blacksmiths
  • APIARIAN - beekeeper
  • APOTHECARY - prepared and sold medicines or drugs; pharmacist
  • APPARITOR - official who summoned witnesses in the ecclesiastical courts
  • APPRENTICE - was bonded to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade
  • APROnéeR - term used in London for a shopkeeper
  • APRONMAN - mechanic
  • AQUARIUS (EWAR) - waterman
  • AQUAVITA SELLER - sold alcohol
  • ARCHIATOR - physician
  • ARCHIL MAKER - made a violet dye from lichens, used in the textile industry
  • ARKWRIGHT - skilled craftsman who produced "arks" (wooden chests or coffers)
  • ARMIGER - squire who carried the armour of a knight
  • ARMOURER - made suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships etc.
  • ARTIFICER - highly respected skilled or artistic worker or craftsman or one that makes or contrives
  • ASHMAN - dustman
  • ASSAYER - determined the proportions of metal in ore
  • ASSAY MASTER - determined the amount of gold or silver to go in coins
  • AUGER MAKER - made the carpenters augers (used for boring holes in wood)
  • AULNAGER - official who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval (see Alnager)
  • AURIFABER - goldsmith
  • AVENATOR (PLANTIFENE) - forage and hay merchant for livestock
  • AVOWRY - term for the Lord of the Manor
  • AXEL TREE MAKER / AXEL TREE TURNER - made axels for coaches and wagons





  •  

    B

  • BACKMAKER - made "backs", vats, tubs, a Cooper
  • BACKMANN / BACKSTER / BAXTER / BECK / BECKER - baker
  • BACK'US BOY - kitchen servant (from "back of the house")
  • BACK WASHER - employed to clean the wool in the worsted manufacturing industry
  • BADGER - licensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter P on it and could only work in a defined area (the term "Badgering comes from this"). A corn miller or dealer or an itinerant food trader
  • BADGY FIDDLER - boy trumpeter in the military
  • BAGMAN - travelling salesman
  • BAGNIOKEEPER - n charge of a bath house or brothel
  • BAILIFF / BAILIE / BAILLIE / BAILLEE - officer of the sheriff, a land steward acting on behalf of the Landowner or Landlord and in Scotland a magistrate of the burgh, also looked after the fishing rights on certain rivers
  • BAIRMAN / BAREMAN - pauper or beggar
  • BALER - bales hay and in the mills one who bailed wool or cotton goods
  • BALISTER - archer most commonly a crossbowman
  • BALLAST HEAVER - loaded ballast into the hold of empty ships
  • BALLARD MASTER/MEISTER - in charge of loading the ballast into the hold of empty ships
  • BALLER / BALLER UP - assisted the potter by measuring out the balls of clay
  • BAL MAIDEN - female mine worker who worked on the surface (also a Pit Brow Lass)
  • BAND FILER - metal worker in the gun making industry
  • BANDSTER - bound the wheat sheaves after harvest
  • BANG BEGGAR (ER) - officer of the parish who controlled the length of stay of any stranger to the parish
  • BANKER - dug trenches and ditches to allow drainage of the land, placing the surplus earth in banks around the edge
  • BANKSMAN - employed in the mining industry being in charge of the cages at the pit head (sometimes known as a bank manager)
  • BARBER / BARBER SURGEON - a barber also also a surgeon (an Act was passed that limited Barbers to hair-cutting, shaving, dentistry and blood letting in the 18th century)
  • BARD - poet or minstral
  • BAREMAN - beggar or pauper
  • BARGEE / BARGEMAN - worked on or owned and operated a barge
  • BARGE MATE - Naval officer
  • BARILLA MANUFACTURER - made barilla, a substance obtained from burning saltworts, the resulting mixture of sodium salts being used in the glass and ceramics industry
  • BARKEEPER - another name for a tollkeeper
  • BARKER - tanner
  • BAUER - farmer
  • BAXTER - baker
  • BELHOSTE - tavern keeper.
