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Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35)

Haplotype 35 (or ht35) is, in a nutshell, the eastern modal variation of R1b.

Sometimes it may be the relic of an eastern migration, and sometimes it may

simply be a mutation from a local Western R1b.

Click here for a discussion of the Haplotype 35 and its possible origin.

Some of the possible ht35 haplotypes that occur among our "Border Reivers" are discussed

below, with arguments both pro and con.

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #1

The haplotype below is uncommon, but the matches in London and Germany could indicate an Anglo-Saxon

origin, which is more consistent with the DYS390=22 variation of "North Sea Celtic" than with ht35.

The matches in Iberia, on the other hand, could be ht35, and might therefore be Sephardic or Alanic in origin.

NOTE: Since this haplotype appears only in Western Europe, it may be simply

a mutation from a "North Sea" R1b haplotype, therefore not a true ht35.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 22 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Dusseldorf, Germany .67
London, England .35
Andulacia/Extremadura, Spain .26
Central Portugal .20
Leipzig, Germany .15

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #2

Of the top ten frequencies for the haplotype below - excluding the American hits, which

are of indeterminate ethnic origin - four fall in Scandinavia, and three fall in Western Asia.

This could very well be a Scandinavian signature.

Haplotype R1b (ht35) could have entered Scandinavia with the Germanic tribes that

originated in the Baltic region - perhaps in Scandinavia itself - and roamed Central and

Eastern Europe for several centuries early in the first millennium. These tribes included the

Heruls, who left Denmark for Hungary, Romania and the Black Sea area, finally migrating

to Sweden to become the Jarls of Uppsala. They also included the Goths - who may

have come from, or returned to, Ostergotland - and the Rugians, who came from the

Baltic island of Rugen, spent a few centuries in Hungary and Austria, and came back

north to found Rogaland in Western Norway. These ancestors of the Vikings

could easily have absorbed Haplotype R1b (ht35) into their gene pool during

their long sojourn in Eastern Europe and along the western fringe of Asia -

that is, if it had not already entered the Baltic region in prehistoric times.

This haplotype may also have arisen directly from the Indo-Iranian tribes of the Caucasus,

and came west with the Alans and Sarmatians. It occurs in high frequencies in many areas that

once lay at the heart of the Roman Empire, and may very well have come to Britain with

Roman troops or settlers.

There were also Heruls among the Roman troops in Britain, but this haplotype -

if Scandinavian - most likely came to Britain with the Norwegian Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 23 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Western Norway 4.69
Caucasus [Georgian] 2.59
Ankara, Turkey 2.56
Ostergotland Jonkoping, Sweden 2.38
Eastern Norway 2.35
Carceres, Spain 2.19
Central Norway 2.08
Bialystok, Poland [Tatars] 1.61
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
New York City [European-American] 1.29
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Tehran, Iran 1.25
USA [European-American] 1.16
Netherlands 1.15
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Pathan, Pakistan 1.08
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Kahramanmaras, Southern Turkey .92
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Illinois [European-American] .85
Veneto, Northern Italy .83
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Munich, Germany .80
Kurds, Iraq .79
Sweden .74
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] .68
Ljubljana, Slovenia .55
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Central Portugal .54
Budapest, Hungary .51
Munster, Germany .51
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Marche, Italy .49
Greifswald, Germany .48
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
Warsaw, Central Poland .42
Denmark .40
Cheonan, South Korea .32
Freiburg, Germany .23
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22
Gdansk, Poland .18
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #3

This haplotype has a strong showing in Portugal and The Netherlands. This may reflect

the migration of Sephardic Jews to Flemish areas. The additional hits in the Rhineland

and Eastern Europe also fall in areas of known Jewish settlement.

Matches in Poland and Russia, and among Indo-Iranian Kurds,

are also consistent with ht35.

