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Haplogroup R1b (DYS390=25 or 26)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype has many variants. Any basic haplotype that differs from

the AMH values of 14-12-24-11-13-13 by a single step, on any marker, in any direction, is

still considered part of AMH. The haplotypes here exhibit DYS390 values of 25 and

26, some with DYS19 values of 13 or 16, or DYS392 values of 11 or 12. These are all

quite deviant from the norm, but are still classed as R1b.

The Heyer study of 1997 recorded a mutation rate of zero for DYS390 and DYS393.

Although the DYS390 marker has not exhibited a mutation rate as consistently low as

DYS393 in other studies, the results of the Heyer study suggest that it is a relatively

stable marker. As such, particular values of DYS390 may be acquired less often by

random mutation, and therefore may be more likely to reflect a shared ancestry among

the haplotypes that exhibit them.

Because these haplotypes deviate from AMH in different ways, they suggest

a variety of origins, all of which are discussed below.

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #20

The haplotype below could easily be of Iberian origin, but the four highest match frequencies fall in areas with

both a Celtic and a Germanic history. The highest, in fact, falls in Norway. The second highest falls among ethnic

Hungarians in Romania, the third in Belgium and the fourth in Lombardy.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with Celts or Iberians, but it could also have come from other sources -

Vikings, Flemish, Normans or even Roman troops.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Western Norway 1.56
Miecurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Brussels, Belgium .80
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Lombardy, Italy .55
Northern Portugal .32
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #21

The top frequency for this haplotype falls in Denmark, and two of the other three matches fall in areas with both

a Germanic and a Celtic history - the Rhineland and Switzerland.

The presence of Cantabria reinforces the possibility of a Celtiberian origin, but this haplotype may also have

come to Britain with the Danes or the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 25 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Denmark 1.59
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Cantabria, Spain .99
Switzerland .67

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #22

The haplotype below is fairly uncommon, but its match pattern suggests that either a Celtiberian or an Anglo-Saxon

origin is equally possible. The "European" hits in South Africa and Indiana could easily be of either Germanic or

Anglo-Celtic origin, and the other four locales are evenly divided between Iberians and Germans.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .74
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #23

The matches for the haplotype below appear confined largely to Western Europeans. Higher frequencies in

the Netherlands, Switzerland, England and Spain suggest a conventional Celtic or Iberian origin. This haplotype

could easily have come to Britain prior to the Neolithic. If it came to Britain in the last 2,000 years, it could have

arrived with the Gauls, the Belgae, the Flemish or the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 13 12 15

Geographical Locale

%
Limburg, Netherlands 2.00
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Birmingham, England 1.03
USA [European-American] .28
Andulacia/Extremadura, Spain .26
Leipzig, Germany .12

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #24

The haplotype below is so widely spread that it is difficult to guess where it might have come from.

It could easily have come to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians, the Anglo-Saxons, the Norse Vikings

or even the Normans. However, it is most likely of native British origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 25 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Cajun, USA [European] 9.09
Southern Portugal 1.79
Bulgaria [Turks] 1.64
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Birmingham, England 1.03
Stuttgart, Germany .33
Central Norway .32
Central Portugal .20
Eastern Norway .20
Northern Portugal .20
Antioquia, Colombia [Mestizo] .08

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #25

The haplotype below is found in small frequencies in many places throughout Europe. The highest frequencies

suggest either a prehistoric Iberian origin or a more recent origin in the Low Countries - although an Anglo-Saxon

or Viking origin is also a possibility.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 13 11 16

Geographical Locale

%
Noord-Brabant. Netherlands [Dutch] .82
Pyrenees, Spain [Spanish] .75
Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium [Belgian] .63
Basque Country, Spain [Basque] .60
Kiev, Ukrainian [Ukrainian] .38
Northern Norway [Norwegian] .27
Ravenna, Italy [Italian] .26
Sweden [Swedish] .25
Rostock, Germany [German] .13
Leipzig, Germany [German] .20

R1b DYS390=26 Haplotype #1

This haplotype exhibits a more diverse match pattern than many of the DYS390=25 haplotypes for R1b. Several different

origins are feasible. High frequencies in Iberia, The Low Countries and The Rhineland suggest a Celtic origin. The

combination of high Iberian and BeNeLux frequencies with several matches in Eastern Europe is also interesting. The

unusual scatter may be the result of an Iberian haplotype absorbed into a migrant population like the Sephardic Jews and

subsequently spread across Europe. Or the haplotype may, in fact, be northern in origin and was spread south and west

by such groups as the Goths or the Suebians. The possibilities are manifold.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with either the prehistoric Iberians, the Celts of Central Europe, or the Normans.

It could also have come to Britain with Roman troops from Batavia, or with the Frisians and Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 26 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Groningen, Northern Netherlands 2.08
Brussels, Belgium 1.60
Tartu, Estonia 1.50
Antioquia, Colombia 1.47
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Athens, Greece .99
Krakow, Southern Poland .93
Cologne, Westphalia .74
Valencia, Eastern Spain .71
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
London, England .40

R1b DYS390=27 Haplotype #1

The only match for this haplotype falls in Sweden, which suggests a possible Scandinavian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 27 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Sweden [Swedish] .25