  • BARTONER - in charge of the monastic farm, also known as a barton
  • BASIL WORKER - worked with sheep and goat skins also a skinner
  • BASKETMAN - made baskets and furniture from wicker, and also employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges
  • BASS / BAST DRESSER - employed in dressing fibre or matting
  • BATHING MACHINE PROPRIETOR - owned and hired the changing huts used at the seaside in the by bathers
  • BATMAN - officers servant in the army
  • BATT MAKER - made the wadding used in quilt and mattress making
  • BATTER OUT - sliced a short cylinder of clay (a bat) from a "pug" and threw it onto a mold shaped for the face of a ceramic plate
  • BATTLEDORE MAKER - made the beaters used on clothes carpets etc to remove the dust (later made the paddles used in washing machines)
  • BAYWEAVER - who wove bay (a fine woollen fabric also known as baize)
  • BEADLE / BEDEL / BEDELL - officer of the parish whose principle duty was to keep order, also was the town crier
  • BEADMAN / BEADSMAN / BEDESMAN - employed to pray for his employer, inhabitant of an almshouse / poorhouse / hospital or tenant employed by the manor for a specific service
  • BEAD PIERCER - employed to drill the holes in beads
  • BEAMER - winds the warp on the roller before putting it on the loom in the textile industry
  • BEARER - worked undergrpound carrying the coal to the bottom of the pit shaft and placed it in the containers for uplifting to the surface
  • BEATER - cleansed and thickened the cloth by treading it underwater with fullers earth (aka Fuller)
  • BEAVER - made felt used in trunk linings or hat making
  • BEDMAN - sexton
  • BEDRAL - in Scotland a minor church official
  • BEDWEVERE - made the webbing for bed frames and also a one who wove quilts
  • BEESKEPMAKER - made beehives
  • BEETLER - operated a beetling machine, used in the textile trade for embossing fabric
  • BELLEYETERE - bellfounder
  • BELLFOUNDER / BELTER / BILLITER - made bells
  • BELL HANGER - installed bells in churches
  • BELLMAN - employed as a watchman or town crier or who worked for the post office and collected letters for the mail coach by walking the streets and ringing a bell
  • BELLOWFARMER - responsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ
  • BELLOWS MAKER - made bellows used for organs or blacksmiths fires
  • BELLY BUILDER - built and fitted the interiors of pianoforte
  • BENDER - cut leather
  • BESSWARDEN - appointed by the parish to look after its animals
  • BESOM MAKER - made brooms
  • BEVER - beverage maker
  • BIDDY - female servant usually of Irish stock
  • BILLIER / BILLYMAN - operated a Billy Roller, a machine used in the cotton industry to prepare the cotton for spinning
  • BILL POSTER - put up notices, signs and advertisements
  • BINDER - bound items, e.g., books, hats etc .
  • BIRD BOY - employed to scare away birds from crops
  • BIRD CATCHER - caught birds for selling (primarily for food)
  • BIRDS NEST SELLER - sold bird nests collected from the wild complete with eggs which were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets
  • BIRLYMAN - in Scotland a ground officer or parish arbiter (see arbiter)
  • BLACK TRAY MAKER - made Japanned trays
  • BLACKING MAKER - made polish for boots & shoes
  • BLACK BORDERER - made black edged stationery for funeral announcements, etc.