This haplotype may have an alternative origin among immigrants from Western Asia,

such as the Alans, who settled in the Rhineland and Flanders at the end of the Roman

period, and in Spain and Portugal a little later. Moreover, Armenians have resided in The

Netherlands since the eleventh century, and may have provided the source of some of the

Western Asian haplotypes in that area.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 12 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Limburg, Southern Netherlands 2.00
Puglia, Southern Italy 1.43
Suwalki, Poland 1.22
Leiden, Western Netherlands 1.04
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Paris, France .92
Cologne, Germany .87
Zaragoza, Spain .83
Kurds, Iraq .79
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] .68
Dusseldorf, Germany .67
New York City [African-American] .67
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Northern Portugal .53
Budapest, Hungary .51
Greifswald, Germany .48
Finland .25
Stuttgart, Germany .22
Central Portugal .20
Argentina [European] .16

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #4

The matches here are scattered all over Europe, but show the highest frequencies in the east. The top

Old World match frequencies fall among Ingushians (who are neighbors of the Ossetians), in Northern Greece,

in the Ukraine, in two Romanian samples, and in Switzerland and Poland.

There are many additional matches in Eastern Europe - as well as in Germany and Iberia, where the haplotype

may have been brought by the Alans or the Goths.

This haplotype may have entered Britain with the Sarmatian or Dacian troops that were stationed in

Northern England, or among the Bretons of Alanic descent who joined the Norman invasion. Another

possibility is that the haplotype arrived in Britain as a minority element among the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 13 12 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
North Caucasus [Ingushian] 4.17
Louisiana [European-American] 3.23
Thrace, Greece 2.44
Kiev, Ukraine 1.23
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Romania .98
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .92
Warsaw, Central Poland .83
Lyon, France .80
Pyrenees, Spain .76
Gdansk, Poland .74
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Macedonia .67
Ljubljana, Slovenia .56
Bydgoszcz, Poland .49
Marche, Italy .49
Greifswald, Germany .48
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .45
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Stuttgart, Germany .44
Rostock, Germany .41
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
Denmark .40
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Central Portugal .20
Northern Portugal .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #5

This is modal haplotype for R1b (ht35), and it is widespread. Of the twenty highest frequencies,

six appear in Western Asia and four appear among Iberian populations. Two each appear among

populations with origins in northwest France, in western Holland (near Flemish areas), and

in Germany. The four highest frequencies fall in Turkey, Macedonia, Armenia and Pakistan.

Studies have confirmed that this haplotype is the most common R1b haplotype among

such groups as Kurds, Armenians and Anatolians. (13 percent of the YHRD Armenian

sample, in fact, exhibit a variation of Haplotype 35.)

If this haplotype came out of the East, how did it find its way to Britain?

Here are some of the possibilities:

a) It spread west across the Mediterranean from Turkey and Greece to Italy and Iberia, and

then came to Britain through Roman settlement.

b) It spread west across Europe - through Macedonia, Dacia (Romania), Pannonia (Hungary)

and Germania - with the Indo-Iranian nomads, the Alans and Sarmatians. When Rome

subdued these areas, it raised conscripts and sent them to Britain.

c) It came to western France with the Alans and the Visigoths, and eventually came to England

with the Normans.

d) It spread with Sephardic Jews - of mixed Mediterranean and Western Asian descent -

when they migrated to France and Flanders, later arriving in England during the

aftermath of the Norman invasion.

