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Haplogroup R1b (DYS390=25)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype has many variants. Any basic haplotype that differs from

the AMH values of 14-12-24-11-13-13 by a single step, on any marker, in any direction, is

still considered part of AMH. Some of the haplotypes below exhibit the basic marker

values 14-12-25-11-13-13, which puts them in that category. The rest are two steps

away at 14-12-25-10-13-13.

The Heyer study of 1997 recorded a mutation rate of zero for DYS390 and DYS393.

Although the DYS390 marker has not exhibited a mutation rate as consistently low as

DYS393 in other studies, the results of the Heyer study suggest that it is a relatively

stable marker. As such, particular values of DYS390 may be acquired less often by

random mutation, and therefore may be more likely to reflect a shared ancestry among

the haplotypes that exhibit them.

A person of British descent who exhibits any of the DYS390=25 haplotypes below

most likely inherited it from the Paleolithic Iberians who first colonized Britain, or

from Celtic speakers of equally Paleolithic origin who migrated to Britain from Central

Europe about 500 B.C.E.

Alternate origins could include the Normans (or, more properly, their Breton allies),

the Flemish, the Anglo-Saxons, or even Romans of Iberian or Italic extraction,

all of whom occupied areas with a history of Celtic settlement.

Although a "Celtic" ancestry is often casually assigned to anyone from the British

Isles who is R1b, here is a case where that assignment is entirely justified.

Unlike R1b haplotypes where the DYS393 marker value is 12, these haplotypes are not

common in Western Asia and Eastern Europe.

Unlike R1b haplotypes where the DYS390 marker value is 23, these haplotypes do not

exhibit their highest frequencies in The Netherlands, Scandinavia and Northern Germany.

R1b haplotypes with a DYS390 marker value of 25 occur overwhelmingly in Iberia,

and in other classic areas of Celtic settlement, which include the upper Rhine, Western

Switzerland, Northern Italy and the British Isles.

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #1

Among the top five frequencies, two fall in areas of Spain known for

their Celtic past, one falls in Alsace, and two occur among white Americans in

rural states who may well be of largely English or Scots-Irish descent.

Among the next ten down, three occur in Iberia or Latin America, three occur in

the Rhineland, two more occur in the Southern U.S.A., and one occurs as an

European admixture in Angola, which was once controlled by the Portuguese.

Northwestern Iberia and the Rhineland are, along with Switzerland,

Belgium and Northern Italy, among the better known areas of Celtic settlement in

continental Europe. A person of British descent with this haplotype most likely acquired

it from the pre-Roman aborigines of Britain or the Celts who arrived in 500 B.C.E.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 10 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Missouri [European-American] 3.39
Oregon [European-American] 2.85
Caceres, Central-West Spain 2.19
Strasbourg, Alsace 2.02
Cantabria, Northern Spain 1.98
Greifswald, Pomerania 1.92
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate 1.92
Southern Portugal 1.79
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Cologne, Westphalia 1.48
Argentina [Guarani Amerindian] 1.47
Bogota, Colombia 1.36
Cabinda, Angola 1.33
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg 1.29
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Andulacia, Southern Spain 1.23
London, England 1.21
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Netherlands 1.15
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Central Portugal 1.08
Albania .99
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Tuscany, Central Italy .92
Latium, Central Italy .90
El Salvador .83
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Brussels, Belgium .80
Munich, Bavaria .79
Leipzig, Saxony .76
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Valencia, Eastern Spain .71
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Munster, Westphalia .51
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Sweden .49
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .45
Warsaw, Central Poland .42
Chemnitz, Saxony .37
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #2

The top European frequencies are in Spain and Northern Italy. This haplotype

most likely originated with the Celts of Central Europe or the pre-Celtic Iberians who

colonized Britain after the Ice Age.

An alternate possibility, considering the Italian hits, is that this haplotype came

to Britain with Roman settlement.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 25 10 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Caceres, Central-West Spain 1.09
Veneto, Northern Italy .83
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Munster, Westphalia .51
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
London, England [Asian] .39
Antioquia, Colombia .25
Sweden .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Germany .12

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #3

This haplotype is most likely Iberian Celtic. "Galicia" has the same root

as "Gaul" or "Gael", and is the area of Spain best known for its Celtic past.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 25 10 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia 1.94
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #4

This definitely seems to have an Iberian or Celtic origin. Its top five frequencies

are among the Cajuns, most of whose ancestors were from Saintonge, Poitou and Brittany

in Northwestern France, and had a combined Celtic and Iberian origin.

The hits in the Pyrenees and Galicia also suggest an affinity with the Basques

and the Celts. So do Ireland and Western Switzerland.

Multiple hits in Eastern Europe and Portugal suggest that this haplotype may

have entered the Sephardic population and spread east with the migration of the Jews.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians or the

Celts. However, it is possible that it arrived in the wake of the Norman conquest,

either with the Bretons or Sephardic Jews.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 25 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Pyrenees, Spain 1.50
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Southern Ireland .93
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Marche, Eastern Italy .93
Southern Portugal .89
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] .64
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Northern Portugal .55
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Antioquia, Colombia .49
Barcelona, Catalonia .45

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #5

The top frequencies here all occur among Iberians and samples from the British Isles.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 25 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Maryland [Hispanic-American] 4.00
New York City [Hispanic-American] 2.67
Southern Ireland 1.87
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] 1.33
London, England 1.21
Caceres, Central-West Spain 1.09
Cantabria, Northern Spain 1.09
Tuscany, Central Italy .92
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Eurpeans] .67
Northern Spain [Basque] .59
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Antioquia, Colombia .49
Latium, Central Italy .45
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Leipzig, Germany .30
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #6

The three top freqencies are in Spain, including the Pyrenees and Galicia.

These are followed by two locales in the Celtic areas of the upper Rhine,

Western Switzerland, Northern Italy and Ireland.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians

or the introduction of Celtic culture in 500 B.C.E.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 - 25 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pyrenees, Spain 1.50
Madrid, Central-East Spain 1.35
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Marche, Eastern Italy .93
Southern Ireland .93
Southern Portugal .89
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Northern Portugal .55
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Antioquia, Colombia .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23