  • BLADESMITH - swordmaker or knife maker
  • BLAXTER / BLEACHER - bleached cloth or paper pulp
  • BLEMMERE - plumber
  • BLENTONIST - water diviner
  • BLINDSMAN - employed by the Post Office to deal with incorrectly addressed letters and parcels
  • BLOCKCUTTER / BLOCKER - made wooden blocks used in the hat trade or laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid; a blockcutter was also a person who made and cut the patterns into wooden blocks for textile printing
  • BLOCK MAKER - engraved the blocks used in the printin
  • BLOCK PRINTER - printer who used wooden blocks for printing
  • BLOODMAN / BLOODLETTER - used leeches for letting blood, this was thought to be a cure for many ailments
  • BLOOMER - produced iron from ore, a bloom smithy
  • BLOWER - glass blower, one who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibres in the textile trade, one who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths
  • BLOWFEEDER - fed the fibres into a "blowing machine"
  • BLUESTOCKING - female writer
  • BLUFFER - innkeeper or landlord of a pub
  • BOARDING OFFICER - inspected ships before entering port
  • BOARDMAN - truant officer who checked school attendance. a tenant of manorial land who paid rent by maintaining the manor's table
  • BOARDWRIGHT - made tables and chairs aka carpenter
  • BOATMAN - worked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals also the name given to a boat repairer
  • BOATSWAIN - ship's officer in charge of riggings & sails
  • BOBBER - who polished metals one who helped to unload fishing boats
  • BOBBIN CARRIER - worked in spinning and weaving sections of the mills
  • BOBBIN TURNER - made the bobbins used in the spinning and weaving industry
  • BOBBY - policeman usually of constable rank
  • BODEYS / BODY MAKER - made bodices for womens garments
  • BODGER - craftsman who made wooden chair legs and the spars and usually worked in the actual woodland that they cut the timber in
  • BOILERMAKER - worked with metal in any industrial setting
  • BOILER PLATER - made rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines etc
  • BOLL - looked after power looms in the weaving industry
  • BOLTER - sifted meal
  • BONDAGER - female worker on a farm who was bonded
  • BONDMAN - bonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade
  • BONDSMAN - stood bond or surety for another where a bond was required by law
  • BONE BUTTON TURNER - made buttons using a lathe
  • BONE LACE MAKER - made pillow lace
  • BONE MOULD TURNER - made the moulds for button manufacturers
  • BONE PICKER - collected rags and bones aka Rag and Bone Man
  • BONESETTER - set broken bones
  • BONIFACE - keeper of an inn
  • BOOK GILDER - decorated books with gold leaf
  • BOOKHOLDER - prompter in the theater
  • BOOK KEEPER - looked after the accounts for businesses
  • BOOKMAN - student
  • BOONMASTER - surveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road
  • BOOTBINDER - employed to operate the machines which bound footware
  • BOOT CATCHER - servant at inn who pulled off traveler's boots
  • BOOT CLOSER - worked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper
  • BOOTHMAN - corn merchant
  • BORLER - who made cheap coarse clothing
  • BORSHOLDER - regional name (Kent) for a constable
  • BOTCHER - tailor or cobbler
  • BOTTILER / BOTTLER - made leather containers for holding liquids eg wine flasks or water bottles
  • BOTTLE BOY - pharmacists assistant
  • BOTTOM MAKER - moulded the bottoms for saggers in the pottery industry
  • BOTTOM KNOCKER - sagger makers assistant in the pottery industry
  • BOTTOMER - worked down the pits moving the ore etc to the bottom of the shaft for removal
  • BOWDLER - worked with iron ore
  • BOWKER - bleached yarn. A local term in some parts of Lancashire for a butcher
  • BOWLER - made bowls and dishes and also a term used for those who made the rounded part of spoons before casting
  • BOWLMAN / BOWLWOMAN - dealer in crockery
  • BOWLMINDER - in charge of the vats used for washing raw wool before processing
  • BOWYER / BOWER - made bows used in archery
  • BOZZLER - parish constable
  • BRABENER - weaver
  • BRACHYGRAPHER - shorthand writer
  • BRAIDER - made cord by twisting threads or strips of leather