e) It spread among the Germanic peoples through intermingling with the Alans and

the Sarmatians, and entered England with the Anglo-Saxons or the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pakistan [Kashmiri] 16.67
Macedonia, Greece 7.14
Ankara, Turkey 5.13
South Caucasus [Armenian] 5.00
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Florida [Hispanic-American] 4.35
Limburg, Southern Netherlands 4.00
Pyrenees, Spain 3.03
Puglia, Southern Italy 2.86
South Caucasus [Azerbaijan] 2.77
Paris, France 2.75
South Caucasus [Georgian] 2.59
Northern Portugal 2.19
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 2.17
Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 2.17
Central Portugal 2.16
Munster, Westphalia 2.04
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 2.00
North Caucasus [Kabardinian] 1.72
Chemnitz, Saxony 1.71
Ljubljana, Slovenia 1.65
Bulgaria 1.64
Bulgaria [Turks] 1.64
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Kurds, Iraq 1.59
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Valencia, Eastern Spain 1.43
Tuscany, Central Italy 1.38
Zagreb, Croatia 1.33
New York City [European-American] 1.29
Turkey 1.27
Tehran, Iran 1.25
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Leipzig, Saxony 1.21
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland 1.19
Eastern Norway 1.18
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] 1.12
Leiden, Western Netherlands 1.05
Birmingham, England 1.03
Budapest, Hungary 1.02
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Athens, Greece .99
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
England-Wales [Indo-Pakistani] .94
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .92
Tyrol, Western Austria .87
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Brussels, Belgium .80
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Europeans] .79
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] .78
Choco, Colombia .75
Cologne, Westphalia .74
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] .68
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
New York City [African-American] .67
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
London, England [Asian] .38
Antioqua, Colombia .25
Finland .25
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #6

This is a rare haplotype. The highest frequencies occur in Turkey and Syria - probably among

the Indo-Iranian Kurds, who compose 19 percent of the population of Turkey, and 9 percent in Syria -

and in Emilia Romagna, a section of Italy that was occupied by Ostrogoths and Sarmatians during the

middle of the first millennium.

The defining characteristic of this haplotype are its DYS 391/392/393 values of 12-13-12.

This combination occurs in only 29 haplotypes out of nearly 39,000 haplotypes in the YHRD

database. Yet it occurs 3 times in one Southern Turkish sample of 102, and 4 times in a total Syrian

sample of 213, 40 and 25 times the rate, respectively, that it appears in the rest of the database.

A related R1b (ht35) haplotype with DYS 391/392/393

values of 12-14-12 occurs only three times in the YSTR database, once among the Kurds

of Iraq, once in Turkey (probably also among Kurds) and once in Byelorussia.

The homeland of the Kurds extends into the Southern Caucasus, where their closest

neighbors, both geographically and linguistically, are the Ossetians. The people of

Ossetia are Indo-Iranian in origin, and are the descendants of the Alans.

The haplotype below, with DYS 19/390/391/392/393 values of 14-24-12-13-12,

also occurs among other Indo-Iranian and Caucasian populations.

It occurred three times in the data tables of two papers about the Armenians

and the Anatolians, whose combined sample was about 1,250. Of those three hits,

two were among ethnic Armenians in western Iran, and one was a Georgian.

In contrast, this haplotype occurs only 3 times in a total YHRD German sample of

more than 5,000, and only twice in a total YHRD Iberian sample of more than 2,000.

The closest matches in the FTDNA haplogroup database include five in Siberia,

with one additional hit each in Hungary, Iceland and Scotland.

This haplotype most likely has a Western Asian origin, and may have moved

westward with the Indo-Iranian nomads and the Goths. Macedonia was close

to the homeland of the Goths prior to the Hunnish invasions, which pushed the

Goths into Northern Italy, Germany, Gaul, Portugal and the portion of Spain

just west of the Pyrenees. The Alans invaded many of the same regions.

This haplotype may have arrived in Britain with Sarmatian or Dacian troops,

with Norman troops of Alanic descent, or as an admixture among the

Anglo-Saxon invaders.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 24 12 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Adana, Southern Turkey [Eti] 1.96
Syria 1.77
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Macedonia .67
Madrid, Spain .66
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
London, England [Indo-Pakistani] .40
Magdeburg, Germany .35
Stuttgart, Germany .22
Berlin, Germany .18
Argentina [European] .16

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #7

This is a rare haplotype, related to Haplotype #6 above. It appears to occur

exclusively among Anatolians and Indo-Iranians. This haplotype appears only

twice in the YHRD database in a sample size of nearly 25,000. Yet it also

appeared twice in a recent study of 750 ethnic Armenians, among two

samples in Western Iran.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 24 12 14 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Kurds, Iraq .79
Turkey .63

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #8

This haplotype occurs in Syria and Byelorussia, and may be associated

with the movement of Indo-Iranian peoples into both Eastern Europe and

the Middle East. This has the look of an authentic Eastern R1b.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 - - 24 12 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Byelorussia 1.45
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Syria .88

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #9

This haplotype could have come to Greece from Anatolia or Macedonia.