  • BRAILLER - made girdles
  • BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMAN - operated the winch at the pit head or operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams
  • BRASILER - dyer
  • BRAZIER - worker with brass
  • BREWSTER - female brewer or brewer
  • BRIGHTSMITH - metal worker
  • BROOM-DASHER - dealer in brooms
  • BROOM SQUIRE - broom maker
  • BROTHERER / BROWDERER / BRODERER / BROIDERER - embroiderer
  • BROW GIRL - female employed at the pit head
  • BROWNSMITH - works with copper or brass
  • BUCKLER / BUCKLESMITH - made buckles
  • BUCKLE TONGUE MAKER - made the metal points that go in the holes of a belt
  • BUCKRAM MAKER - worked with buckram (used in stiffening materials) e.g. belts, lapels and collars
  • BUCK WASHER - laundress
  • BUDDLEBOY - employed to use and maintain the vats used in the lead and tin mines for washing the ore
  • BUDDLER - women and children who washed the ore at the copper mines in Allihies, Berehaven
  • BUFFALO SOLDIER - soldier serving in a black regiment in the US Army in the West
  • BULLWHACKER - oxen driver
  • BULLOCKY - attended to the daily néeds of cattle and may also have lent a hand with general farm duties, especially during busy periods
  • BUMBOAT MAN - met ships at anchor with goods for passengers and crew to purchase
  • BUMMER - army deserter
  • BUMMAREE - middle man between the wholesaler and the retailer at the fish markets
  • BUNTER - female rag & bone collector
  • BURGESS - represented a borough at official levels BURELER - made borel, a woollen cloth with a coarse feel
  • BURGOMASTER - mayor
  • BURLER - quality inspector for clothing
  • BURMAIDEN - chambermaid or lady-in-waiting
  • BURNEMAN - carrier of barm or water for brewers
  • BURYE MAN - grave digger
  • BUSHEL MAKER - cooper
  • BUSHELER - tailor's helper
  • BUSS MAKER - maker of guns
  • BUSKER - hair dresser
  • BUTNER - button maker
  • BUTTER CARVER - made imprints in butter pats
  • BUTTON BURNISHER - button polisher
  • BUTTY - negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labor





  •  

    C

  • CADDY BUTCHER - butcher that butchered and sold horse meat
  • CADDIE - messenger or errand boy
  • CADGER - beggar
  • CAFENDER - carpenter
  • CAFFLER - rag and bone collector
  • CAINER - made walking sticks
  • CAIRD - another term for a tinker
  • CALCINER - burnt bones to make powdered lime
  • CALENDER - listed documents
  • CALENDERER / CALENDERMAN / CALENDER WORKER - operated a machine which pressed using two large rollers (calender) used to press and finish fabrics or paper
  • CALICO PRINTER - dyed and colored calico
  • CAMBRIC MAKER - made a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric
  • CAMISTER - minister of the cloth
  • CANDLE MAKER / CANDLER - who made and sold candles
  • CAMBIST - banker
  • CAMERIST - lady's maid
  • CAMLET MERCHANT - a seller of camlet, or cloth used to make cloaks & petticoats
  • CAMPANER - a bell maker
  • CANDY MAN - a traveling candy salesman and also slang name for a baliff
  • CANCELLARIUS - chancellor
  • CANER / CHAIR BOTTOMER - made the seats for chairs out of woven cane
  • CANNALLER - canal boat worker
  • CANTER - religious speaker who uses cant
  • CANTING CALLER - auctionéer
  • CANVASER - made canvas
  • CAPER - cap maker
  • CAPILLAIRE MAKER - made orange flavored syrup
  • CAPITALIST - investor (one's own money or after the market formed, of others' money
  • CAPPER / CAP MAKER - made caps usually worn by the working class
  • CAPTAIN - in charge of a ship or a group of soldiers and also term for an overseer
  • CARDROOMER - term for anyone who worked in the carding room of the mills
  • CARDER - cards wool
  • CARDMAKER - maker of cards or instruments for combing wool
  • CARMAN / CHARMAN / CARTER / CARRIER - drove a vehicle used to transport goods
  • CARD NAILER / NAILORA - maintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used for preparing wool and cotton for weaving
  • CARETAKER - one who takes care of another's property or valuables
  • CARNER - granary owner or keeper
  • CARNIFEX - butcher
  • CARPENTARIUS - carpenter
  • CARRY-IN-BOY - one who carried finished bottled (products) to the tempering oven