The hit in Northern Portugal could be Alanic or Eastern Mediterranean origin,

if authentic ht35 - or a mutation from Western R1b.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 23 12 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Athens, Greece .99
Northern Portugal .32

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #10

This is a rare haplotype, and its origin is hard to estimate. Like many variations

of Haplotype 35, it could have originated in the Caucasus and spread west with

the Indo-Iranian nomads. The top three European match frequencies fall among

Armenians, Bohemians and the people of Rome. This is not inconsistent with the

Anatolian and Southeast European distribution of ht35.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 24 11 13 12 11/12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
South Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Latium, Central Italy .45
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
Munich, Bavaria .39
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #11

This is a very rare haplotype, but it is based on "Border Reiver" haplotypes which

were apparently SNP-tested as R1b. The East Asian hits can be dismissed as convergence.

The European matches are all in Italy and Macedonia, suggesting an origin in the Eastern

Mediterranean - which is consistent with ht35.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 23 10 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Piazza Armerina, Italy 3.33
Krusevo, Macedonia [Aromun] 2.33
Osaka, Central Japan 1.00
Bialystok, Poland [Tatars] .80
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Malaysia [Han Chinese] .38
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22
Argentina [Europeans] .16

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #12

This haplotype is very similar to the one discussed above.   Both

hits, however various and exotic, could have an Indo-Iranian origin.

The match in Northern Portugal may have originated with the Alanic

and Visigothic invasion of Iberia, and the match among the Uigurs

may well represent admixture from Indo-Iranian nomads.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 23 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Yining/Xinjiang, China [Uigur]
.93
Taiwan [Han] .21
Northern Portugal .18

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #13

This is only a partial haplotype. The top match frequency falls in Macedonia, which is consistent with ht35.

Most of the other matches fall in Spain and Germany, which may reflect either the overrepresentation of those

countries in YHRD, convergence with ht15, or Gothic or Indo-Iranian migrations westward across Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 14 - - 11 13 12 10/11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Skopje, Macedonia 1.92
Pyrenees, Spain .76
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Cologne, Germany .43
Halle, Germany .43

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #14

The haplotype below is another partial, consisting of the five main markers, excluding DYS388.

The YHRD matches included many in East Asia, all of which were excluded from this table,

as they are most likely the result of convergence and have nothing to do with R1b (ht35).

Some of the matches in Scandinavia, Lithuania and the former Soviet Union may

reflect convergence with N haplotypes, and some of the matches in Hungary may reflect

convergence with haplotypes more akin to those in East Asia. These, also, should be

viewed with skepticism as possible R1b matches.

Of those that remain, many Western Asian match frequencies are included.

Some of these may also be the result of convergence - but, since many of them fall in the

vicinity of the Black Sea, they are squarely in the known range of R1b (ht35).

Of the top ten fifteen match frequencies, three fall in Turkey, one in Iran, one among the

Kurds of Iraq, one in Armenia, and one in Syria (which has a large Kurdish population).

That's nearly half - enough to suggest that this haplotype can be legitimate Eastern R1b.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 24 10 14 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Ostergotland Jonkoping, Sweden 5.00
Tehran, Iran 2.50
Caucasus [Armenians] 2.00
Novgorod, Western Russia 2.00
Umbria, Central Italy 1.96
Kurds, Iraq 1.59
Vienna, Austria 1.52
Turkey 1.27
Adana, Turkey 1.10
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Budapest, Hungary 1.02
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
England-Wales [Indo-Pakistani] .94
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Bogota, Colombia .68
Vilnius, Lithuania .64
Kiev, Ukraine .55
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Warsaw, Poland .42
London, England [Indo-Pakistani] .40
London, England .40
Northern Portugal .32
Antioqua, Colombia .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15