  • CARTER - carries or conveys in or as if in a cart
  • CART WHEELER - made cart wheels
  • CARTOGRAPHER - map maker
  • CARTOMANCER - (not exclusive to riverboats) a fortune teller who used cards
  • CARTWRIGHT - maker of carts & wagons
  • CASHMARIE - sold fish usually at inland markets
  • CASTER / CASTORA - made small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc
  • CASTRATOR - who castrated farm animals aka gelder
  • CATAGMAN - cottager
  • CATCHPOLE / CATCHPOLLA - sheriff's assistance or bailiff
  • CATECHISTA - teacher of religion
  • CATTLE JOBBER - buys and sells cattle
  • CAULKER - filled up cracks (in ships or windows) or seams to make them watertight
  • CEILER - puts up the ceilings in buildings
  • CELLARMAN - looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse
  • CEMMER - hand combed the yarn before weaving
  • CHAFF CUTTER - made chaff by cutting straw
  • CHAFFERER - dealer in chaff
  • CHAIR BODGER - traveling chair repairman
  • CHAISE MAKER - made carts from wicker
  • CHALONER - dealer in shalloon, a material made in Chlons
  • CHAMBERLAIN - steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household
  • CHAMBERMAID - female servant attending to bedrooms in houses or inns
  • CHAMBER MASTER - shoemaker that worked from home as an outworker or selling direct
  • CHAUNTER - street entertainer who sung ballads
  • CHEESE FACTOR / CHEESEMAN / CHEESE MONGER - dealer in cheeses
  • CHANDLER - candle seller, grocer, provisioner, usually associated with provisioning ships
  • CHANTY MAN - sailor that led the singing of shanties on board ship
  • CHAPELER- made and sold hats
  • CHAPMAN / COPEMAN / PETTY CHAPMAN / CEAPMAN - dealer or peddler of goods usually itinerant going from village to village.
  • CHARCOAL BURNER - made charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut
  • CHARTMASTER - middleman that negotiated mining contracts and suppiled the labour
  • CHARWOMAN - cleaning woman
  • CHATELAINE - mistress of a castle or house
  • CHIFFONIER - wig maker or ragpicker
  • CHILDBED LINEN WAREHOUSE KEEPER / DEALER - hired bedlinen for childbirth as most children were born at home
  • CHIMNEY SWEEP - chimney cleaner (as early as 1400)
  • CHINGLOR - rooftiler who used wooden shingles
  • CHIP - shipwright or carpenter
  • CHIPPERS LABOURER - assistant to a shipwright or ships carpenter
  • CHIROPODIST - treats diseases of the feet & hands
  • CHIRUGION or CHIRURGEON - apothecary or surgeon (usually learned by apprenticeship)
  • CHOWDER - fish monger
  • CHRONOLOGIST - recorded official events of historical importance
  • CINDER WENCH - female who collected the cinders from gas works and sold them door to door
  • CLAKER - magician/astrologer
  • CLAPMAN - town crier
  • CLARK - clerk
  • CLASSMAN - unemployed laborer
  • CLAVIGER - servant
  • CLAY CARRIER - assistant to the shot firer in the pits
  • CLAYMAN / CLEYMAN - worked in the clay pits usually preparing the clay for making bricks and also one who coated the outside of buildings with clay to make them water proof
  • CLERICUS - clerk
  • CLERK - clergyman or cleric
  • CLICKER - worked in the shoe trade cutting out the uppers made the shoelace holes and one in charge of the final stage of layout before printing in printing industry
  • CLIPPER / CLIPPER ON / CLIPPER OFF - attached the coal carts to the wire or rope which was used to drag the carts to and from the coal face
  • CLOD HOPPER - plowman
  • CLOGGER - maker of wooden shoes
  • CLOTH LAPPER - took the cloth from the carding machine readied it for the next process
  • CLOTH LINTER / CLOTH PICKER - removed unwanted threads and lint from the finished material
  • CLOTHIER / CLOTHESMAN / CLOTHMAN - who made or sold clothes
  • CLOUTER / CLOWER - made nails also another term for a shoemaker for the former term
  • COACHMAN / COACH DRIVER - drove any coach
  • COAL BACKER - carried the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons
  • COAL BURNER - made charcoal
  • COAL DRAWER - worked in the mines pushing or dragging the coal carts to the bottom of the pit
  • COAL HEAVER - unloaded coal COALMAN / COAL MERCHANT / COAL HIGGLER - sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house.
  • COALMETER - measured the coal
  • COAL RUNNER - attended (pushed & repaired) the coal carts underground
  • COAL WHIPPER - unloaded coal from ships using a simple basket crane
  • COAST SURVEYOR / WAITER - customs officer who watched over the ofloading off goods on the coast
  • COBBLER - bootmaker or shoemaker
  • COBLEMAN - used a flat bottomed boat for fishing
  • COCUS - cook
  • COD PLACER - put fire proof containers which held the pottery for firing into the kiln
  • COHEN - a priest
  • COINER - worked at the mint stamping out coins
  • COLLAR MAKER - made horse collars and one who made shirt collars
  • COLLIER - coal miner, a coal merchant or one who worked on the coal barges
  • COLONUS - Latin for farmer or husbandman
  • COLPORTEUR - traveling Bible or religious book salesman
  • COLOURATOR / COLORATORA - worked with dyes
  • COLOUR MAN - a house painter's assistant and mixed the dyes in the textile trade
  • COMBER or COMBERE - combs wool
  • COMB MAKER - made combs either for the textile industry for combing wool etc. or the maker of hair combs
  • COMPOSITOR - set the type ready for printing
  • CONDER / CONNER - one who gave steering instructions to the steersman and also gave directions to inshore fisherman of fish movements on shoals (usually from the top of cliffs or rocks)
  • CONEY CATCHER - rabbit catcher
  • CONFECTIONER - candy maker
  • CONNER - inspector or tester
  • COOPER or CUPER - maker of barrels
  • COPEMAN / COPER - one who deals (dishonestly) in horses, or goods (honestly)
  • COPPERBEATER / COPPERBETER - coppersmith
  • COPPERSMITH - one who worked with copper
  • CORACLE MAKER - one who made coracles, a small round boat used for fishing
  • CORDINER / CORDWAINER / CORVINER / CORVISOR - originally term used for one who worked with Cordovan (a special leather from Spain) but later term used for shoemaker
  • COSTERMONGER - a seller of fruit (male)
  • COSTER WIFE - a seller of fruit (female)
  • COTILER - a cutler
  • COUPER - one who buys & sells (later, in France, a clothier)
  • COURANTEER - a journalist
  • COWHERD - a cow tender, a tender of cattle or heardsman, also see goatheard
  • COWKEEPER - kept one or more cows (a common source of livelihood in cities) when a cows were kept in the back yard of a house, providing milk which was sold at the front door or window, forerunner of the local dairy (see cowswain)
  • COWSWAIN - a cowkeeper's helper
  • COXWAIN - a ship or boat helmsman
  • CRATCH MAKER - one who made cratches (mangers, cribs, or frames) for hay
  • CRIER - a law court officer (a scribe), town announcer or auctionéer
  • CRIMPER - member of a navy press gang (not a group of military reporters)
  • CROCKER - potter or dealer in crockery
  • CROFTER - a tenant of a small piece of land
  • CROPPER - a tenant who is paid with a share of the crop (later, a sharecropper)
  • CROSIER / CROZIER - bearer of the pastoral staff of a bishop or the bearer of the cross before the archbishop in the church
  • CROWNER - a coroner
  • CUHREUR (CUNREUR) - a currier
  • CURER - one who cures tobacco
  • CURRETTER - a broker of goods
  • CURRIER - one who cures or tans hides
  • CUSTOMER - a customs tax collector
  • CUTLER - a knife seller or sharpener (usually a smithy)



  • Online/Offline References

    Library of Congress, Stanford Law Library, National Archives,
    Smithsonian Institute, National Institute of Health Library,
    Harvard University Libraries, Johns Hopkins Archival Library,
    National Dairyman's Association, National Cattleman's Association,
    National Federation of Labor, International Trade Alliance,
    United Methodist Church, Vatican Libraries
    Friends and Genealogists



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